"Homosexuals are made, not born 'that way' ", said Dr Kronemeyer, "from my twenty-five years' experience as a clinical psychologist, I firmly believe that homosexuality is a learned response to early painful experiences and that it can be unlearned. For these homosexuals who are unhappy with their life and find effective therapy, it is,curable'. "

So many factors affect a person's prospect for health and happiness, however, it is foolish to try and blame perhaps only one or two for any particular upset. A person's prospects for the future begin with the parents' health before they are even conceived. Most crucial is the diet and behavior of the mother while she is pregnant, and after birth breastfeeding and loving care and training continue the influence which will determine the wellbeing or otherwise of the future adult. It is common knowledge that the effects of emotional stress, poor diet, alcohol and smoking on a pregnant woman have consequential adverse effects on the baby she is carrying, effects such as physical deformities and mental retardation in varying degrees. That drugs, either "recreational" or medical, have similar effects, in some cases very severe, is also well known. Therefore it is quite possible that tendency towards homosexuality may be acquired to some extent congenitally as was demonstrated by Dr Francis Pottenger's dietary experiments with animals at San Diego in the 1940s (see pp. 18 and 211).

In his book The Wonderful World Within You (1987), Dr Roger J. Williams described abnormalities in children that commonly occur due to dietary deficiencies experienced by mothers in pregnancy and by children in early life. Speaking of deficiencies of pantothenic acid and folic acid, which are only two nutrients out of many, he says that a deficiency of them alone may cause all sorts of deformities including malformation of hormone-producing glands. "When we realize", he said, "that these two relatively unfamiliar vitamins are essential to reproduction in animals and that deficiencies in these may produce serious deformities, we are led to wonder if deficiencies in human prenatal and postnatal nutrition may not also be responsible for many unexplained defects and deformities."

A recent study tending to support this view showed that there are biological differences between adult homosexuals and heterosexuals. The study, by neurologist Simon Le Vay at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, San Diego, California, found that the hypothalamus--the part of the male brain governing sexual urges--is much smaller in homosexuals than in heterosexuals, and typically resembled a woman's rather than a heterosexual man's. Le Vay said: "I don't think this tells us the answer to the question 'are you born gay', but it does tell us that the topic of human sexuality can be studied biologically. Up to now it's been pretty much left to psychology."

The Spada Report, a survey of male homosexuality (James Spada 1979) described a study by F. J. Kellman of 85 homosexuals who had twin siblings. He found that among the 45 pairs in the survey who were fraternal twins, the incidence of homosexuality was about the same as between ordinary brothers and sisters, ie rarely were both homosexual. Among the 40 identical twins (those with the same genetic makeup), invariably both twins were homosexual, ie the incidence was 100%. These findings tend to indicate (but not prove) that it may well be that people are born gay.

Significant findings at the Brigham Young University in the USA indicate that stress during pregnancy can result in homosexual offspring. Dr D. E. Fleming and Dr R. W. Rhees, in experiments, subjected pregnant rats to psychological, nutritional and hormonal stress and then measured the behavioral characteristics of their male offspring. The results were compared to "normal" offspring of unstressed rats. "We found demasculinization and feminization tendencies," reported Dr Fleming. "Demasculinization, in that the test rats were not as active sexually in the male role; feminization was found where the males exhibited female-type behavior when placed with other males who were sexually aggressive. We are exploring possibilities that may have relevance to humans." The researchers observed that a definite correlation exists between the endocrinal systems of rats and humans. The predisposition towards homosexuality of male rats of the stressed mothers occurs because when the mother is under stress her body produces hormones that suppress production of androgen, necessary for the development of maleness in a male, although the male physical make-up appears normal. This occurs in the critical third trimester of the development of the fetus. The defect can be corrected by environmental influences--feminized male rats, when placed for long periods of time with females, will begin to exhibit normal male behavior. Three groups of mother rats were each subjected to a different form of stress, and in each group fifty per cent of the male offspring were affected. One way or another, homosexuality is not a chosen way of life, and to quote Dr Kronemeyer again:

"Homosexuality is a symptom of neurosis and of a grievous personality disorder. It is an outgrowth of deeply rooted emotional deprivations and disturbances that had their origins in infancy. It is manifested, all too often, by compulsive and self-destructive behavior that is the very antithesis of fulfilment and happiness. Buried under the 'gay' exterior of the homosexual is the hurt and rage that crippled his or her capacity for true maturation, for healthy growth and love.

If I insist that homosexuality--the exclusive or predominant preference for same-gender sex relations for orgasmic satisfaction--is symptomatic of a psychic disorientation, I hasten to point out that I do not consider it any different, except possibly in the degree of pathology, from other neurotic manifestations of many heterosexuals . . .

The earliest psychologists--Sigmund Freud, Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Havelock Ellis--were in agreement that homosexuality is a psychological malfunction that should be treated with tolerance and compassion. They might have disagreed on its cause, but they concurred that it was neither a crime nor a sin."