Jumping to conclusions from mere names-, however, is not a safe course, but in this instance the corroborating circumstances favour the notion that the localities derived their names from the animals which are known to have haunted them As an instance of the danger of drawing conclusions from mere names, it may be here stated that the Yusufzais reckon themselves true Afghans and call themselves Bani Israil Their name means "descendants- of Joseph," and their country abounds with Israelitish names such as are found in the Scriptures. In fact, by the hasty enquirer, their claims would be at once admitted, and their country be considered a second Palestine, for in support of the belief there is the lull Peor (Pehor), the mount Moriah (Morah), the peaks of Ilam and Dumah, the valley of Sodom (Sudhum), the stream of the Gadarenes (Gadhar), the plain of Galilee (Jalala), etc , for places; whilst for tribes there are the Amazites (Amazai), the Moabites (Muhibwal), the Hittites (Hotiwal), etc.

After this it appears the Yusufzais increased considerably in population, and brought wide tracts of the wilderness under cultivation, but still not to such an extent as to effect any marked change in the general desolate aspect of the country. This was partly owing to their village feuds and fights for the fair division of the pasture lands, and partly to their wars with another people, who, like themselves, had recently emigrated from their native country further west, and settled in the territory adjoining that of the Yusufzais, but on the south side of the Kabul river. The name of this tribe was Khattak, and though they were Pukhtana, or Pathan, they were not Afghan. They will be treated of separately later on Here it may be stated that in their contests with the Yusufzai they were by no means unsuccessful, for they managed to possess themselves of two most important strategic positions in the Yusufzai country, which they hold to the present day In order to put a stop to the cattle-lifting forays of the Yusufzais, from which it appears they suffered great loss, they crossed the Kabul river, and possessed themselves of the belt of land on its north bank from the point of junction of the Swat with the Kabul river to that of the latter with the Indus at Attock But this position did not protect them from the constant forays of the Yusufzais, especially of their raiding parties from Swat and Buner. The Khattaks were consequently forced to adopt measures to protect themselves from this source of annoyance and danger. They pushed a military colony straight across the plain, and taking up a position which commanded the approach to Swat on one side, and to Buner on the other, there firmly established themselves. This spot is now called Jamalgarhi, and lies at the base of the Pajah hill. It is still in the possession of the descendants of the original colonists.

We need not here follow the history of the Yusufzais during the reigns of the successive Mughal Emperors, nor need we waste time in the relation of their home feuds and wars, nor of their stubborn opposition to the conquering Sikhs. It will be enough for our purpose to close this account of them by a brief notice of their present condition. The arid wastes and the turbulent people we took over from the Sikhs on the conquest of the Panjab in 1849, are now, after a brief thirty years of British rule, no longer the same, either in the aspect of the country or in the condition of the people The wide plain which was formerly traversed by uncertain tracks is now crossed in all directions by good roads The cattle-guards, armed to the teeth with an odd variety of weapons, who used formerly to take post on the numerous mounds of the ancient Budhist topes and tumuli, and from their tops scan the wide expanse on all sides against the raider and robber, are now no longer known, and their place is taken by boys whose only weapon is a club or an ox-goad The plain which was formerly mostly wilderness and uninhabited, is now dotted over with prosperous village communities, and cultivation has spread to such an extent that the cattle are hard put to for pasture in some localities. Lastly, the fanatic and turbulent Yusufzai of thirty years ago, though still fanatical, is a very altered man from his unreclaimed and independent brother in the hill parts of the country. He is now by no means the restless and troublesome fellow he was in his poverty and ignorance of only twelve or fifteen years ago. He is now grown wealthy, luxurious, and as loyal to the British Government, under whose beneficent rule he has acquired these persoual advantages and blessings, as any other people in India.