The contempt of an intruding immigrant conquering race for the employments of the native conquered people is best shown by Aristotle's statement* that "none of the citizens should be permitted to exercise any mechanical employment or to follow merchandise," and "if choice could be exercised, the husbandmen should by all means be slaves," and this was believed by Aristotle to be necessary to prevent these people being "virtuous," that is, possessed of the virtues of the conquerors - the privileged or select ruling race of intruders who were lawmakers, judges, soldiers and priests. He even believed that a State with many " mechanics and few soldiers could not be great." All work was degrading, and even the art and architecture which are the glory of ancient Greece, must have been largely the work of slaves. Could anything more clearly prove that the Aryan conquerors of Greece were aliens to the soil - a mere ruling class. Even yet in Germany no "gentleman," or gens-man, is permitted to follow the callings condemned by Aristotle, unless he loses caste. Until recently the same inviolable rule existed in England. Gens-men preferred starvation to losing caste. The peasants themselves express contempt for the aristocrat who gets down to their level. His sphere is to aid them in their work, not to do part of the work. Noblesse oblige is a very practical matter.

* "Politics".

We find identical conditions in the Philippines. The conquered Malay is the mechanic and farmer. He is in debt almost always, and is a slave in nearly the exact sense of the old Greek slave. The Spanish law compelled him to work for the creditor until the trivial debt is paid - and this may be a lifetime. Some of the Filipino leaders have had no hesitancy in calling their retainers "slaves" - one to my certain knowledge announced after peace conditions that he had 600 slaves for whom he had to get rice, and he would get it if he had to steal it. The Filipino slave is not averse to his lot - he is adjusted to it, and is really better off, for he is cared for in a better manner than he can care for himself. There is never abject poverty, and but little of the begging which disfigures the countries around the Mediterranean.

A Malay always has money to bet on a cock-fight. He can get food whenever he wants by going to his chief or master, or owner or boss, or whatever name we use. The advances in money or rice are carefully put on the slave's ledger account and only holds him in a voluntary slavery that much stronger. If one of these leaders wants to enlist a regiment for war - he has it already at hand - he gives the word and they all go out, and have gone out, though not one of them knows what he is fighting for and does not care. Fully ninety-five per cent, of the Filipinos have not the least idea of government, nor the difference between a republic and an absolute monarchy. It is their masters - the half-breeds and brainier Malays - who clamor for a republic, and it is an open secret that they all expected to become feudal lords with titles, lands and powers exactly similar to robber barons of medieval Europe. To use the words of the street, it was a tremendous "graft" which the Americanos have destroyed. Can we not see, then, why there is such hatred of us by the small body of rulers? They were to be powerful feudal lords - they are offered simple citizenship of the Philippines.

Nevertheless, the Mestizos are the rulers yet and their word is law. We cannot emancipate their slaves because the improvident "pobres" demand slavery - otherwise they would starve to death in the lean years. This has to be considered in our plans to give a stable government, and the more we utilize the leaders and head men the better. We have utilized the head men among American Indians for a century in giving stable government to these tribes, and it is unreasonable to object to doing the same in the Philippines. But we had to use very stern measures with the American Indian head men - and we will have to do the same in the Philippines. We have never yet let the American chief make his own laws - and we cannot here. We let the American Indian govern himself by our laws, and every now and then give him a new one, even a recent one forbidding polygamy, and we will do the same duty by the Filipinos.

There is, or rather was, in the Philippines a peculiar custom amounting to a social law more rigid than the laws of mourning with us. The slave wears the pena or juce shirt hanging outside his trousers. If a man wears a coat (chaqueta) it is a sign he is out of debt or is a creditor owning slaves. These gentes ftnos (fine folks) or coated Filipinos, are with scarcely an exception, the ones we hear of as leaders, officers, politicians, etc. There are about 200,000 of the chaqueta class, and half are real leaders. The rank and file of the insurgent army are the coat-less pobres or peasants. Each town and hamlet has its princi-pales or head men, who seize all the business, all the offices, all the power. Indeed, many a hamlet and its surrounding country is the sole property of one man, who is always the presidents or mayor, no matter what the government is in Manila - the same officials have lasted through all the recent changes, just as they do in European villages, through repeated changes of government.

Consequently, in the Philippine Islands we find the identical conditions which caused high civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia - an intruding higher Mediterranean race (Spanish) ruling a conquered lower race (Malay). This caused an increased density of population because more food was produced. It is strange that overpopulation caused by the southern migration of higher races is thus at the basis of all civilizations in the tropics and subtropics.

We might emphasize the matter by saying that ever since brains have been evolved to their present high type, they have been drifting away from the northwestern corner of Europe to control other races, but as the best remain home, gradually increasing the average intelligence, the world seems destined to be controlled from that small corner of Europe.