The conflict of the two great forces of collectivism and individualism, represented by the republican and democratic parties, has already caused the evolution of a social organism which is a living being as distinct as a mammal. The force of mutual aid has drawn us all into more than a complicated herd for survival. In union there is strength, nevertheless union demands that each unit surrender some of its independence, and the more perfect the union the more dependent each of us becomes. We are now so wholly dependent upon each other that personal independence is forever impossible. By his own efforts the primitive savage can live, but civilized man cannot. Most men never learn even how to cook their food. Organization preserves specialists each able to survive by helping others. We have fully explained how natural law is making us feebler in certain ways, yet better fitted for survival, and it is now the task to show how this is both cause and effect, that is, the evolution of the organism, and its units are parallel phenomena.
All organization proceeds upon the principle of the division of labor among its members, so that the course of the evolution of organisms composed of living cells is the same as that of society composed of living human units. The evolution of the animal organism has gone very much further than society, so that to predict our future we can draw very good data from the discoveries of the biologists. The brain alone is composed of 9,000,000,000 cells, so that if we add the billions in the blood, muscles, bone and other tissues, we find an enormous number of billions of citizens of this most perfect of democracies. When we consider that there are only 1,500,000,000 men on earth we comprehend what an enormous commonwealth one human being is.
In the beginning of animal evolution the single-celled amcebas were "free and equal," that is, all were alike, of equal powers, and absolutely independent. Each was free to kill the others if he wished, for there was no check or limit to his democratic freedom, except the limit of his own powers. This was like the first state of man in his eolithic or protolithic, or even an earlier stage - each one absolutely free and independent, depending upon his own powers for survival, killing whom he pleased and when he pleased, if he was able - unbridled democracy.
In time, some of the single-celled organisms did not separate when they divided off from parent cells, but remained together in a crowd. As a cohering mob of blood-relatives they had an immense advantage over individual cells, and survived when it was a question of a struggle for existence. But they were still "free and equal," able to survive if cast off from the crowd. This was like the stage of the first organization of man into a society. A mob of brothers and cousins living in a limited area were able to resist attacks of individual enemies, and must have survived over the men who did not stick together as families. This primitive grouping may have existed in the pre-human stage, for we see it in the monkeys at the present time.
Then came the first stage of division of labor between the cells on the outside of the "colony" and those on the inside, the first steps by which the former eventually formed the skin and its appendages, including all the nerve cells and the brain, and the latter formed the gastro-intestinal canal with all its appendages, including lungs and liver. The two became the epiblast and hypoblast respectively of the early ovum. The outside layer developed the protective and ruling citizens; the inside developed the commissary and productive citizens. Between these two layers of cells, were others (mesoblastic layer) which took up the function of holding together and moving the other two sets and eventually formed the eonnecting tissues, in-eluding bones, muscles, and fascia - the transportation systems. At first the cells were absolutely equal, though not free, for each had now become dependent upon the crowd for its existence. Those on the outside could be protective skin or digestive stomach, and if turned inside out the organism functioned as well as before. This was the stage of social organization called the clan, consisting of several families of blood relatives. All of its members were on an absolute equality as to powers and work, yet not free, for they had delivered up part of their freedom in return for the protection of the clan. They were dependent but equal, each could be hunter, farmer, soldier and mechanic - a jack-of-all-trades.
Now came the stage of specialization. A cell which devoted itself to one thing did it better than one which could do many things, so that the organism which by normal variation possessed these specialist citizens had such an immense advantage over the others having jacks-of-all-trades citizens, that it survived when it came to a pinch. The "citizens" of the skin could not do the work of the citizens of the "stomach," so that all were now dependent upon the organism for existence. Freedom was wholly lost, and so was equality. This is the stage of the nation among men. Organization has gone so far that certain men can only supply the food (farmers), others attended to cohesion and defense (police, soldiers, judges, etc.), others attend to transportation, and others to directing and executing. Each man is wholly dependent upon society for life itself; he cannot exist independently. His freedom is gone forever, and so is equality, for no two men are equal in their powers, now that all variations survive. Prof. S. B. Laache, of Christiana, Norway, a few years ago even showed, in his article on "Reciprocity in Pathology," that the various parts of our body have commensal relationship and are wholly dependent upon each other while mutually assisting each other.