Nothing could be clearer, then, that residence in any climate is made safe by skin pigmentation in accordance with the maximum amount of sunlight at any season, and it proves the impossibility of colonizing out of the proper zone. Brown and black people who now live in light tropical countries will always live there. We cannot exterminate them. Mr. Michael A. Lane has written a book * the sole purpose of which is to prove a false theory that "through the force of progress itself, these (lower) races must be totally eliminated from the earth." This cannot be, but they will be forever used by white men to their mutual benefit, not as slaves, or serfs, or domestic animals, but as junior partners with little voice in the management of the firm.

Colonization, to be successful, must be in a climate similar to the ancestral one. The colony is an offspring of the parent, and can no more survive in a markedly different environment than can brook trout survive in warm water. If the difference is slight there might be adjustment by survival of suitable variations, but that means a change of type - the process which has resulted in the great differences now existing. To live normally in the Philippines, a man should be like a Malay or Negritto; to live in the far North, an Eskimo, and in Central Africa, a negro. Unless he resembles the native he is subjected to damage of some kind and gradual deterioration sets in, increasing from generation to generation until the line dies out.

* "The Level of Social Motion".

It is an exploded theory, then, that man is able to become acclimatized, that is, inured or adapted to a climate different from what is natural, enabling him to resist climatic diseases better and better, the longer he resides there. It is no more true than that a man by continuous residence in the Arctics is less easily frozen or starved to death.* Indeed, we may put the matter stronger still, and confidently assert, that after some years' residence in the tropics a white man is less able to resist disease than when he went there, and if he would expose himself to the causes of sickness, he would succumb more quickly than ever. England, for several generations, has been sending home from India a constant stream of "acclimated" wrecks, to recuperate, if possible, but if too far gone, to pass the remnant of existence as comfortably as possible. We are beginning to do the same thing.

If the Medical Department of the Army had known, in 1898, the real absurdity of acclimatization, troops would never have been sent to Tampa and other hot Southern places to get accustomed to the heat. Officers testify that every day at these places weakened the men for their coming struggle instead of strengthening them. They started out enfeebled, so that they collapsed within a few weeks - the most complete destruction of any army we ever had - in effect the same as the annihilation of Hood's Army by General Thomas in December, 1864. They should have been assembled where they would have kept strong. There were scarcely a dozen men in the 75,000,000 of our people, who knew anything about the subject. Anthropology is a new thing, and its lessons are now being learned by sad experience.

* The following is an editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association for May 20, 1899: " The Indian Medical Record does not believe in the acclimatization of the white race in the tropics. It holds that the lowered death rate in hot countries is not an evidence to the contrary, but rather that it shows that it is only after elaborate precautions have been learned, that it exists. It is rather a proof of the inability of the white race to colonize, that is, to labor and undergo constant exposure in the tropics. It is absurd to say, it claims, that a reduced death rate directly due to the avoidance of every possible exposure is an evidence that such exposure can be endured".

Karl Penka believes that "the influence of climate has exterminated the Aryan race in India, Persia, Greece, Italy, Spain, France and Southern Germany, the Aryan speech alone being left as the permanent evidence of early Aryan conquest".

"The fair race holds the Baltic lands, the brown race the shores of the Mediterranean, and black race holds the tropics." "As a rule the fair races succeed only in the temperate zones, and the dark races only in the tropical and subtropical lands." "As a rule it is found that Northern races die out if transplanted to the South, and the Southern races become extinct in the North." "Intrusive conquest or colonization has left little or no trace." Isaac Taylor, from whom these facts are quoted, states that the extinction of such colonies is due to four causes: sterility, infantile mortality, tendency of climate to enfeeble the constitution so as to prevent recovery from ordinary diseases, and liability to special diseases such as pulmonary affections in the negroes transplanted to cool lands, and malaria in whites transplanted to the tropics.

The instrument for the extinction of men in unnatural climates is degeneration in its modern sense, and it is brought about in the tropics by nervous exhaustion. In his great work on "Degeneration in the Human Species," published nearly fifty years ago, Morel refers to the evil effects of the climate in causing degeneration of the families of the Europeans colonizing in the tropics. Throughout all works on degeneration we find that the almost sole factor at work is nervous exhaustion which unfits the body for procreation - and the causes of the exhaustion are legion - overwork, vicious conduct, and the thousands of things which lower vitality. There is produced a physique unfitted for procreation by reason of lowered vitality, and this is the kind of parents who produce the greatest number of degenerate offspring in any climate. In the tropics, those children are still further unable to resist the adverse environment. Not only are they congenitally feeble or degenerate, but they have no chance to improve. "In India the children of Europeans fade away unless they are sent home before they are ten years old."* In Manila there are no healthy white children who have been there continuously from birth. I was credibly informed by ladies who had lived there a long time, that after a child is four years old and until it is twenty-two it had a real struggle for existence, and gives parents constant trouble. It is said to be "getting adjusted," but it is probable that by the age of twenty-two all the weaker ones are killed off and there is a survival of the fittest. A pitiful story is told of an English boy of seven or eight, raised in Manila and taken to England to his mother's home. The first time he saw his rosy little cousins with their bursting cheeks, he turned to his mother and exclaimed: "Why, mamma, they have all painted their faces." The poor child had never seen a healthy white man's complexion in his life. Women who have lived in English boarding schools devoted to the education of children sent home from India, tell even more pitiful tales of the wan and yellow appearance of the wives and children as they arrive from the tropics. If the children are not sent home, but survive and marry, their offsprings are worse off still, and Taylor says that "there is in India no third generation of pure English blood".