Philologists have devoted much labor to the problem of proving some relation between Aryan and Semitic roots, and though there are some correspondences, they merely indicate that if the two were derived from the same source it must have been at a very early period long before the two languages evolved their inflections. The relationships between Hamitic and Semitic tongues show a more remote separation. Nevertheless, these correspondences, together with the ethnic evidence that all the peoples originating these tongues were of the European or longheaded branch of the human race are quite significant of European origin of them all. Even the Hottentot and Bushman dialects in South Africa have been thought to be related to the Hamitic family by reason of their possession of grammatical gender, which does not occur in any other languages except Aryan, Semitic and Hamitic. The Bantu languages of South Africa, by the use of prefixes for grammatical changes, different from nearly all other known languages, show that they departed from Europe long before the evolution of any language except a very primitive one. To the north of these Bantu languages, between them and the Hamitic, are hundreds of languages which, so far, have defied classification. Perhaps they are survivors of the eddies of the earliest human currents from the North. Renan states* that the language of the Libyan peoples was "profoundly distinct from the Semitic languages, though having traits of resemblance to them." Berber languages have marked Semitic affinities and even the Hittite, though not Aryan or Semitic, may have been Hamitic. So there is a relationship in all these African and Mediterranean tongues.

It is suggestive that all the languages spoken by the broad-headed peoples, from the Basques to the American Indians, are either monosyllabic or agglutinative, and none approach the Semitic or Aryan in evolution, and they, therefore, indicate less brain evolution.

* La Societe Babere, Revue des Deux Mondes, 1873.

The affinity of all the Mediterranean types clarifies the obscure conditions in Spain. This semi-arid peninsula has never been a great prize, even though many Aryan waves did flow over the Pyrenees into it. Being unfit for this climate they have died out more promptly than in Greece or Italy, and they never had time, therefore, to evolve a characteristic civilization, like the latter peninsulas. We must except the Northern mountains which are now the only places where we find blond Spaniards. All the South was Semitic, and is to the present day peopled by the dark, long-headed, short race.

When the fanatical Semitic Sarcens flowed West in Africa and across into Spain, they found it fairly easy to force their language and religion on the people of similar blood. But they could never subdue those Northern blond Christians whom we presume were remnants of Aryan invaders. These mountaineers are still the unconquered liberty loving men they always were. Hence, the war of centuries to expel the Moor, was really a conflict of higher Aryan against lower Semites and had to result as it did. But the Moors were not wholly expelled, even if their religion and their government were, for their descendants are in Southern Spain even yet, and the Spanish language has retained such an enormous Semitic flavor, fully twenty per cent, of its words being Arabic, as almost to warrant calling it a hybrid Semitic and Aryan speech. In Northern Africa the Arab type of man has not survived so well, while the original type of Berber is reasserting itself, but this is Semitic in blood though Mohammedan in religion.

In an article on the Decadence of the Moors* A. J. Dawson says: "The cave-dwelling Berbers discovered in possession - and used with consummate generalship as soldiers by the men who, fleeing from the Mecca of Mohammed's day, founded a Moorish dynasty - remain to-day the same hardy, rock-scaling semi-savages who resented the Moslem intrusion of a thousand years ago. They are precisely the same men, living in precisely the same way, and they are occupying themselves at this moment as they were occupied then; the same blind, fierce resentment, the same dogged, savage insurrection, the same methods of making both felt. But with the Moors proper, the ruling people of Morocco, matters are far otherwise. Young Abdul Azziz, the present Sultan - prisoner, one had almost written - at Fez, is scarcely more capable of dealing with the rebellious mountaineers and fanatics of his realm after the crushing, masterful manner of his ancestors than he and his subjects are capable of retaking and occupying the capitals of Andalusia." His recent defeat by his brother was thus clearly prophesied.

* The Fortnightly Review.

Thus, it is said that Africa begins at the Pyrenees, and we should add that Greece, Southern Italy, Asia Minor and Palestine are also parts of Semitic Africa. The whole history of Christianity in Spain is what we should expect from Semites, capable of savage fanaticism - one century for Mohammed and the next for Christ. The Holy Inquisition was like a Mohammed institution, fanatical as the dervishers of the desert further South.