A. The Starch Practically Unchanged

E.g. Anglo-Swiss, American-Swiss, and Franco-Swiss foods. These all appear to be made from condensed milk, baked wheat flour, and sugar.

Analysis shows them rich in starch and cane sugar, and deficient in fat and protein. Possibly the gluten of the flour is rendered somewhat more digestible in the process of preparation. These foods are unsuitable for infants under the age of six months, because of the high percentage of starch and deficient fat. After this age they are quite unnecessary, for the child should be able to take fresh cows' milk, to which starch can be added in the form of a cereal decoction, and sugar if required. Muffler's Food, sold by the Aylesbury Dairy Company at 1s. 6d. a bottle, is very much the same and not much more valuable. It is composed of desiccated milk, powdered white of egg, wheaten flour and lactose, and contains very little fat.

B. The Starch Partly Or Entirely Converted Into Soluble Carbohydrates

E.g. Allenbury No. 2 Food, a combination of the No. 1 Food with a malted meal; Horlick's Malted Milk; John Bull No. 1 Food; Loeflund's Cream Emulsion; Maltico; Manhu Infant Food; Milo Food; Theinhart's Infantina and Hygiama The composition of these foods is given in the table of analyses, and reference thereto will show which contain the least unconverted starch. On the whole, if a mixture of condensed milk and a malted flour is desired, reliance can be placed on those foods in which there is little unchanged starch. The functions of starch digestion can be trained by gradually changing to foods which contain a higher proportion of starch. As infant foods these possess all the disadvantages of condensed milks, in respect of lack of freshness and deficiency of fat. The main difference lies in the character of the soluble carbo-hydrates present, in place of an excess of cane sugar.

C. The Milk Partially Predigested, Or The Food Containing Ferments

The Milk Partially Predigested, Or The Food Containing Ferments which act on the protein of the milk and the starch in the food during the process of preparation. - Benger's Food and Carnrick's Soluble Food are of this type. Benger's Food is, in my opinion, the most valuable proprietary food on the market. It consists of a wheaten meal, cooked and impregnated with a suitable proportion of the natural digestive ferments of the pancreas. On mixing the food with warm milk, the ferments convert the carbo-hydrates into soluble dextrins and sugars, and partially peptonize the proteins. The fat is not changed.

The main objections are that the amount of predigestion of the starch cannot be accurately determined or regulated, and that a considerable amount of starch is unchanged. These are not serious drawbacks when the food is used under medical advice. The food is especially valuable for marasmic infants over six months of age, and it may be given with advantage, if cautiously watched, to much younger infants who cannot digest ordinary cows' milk. The addition of half a teaspoonful to a couple of ounces each of milk and water for a child of three or four months is sometimes most beneficial. It is useful also for other young animals, such as puppies and kittens. It is a valuable food in typhoid fever, gastric and intestinal troubles, anorexia from any cause, convalescence from acute illness and in malnutrition generally. Given in the form of thick gruel at bedtime it has a remarkably fattening effect, and should not be allowed for middle aged or old people with a tendency to obesity.

Carnrick's Soluble Food consists of desiccated milk 37.5, malted wheat flour 37'5, and milk sugar 250 per cent. In the process of preparation the casein is partially digested by extract of pancreas, but much starch remains unchanged. It is greatly inferior to Benger's Food in that it is not prepared with fresh milk.