We have now come to the most important part of any discussion of modern migrations and modern expansion for the control of the world. The course of events for 3,000 years or more has been steadily and persistently in the one direction of establishing Aryan civilizations in every nook and corner of the earth. They were first built up by migrants from Northwestern Europe - the most intelligent race on earth - as we have already sketched in a general way. But they died out, as unfitted for the climates to which they migrated. The new movement is in the direction of keeping up these Aryan civilizations by controlling them from the Aryan home in Europe. It is territorial expansion, not for colonization but for the mutual benefits of Aryans and the lower races. It is not a new movement, for it dates back at least three centuries. Failures resulted here and there, as when the Mediterranean type of man assumed control - but now, everywhere, the world is dropping piecemeal into the control of the race having the best mental equipment for the work - the blond Aryan occupying the northern part of Europe.
We must again retrace our steps and learn to what an enormous extent have ancient and modern civilizations resulted from the mental labors of men from Northwest Europe. Investigators are, one by one, drifting to the opinion that in the millennium prior to the Christian era, the world owed a very great amount to this Aryan type of man. Of course, each branch as it invaded the South, picked up what civilization it found. Thus, Gustave le Bon has shown that India and Greece did not borrow from each other, though they are closely linked together. Both seemed the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Hindus through the medium of the Persians and the other Aryans who invaded India, while the Greeks obtained it through the medium of the Phoenicians. The first Aryans then found and used Semitic civilizations as a basis, as the Semites (or Mediterraneans or neolithic man) found and used Turanian cultures, on which they built higher ones. We have already described these Aryan migrations, but it is necessary, even at the risk of some repetition, to refer in greater detail to them, for we cannot emphasize too much or too often the fact that the history of the world for 3,000 years is a history of Aryan migrations and the civilizations which the Aryans built up, that these peoples came from the northwest corner of Europe and have only recently migrated to America. Throughout their whole history in ancient times, we recognize one clear fact - they were a high type which migrated too quickly to become acclimated by the usual process of selection, and hence they quickly died out, leaving their civilizations in the hands of the conquered lower types - Semites usually. Then there was decadence of the civilizations which these lower types could not uphold. We have never appreciated how much the ancient world owes to Aryan brains, nor how much America owes to them, nor have we appreciated how the Semitic or Mediterranean type has failed to rule properly in America and has been pushed out by the Aryan - Spain being the last to give way. The present spread of Aryan ideas, speech and population over the Pacific is merely a continuance of the old, old flow out of Arya.
The delay of Aryan influence is due in the first place to the delay in the origin of the Aryans themselves, for man could not get into Scandinavia until the ice gap disappeared - a comparatively recent event, for its remnants are still there in the glaciers, and as a known fact the invasion was delayed until the neolithic age. For a long time, also, the population was of necessity very limited. Both Norway and Sweden now have only 7,000,000, even with the importation of foods. In the stage of civilization of the early Aryans, mostly hunting and but little agriculture, it is doubtful if the land contained more than 10,000 people, possibly less. This was at a time 2,000 to 4,000 B.C., when they were ignorant of metals, and it is evident that they could not have survived without that big brain which has since enabled them to conquer the world. The struggle of the Eskimos for existence was a different matter - a mere animal struggle - and large brains were not so essential, though they are very intelligent as compared with tropical savages and are very recent evolutions themselves.
It is quite evident, then, why these early yellow-haired Aryans did not expand sooner. They were a mere handful, and they could not have made ships to get away even if they were more numerous. Their subsequent expansion is in accord with all other zoological facts. The mammals themselves were once few in numbers, but their intelligence enabled them to survive and overrun the earth. There is no mystery, then, about the lateness of the emigrations of the Aryans, though it does seem strange that there were but a few thousand blonds in existence, at the time when the first Egyptian Empire and the pre-Semitic empires in Mesopotamia were teeming with brunets. This evidence of the very small number of the primitive Aryans is in accordance with what is learned from the study of the language, for there is a widespread opinion that they were not numerous. Similarly, the first English-speaking men, the Angles, were a mere handful, though then language, vastly modified to be sure, is drowning out all others.
Perhaps the most extensive account of the Aryans is Doctor Schrader's "Comparative Philology and the Earliest Culture,"* the second edition of which was made by Frank B. Jevons, University of Durham, under the title of "Prehistoric Antiquities of the Aryan Peoples." Schrader concludes that the steppes of the southeastern part of European Russia furnished the climatic and other conditions of the primitive Aryans before their migrations. Yet a careful survey of his data, makes it quite as likely that it was around the Baltic, as now generally accepted, if not actually in Scandinavia. He seemed to think that they were ignorant of the sea and navigation, because no common words are found, but sea travel and navigation were very late developments. They did know of "boats" and "rowing" sufficiently to have been primitive vikings of the Baltic. They were ignorant of metals, and in the neolithic stage of culture, with weaving, primitive agriculture, and some domestic animals - the very conditions of Scandinavia 1500 B.C. or earlier. He mentions several facts of interest to our purpose. The Odyssey refers to the Elysium in which the fair-haired Rhadamanthus reigns, showing the blond upper type (page 421). Herodatus probably gives the first account of the Slavs as a non-Scythian tribe of fair blue-eyed people living near the sources of the Dniester (page 427). Fair-haired, blue-eyed tribes are mentioned as invading Persia from the East in the second century B.C. (page 8). Penka is quoted to the effect that the Aryans in India were "expressly designated as white" and the aborigines as black (page 111), yet they have disappeared, for he states (page 112) that "only the Brahmin families of certain districts are said to have preserved the nobler characteristics of the 'Mediterranean race,'" that is, the ancient Semitic aristocracy of pre-Aryan times has survived. He also states that the ancient Gauls were a "fair-haired, bright-eyed race of unusual stature" unlike the modern inhabitants of Gaul.
* Sprachvergleichung uud Urgeschichte.
The last work of this nature is "The Aryan Peoples of Asia and Europe," by Professor Zaborowski of the School of Anthropology of Paris, in which a host of facts prove not only that the Aryans arose in Europe, but also the impossibility of an Asiatic origin.
By the time the Aryan tongue had been evolved, its users had gained strength enough to flow South, subduing and submerging the Asiatic immigrants in Central Europe and the Southern Europeans of all types, forcing out the Semitic tongues all the way from Spain to Greece, the tongue becoming fixed prior to the dawn of that history which they themselves made and recorded. They were the ruling type all over Europe - blond, tall, and long-headed. The most archaic Aryan dialect - that found in Iceland - may have been one of the first waves to the North and West when the pressure due to the Asiatic invasion of the bronze age was first felt in Scandinavia. This may have been several thousand years after the Asiatics first entered Russia, and after the Aryan tongue was well progressed in its evolution.
If the throwing of human sacrifices into the rivers to appease the river gods was an Aryan custom introduced into Italy, then the first Aryans arrived on the Mediterranean prior to 1350 B.C., when the Siculi-Iberi established the custom, according to Prof. C. Nispi-Landi. The vestigial religious ceremony of annual sacrifices of images and other objects was not abandoned until 1849 a.d., the date of the entrance of the French army into Rome.