There is an apparent exception to the rule that Chinese hide from the light, and that is in the coolies who are porters, drivers, etc., but they mostly come from the Southern subtropical parts of China, where selection has made them much darker than the Northern types.

Chinese rarely settle except where there is a safe government to protect them. They are typical commensal organisms - never pioneers, never raise civilization, never establish government - only appear when there is a higher race to give them protection. They were very numerous in the Philippines over two centuries ago - indeed, in 1696, a law was passed giving twenty lashes and two months' confinement to Chinese mestizos who failed "to go to church and act according to the established customs of the village." Surely they should number more than 500,000 if they were adjusted to the climate. They must be less prolific than the native type, and though they will constantly die out, they will be replaced, and we will have them to deal with forever, just as we will have intruding full-blood Chinamen in America demanding protection. It is said that there are only 75,000 Spanish mestizos in spite of several centuries of intermixture. They must die out more quickly than the Chinese half-caste. Whenever I have attended a "society" event among natives, I have made as careful examination as possible, and was much interested in the fact that scarcely any Malays were present - a few to be sure, but the vast majority of guests were mixed bloods. The real people of the Islands, who are "ancestors" of the future populations, were the uninvited hoi-polloi, pure-blood Malays, squatting in the streets looking into the house from the soil where they are at home.

One of the most remarkable letters ever written was the one sent to Baron Kaneko, of Japan, by Herbert Spencer, and as it dealt in great part with the question of half-breeds, some of it is here quoted:

"To your remaining question respecting the intermarriage of foreigners and Japanese, which you say is 'now very much agitated among our scholars and politicians/ and which you say is 'one of the most difficult problems,' my reply is that, as rationally answered, there is no difficulty at all. It should be positively forbidden. It is not at root a question of social philosophy. It is at root a question of biology. There is abundant proof, alike furnished by the intermarriage of human races and by the interbreeding of animals, that when the varieties mingled diverge beyond a certain slight degree the result is inevitably a bad one in the long run. I have myself been in the habit of looking at the evidence bearing on this matter for many years past, and my conviction is based on numerous facts derived from numerous sources. This conviction I have within the last half-hour verified, for I happen to be staying in the country with a gentleman who is well known and has much experience respecting the interbreeding of cattle; and he has just, on inquiry, fully confirmed my belief that when, say of the different varieties of sheep, there is an interbreeding of those which are widely unlike, the result, especially in the second generation, is a bad one - there arise an incalculable mixture of traits, and what may be called a chaotic constitution. And the same thing happens among human beings - the Eurasians in India, the half-breeds in America, show this. The physiological basis of this experience appears to be that any one variety of creatures, in course of many generations, acquires a certain constitutional adaption to its particular form of life, and every other variety similarly acquires its own special adaptation. The consequence is that, if you mix the constitution of two widely divergent varieties which have severally become adapted to widely divergent modes of life, you get a constitution which is adapted to the mode of life of neither - a constitution which will not work properly, because it is not fitted for any set of conditions whatever. By all means, therefore, peremptorily interdict marriages of Japanese with foreigners.

"I have for the reason indicated entirely approved of the regulations which have been established in America for restraining the Chinese immigration, and had I the power I would restrict them to the smallest possible amount, my reasons for this decision being that one of two things must happen. If the Chinese are allowed to settle extensively in America, they must either, if they remain unmixed, form a subject race standing in the position, if not slaves, yet of a class approaching to slaves; or if they mix they must form a bad hybrid. In either case, supposing the immigration to be large, immense social mischief must arise, and eventually social disorganization. The same thing will happen if there should be any considerable mixture of European or American races with the Japanese.

"You see, therefore, that my advice is strongly conservative in all directions, and I end by saying as I began - keep other races at arm's length as much as possible".