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Botanic Drugs Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics | by Thomas S. Blair



Chinese physicians credit so many remedial agents that a work of forty volumes is devoted to their description and an outline of their uses. Dr. George Cheever Shattuck, in his work "A Synopsis of Medical Treatment," gives what might be called the Pharmacopeia of the Massachusetts General Hospital; and it comprises twenty-five pages, including therein mention of but twenty-four agents derived from botanic sources. There are nineteen countries with well-based pharmacopeias, and they recognize five hundred and fifty botanic drugs. There are seventy-eight botanic drugs recognized in sixteen of these national standards, which covers the important list in world-wide commerce. Two hundred and thirty botanic drugs are recognized in but one or two pharmacopeias, twenty-nine of these being found only in the United States Pharmacopeia. Among these latter are: Bloodroot, cottonseed oil, oil of pimento, oil of chenopodium, sabal, stillingia, yerba santa, crampbark, leptandra, calendula, berberis, pereira, sassafras, and sumach. We attach importance to most of these; but so does Mexico to her native drugs, Japan to many that are esteemed there, and India to certain tropical species.

TitleBotanic Drugs Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics
AuthorThomas S. Blair
PublisherThe Therapeutic Digest Publishing Company
Year1917
Copyright1917, The Therapeutic Digest Publishing Company
AmazonBotanic Drugs, Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Botanic Drugs Their Materia Medica, Pharmacology and Therapeutics

By Thomas S. Blair, M.D

Fellow American Medical Association; Fellow Harrisburg Academy of Medicine; Editor "The Medical Council;" Author of "Public Hygiene," "A Practitioner's Handbook of Materia Medica and Therapeutics," and "Pocket Therapeutics;" Formerly Neurolo-gist to Harrisburg (Pa.) Hospital, Etc., Etc.

Published By The Therapeutic Digest Publishing Co Cincinnati, Ohio 1917.

Copyright, 1917, by The Therapeutic Digest Publishing Company Cincinnati, Ohio.

This Volume is Respectfully Dedicated to The Rational Optimist In Therapeutics By The Author.

-Preface
Chinese physicians credit so many remedial agents that a work of forty volumes is devoted to their description and an outline of their uses. Dr. George Cheever Shattuck, in his work A Synopsis of Med...
-Introduction
Isis, the Queen and afterwards the Goddess, was called the Mother of Medicine. Indeed, in ancient Egypt, eleven thousand years before Christ, both men and women were skilled in medicine: it was ther...
-Inclusion And Exclusion
The study of botany is neglected in our medical colleges; so it is too often forgotten that plants are just as definitely related to each other as are inorganic chemical compounds. Credulity, as invol...
-The Most Popular Botanic Drugs
Aurantiaceae: Apocynaceae: Burseraceae: Bitter orange peel, lemon oil. Strophanthus. Myrrh. 5 List compiled by Gathercoal, Jour. Am. Phar. Ass'n., March, 1916. Compositae: Arnica, Germ...
-Physiological Actions
There is a general agreement that the physiological effects of medicinal substances upon man is the safest and most useful guide to their selection in diseased states. Excepting a few remedies whose ...
-Mystery Has Absolutely No Place In Therapeutics
If you don't know what a drug does, leave it alone. We no longer cure our patients with drugs. Our work is case-management, in which some drug or drugs may play a major or minor role. We no longer ...
-Dosage
There is no all-embracing and scientific system of dosage. The large intravenous dose of arsenic in the form of salvarsan and given in the treatment of syphilis, is not given upon any but the practica...
-Some Optimism And Pessimism
The introduction of specific serums and vaccines; the wonderful advances in chemical therapeutics; the various forms of exact technic in treatment -these, with surgery, hygiene and sanitation, mechano...
-Part I. Pharmaceutical Considerations
Difficulties here begin with the crude drug. C. J. Zufall in a paper1 asserts that the pharmacopeial descriptions of aconite, apocynum, belladonna leaves, berberis, buchu, capsicum, cardamon, coca, co...
-Tinctures And Extracts
The United States Pharmacopeia of 1890 directed that aconite be made in tincture representing 35 per cent drug strength, veratrum 40, lobelia and hydrastis 20, and most of the other potent drugs 15 pe...
-Proximate Principles
The Eighth United States Pharmacopeia lists 10 alkaloids, 26 alkaloidal salts, 14 preparations of alkaloids, 2 basic substances, 2 preparations of basic substances, 3 neutral principles, 7 oleo-resins...
-Pharmacy In The Physician's Office
No thoroughly modernized physician will limit his prescribing to one class of drugs; but he may unwisely so limit his dispensing. The man who falls into such a double standard in therapeutics should e...
-Improving Conditions
Reference has been made to successive pharma-copeial revisions improving conditions. There is before me as I write this section (1916) advanced proof from the Ninth United States Pharmacopeia revisio...
-Part II. Pharmacology
Pharmacology is a science inclusive of all exact knowledge of the action of substances and physical conditions upon the animal body. Therapeutics is an art employing, among other things, knowledge pha...
-Botanic Drug Standardization
Theophrastus and Dioscorides were the first to begin the pharmacognostic standardization of medicinal plants; and Hildegard, Albertus Magnus, and the Arab writers built upon that foundation. By the ni...
-Part III. Botanic Remedies
Note Titles will adhere largely to official usage, unofficial drugs being given the commonly used nomenclature. Following will appear the United States Pharmacopeia title, if official in either the E...
-Abies
Terebinthina (Canadensis) U. S. P., Eighth Revision, but the oil of turpentine and the rectified oil of turpentine, not designated as Canadian in trade, are usually obtained from Pinus palustris. Cana...
-Acacia
Acacia, Gum Arabic, Acacia Senegal and A. Varek (Ninth Rev.). A gummy exudation, of demulcent properties, and used as a suspending agent. The U. S. P. mucilage of acacia is commonly used, but it is pr...
-Vegetable Acids
Agaric Acid is derived from a fungus, Polyporus officinalis. It paralyzes the peripheral nerves of the sweat glands. It is used to arrest colliquative sweats. Its action is rather evanescent. Maximal ...
-Vegetable Acids. Continued
But there are many difficulties as regards the graphic formulae of the salicyl and benzoyl compounds. From this point of view, salicylic acid is an ortho-oxybenzoic acid, and assuredly so as prepared ...
-Vegetable Acids Therapeutics
As an antiseptic, salicylic acid is little used externally, other substances being preferable. The salts of salicylic acid pass so rapidly from the intestine as to possess little antiseptic action the...
-Tannic Acid, Tannin
Tannic Acid, Tannin (U. S. P.). There are many plants from which tannins may be derived. Chemically they differ more or less, but they are similar pharmacologically. The chief quality is astringency d...
-Aconite
Aconitum (U. S. P.). Aconitum Napellus is official in twelve pharmacopeias in the form of the root, and the leaves in the French, Mexican, and Spanish standards. Aconitum Fischeri, known as Japanese ...
-Adonis
Pheasants' Eye, False Hellebore, adonis ver-nalis. Not official in the U. S., but is in Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, and Switzerland. Consequently the drug must be assigned a degree...
-Aesculus
Considerable confusion exists as regards the actions of the various forms of aesculus, the horse-chestnuts and buckeyes. What is here given is not, to me, entirely satisfactory, since I find much oppo...
-Agar
A form of gelose extracted from seaweeds of several species. Agar, or agar-agar, as it is commonly called, is not digested, but absorbs large quantities of water in the stomach and intestines, forming...
-Ailanthus
Chinese Sumach, Ailanthus glandulosa. Not official. Is given brief notice in Homeopathic and Eclectic literature. It is an emeto-cathartic and anthelmintic exceedingly disagreeable to the taste and, i...
-Aletris
Star Grass, Blazing Star, Aletris farinosa. Not official. It is listed in the new National Formulary. This is a good bitter in 5- to 10-minim doses fl., improving digestion. Pilcher, of the Universi...
-Allium
Garlic, Allium sativum. Has long been classed as stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, and rubefacient, and much used in domestic practice, both internally and as a poultice. It is listed in the National ...
-Alnus
Tag Alder, Black Alder, Alnus serrulata. Not official. The bark and leaves contain tannin, oils, and a resin. Just what constitutes a drug a vegetable alterative, or what such a drug really does, I ...
-Aloe
Aloes. The inspissated juice of the leaves of several species of aloe. Official in all but the Croatian and Servian standards. Aloes belongs to the anthracene group, whose seat of action is mainly in...
-Amygdala
Almond, Amygdala Amara (bitter almond), A. dulcis,U.S.P. (sweet almond). Bitter Almond Water, used in sedative expectorant mixtures in one-drachm doses, and Sp. Amygdalae Ama-Rae, used as a flavor in ...
-Anisum
Anise, Pimpinella Anisum. Aqua Anise (U. S. P.) is used as a stimulant carminative in teaspoonful doses for infants, and as an agreeable diluent. ...
-Anthemis
English or Roman Chamomile, Anthemis nobilis. Official in ten pharmacopeias. Deleted from the Ninth U. S. P. Admittedly an efficient stomachic and carminative with mild stimulating properties, yet ano...
-Apocynum
Canadian Hemp, Apocynum Cannabinum. Official in the U. S. P., Eighth Revision, and now listed in the National Formulary. Long used in domestic practice, and conceded to possess properties akin to dig...
-Aralia
Dwarf Elder, Aralia hispida. The bark of the root is used. Do not confound with Sambucus Canadensis, the common elder. The Araliaceae in general possess aromatic and stimulant properties and are mildl...
-Aristol
Thymol Iodide (U. S. P.). A condensation product of two molecules of thymol with two atoms of iodine, and a useful substitute for iodoform. Thymol itself is a phenol nearly insoluble in water. Aristo...
-Arnica
Arnica flowers are official in all but the Hungarian standards, the leaves in the Croatian and Mexican standards, and the root in the Austrian, Croatian, Italian, Japanese, Serbian, and Spanish standa...
-Artemisia
Wormwood, Artemisia absinthium. Official in seventeen standards for some inscrutable reason. Rarely employed medicinally. Is an ingredient of absinthe. The volatile oil in large doses produces cerebra...
-Asafetida
Official in all standards except the German as the gum resin of Ferula foetida or other species. Galbanum, Ferula galbaniflua and rubicalis, is similar in effect to asafetida and is official in fourte...
-Asclepias
Pleurisy Root, Asclepias tuberosa. Not official now. (U. S. P. 1890.) It is listed in the National Formulary. Complex in composition, but containing no very active proximate. The more uniform action o...
-Aspidium
Male Fern, Dryopteris filix-mas. Official in all pharmacopeias. The Spanish standard calls it Polypodium filix-mas. A teniafuge efficacious against the Bothriocephalus and to a lesser degree against t...
-Avena Sativa
Common Oat. Advocated as a remedy in nervous exhaustion first by the Homeopaths and then by the Eclectics, and used in material doses of an alcoholic tr. or fl. made from the unripe grain while in th...
-Bacillus Bulgaricus
The B. lactis bulgaricus is one of a widely distributed group of lactic acid-producing organisms which do not proliferate in laboratory media. Metchnikoff and others believe these bacilli modify the i...
-Balsam Of Peru
An official balsam obtained from Toluifera pere-irae; it is named in every official standard, but is called Myroxylon pereirae in several pharmacopeias. Possesses antiseptic properties (probably due ...
-Balsam Of Tolu
An official balsam obtained from Toluifera bal-samum. The tr. in 30-minim doses is a mild expectorant; the syrup is a pleasant flavor, and the balsam may be given in 10- to 15-grain doses in emulsion ...
-Baptisia
Wild Indigo, Podalyria tinctoria. Not official in any standard except Homeopathic and Eclectic, but listed in the N. F. IV. The Homeopathic provings are those of asthenic type, with offensive secret...
-Belladonna
The leaves of Atropa belladonna, official in every pharmacopeia; the root in the United States and five other countries. Pharmacology The Solanaceae (belladonna, hy-oscyamus, and stramonium) may be ...
-Berberis
Oregon Grape, Mountain Grape, Berberis aqui-folium. Official in U. S. P. Eighth Rev. Berberis Aristata official in England. Berberis vulgaris, Barberry, official in France. Pharmacology Hydrastis an...
-Bryonia
Bryony, Bryonia dioica. Not official in any except Homeopathic and Eclectic standards. In these two schools bryonia is a prominent drug. The National Formulary lists it. Bryonia is an active hydrogogu...
-Buchu
The leaves of Barosma betulina. Official in the United States, the British Empire, Japan, and Mexico. Buchu contains a volatile oil which is excreted by the kidneys in combination with glycuronic aci...
-Cactus
Night-blooming Cereus, Cactus grandiflorus or Cereus grandiflorus. Not official, but listed in the National Formulary. The cacti have been inadequately investigated. Some species are used as food for ...
-Caffeine
A feebly basic substance obtained from the dried leaves of Thea Sinensis, the dried seeds of Coffea Arabica, and from other plants. Official. Caffeine is a purin derivative, is quickly absorbed, has ...
-Cajuput
The oil is official in several pharmacopeias. It is derived from Melaleuca leucadendron. It contains 60 per cent of cineol. For internal use as a balsamic stimulant, the British Pharmacopeia spirit ma...
-Calendula
Marigold, calendula officinalis. Official U. S. P., Eighth Rev., but in no other country. Deleted from ninth revision and incorporated in the National Formulary. The tincture is used externally much a...
-Calumba
Columbo, jateorhiza palmata. Official in all nations except Serbia. Calumba is a valuable tannin-free bitter containing berberine, as well as its own essential bitter, columbin. For a discussion of ...
-Camphor
Camphora, Cinnamomum camphora. Blumea balsamifera, a common shrub in the Philippines, is also a promising source of camphor. The synthetic camphor is inferior for medicinal use. Pharmacology Toxic t...
-Cannabis Indica
Indian Hemp. Official. Active from an oleoresin cannabinol. It is unstable, and uncertain in action. Hemp has an action allied to that of opium and is analgesic. The drug sometimes gives rise to hallu...
-Capsicum
Cayenne Pepper, capsicum fastigiatum. Official. Capsicum is a useful rubefacient suitable for prolonged application because never blistering. Capsicum is not sufficiently valued as a stimulant, especi...
-Carbo Ligni
Charcoal. Official. Used in flatulence with fetid breath and offensive dysenteric discharges. Charcoal may also be added to poultices, which may then have a disinfectant action. Dose: 10 to 60 grains....
-Caryophyllus
Cloves, Eugenia aromatica. Official. Dose: 1 to 5 grains. Oil of Cloves is markedly carminative and is of great value for its anesthetic and caustic effect on exposed nerves in carious teeth. Eugenol,...
-Cascara
Cascara Sagrada, Rhamnus Purshiana. The U. S. P. directs that the bark be collected at least one year before being used. Anthraquinone derivatives are present, but no active principle has been isolat...
-Catha Edulis
Kat. A stimulant narcotic long used in Africa, and important because of its containing definite alkaloids allied in action to cocaine and caffeine. Their influence, however, is more upon the muscular ...
-Caulophyllum
Blue Cohosh, Squaw Root, Caulophyllum thal-ictroides. A substance named leontin is a glucosid representative of the activities of the drug. It is an acrid substance discovered by J. U. Lloyd. It is ma...
-Chamomilla
Matricaria, German Chamomile, Matricaria Chamomilla. Official in sixteen national standards, and its volatile oil in the Italian and Swiss Pharmacopeias. In the U. S. P. VIII the average dose of an...
-Chaparro
P. I. Nixon, in Jour. A. M. A., March 25, 1916, reported an amebacide effect from an American plant, Chaparro amargosa. He has employed it successfully in numerous cases of amebic dysentery, giving fo...
-Chelidonium
Celandine, Chelidonium majus. A plant of complex composition. Its juice is exceedingly acrid and is an irritant sometimes used in the removal of corns and warts. Internally it is an unreliable drastic...
-Chenopodium
American Wormseed, Chenopodium anthelminti-cum. The volatile oil is official in the U. S. P. Pharmacology The Amer. Jour, of Physiology printed an article by Salant and Livingstone showing that intr...
-Chimaphila
Pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata. Official only in the eighth U. S. P. This widely distributed American remedy should not be dropped from our official standards, since it is a good substitute for the ...
-Chionanthus
Fringe Tree, Chionanthus virginicus. Not official, but listed in the National Formulary. This drug is highly esteemed by the Eclectics, who take great care in its extraction, which is difficult and mu...
-Chinosol
Normal oxyquinolin sulphate. A non-toxic antiseptic much stronger than phenol, acting in solutions as dilute as 1:10,000. A feeble germicide, and does not coagulate albumin; is deodorant and analgesic...
-Chrysarobin
Chrysarobinum, Goa Powder, Andira araroba. Official in fifteen countries. The U. S. P. recognizes it as derived from Vouacapoua araroba. A neutral principle. Do not confound with chrysophanic acid. P...
-Cimicifuga
Black Cohosh, Macrotys, Cimicifuga racemosa. Official in the Netherlands and the United States. The drug is much reduced in activity by drying. Pharmacology Hoyt classes it as a mild sedative, the i...
-Cinchona
Peruvian Bark. The U. S. P. recognizes several species, inclusive of Cinchona calisaya, C, Ledgeri-ana, C. officinalis, and Red Cinchona, C. succirubra. Few other national standards discriminate, simp...
-Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum Cassia is Chinese Cinnamon, and from it Oil of Cassia is derived. Several species are known as Saigon cinnamon. The true Ceylon cinnamon, unquestionably the best cinnamon, is C. Zeylanicum....
-Coca, Cocaine And Cocaine Substitutes
Coca Leaves, Erythroxylon Coca. Official in only seven foreign standards and in the eighth U. S. P. Little used except as a source of cocaine. Pharmacology Small doses of cocaine cause nervous excit...
-Cocculus Indicus
Fish Berries. Similar to strychnine in action, though less tetanic. Picrotoxin is derived from it. There is some justification for 1-60 grain doses in paralysis of the sphincters, in paralysis agitans...
-Colchicum
Colchici Cormus, Colchicum Root; Col-Chici Semen, Colchicum Seed; Colchi-Cina, Colchicine; Colchicum autumnale. The root official in Great Britain, Mexico, and the United States, the seed in nearly al...
-Collinsonia
Stone Root, Horse-Balm, Collinsonia Canadensis. Not official. Belongs to the mint family. The leaves contain a volatile oil. The root is the part principally used, and its constituents have not been d...
-Colocynth
Colocynthis, Bitter Apple, Citrullus colo-cynthis. Official in most standards, but the British and United States pharmacopeias (recent) have recognized the pulp instead of the peeled dried fruit. Colo...
-Conium
Poison Hemlock, Conium maculatum. Deleted from the ninth U. S. P., but included in the National Formulary. Official in Austria, France, Mexico, and Spain. Preparations rapidly deteriorate. Pharmacolo...
-Convallaria
Lily of the Valley, Convallaria majalis. Official in Austria, France, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Russia, Serbia, Switzerland, and the eighth U. S. P. The National Formulary lists it. The pharmac...
-Copaiba
Copaiba, Balsam of Copaiba, an oleoresin derived from Copaifera coriaceae, C. Guyanensis, C. Langsdorfii, and C. officinalis - all official as C. species. Both the oleoresin and the oil of copaiba ar...
-Cornus
Dogwood, Cornus florida. Not official. A simple bitter, in action similar to other bitters. See Gentian. Southern physicians esteem cornus as an antiperiodic and employ it in malaria. Heat destroys ...
-Cotarnine
By oxidation, conversion of narcotine into an artificial alkaloid is possible; this is called cotarnine. It is used to restrain uterine hemorrhage due to endometritis, menorrhagia, and congestive trou...
-Crataegus
Hawthorne Berries, Crataegus oxyacantha. Homeopathic books of some years ago classed Crataegus as a drug akin to strophanthus when used in doses of 1 to 15 drops of the tincture; and it was recommende...
-Cubeba
Cubeb, Piper cubeba. Official in all standards, the oil in the British and U. S. The oil (average dose, 8 minims) is the preferable form for its use in genito-urinary affections. The action is that of...
-Cucurbita
Cucurbita pepo, the ordinary pumpkin, is official in the Spanish Pharmacopeia; Pumpkin Seed, Pepo, is an official drug in Great Britain, France, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The seed is given...
-Cusso
Kousso, Brayera, Hagenia abyssinica. Official in many countries. Deleted from the ninth U. S. P. In the British Pharmacopeia it is called Brayera anthelmintica. Used as a teniafuge. The average dose ...
-Cypripedium
Ladies' Slipper, Cypripedium pubescens, or C. parvifiorum. Official only in the Eighth U. S. P. and in no other national standard. Deleted from the ninth U. S. P., but added to the National Formulary....
-Damiana
Turnera aphrodisiaca. A gentle stimulant not unlike ordinary tea, and used as such in Mexico. There is no creditable evidence that damiana possesses aphrodisiac properties. It is noted here simply to ...
-Digitalis
Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea. Universally official. Pharmacology What is here given is applicable to the digitalis series, not merely to digitalis. These have a common action on the heart, with vari...
-Dioscorea
Wild Yam, Colic-root, Dioscorea villosa. Not official, but listed in the National Formulary. Several species of yams are edible. There has been a disagreement over the activity of dioscorea, partly ...
-Drosera
Sundew, Drosera rotundifolia. Official in France and Mexico. The plant contains a peculiar acid whose character has not been defined, and an acrid resin. The drug has attained a reputation in the trea...
-Duboisine
This alkaloid is almost identical with hyoscy-amine, the dose of its sulphate being 1-100 to 1-60 grain. It is also a mild mydriatic in 0.2 to 0.8% solution. ...
-Dulcamara
Bittersweet, Solarium dulcamara. Official in Austria, France, Mexico, and Spain. Solanine, a narcotic, exists in small quantities in dulcamara. The drug produces a certain amount of cerebral disturba...
-Echinacea
Black Samson, Cone-Flower, Echinacea angusti-folia. Not official. It is stated that much of the root of this plant upon the market is grown east of the Mississippi and is of little value, the best qua...
-Echinacea Therapeutics
This may not all be true. I am not prepared to say it is all true; but, simply because a host of physicians are employing the drug empirically and, many of them, making impossible claims for it, does ...
-Elaterium
Ecballium elaterium. An energetic hydrogogue cathartic no longer used in crude form. The tincture is used in doses of a fraction of a drop in the treatment of chronic cystitis, but we have much better...
-Epigaea
Trailing Arbutus, Epigaea repens. Contains arbutin, also found in chimaphila, q. v. and others of the Ericaceae. See Chimaphila for the pharmacology. Therapeutically, chimaphila, epigaea, and uva-ur...
-Ergot
Spurred Rye, the sclerotium of Claviceps purpurea. Universally official. Ergotoxine, the active principle, may produce gangrene and degenerative nerve-tissue changes, with impaired intelligence and co...
-Erigeron
Canada Fleabane, Erigeron Canadense. The Oil of Erigeron was official in the eighth U. S. P., but is deleted from the ninth. The oil resembles oil of turpentine in effect (See Abies for details), bu...
-Eriodictyon
Yerba Santa, Eriodictyon Californicum. Official only in the U. S. The fl. is given in an average dose of 15 minims, usually in maltine or other thick extract of malt, in chronic or subacute bronchial ...
-Eryngium
Water Eryngo, Button Snakeroot, Eryngium yuccaefolium. Emetic in large doses; diaphoretic, diuretic, and expectorant in smaller doses. Used principally in chronic genito-urinary disorders. Dose of fl....
-Eucalyptus
Blue-gum Tree, Eucalyptus globulus. The leaves and Oil of Eucalyptus, official in the U. S. and several other countries. Eucalyptus rostrata, or Red Gum, official in the British Pharmacopeia. It conta...
-Euonymus
Wahoo, Euonymus atropurpureus. Official in England and France. Belongs to the digitalis group, but its purgative properties exclude it from use as a cardiac remedy. It is classed as one of the anhy-dr...
-Eupatorium
Boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum. Was official in the eighth U. S. P. Not now official in any country. Largely employed as a domestic remedy, and known in some parts of the country as Thoroughwort. It...
-Euphorbium
Euphorbia resinifera, official nearly all over the world except in the U. S. The Euphorbiaceae, Spurge, E. corollata and E. ipecacuanhae growing in the U. S., possess active emeto-cathartic properties...
-Frangula
Buckthorn, Rhamnus frangula. Very generally official; the bark in the U. S. and many other countries, the berries in France and Belgium. Like cascara, the bark should be collected one year before usin...
-Galla
Nutgall, Quercus infectoria. Average dose, 7 1/2 grains; but gallic and tannic acids have supplanted it. The drug is mentioned here simply to call attention to the Unguentum Gallae, U. S. P., an admir...
-Gambir
Ourouparia Gambir. Official in England, Japan, the Netherlands, and the U. S. Takes the place of Catechu of the earlier editions. Average dose, 15 grains. Tannic acid combines with proteid matter in t...
-Gaultheria
Wintergreen, Gaultheria procumbens. The Oil of Gaultheria was official in the Eighth U. S. P. Feebly antiseptic. Average dose 15 minims in capsules. Used in the treatment of rheumatism; but, more espe...
-Gelsemium
Yellow Jasmine, Gelsemium sempervirens. Official in England, Japan, Mexico, Switzerland, and the U. S. There are two alkaloids, gelseminine and gelsemine, only the first-named being of importance. T...
-Gentian
Gentiana Species universally official; G. lutea nearly universal; G. pannonica in seven countries; G. punctata in five; G. purpurea in six, and Japanese Gentian, G. Scabra, in Japan. G. crinita, G. oc...
-Glycyrrhiza
Licorice Root, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Spanish Licorice; G. glandulifera, Russian Licorice. Very generally official. Valuable as a pill excipient and as a demulcent and mild expectorant and laxative. Pul...
-Gossypium
Purified Cotton, Absorbent Cotton. Nearly everywhere official, standards being established for its use as a surgical dressing. Gossypium Species, Cotton-seed Oil. Official in the U. S. for pharmaceut...
-Granatum
Pomegranate, Tunica granatum. The bark is nearly universally official, the juice in Mexico and Spain, and the rind in Mexico and the Netherlands. Pharmacology Anthelmintic, and active because of its...
-Grindelia
Grindelia Species official in the U. S. and four other countries. Grindelia robusta deleted from the ninth U. S. P., but G. camporum. G. Cuneifolia, and G. squarrosa retained or added. They are not ge...
-Guaiacum
Guaiac, Lignum vitae, Lignum Sanctum, Guai-acum officinale and G. sanctum. Official in the U. S., resin and heart-wood in a number of other countries. A nasty resin justly going out of use, though st...
-Guarana
Paullinia cupana, in the Austrian and Spanish standards as P. sorbilis. Official in Austria, Hungary, Mexico, Spain, Switzerland, and the U. S. Contains caffeine and theobromine and a fixed oil. Avera...
-Hamamelis
Witchhazel Bark, Hamamelis virginiana. Official in England, Mexico, Spain, and in the eighth U. S. P. The leaves in 12 countries. Active on account of crystalline hamamelitannin and amorphous tannic a...
-Hedeoma
Pennyroyal (American), Hedeoma pulegioides. Official in the Eighth U. S. P., as was also oil of pennyroyal. In Mexico the flowering herb is official. It is a gentle aromatic stimulant useful in flatul...
-Helleborus
Black Hellebore, Helleborus niger. Official in Belgium and Mexico. Belongs to the digitalis group, as it contains helleborin and kelleborein, but is too irritant to be used as a cardiac remedy, at lea...
-Helonias
Unicorn Root, Starwort, Chamaelirium luteum, also called Helonias dioica. Often confused with aletris, q. v. In some parts of the country is called Blazing Star. Pilcher's experiments on the action o...
-Hematoxylon
Logwood, Haematoxylon campeachianum. Official in Austria, England, Mexico, and in the Eighth U. S. P. An astringent and feeble antiseptic. It is one of the tannin-bearers and one of the more agreeable...
-Humulus
Hops, the strobiles of Humulus lupulus. Official in France, Mexico, Spain, and the U. S. Contains a volatile oil, valerol, and a bitter principle. Valerol is mildly and irregularly soporific. The uni...
-Hydrastis
Golden Seal, Yellow Root, Hydrastis canadensis. Universally official. Pharmacology The isoquinoline alkaloid, hy-drastine, is the active agent in hydrastis; but ber-berine and canadine are also pres...
-Hyoscyamus
Henbane, Hyoscyamus niger. The leaves are universally official; the seed in Denmark, France, Mexico, and Spain. Pharmacology First read what was said under Belladonna and note that atropine and hy...
-Ignatia
St. Ignatius Bean, Strychnos Ignatia. Official in France, Mexico, and Spain. Included in the National Formulary. Pharmacology This will be considered under Nux Vomica, q. v. Nux vomica is said to ...
-Inula
Elecampane, Scabwort, Inula Helenium. Official in Mexico and the Netherlands. Listed in the National Formulary. Inulin, the active principle, or one of the proximates, is found in the roots of many o...
-Ipecac
Ipecacuanha, Rio Ipecac, Uragoga Ipecacuanha. Universally official. Also called Cephaelis Ipecacuanha and C. acuminata, or Cakthagena. Ipecac. This latter is, more properly, a species of Psychotria. ...
-Therapeutics Of Ipecac
The therapeutics of the ipecac alkaloids having been given, it remains to say somewhat of ipecac itself. Ipecac is a safe emetic, though depressing, at least transiently. The emetic dose is 15 grains...
-Iris
Orris, Iris Florentina, I. Germanica, I. pallida. Very generally official, but not in the U. S. P. A gastric stimulant used in breath perfumes and dentifrices. It has an action similar to euonymus, bu...
-Jalap
Exogonium purga. Universally official. Jalap and scammony yield rather similar resins which are complex mixtures. The really active portion of these resins may be an eleterin-like body which is highly...
-Jambul
Java Plum, Eugenia Jambolana. The bark and seed are official in the Netherlands; the seed in most cases is preferred. This drug is designated as Syzygium Jambolanum in Homeopathic textbooks. It has lo...
-Jequirity
Abrus precatorius. The seed is official in Spain, and the leaves in the Netherlands. An infusion (3 to 5%) instilled into the eye sets up a violent corneal inflammation; it is sometimes cautiously us...
-Juglans
Walnut Leaves, Juglans regia. Official in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Mexico, Spain, and Switzerland. This is the English or European walnut, and the leaves possess astringent properties availed of in ...
-Juniper
Juniperus communis. The berries are official except in Great Britain and the U. S., but Oil of Juniper is official in both of these countries. Juniper is a diuretic which acts by a slight irritant an...
-Kalmia
Mountain Laurel, Kalmia latifolia. This plant contains arbutin. Kalmia is not official, nor is it a prominent drug; but it belongs to the Ericaceae, the properties of which have been discussed under ...
-Kamala
Mallotus Philippinensis. Official in several countries but not in the U. S. An anthelmintic and drastic purgative. It kills the Taenia solium and is reputed to kill other intestinal parasites. For tap...
-Kava-Kava
Ava, Piper methysticum. The N. F. lists it as Kava, not Kava-Kava. Official in Great Britain. Possesses a diuretic action. The average system is stimulated, followed, when taken in large quantities, b...
-Kino
Pterocarpus marsupium. Official in the U. S. P. The action is the same as that of Gambir, q. v. Also see Tannic Acid. Kino is active on account of kino-tannic acid. Kino seems to be especially ada...
-Krameria
Peruvian Rhatany, Krameria triandria. Deleted from the ninth U. S. P., otherwise universally official. It is strange what a host of tannin-bearers are in official standards, even long after they drop ...
-Lactucarium
Lettuce, Lactuca virosa, is official in Hungary, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, and the U. S. Lactuca sativa is official in Mexico and Serbia. L. altissima is a suitable substitute for L. virosa; it ...
-Lappa
Burdock Root, Arctium Lappa. Official in Austria. Has been deleted from the U. S. P. IX. Contains inulin and a bitter principle. Burdock is diuretic and alterative. It is one of the Compositae, severa...
-Laurocerasus
Cherry Laurel, Prunus Laurocerasus. The leaves are official in six countries, the oil in the Netherlands. For other species of prunus see Amygdala and Prunus. Apricot Seed, P. armeniaca, official ...
-Leptandra
Culver's Root, Veronica Virginica. Was official in the eighth U. S. P., but has been deleted from the ninth. Not official in any other country. Do not conflict with V. officinalis, or Speedwell, offic...
-Limonis
Lemon, Citrus Limonum, the peel and oil official in the U. S. Citrus aurantium, Sweet Oranges (peel), official in the V. S., and the fruit in Spain, the oil in the U. S. and other countries. Citrus vu...
-Lobelia
Indian Tobacco, Lobelia inflata. Generally official except in Russia and Spain. Pharmacology Nicotine, lobeline, and cytisine are classed together pharmacologically. The latter alkaloid is derived f...
-Maltum
Malt, from the partially germinated barley Hordeum distichon. Extract of Malt has the consistency of honey and possesses amylolytic properties. The dose is one tablespoonful. It is a most reliable veh...
-Manna
The concrete saccharine exudation of Fraxinus ornus is almost universally official. The Netherlands recognize mannite and not manna. Manna is a mild laxative suitable to give to children. It is admini...
-Marrubium
Horehound (hoarhound), Marrubium vulgare. Official in Japan and the U. S. P. VIII. Stimulant, tonic, and slightly laxative. Warm infusions produce diaphoresis. The cold infusion is a bitter tonic. In...
-Matico
Piper angustifolium. Official in Mexico and the U. S. P. VIII. Its activity is dependent upon a volatile oil which influences the genito-urinary passages in much the same way as does cubeb. Matico is ...
-Vegetable Coloring Agents
Red tints are readily produced by Cochineal, Coccus, the dried female insect, Pseudococcus cacti, and by Carmine, made from cochineal; but the color is not durable in some preparations, and a vegetabl...
-Melilotus
Melilotus officinalis, Sweet Clover, Yellow Melilot, official in Austria, Germany, Italy, Mexico, and Norway. It is sometimes called Trifolium officinale, a prominent proprietary preparation being bas...
-Mezereum
Daphne Mezereum, official in the U. S. P. IX, but dropped by all other countries except Mexico, Japan, and Switzerland. An acrid poison of no use internally and yet for long, and even yet, an ingredie...
-Mints
Some of the more important mints, or Labiatae, are separately considered. The remaining ones will be grouped together here. Cunilia Mariana, Dittany, a very fragrant mint essentially the same as penn...
-Mitchella
Partridge-Berry, Squaw-Berry, Mitchella re-pens. Not official. Said to be astringent, diuretic, and parturient. Was used by Indian women as a woman's remedy, and has come down to us as such. It is one...
-Muscarine
Muscarine is found in the Fly Agaric, Amanita muscaria, a poisonous mushroom, used in Homeopathic practice under the name, Agaricus muscarius, but largely abandoned by them as a remedy. Agar-icin, der...
-Myrrh
Commiphora myrrha. Almost universally official. C. Africana, Bdellium, official in France and Spain. The action is due to a volatile oil, which is carminative, stimulant, and tonic in small doses, and...
-Narcissus
Daffodil, various Amaryllidaceae, especially the Narcissus pseudonarcissus. Common garden bulbs that cause violent vomiting and diarrhea if ingested, and may cause an eruption if applied externally. ...
-Nutmeg
Myristica fragrans. The kernel of the ripe seed almost universally official; the oil in the U. S. and a few other countries; Nutmeg Butter (fixed oil of Nutmeg) in five countries; the seed arillus kno...
-Nux Vomica
Strychnos Nux vomica. Universally official. Ig-natia, another strychnine-bearer, is separately considered. See it for the pharmacology of brucine. There are numerous other plants bearing strychnine an...
-Oils - Vegetable
Vegetable oils separately considered in the text do not appear here. Expressed Oil of Almond is used as is olive oil and in many pharmaceutical connections. Like olive oil, it is laxative. Oil of An...
-Opium
Poppy, Papaver Somniferum, universally official. Poppy Capsules official in twelve standards, Poppy Leaves in France, Poppy Seed in Germany and Russia, and Poppyseed Oil in France. Red Poppy Petals, P...
-Pareira
Ckondodendron tomentosum. Was official in the eighth U. S. P. Not recognized in any other country. Belongs to the Menispermaceae, an order of climbing shrubs of no general medicinal importance. There ...
-Passiflora
Passiflora incarnata, Passion Flower. Not official, but listed in the N. F. The order of Passi-floraceae are not generally recognized as possessed of any definite activity. This drug came into vogue i...
-Petroselinum
Parsley, Petroselinum Sativum. The fruit is official in the U. S. P. IX and in Sweden and Switzerland, the oil in Denmark and Norway, the root in Austria, France, and Spain. The oleoresin of parsley ...
-Phloridzin
A glucoside derived from the root of the apple, pear, cherry, etc. Produces renal glycosuria and polyuria. The drug destroys the malarial parasites, but it is not safe to use in this connection. Its r...
-Physostigma
Calabar Bean, Physostigma venenosum. Official in Belgium, Japan, Mexico, Spain, and the U. S. Pharmacology Resembles that of pilocarpine and muscarine. Physostigmine, or Eserine, the principal alkal...
-Phytolacca
Poke Root, Phytolacca decandra, official in Mexico and was official in the U. S. P. VIII. Japanese Poke Root, P. acinosa, var. esculenta, official in Japan. An emeto-cathartic in doses of 15 minims f...
-Pilocarpus
Jaborandi, Pilocarpus species, official in U. S. P. IX and eight other standards; P. Jaborandi, Per-nambuco Jaborandi, in five countries, including the U. S.; P. microphyllus, Maranham Jaborandi, only...
-Pimenta
Allspice, Pimenta officinalis. Was official in the eighth U. S. P.; but only the oil is now official (average dose, 3 minims). The action is the same as that of cloves, but it is more pungent in flavo...
-Piper
Black Pepper, Piper nigrum, official in several countries and in the U. S. Piperine (av. dose, 3 gr.) is a base obtained from it. The oleoresin is given in 1/2 grain doses. Used externally as counteri...
-Podophyllum
Mandrake, May Apple Root, Podophyllum pel-tatum. Official in eight countries. P. Emodi, Indian Podophyllum, official in Great Britain. There is little difference in the action of the two plants. Avera...
-Pollen Extracts
Hay-fever is a pollen-protein anaphylaxis, the victim having become sensitized to a vegetable protein. This brings up the whole question of protein sensitization; but we will discuss it here only as r...
-Polytrichum
Hair-cap Moss, Polytrichum juniperum, is diuretic in strong infusion of the whole plant, two ounces of the infusion being given every hour. Its use in dropsy seems to be justified; but pharmaceutical ...
-Prunus Virginiana
Wild Cherry Bark, Prunus Serotina. Official in the British, Mexican, and U. S. standards. A glucoside (amygdalin) and an enzyme (emulsion) interacts by hydrolization to form benzolde-hyde and hydrocy...
-Pulsatilla
Anemone Pulsatilla; official in France and Mexico, and formerly official in the U. S. Listed in the National Formulary. An acrid plant that produces vesication. The activity depends, it is said, upon...
-Pyrethrum
Pellitory, Anacyclus Pyreihrum. Half a dozen pharmacopeias, including our own, retain this heap powerful medicine, probably because some people like to chew it as a sialagogue and because druggists ...
-Quassia
Bitter Wood, Picrasma excelsa; also known as Picraena excelsa. Official in the U. S. P. IX and in eleven other standards. Quassia is a tannin-free bitter; hence it can be combined with iron. Quassin ...
-Quebracho
Aspidosperma Quebracho-bianco. Official in Austria, Mexico, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland, and has been incorporated into the U. S. P. IX. Homeopathic authorities have long claimed that the mother tinc...
-Quercus
White Oak Bark, Quercus alba. There are a host of vegetable astringents used for their tannin. White oak bark deprived of its corky layer is one of the best for external use, since the only active age...
-Quillaja
Soap Bark, Quillaja Saponaria. Official in several countries and in the U. S. P. VIII. Q. smegma-dermis is official in France. Quillaja is allied to senega, but the sapotoxin therein makes it too irri...
-Quinine And Its Derivatives
Cinchona, q. v., has been separately considered; but quinine and quinine derivatives are so important as to require detailed and individual study. One can break out about thirty alkaloids from cincho...
-Quinine Derivatives
The pharmacology of quinine is the same in all of its compounds; but certain quinine derivatives possess advantages. Some are tasteless, and others do not disturb the stomach, since they are not absor...
-Resorcinol
Resorcin. This agent was first separated from galbanum resin, and it has also been extracted from ammoniacum, guaiacum, asafetida, and other vegetable resins. It is a diatomic phenol. Thymol and some ...
-Rheum
Rhubarb, Rheum species, universally official. R. officinale is a common designation. These - their several species - are Chinese Rhubarb. R. Rha-ponticum, official in France and Mexico, is European Rh...
-Rhus
Rhus aromatica, Fragrant Sumach (the bark of the root), contains a terebinthinate balsam and tannin. Naturally, its action is on the kidneys. How much of its tannin may reach the kidneys is problemati...
-Ricinus
Castor Bean and Castor Oil, Ricinus Communis. The beans are official in four countries, the oil universally so. Castor oil is the glycerine ester of ricin-oleic acid; its purgative properties are due ...
-Rubus
Blackberry (bark of the rhizome), Rubus villosus and other species. The fruit of the European Blackberry, R. fruticosus, is official in Italy and Mexico, that of the Red Raspberry, R. Idaeus, in three...
-Rumex
Yellow Dock, Rumex crispus. Not official anywhere. Contains tannin and chrysophanic acid, thus resembling rhubarb in its pharmacology. The root is tonic, astringent, and slightly laxative, though less...
-Sabadilla
Cevadilla, Asagrae officinalis. The source of veratrine of the U. S. P. Sabadilla has no place in therapeutics, as it is an uncertain and dangerous agent. Veratrine is a mixture of alkaloids, and is ...
-Sabal
Saw Palmetto, Serenoa serrulata. Official only in the U. S. Its activities are due to an aromatic oil which is excreted mainly by the mucous membranes, and as the drug is a sedative diuretic the combi...
-Sabina
Savin, Juniperus Sabina. Widely official; but savin and the oil of savin have been deleted from the U. S. P. IX. For a discussion of the emmena-gogue oils, see Helonias. Savin oil acts similarly to ...
-Saccharum
Sugar. Cane Sugar is sucrose, which is derived from Saccharum officinarum, from various sorghums and from the sugar beet. It is nutrient, demulcent, and antiseptic; it is slightly diuretic. Eaten free...
-Safrolum
Safrol occurs in the oils of sassafras, camphor, star-anise, cinnamon leaves, and in various barks. It constitutes 80% of the Oil of Sassafras. Sassafras, Sassafras officinale, or S. variifolium, is ...
-Salix
White Willow, Salix Alba. Not official, but is a source of salicin. The willow is tonic, antiperiodic, and an astringent bitter. Used in decoction of the bark. Black Willow, Salix nigra. The bark of ...
-Chlorophyll
The chloroplasts and chromo-plasts (green and red cells) in plants are protoplasmic, and these protoplasts take from the air certain plant foods, especially carbon dioxide. During daylight green plant...
-Salicinum
Salicin. A glucoside derived from several species of willow and poplar trees and from other plants. This agent is allied to salicylic acid, q. v.; but it is not antiseptic unless decomposed into its ...
-Salvia
Sage, Salvia officinalis. Almost universally official, but has been deleted from the U. S. P. IX. Contains tannin, resin, and a volatile oil. Dose of the powdered leaves, 20 to 40 grains. Sage is an ...
-Sambucus
Elder, Sambucus Canadensis. Not official. Sam-bucus nigra (flowers) are very generally official except in the U. S.; the berries are official in a few countries, and the juice of the berries in six co...
-Sandalwood
Santal, Santalum Album. The heart wood is official in France and Spain; Sandalwood Oil is nearly universally official. The oil, in an average dose of 8 minims, is an effective urinary antiseptic and ...
-Sanguinaria
Bloodroot, Sanguinaria Canadensis. Official only in the U. S. The chemical composition is complex, the principal proximate being sanguinarine, which belongs to the morphine group. It causes depression...
-Santoninum
Santonin, obtained from Artemisia pauciflora, Levant Wormseed, also called Artemisia cina. Cina is the name given to wormseed in homeopathic literature. Santonin is quite generally official, and worms...
-Sarsaparilla
Smilax species, almost universally official, the Mexican, Honduras, Jamaica, and Para sarsa-parilla also being separately recognized in some standards. Sarsaparilla contains three glucosides belonging...
-Scammonium
Scammony, a gum resin from Convolvulus Scam-monium. Official in the U. S. and a few other countries. Both scammony and jalap yield complex mixtures of resins which have not been definitely defined. S...
-Scilla
Squill, Urginea maratimea. Universally official, as is also Indian Squill in Great Britain. Pharmacology Squill is toxic, owing to the presence of a water-soluble glucosidal substance resembling str...
-Scoparius
Broom, Cytisus scoparius. Official in England and in the U. S. P. VIII. Sparteine, the alkaloidal principle, usually prescribed in the form of the sulphate in an average dose of 1-5 grain, belongs to...
-Senecio
Life Root, Senecio Aureus. Not official anywhere, but is listed in the N. F. There are a number of the ragworts, all species of senecio, or allied to it. Cushny, in a paper in The Jour. of Pharmacol. ...
-Senega
Polygala Senega. Universally official. Bitter Polygala, P. amara, is official in Denmark. This latter plant grows in the United States and, like the many native species of Polygalaceae, is a bitter to...
-Senna
Cassia species universally official. The Alexandria, India, and Sudan senna are all more or less recognized. Senna Pods, from Cassia acutifolia, are recognized in several other countries, but not in t...
-Serpentaria
Virginia Snakeroot, Aristolochia serpentaria and A. reticulata. Official in England, Japan, Mexico, and the U. S. This drug is classed among the simple bitters. See Gentian. The dose of the tr. (N. ...
-Sinapis
White Mustard, Sinapis alba, is official in the U. S. and a few other countries. Japanese Mustard, S. cernua, is official in Japan. Black Mustard, S. nigra, is very generally official. It was formerly...
-Solanum
The Solanaceae are prominent in medicine. So-lanum Dulcamara, Bittersweet, is separately considered. See Dulcamara. Other Solanaceae separately described are Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, Capsicum,...
-Soy Bean
Soja hispida. Soy bean meal is made into bread and biscuits as a substitute for gluten bread in the dietetic treatment of diabetes. Urease, the urealytic enzyme of soy bean, is employed in the determi...
-Spigelia
Pink Root, Spigelia Marilandica. Official only in the U. S. An efficient anthelmintic against the round worm or lumbricoid worm; it acts much as does santonin. Toxic doses slow and weaken the heart's ...
-Staphisagria
Stavesacre, Delphinum staphisagria. Official in the U. S. and five other countries. See Aconite and Sabadilla, as pharmacologically staphisagria is classed with them. This drug was formerly in use...
-Sticta
Lungwort, Sticta pulmonaria, a lichen, not the old Pulmonaria officinalis, an odd cultivated herb long abandoned as a remedy. Sticta is one of the drugs that spread from Homeopathic practice into more...
-Stillingia
Queen's Root, Stillingia sylvatica. Official only in the U. S. Contains an oil and acid resin largely lost in drying. The most active preparations of stillingia are made from the fresh root, which is ...
-Stramonium
Thorn Apple, Jamestown Weed, Datura Stramonium. The leaves are almost universally official, the seed in Switzerland. Datura fastuosa leaves are official in Great Britain, Japan, and the Netherlands, t...
-Strophanthus
Strophanthus species universally official, S. hispidus in the U. S. and six other countries, S. Kombe in the U. S. and ten other countries. The latter is the better species, but supplies of it are oft...
-Styrax
Storax, Liquidambar orientalis. Universally official. This balsam, which acts similarly to the other balsams, is seldom used except in combination, such as the compound tincture of benzoin. Storax is ...
-Sumbul
Musk Root, Ferula species and F. sumbul. Official in the U. S. and Mexico. Galbanum (the gum resin) is also derived from Ferula species, more particularly F. galbanifiua and F. rubricalis. Asafetida, ...
-Tanacetum
Costmary, Tanacetum balsamita, is official in Spain, and is used as an aromatic bitter. Our common Tansy, Tanacetum vulgare, is official only in Belgium. In small doses tansy is an aromatic bitter; in...
-Taraxacum
Dandelion, Taraxacum officinale. The root is official in the U. S. and numerous other countries, the leaves in five countries. Another of the Com-positae that is a tonic bitter. See Gentian for a di...
-Thuja
Arbor Vitae, Thuja Occidentalism one of the Coniferae, a form of cedar, incorrectly called White Cedar. The true white cedar is Cupressus thyoides. Thuja contains a volatile oil called oil of arbor v...
-Thymol
A phenol derived from the volatile oil of Thymus vulgaris, horse-mint and a few other plants. Only that from thyme is designated officially in the U. S. P. Thymus serpyllum. Wild Thyme, and Garden Thy...
-Tolu
Tolu Balsam, from Toluifera balsamum, is almost universally official. It is also called Myroxylon tolu iferum. The balsam contains a little benzoic acid; it is a very mild expectorant; but the syrup i...
-Triticum
Couch-Grass, Agropyron repens or Triticum re-pens. Official in the U. S. and many other countries. Triticum is an excellent demulcent, but it is not appreciably diuretic; it contains no active agent....
-Uva Ursi
Bearberry, Arclostaphylos uva-ursi. Almost universally official. Contains arbutin, q. v., as well as ericolin, ursone, and tannic and gallic acids. It is one of the Ericaceae and partakes of their com...
-Valerian
Valeriana officinalis. Universally official, the volatile oil in Austria, and Valeriana Wallichii, Indian Valerian, in Great Britain. Valerian in large doses depresses the central nervous system. The...
-Valeric Esters
The oil of valerian contains bornyl isovalerate, which is not so disagreeable in odor as is valerian and is better tolerated by the stomach. The esters act as do valerian. They follow: Amyl Valerate ...
-Veratrum
American Hellebore, Veratrum viride, the only veratrum official in the U. S. P. IX. White Hellebore, Veratrum album, official in six countries, has been deleted from the U. S. P. Pharmacology The ge...
-Verbascum
Mullein, Verbascum species. The flowers official in nine countries. They are used in the making of Mulleined Oil. The blossoms, in a closed jar, are subjected to the heat of the sun and are pressed....
-Viburnum
Viburnum opulus is not official in any country, being deleted from the U. S. P., which formerly included it. It is our native High Cranberry and never was in any extended vogue except in the United St...
-Comment on Results
The question arises, How far can the results of this work on the excised strips of uterus muscle be compared to the action in the intact animal and in the human uterus? There are no experimental data...
-Xanthoxylum
Prickly Ash, Xanthoxylum Americanum, Northern Prickly Ash, and Fagara Clava-Herculis, Southern Prickly Ash. Official only in the United States. The name fagara has been dropped, and the spelling xan...
-Yohimbinum
Johimbin. This drug is nowhere official, but has an extensive literature. The drug is asserted to be a potent aphrodisiac, a sexual stimulant useful in the treatment of neurasthenic impotence. Yohim-b...
-Zea
Corn Silk, Zea mays. Was official in the U. S. P VIII, and is noted in the French, Mexican, and Spanish standards. Maizenic acid is the active diuretic agent in corn silk, which is worked green in mak...
-Zingiber
Ginger, Zingiber officinalis. Almost universally official. The oleoresin (dose, 1/2 grain) is the active agent. A pleasant carminative, and a stimulant to the digestive system. Used to expel flatus, ...
-Minor Official Botanic Drugs
Principally from Foreign Pharmacopeias. Here are grouped together a complete list of the less prominent official botanic drugs, inclusive of a few in the U. S. P. Some drugs are placed in this second...
-Tar
Fragraria vesca, the fruit official in Mexico and Spain, the root also recognized. Strawberry. The leaves are being used in Germany during the war as a cheap substitute for tea. Fumaria officinalis, ...
-Gerymander
Thapsia garganica, the root and the resin official in three countries. Thapsia, used in making a counter-irritant plaster. Thea Sinensis, six countries. Tea. Theobroma Cacao, Cacao beans, bitter cho...
-Acknowledgments
Botanic Data Wood's American Botanist, Bergen's Botany, Medical Botany of North America, Laurence Johnson, and several special works. Chemical Data The U. S. Dispensatory, King's American ...









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