The evidence as to deterioration of Northern European types in America is voluminous. Not only do workmen decay earlier than in Europe, but it is shown by Prof. B. Laquer* that German migrants to America have their lives shortened in spite of less work, less intemperance and better food. Among eveiy 1,000 German-Americans there are 170 between forty and sixty years of age, and 65 above sixty years of age, but in Europe there are 179 and 78, respectively. In the first generation of native born the deterioration is marked, and the type melts away as already explained. The intense nervousness so characteristic of Americans, and due to the stimulation of sunshine, causes undue arterial tension and the subsequent hardening of the arteries is, therefore, much more common in America than in Europe. Indeed Sir Robert Barr * states that from this cause Americans are generally old at sixty. It is also said that in the United States one person in every forty-two is a defective, and that we have a higher rate than any other country in the world except Baden, Iceland and the Argentine Republic. The deterioration is more rapid in the South, for practically all of the American Olympic Athletes of 1908 were born north of Mason and Dixon's line.
Now, all this deterioration does not affect the types from Southern Europe to nearly the same extent as those from the North. In the case of tuberculosis, I have subjected the matter to statistics,*¡ and in my work of the effects of light there is abundant proof of a similar character. That is, blonds fail to become acclimatized in America.
The process of elimination of the unfit is well under way. Francis Parkman, in his History of the Old Regime in Canada, mentions the observation of La Hontan, a lieutenant of Louis XIV's Army, that few of the women immigrants were brunets. They came from Northern France, which is strongly blond, but they have failed to maintain their numerical supremacy in the lighter valley of the St. Lawrence. The same increasing brunet-ness has long been known in New England, and the blond Creoles of Louisiana disappeared generations ago. Blonds have survived in the mountains even as far south as Tennessee, where the rainfall is enormous, and the cloudiness similar to Norway. Whether they are to be permanent is another matter, for it is further south than the northern mountains of Italy, which is the furthest south that blonds have survived. In the American lowlands the blond type is disappearing everywhere, and in Europe, south of forty-five degrees, they likewise disappear from the lowlands. The further south the family resides the sooner is extinction. Already the deterioration is so marked that few athletes come from south of the fortieth parallel of latitude. Of course, we refer to continuous residence in the south, not a residence of two or three winter months, the rest being spent as far north as they can conveniently get. Such migrating families may survive forever. Scientists have called attention to the fact that the flora and fauna north and south of the Mason and Dixon line are so different as to constitute two continents. These sections will always be opposed politically, religiously, and biologically, but mutual interests compel national unity for all time.
* New York Medical Record, May 13, 1905.
* Journal of the American Medical Association, February 24, 1906.
*¡ New York Medical Journal, September 12, 1908.
It is not surprising, then, that the 1900 census should show that in the preceding decade, the New England population having native-born parents, had decreased by 50,000. This is the nearest statistical proof of the disappearance of the old stock. There is, therefore, abundant reason for the recently expressed fear on the part of Professor Ripley, of Harvard, that other races now arriving are submerging those who first came here.
The broad-headed Alpine type of man does not flourish in Europe south of the fortieth parallel of latitude, and the same phenomenon is found here, for this type tends to remain in the northern half of the country. South of that parallel the Mediterranean types are establishing themselves so strongly, it is even feared that through their greater intelligence they will displace the negro from the farms and drive him into servile positions - the only ones he can fill - for he has not sufficient intelligence to compete with any European race.
The first streams of men pouring into Virginia were completely wiped out, but were instantly replaced. There has been an equally deplorable mortality in other places, but the stream from Northwestern Europe still continues to replace the losses. In 1905 we received 40,000 from Germany, 60,000 from Scandinavia and Denmark, 64,000 from England and 52,000 from Ireland. Indeed, the actual number of blonds in the United States may be constantly increasing even if they evaporate in time. One year may bring more into New York harbor than in all the time from Columbus to the Revolution, so that it will be impossible for any type to disappear completely. Scandinavians are coming here directly now, instead of to the British Islands, and their descendants differ in no respects from the descendants of Scotch and Irish immigrants.
Even should the death of the blonder races be much more rapid in the future, it will make no difference in the end. We can look upon Northwestern Europe as the breeding ground of these types of people. Only recently we contemplated nominating for the Presidency the son of a Scandinavian immigrant, and he would, no doubt, be a far better President than some of the degenerated stocks who have been here a few generations longer. Even though these immigrants are the least successful, yet they are infinitely higher than the least successful from the Mediterranean.
There is even a Southern drift as in Europe. The industrial regeneration of the South is mostly due to Northern types, indeed its most prosperous areas are really Northern colonies. In an address before the Canadian Club,* Prof. Wm. Osier referred to the Southern drift of Canadians into the United States and remarked that fully 1,000,000 of them were now among us, many in prominent positions in finance and the professions, particularly medicine and theology. They have been successful, industrious and thorough in their work. Of the 651 women nurses in six of the great Eastern hospitals, 196 are Canadians, so that the migration affects both sexes and all classes. He mentions the fact that all vigorous strong nations are in the North, and he draws a picture of the moral, mental and physical conditions of the Canadians which is certainly to the disadvantage of the nation to the south, about the same difference as between Scandinavia and Italy. He shows that Canada is a better climate for Aryans than the United States, as it more nearly approximates the proper latitude, but whether the great future nation will be north of the Great Lakes, as he prophesies, is another matter. To be sure, Scandinavia and Hudson Bay are equally far north and should be equally fitted for Scandinavians, but the cold of Hudson Bay does not permit of food production, and the light of its many cloudless days is suited only for Eskimo types or the dark types of the identical climate of Siberia * Strangely enough, the migration from the British Islands now seems directed to Canada, as though it were instinctive to go where there is more chance for permanent survival, and indeed, most of Canada's immigration is from the mother country.
* British Medical Journal, 1905.