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A Manual Of Psychology | by G. F. Stout



The present work contains an exposition of Psychology from a genetic point of view. A glance at the table of contents will show that the order followed is that of the successive stages of mental development. The earlier stages have been copiously illustrated by reference to the mental life of animals. The phases through which the ideal construction of Self and the world has passed are illustrated by reference to the mental condition of the lower races of mankind.

TitleA Manual Of Psychology
AuthorG. F. Stout
PublisherUniversity Correspondence College Press
Year1899
Copyright1899, G. F. Stout
AmazonManual of Psychology

The University Tutorial Series.

A Manual Of Psychology.

BY

G. F. STOUT, M.A. Camb., M.A. Oxon., LL.D. Aberdeen,

Late Fellow Of St. John's College, Cambridge., And University Lecturer In The Moral Sciences; Late Anderson Lecturer On Comparative Psychology In The University Of Aberdeen; Wilde Reader In Mental Philosophy In The University Of Oxford; Examiner At London Universityy Editor Of "Mind"; Author Of "Analytic Psychology" etc.

University Correspondence College Press.

London: W. B. CLIVE, 13 Booksellers Row, Strand, "W.C.

1899

New York: Hinds & Noble, 4 Cooper Institute.

Copyright, 1899, By W. B. CLIVE.

-Preface.
The present work contains an exposition of Psychology from a genetic point of view. A glance at the table of contents will show that the order followed is that ...
-Introduction. Chapter I. The Scope Of Psychology. The Psychological Point of View
1. The Psychological Point of View. Let us suppose that a man is engaged in examining a material object. Let us say that lie is testing the quality of a cigar.
-The Scope Of Psychology. Distinction from other Sciences
2. Distinction from other Sciences. We have already marked off psychology from all physical sciences. The world of material facts and processes is the object ...
-The Scope Of Psychology. Consciousness
3. Consciousness. If we analyse such processes as those of looking, listening, smelling, or tasting, we find that they involve two distinct and disparate ...
-Chapter II. The Data And Methods Of Psychology. Presented Objects as Data
1. Presented Objects as Data. Psychology has to discuss mental processes, such as sensation, perception, attention, volition, and the like. But except in the ...
-The Data And Methods Of Psychology. Introspection
2. Introspection. To introspect is to attend to the workings of one's own mind. When instead of asking what we perceive or will, we inquire how we perceive or ...
-The Data And Methods Of Psychology. Introspection. Continued
Turning now to the alleged obscurities, fallacies, and difficulties of introspection, we may note at the outset that these do not exist when the questions ...
-The Data And Methods Of Psychology. Manifestations of Mental Process in Others
3. Manifestations of Mental Process in Others. No one can directly observe what is passing in the mind of another. He can only interpret external signs on the ...
-The Data And Methods Of Psychology. Experiment and Observation
4. Experiment and Observation. To experiment is to observe under conditions which we have ourselves prearranged. The prearrangement is intended to simplify ...
-The Data And Methods Of Psychology. Quantitative Methods
5. Quantitative Methods. A science becomes more exact in proportion as it deals with exactly measured quantities. Of late years, a strenuous effort has been ...
-The Data And Methods Of Psychology. cont. Quantitative Methods
Nevertheless, the attempt to measure intensive magnitude is not so desperate as it appears. Clearly we cannot take one intensive quantity as the unit of ...
-Chaptee III. Body And Mind. Physiological Antecedents and Consequents of Mental Process
1. Physiological Antecedents and Consequents of Mental Process. It is an old saying that the body is the organ of the mind, the instrument through which it ...
-Body And Mind. Function of the Sub-Cortical Nervous Mechanism
2. Function of the Sub-Cortical Nervous Mechanism. The portion of the nervous system which lies below the cortex is partly contained within the cranium. This ...
-Body And Mind. cont. Function of the Sub-Cortical Nervous Mechanism
Lack of spontaneity, and lack of the power of learning by experience, do not necessarily imply the absence of all consciousness in the widest sense of the word.
-Body And Mind. Immediate Correlation of Conscious and Nervous Process
3. Immediate Correlation of Conscious and Nervous Process. In the cortex at least we have a direct relation between nervous process and conscious process, and ...
-Body And Mind. cont. Immediate Correlation of Conscious and Nervous Process
The same difficulty is felt from a practical as well as from a theoretical point of view. The physiologist, in his endeavour to make organic processes ...
-Body And Mind. Metaphysical Explanation of PsychoPhysical Parallelism
4. Metaphysical Explanation of PsychoPhysical Parallelism. If the doctrine of psychophysical parallelism is true, the reason of the connexion between ...
-Book I. General Analysis. Chapter I. Ultimate Modes Of Being Conscious. Cognition
1. Introductory. Human consciousness is normally concerned with some object or other. In waking life, we are usually, and perhaps always, perceiving something ...
-Ultimate Modes Of Being Conscious. The Feeling-Attitude
3. The Feeling-Attitude. Besides having cognisance of an object, we are usually, if not always, pleased or displeased, satisfied or dissatisfied with it, and ...
-Ultimate Modes Of Being Conscious. The Conative Attitude
4. The Conative Attitude. The states designated by such words as craving, longing, yearning, endeavour, effort, desire, wish, and will, have one ...
-Ultimate Modes Of Being Conscious. cont. The Conative Attitude
We have repeatedly used the word end. Conation is the intrinsic tendency of a state of consciousness to pass beyond itself into a different state. Just in so ...
-Ultimate Modes Of Being Conscious. Sentience or SubConsciousness
5. Sentience or SubConsciousness. We have so far considered consciousness only in its relation to presented objects. But if we analyse our total experience at ...
-Chapter II. Primary Laws Of Mental Process.
1. Relativity. By the principle of relativity it is denied that any psychic factor, or complex psychosis,* can exist without having its own definite quality, ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Conative Unity and Continuity
3. Conative Unity and Continuity. Suppose that, while playing chess or whist, I am suddenly called away at a critical stage of the game to meet a visitor on a ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Retentiveness
4. Retentiveness. Retentiveness in some form is an indispensable condition of development or progress of anykind. Advance would be impossible unless the ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Cognitive Continuity and Retentiveness
5. Cognitive Continuity and Retentiveness. The kind of continuity which we have called cognitive involves in a characteristic way the principle of ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Primary meaning
6. Primary meaning. Primary retentiveness is correlated with what we may call primary meaning. We may sum up the result of the last section as follows : (1) ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Association and Reproduction
7. Association and Reproduction. On seeing a flower, I am told that it has a certain name. Afterwards, I hear this name again: it may then call up to my mind ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Acquirement of Meaning
8. Acquirement of Meaning. Reproduction has a great many modes and degrees, according as the original experience is more or less fully and independently ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. cont. Acquirement of Meaning
The process which we have called the acquirement of meaning is the minimum in the way of reproduction required to explain intelligent learning by experience.
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. The Various Modes of Specific Reproduction
9. The various modes of Specific Reproduction. (a) Complication. Being reproduced is something different from being produced again. Repeated production ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. cont. The Various Modes of Specific Reproduction
If (2) we now turn to the converse case, the qualification of actual touch experience by revived visual experience, we find the union of the constituents of ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Facilitation and Arrest
10. Facilitation and Arrest. In actual reproduction, one mental process reinstates another. But instead of actual reinstatement, we may have mere facilitation.
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Habit and Automatism
11. Habit and Automatism. Actions at first requiring attention come to be performed without attention when they are frequently repeated under sufficiently ...
-Primary Laws Of Mental Process. Physiological Dispositions
12. Physiological Dispositions. In using such words as dispositions and traces, we have hitherto maintained a strictly psychological point of view. But as ...
-Chapter III. The Faculty Psychology And Associationism.
1. Introductory. There are two general theories of mental development of great historical importance. One of them the Faculty Psychology may be pronounced ...
-The Faculty Psychology And Associationism. Associationism
3. Associationism. Faculty Psychology is valuable, if at all, only as a scheme of classification. But the ultimate aim of science is to explain and not merely ...
-The Faculty Psychology And Associationism. Association is criticised. "Mental Chemistry."
4. Association is criticised. ''Mental Chemistry.'' In all psychical development some kind of association and reproduction is involved. So much may be ...
-The Faculty Psychology And Associationism. cont. Association is criticised. "Mental Chemistry."
Though Mill clings to reproduction and association with all his might, he is in spite of himself compelled to confess their impotence to solve some of the most ...
-Book II. Sensation. Chapter I. Definition Of Sensation. Sensation and Stimulus
1. Sensation and Stimulus. One characteristic mark of what we agree in calling sensation is its mode of production. It is caused by what we call a stimulus. A ...
-Definition Of Sensation. Sensory Elements
2. Sensory Elements. If I look at grass, I have the sensation of green. If I look at snow, I have the sensation of white. I can assign no psychological reason ...
-Definition Of Sensation. Mere Sensation
3. Mere Sensation. In defining sensation we have disregarded the cognitive function which it may discharge as a constituent element in the perception of an ...
-Definition Of Sensation. Sensation as Cognitive State distinguished from Sensation
as Cognised Object 4. Sensation as Cognitive State distinguished from Sensation as Cognised Object. We must distinguish the knowledge, of which sensations are ...
-Chapter II. The Sensation-Reflex. As distinguished from Physiological Reflex
1. As distinguished from Physiological Reflex. We may define a reflex act, says Dr. Waller, as the immediate motor response to centripetal excitation. * The ...
-The Sensation-Reflex. Distinguished from Perceptual Reaction and Ideational
Reaction 2. Distinguished from Perceptual Reaction and Ideational Reaction. In sensation-reflexes specially coordinated movements follow the mere existence of ...
-The Sensation-Reflex. Conative and Iledonic Aspect of the Sensation-Reflex
3. Conative and Iledonic Aspect of the Sensation-Reflex. The movements arising from senseimpulses display in a simple and distinct manner an antithesis which ...
-Chapter III. Differentiation Of Sense-Experience, And Its
Psychical Significance. 1. Differentiation and Integration. The lower we descend in the scale of animal life, the more important is sensation; the higher we ...
-Differentiation Of Sense-Experience. Differentiation of Sense Organs
2. Differentiation of Sense Organs. Degree of discriminative sensibility corresponds broadly to the complexity and differentiation of the organs of sense. If ...
-Chapter IV. Light-Sensation.
1. Introductory. Having given a general account of the nature of sensation, and of the sense-reaction, we now pass to the special senses, beginning with those ...
-Light-Sensation. Structure of the Eye
3. Structure of the Eye. For anatomical detail we must refer to the textbooks of physiology. The eye as a whole is analogous to a photographic apparatus. In ...
-Light-Sensation. Descriptive Analysis of Light-Sensations
4. Descriptive Analysis of Light-Sensations. We must distinguish between neutral tints and colours proper. Neutral tints consist of black and white and ...
-Light-Sensation. cont. Descriptive Analysis of Light-Sensations
The transition is still continuous; but it now takes place between yellow and green. We begin with, greenish yellows, and pass by the smallest perceptible ...
-Light-Sensation. The Retina's own Light
5. The Retina's own Light. In the total and continued absence of external light, there still exists a field of view which does not consist of mere darkness.
-Light-Sensation. Total Colour-Blindness
6. Total Colour-Blindness. The extreme margin of the retina is totally colourblind. Let the eye be fixed upon an object immediately in front of it, and let ...
-Light-Sensation. Partial Colour-Blindness
7. Partial Colour-Blindness. Between the outer margin of the retina and the yellow spot, there is a region which is partially colourblind. It is sensitive to ...
-Light-Sensation. Effects of the Mixture of Lights of Different Wavelengths
8. Effects of the Mixture of Lights of Different Wavelengths. When lights of all wavelengths are intermingled in due proportion, the result is grey or white.
-Light-Sensation. The Effects of Contrast
9. The Effects of Contrast. A man passing a streetlamp in moonlight casts two shadows. That which is cut off from the light of the lamp and only illuminated ...
-Light-Sensation. The Negative AfterImage, etc
10. The Negative AfterImage, etc. If, after looking steadfastly at a white patch on a black ground, the eye be turned to a white ground, a grey patch is seen ...
-Light-Sensation. The Positive Afterimage, etc
11. The Positive Afterimage, etc. Light acting on the retina takes a certain time to produce its full effect, and the retinal excitement takes a certain time ...
-Physiological Theories of Light-Sensation
12. Physiological Theories of Light-Sensation. Very little indeed is known by direct observation and experiment about the physiological processes either in ...
-Physiological Theories of Light-Sensation. Cont.
In Hering's theory, a strenuous attempt is made to escape the difficulties which beset that of Helmholtz. Following the clue given by psychological analysis of ...
-Chapter V. Sound-Sensation. Organ of Hearing. Noises and Musical Sounds
1. Nature of the Stimulus. The physical stimulus which occasions sensations of sound consists of vibrations of the particles of the air. As in the case of ...
-Sound-Sensation. Pitch
4. Pitch. The greater the number of consecutive vibrations which fall upon the ear in a second, the shorter the time of each vibration, the higher is the ...
-Sound-Sensation. Harmonic Intervals
5. Harmonic Intervals. When, of two notes simultaneously produced, the vibration period of one is exactly twice as rapid as that of the other, the two ...
-Sound-Sensation. Beats and Dissonance
7. Beats and Dissonance. If two tuningforks sounded together are not of the same pitch, but so related that the period of vibration of the one is not an exact ...
-Sound-Sensation. DifferenceTones
8. DifferenceTones. When two tones are sounded together, certain other tones are heard, occasionally with great distinctness, for which there is no assignable ...
-Sound-Sensation. Timbre
9. Timbre. The same note sounded on a piano, a violin, a trumpet, etc., has a very varying character, though its pitch is identified as the same. Differences ...
-Sound-Sensation. General Theory of Sound-Sensation
10. General Theory of Sound-Sensation. Anatomical research seems to show that the immediate stimulus to the terminations of the auditory nerve is constituted ...
-Chapter VI. Other Sensations. Taste and Smell.
1. Taste and Smell.* The greater number of the sensations which are usually ascribed to taste are in realityodours. If the nose be held and the eyes shut, it ...
-Cutaneous Sensations
2. Cutaneous Sensations. These are principally of three kinds pressure, temperature, and certain others allied in their nature to organic sensations, among ...
-Motor Sensations
3. Motor Sensations. If we close our eyes so that we cannot see our own body, we are none the less distinctly and accurately aware of the position of our ...
-Organic Sensations
4. Organic Sensations. The sensations we have so far considered derive their main importance from the function they fulfil in the perception of external ...
-Chapter VII. The WeberFechner Law. The Experimental Facts
1. The Experimental Facts. We can compare any two objects and pronounce them like or unlike. If the objects are disparate in kind, we are unable to say more ...
-The WeberFechner Law. Interpretation
2. Interpretation. The explanation of the facts described has been much discussed. One hypothesis is that increase in the intensity of the stimulus fails to ...
-The WeberFechner Law. Further questions
3. Further questions. It may cost more or less effort to discern an unlikeliness. The difficulty is greatest when the unlikeliness is very small. Now it has ...
-The WeberFechner Law. Limitations of Weber's Law
4. Limitations of Weber's Law. We have spoken of Weber's law as if it held good exactly and uniformly for all sensations; but as a matter of fact this is far ...
-Chapter VIII. The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. Common Sensibility
1. Common Sensibility. The pleasure and pain connected with organic sensations are of fundamental and allpervading importance in our mental life. Normally, ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. cont. Common Sensibility
So far we have referred only to those distinctive features which serve us in describing the difference between one pain-sensation and another. But there are ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. The Special Sensations
2. The Special Sensations. We now turn to consider the special sensations of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and temperature. The feeling-tone of these ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. Surplus Excitation
3. Surplus Excitation. It is clear that the agreeable or disagreeable feeling arising in connexion with the occurrence of a sensation may not be wholly due to ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. cont. Surplus Excitation
Pleasant sensations, such as that of a sweet taste or of a good cigar smoked by a person who enjoys it, produce increase in the volume of the limbs due to ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. Feeling-Tone and Organic Welfare
4. Feeling-Tone and Organic Welfare. Most psychologists support the general thesis that the processes corresponding to agreeable sensation promote organic ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. Feeling-Tone and Cognitive Tendency
5. Feeling-Tone and Cognitive Tendency. Some pleasures of sense are dependent on preexisting conations. There are sensecravings connected with the primary ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. General Theory
6. General Theory. Whatever conditions further and favour conation in the attainment of its end, yield pleasure. Whatever conditions obstruct conation in the ...
-The Feeling-Tone Of Sensation. cont. General Theory
One obvious objection arises from the dependence of feeling-tone on quality as well as quantity of sensation. Why should some sensations be unpleasant at a ...
-Book III. Perception. Division I. Perceptual Process In
General. Chapter I. Distinctive Characteristics Of The Perceptual Consciousness. 1. Definition. Perception is essentially Cognition. We cannot perceive without ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Unity and Continuity of Perceptual Process
2. Unity and Continuity of Perceptual Process. Many perceptions are very brief and evanescent. They satisfy a slight and momentary interest, after which the ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Attention
3. Attention. Perceptual activity can only fulfil itself by the cooperation of a series of external conditions which supply in turn occasions for its further ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. cont. Attention
That systematic watching and searching and attentive behaviour in general are possible without mental images, may be shown in the case of human beings, and ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Persistency with Varied Effort
4. Persistency with Varied Effort. Even in the earliest performance of its instinctive activities, viz. those activities for which it is predisposed and ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Free Adaptation to Varying Conditions
5. Free Adaptation to Varying Conditions. We have just seen that perceptual process exhibits adaptive variation, according as activity is successful or ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Learning by Experience
6. Learning by Experience. In contrast to the sensation-reflex, perceptual activity profits by the results of past experience. It can do so without any ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. cont. Learning by Experience
I have reproduced this bookshelf drama at length because it is a typical instance of how animals learn by experience. We must especially note the gradual ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Reproduction in Perceptual Process
7. Reproduction in Perceptual Process. In purely perceptual process, the only forms of reproduction are (1) Acquirement of meaning, (2) Complication, and (3) ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Ideas accompanying Perceptual Process
8. Ideas accompanying Perceptual Process. So far we have treated of perception and perceptual process in its pure form. We have distinguished it sharply from ...
-Perceptual Consciousness. Impulsive Character of Perceptual Process
9. Impulsive Character of Perceptual Process. Any single train of perceptual activity has internal unity and continuity. But where conscious life is mainly ...
-Chapter II. Imitation.
1. Introductory. Imitation is a process of very great importance for the development of mental life in both men and animals. In its more complex forms, it ...
-The Imitative Impulse
2. The Imitative Impulse. We must distinguish between ability to imitate and impulse to imitate. We may be already fully able to perform an action, and the ...
-Learning by Imitation
3. Learning by Imitation. Let us now turn to the other side of the question. Let us consider the case in which the power of performing an action is acquired ...
-Chapter III. Pleasure-Pain.
1. Introductory. The hedonic tone of perception is determined by varying conditions. We may distinguish broadly the pleasure or displeasure which is directly ...
-Pleasure-Pain. Success and Defeat as Determining Pleasure and Pain.
3. Success and Defeat as Determining Pleasure and Pain. Under the second head is included a very extensive class of cases so familiar and obvious that it ...
-Pleasure-Pain. Feeling-Tone due to PreFormed Associations
4. Feeling-Tone due to PreFormed Associations. Acquirement of meaning, complication, and associative reexcitement of organic sensation, play an extremely ...
-Chapter IV. Emotions.
1. General Characteristics. If we ask the question, What is an emotion? the first answer that occurs to common sense is a list of specific emotions, fear, ...
-Emotions. General Theory
2. General Theory. The general theory of emotion which is most favoured at the present time is that to which we have just referred. It is at least as old as ...
-Emotions. General Theory. Part 2
Now on the psychical side, what corresponds to the original neural disturbance which preconditions the organic disturbance? If the correlated psychical state ...
-Emotions. General Theory. Part 3
The circulation of the blood must be different in the two cases. This criticism leaves untouched the thesis with which Professor James starts. It would seem ...
-Emotions. Relation to Pleasure-Pain and Conation. Ultimate Qualitative Differences
3. Relation to Pleasure-Pain and Conation. Every special kind of emotion essentially involves a characteristic end or direction of activity, mental or bodily.
-Emotions. Emotional Dispositions
5. Emotional Dispositions. An emotion is always an actual state of consciousness; an emotional disposition is a persistent tendency to feel a certain kind of ...
-Emotions. Analysis of Fear
6. Analysis of Fear. To describe and analyse all the various kinds of emotion would be an endless task. We therefore select for special treatment two typical ...
-Emotions. Analysis of Anger
7. Analysis of Anger. The child manifests this emotion at an early stage. Anger initially expresses and satisfies itself by a peculiar form of violent motor ...
-Emotions. Emotional Gestures
8. Emotional Gestures. Darwin, in his great work Expression of the Emotions, has attempted to account for the distinctive gestures accompanying the various ...
-Division II. Special Percepts. Chapter I. Categories Of
Perceptual Consciousness. Categories are forms of cognitive consciousness; they are universal principles or relations presupposed either in all cognition or in ...
-Categories Of Perceptual Consciousness. Continued
This distinctness and unity depend on distinctness and unity of interest. Thus different sensible qualities as severally presented to touch, sight, hearing, ...
-Chapter II. Perception Of External Reality.
All animals whose conscious processes rise above the level of the sensation-reflex must have some kind of apprehension of physical reality. It may be very ...
-Perception Of External Reality. Continued
We appear to have involved ourselves in paradox. On the one hand the presentation of external objects occurs only through those experiences which vary with the ...
-Chapter III. Spatial Perception in General.
1. Nature of the Problem. We have to inquire how the spatial perception develops from indefinite and imperfect to more definite and perfect forms. We have ...
-Spatial Perception. Extensity
3. Extensity. So far we have only attempted to show that extensity is a constituent of the fully developed percept of extension, and can be distinguished in ...
-Spatial Perception. Active Movement
4. Active Movement. Extensity, in order to become extension, must assume more or less definite order of parts. How is this acquired? The serial arrangement of ...
-Chapter IV. Spatial Perception By Touch. Spatial Perception of the Blind
1. Spatial Perception of the Blind. The existence of blind persons enables us to study touchspace dissevered from sightspace. But it is essential for this ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. Spatial Perception of the Blind. Continued
In higher stages of development the process of analytic touch takes a form such as the following. One hand holds the object in position, and turns it so that ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. Extension as Physically Heal
2. Extension as Physically Heal. We may now proceed to consider the movements of exploration concerned in the apprehension of size and configuration from ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. The Spatial Significance of Free Movements
3. The Spatial Significance of Free Movements. So far, we have dealt only with what may be called restricted movements, movements restricted by the conditions ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. Perception of the Organism as Extended
4. Perception of the Organism as Extended. Up to this point, we have been dealing with the further development of a spatial perception which has already ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. Localisation and Projection
5. Localisation and Projection. When a sensitive surface is affected by a stimulus, we may attend principally either to the locality of the part affected, and ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. Tactual Perception of the Third Dimension
6. Tactual Perception of the Third Dimension. There is one point which ought to be made clear from the outset. We do not and can not have a perception of ...
-Spatial Perception By Touch. Origin of Spatial Perception
7. Origin of Spatial Perception. When we began to discuss spatial perception at the beginning of the previous chapter, we propounded two questions. So far, we ...
-Chapter V. Spatial Perception By Sight. Perception of Surface
1. Perception of Surface. There is no difference in principle between the process by which the visual perception of space is developed, and that by which the ...
-Spatial Perception By Sight. Perception of Surface. Part 2
The visual image is throughout determined by tactual experience. With each feature of tactual extension there is correlated a corresponding feature of visual ...
-Spatial Perception By Sight. Perception of Surface. Part 3
Now there is a theory which would regard the above statement as a complete account of the binocular perception of solid figures. Distance from the area of ...
-Spatial Perception By Sight. Perception of Surface. Part 4
(c) As Monocular. Under this head we have to consider conditions which remain operative even when only one eye is used. These conditions are mainly of an ...
-Spatial Perception By Sight. Perception of Surface. Part 5
Another group of conditions depends on variation not in the size but in the nature of the retinal impression produced by the same line or curve looked at from ...
-Chapter VI. Temporal Perception. Time Transience
1. Introductory. The apprehension of temporal relations, as they exist for human consciousness, is an extremely complex product of mental development. The ...
-Temporal Perception. Perception of Lapse of Time
3. Perception of Lapse of Time. The immediate experience of timetransience is probably universal in all conscious life. Some rudimentary form of it probably ...
-Temporal Perception. The Organism as Time Keeper
4. The Organism as Time Keeper. Some persons before going to sleep at night can determine to wake at a preappointed hour in the morning, and succeed in doing ...
-Book IV. Ideational And Conceptual Process. Chapter I. Ideas And
Images. 1. Introductory. We now pass from perceptual to ideational process, from those trains of mental activity which are prompted and guided by external ...
-Distinction and Relation of Image and Idea
2. Distinction and Relation of Image and Idea. An idea can no more exist without an image than perception can exist without sensation. But the image is no ...
-Ideas And Images. Likeness of Object as Perceived and Object as Imaged
3. Likeness of Object as Perceived and Object as Imaged.* The image is a reproduction of the percept; these must therefore agree in their nature. But the ...
-Ideas And Images. Characteristic Differences of Percept and Image
4. Characteristic Differences of Percept and Image. (a) Intensity. Hume is perfectly right in affirming that percepts differ from images in the force or ...
-Characteristic Differences of Percept and Image. Part 2
Its presence even in these lower phases of intensity may be detected if we pass from the comparison of sensations with sensations to the comparison of ...
-Characteristic Differences of Percept and Image. Part 3
It is well known that there are very great differences between the visualising powers of different individuals. Some few seem to be capable of calling up ...
-Characteristic Differences of Percept and Image. Part 4
(c) Relation to Subjective Activity. In perception we are relatively passive and receptive, because sensations are determined by a factor which is not ...
-Ideas And Images. Relative Independence of Percept and Image
5. Relative Independence of Percept and Image. Gazing at the blue sky, we may, as Dr. Ward observes, mentally picture a portion of it as red instead of blue.
-Ideas And Images. Hallucinations, Illusions, and Dreams
6. Hallucinations, Illusions, and Dreams. Two conditions are necessary to constitute an hallucination. On the one hand, a presentation must exist, having some ...
-Chapter II. Trains Of Ideas. Twofold Aspect of Ideational Process
1. Twofold Aspect of Ideational Process. In the last chapter we considered the characteristics of images as compared with percepts. We have now to deal with ...
-Trains Of Ideas. Association of Ideas
2. Association of Ideas. For a general account of the nature of Association, we must refer to bk. i., ch. ii., 7 Association and Reproduction 9 The Various ...
-Trains Of Ideas. Different Forms of the Association of Ideas
3. Different Forms of the Association of Ideas. (a) Contiguity (Continuity of Interest). The law of Contiguity, as ordinarily understood, may be stated as ...
-Trains Of Ideas. Competition of Divergent Associations
4. Competition of Divergent Associations. The same experience may have, and generally has, a great many connexions in the way of association. The question ...
-Trains Of Ideas. Ideal Construction
5. Ideal Construction. We have seen in the last section that the total mental state, at the time at which ideal revival takes place, is a most important ...
-Trains Of Ideas. Obstructions in the Flow of Ideal Activity
6. Obstructions in the Flow of Ideal Activity. Ideal activity, like perceptual activity, may be successful or unsuccessful. In so far as it is unsuccessful, ...
-Chapter III. Memory. Definition of Memory
1. Definition of Memory. Sometimes the word memory is used as synonymous with retentiveness in general. This application of the term is inconveniently wide.
-Good and Bad Memory
2. Good and Bad Memory. The marks of a good memory are, (1) The rapidity with which the power of recalling an experience is acquired; (2) The length of time ...
-Decay of Memory with Lapse of Time
3. Decay of Memory with Lapse of Time. Though particular memories last for various periods in different cases and with different persons, yet it is the ...
-Variety of Memories
4. Variety of Memories. In ordinary language we speak of a person having a good memory for numbers but a bad one for names; a good memory for places but a bad ...
-Improvement of Memory by Practice
5. Improvement of Memory by Practice. It is certainly true that the exercise of memory in a special direction improves it in that direction. By long practice ...
-Chapter IV. Ideation, Comparison, And Conception.
1. Ideal Prearrangement distinguished from Perceptual Preadjustment. Perceptual activity is guided by the actual presence of perceived objects. It is true ...
-Ideation, Comparison, And Conception. Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis
2. Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis. All ideational activity as compared with perceptual activity involves some kind and degree of generalisation. We have ...
-Ideation, Comparison, And Conception. Comparison
3. Comparison. The growing mind, we may suppose, passes beyond simple perception when some striking difference in what is at the moment perceived is the ...
-Ideation, Comparison, And Conception. Comparison. Continued
The process by which animals learn to distinguish what they have previously confused, or to identify for practical purposes what they have previously treated ...
-Chapter V. Language And Conception. Language as an Instrument of
Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis. 1. Language as an Instrument of Conceptual Analysis and Synthesis. In speaking of Language, we must remember that what ...
-Language And Conception. The Motor Element in Ideal Revival
2. The Motor Element in Ideal Revival. Perceptual process is penetrated through and through by experiences of movement. Passive sensations only serve to guide ...
-Language And Conception. Tendency of Motor Reproduction to pass
into Actual Movement 3. Tendency of Motor Reproduction to pass into Actual Movement. No one has done more than Dr. Bain to bring into prominence the importance ...
-Language And Conception. Natural Signs
4. Natural Signs. Many writers appear to assume that all language worthy of the name must consist of conventional signs. Such a view creates altogether ...
-Language And Conception. Natural Signs as Instruments of Conceptual
Thinking. 5. Natural Signs as Instruments of Conceptual Thinking. Expression by natural signs fulfils the essential function of language as a means of ...
-Language And Conception. Conventional Element in GestureLanguage
6. Conventional Element in GestureLanguage. The theory that natural signs are psychologically the most primitive form of language has two advantages. The ...
-Language And Conception. Origin of Conventional Language
7. Origin of Conventional Language. The language of natural signs is pervaded by the systematic unity of a single formative principle that of imitation. This ...
-Language And Conception. Certain Other Theories of the Origin of Speech
8. Certain Other Theories of the Origin of Speech. Attempts have been made to explain the origin of language without emphasising the importance of the visible ...
-Language And Conception. Advantages of Conventional Language
9. Advantages of Conventional Language. The primary and essential procedure of the language of natural signs is to represent things and processes by imitating ...
-Chapter VI. The External World As Ideal Construction. Unification of Perceptual Data
* In connexion with this chapter, the student should recall and if necessary reread ch. ii. of bk. ii., div. ii. 1. Unification of Perceptual Data. It is the ...
-The External World As Ideal Construction. Verification and Reinterpretation
2. Verification and Reinterpretation. The primary function of ideal construction is the framing of means for the attainment of practical ends. The ideal ...
-Space as Ideal Construction.
3. Space as Ideal Construction. There are no perfectly straight lines in nature, but none the less we can conceive a line to be perfectly straight. This is ...
-Time as Ideal Construction
4. Time as Ideal Construction. The process of ideal construction makes a greater difference in the case of time than even in that of space. We have seen how ...
-Causality as Ideal Construction
5. Causality as Ideal Construction. On the purely perceptual level, there is a tendency to repeat modes of procedure which have proved successful in the past, ...
-Thinghood an Ideal Construction
6. Thinghood an Ideal Construction. We have seen that for perceptual consciousness whatever has unity and distinctness of interest is a separate thing. Since ...
-Ideal Construction as a Cooperative Process
7. Ideal Construction as a Cooperative Process. Through language, ideal combination becomes a function not of the individual merely, but of society. It may be ...
-Ideal Construction as a Cooperative Process. Continued
Tools, weapons, utensils, buildings, gardens and cultivated fields, are all products of human intelligence. They are material arrangements embodying in outward ...
-Chapter VII. Self As Ideal Construction. The Personal Series
1. The Personal Series. On the perceptual level, there is a bipartition of conscious experience into two parts, one belonging to the Self and the other to the ...
-Self As Ideal Construction. The Social Factor in the Development of Self Consciousness
2. The Social Factor in the Development of Self Consciousness. We have so far only given an abstract account of what is meant by Self as ideal construction.
-The Social Factor in the Development of Self Consciousness. Continued
The influence of the social factor in determining self-consciousness is largely bound up with the process of imitation. It is a conspicuous merit of Professor ...
-The One Self and the Many Selves
3. The One Self and the Many Selves. All self-consciousness implies a division of the total Self. When I think about myself, the I and the myself are never ...
-Pathology of Self Consciousness
4. Pathology of Self Consciousness. Under normal conditions, the tendency to regard various actual or possible phases of the Self as if they were more or less ...
-The External and the Internal Self
5. The External and the Internal Self. The idea of the Self includes in all but its latest and most abstract developments the idea of the body as the vehicle ...
-The External and the Internal Self. Continued
Since the spirit is only occasionally visible and still more rarely tangible, and since in general the relations of the living to it are somewhat vague and dim, ...
-Chapter VIII. Belief And Imagination. Distinction
1. Distinction between Belief and Imagination. A man sitting in his armchair can easily imagine himself killing a lion by a blow of his fist. But suppose that ...
-General Conditions of Belief
2. General Conditions of Belief. There are two main points of view from which the problem of belief must be approached. It is at once a condition of activity, ...
-Variation in the Relative Importance of the Subjective and Objective Factors of Belief
3. Variation in the Relative Importance of the Subjective and Objective Factors of Belief. There are, then, two factors which cooperate in the formation of ...
-Belief And Imagination. Influence of the Social Factor
4. Influence of the Social Factor. Ideal construction is, as we have seen, a social product. Hence the beliefs of the individual are to an immense extent ...
-Some Features of Primitive Belief
5. Some Features of Primitive Belief. We have seen that the formation of new beliefs depends at every step on the nature of the beliefs which are established.
-Chapter IX. Feeling-Tone Of Ideas.
1. Introductory. The pleasures and pains of ideational process have two sources. They are either due to a remnant of the feeling-tone of an actual sensation ...
-Feeling-Tone of Ideational Activity itself. Belief.
3. Feeling-Tone of Ideational Activity itself. Belief. Ideational activity may assume two forms. On the one hand, it may be directed to the production of some ...
-Feeling-Tone of Ideational Activity itself. Belief. Continued
We have laid down the general principle that obstruction of mental activity is painful, and its furtherance pleasant. This is true, if properly understood; but ...
-Feeling Tone of Ideational Activity itself. Imagination.
4. Feeling Tone of Ideational Activity itself. Imagination. One grand characteristic of the play of imagination is the absence of what we have called the ...
-Sentiment and Emotion
5. Sentiment and Emotion. After the full treatment of emotion in bk. iii., div. i., ch. iv., it is not necessary to say much more about it at this point. What ...
-Chapter X. Voluntary Decision. Ascending Levels of Cognitive Development
1. Ascending Levels of Cognitive Development. Cognitive development is inseparably connected with cognitive development. If we consider conation in the ...
-Voluntary Decision. Cognitive Aspect of the Conception of the Self
2. Cognitive Aspect of the Conception of the Self Under the concept of the Self as expressed in the word I is included in systematic unity the lifehistory of ...
-Voluntary Decision. Deliberation
3. Deliberation. Very often, however, the thought of the Self does not at once give rise to a decision, positive or negative, but only to arrest of action, so ...
-Voluntary Decision
4. Voluntary Decision. The phrase voluntary decision is ambiguous. It may mean the transition from the state of suspense to the state of or it may mean the ...
-Voluntary Decision. The Forming of a Decision
5. The Forming of a Decision. We have yet to examine how the state of decision supervenes on that of deliberation. At this point the vexed question of ...
-Fixity of Voluntary Decision
6. Fixity of Voluntary Decision. The persistence with which a voluntary decision, when once formed, maintains itself against obstacles, is often much greater ...
-Voluntary Decision. Action in the Line of Greatest Resistance
7. Action in the Line of Greatest Resistance Some volitions take place and are maintained only by an effort. This is especially the case when voluntary ...
-Voluntary Decision. Volition and Bodily Activity
8. Volition and Bodily Activity. A voluntary decision is normally followed by action which carries or tends to carry it into effect. Setting aside for the ...
-Voluntary Decision. Involuntary Action. Fixed Ideas
9. Involuntary Action. Fixed Ideas. In the strictest sense an involuntary action is one which takes place in opposition to a voluntary resolution. Thus if ...
-Voluntary Decision. Self Control
10. Self Control. All the cases of involuntary action which we have discussed in the last section, are cases of deficiency of self-control. Self-Control is ...
-Voluntary Decision. Voluntary Attention
11. Voluntary Attention. A voluntary determination may be either a determination to perform certain bodily movements or a determination to attend to certain ...
-Voluntary Decision. True Freedom
12. True Freedom. It must not be supposed that anything we have said in this chapter implies a denial of the freedom of the will in the sense in which such ...
-The University Tutorial Series.
Dental and Doral Science. ETHICS, A MANUAL OF. By J. S. Mackenzie, M.A., Professor of Logic and Philosophy in the University College of South Wales and ...









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