The European populations increasing the most during the past century have been the manufacturing and food importing ones as a rule, such as Belgium three and a half fold, Denmark and the United Kingdom three, Germany two and three-fourths, Holland two and a half, while agricultural Spain added but fifty per cent, to her people and Turkey sixteen.

Holland is probably the first place, or one of the first places, invaded by the Teutonic type from the dark forest regions of the cradle of the Aryan race, and these invaders probably found the land thinly occupied by the brunet types which had followed the retreating ice cap before Teutonic blonds arose. Anyhow, this little corner of the territory has been settled a long time by Aryans, who have been pouring out of their original home to our certain knowledge, for some thousands of years. It is one of the most densely settled areas in the world, supersaturated and importing foods. It cannot colonize now, so its expansion is taking a novel direction, that of building a wall around the Zuyder Zee and pumping out the water so as to make farming country enough to occupy the labors of 50,000 people - the most stupendous piece of engineering ever undertaken - increasing the land area of the nation by a tenth.

Supersaturation in Germany is illustrated by the scarcity and high price of meat - called "The German Meat Famine." It is impossible to feed the teeming masses on home products, and importations are necessary. Unfortunately, the Agrarian party for self protection, demands a prohibitive tariff on meats, and as the local market cannot supply the demand, prices rose to forty-four cents a pound for beef in the fall of 1902. Three years later, pork was twenty-four cents a pound. If we take into account the wages of the working men in Germany this was equivalent to beef at $1.00 a pound in the United States. We need not fear the competition of an underfed race, and the implacable hatred in Germany for American pork and beef is a blessing in disguise, for if they freely imported these and other nitrogen foods, they could exist in manufacturing masses, which at their low rate of wages, would seriously embarrass our markets. We can only wish that they will continue their suicidal policy of national starvation. At present, the great majority of the peasantry of Europe are too poor to buy our meats if there is a high tariff on them. Press dispatches constantly harp upon this meat famine, describing not only the widespread use of horseflesh, the establishment of rabbit markets, the cultivation of fisheries, and even the resort here and there to dog flesh. The present German agitation for free imports is precisely the same as that for the repeal of the corn laws in England, so that factory workers could import food. The landlords in each case demanded protection. If the free traders win, and the country removes duties on importations of meat, we can safely predict a tremendous supersaturation, for with their cheap labor they can undersell us in the markets of the world and get money to buy our beef and wheat, as the English do. This policy will enrich our farmers and kill some of our factories - the present German policy is doing the opposite.

The Norwegians, likewise, are too numerous for their food supply, and must import $15,250,000 worth of bread-stuffs for which they pay with the profits of their enormous carrying trade. They are the professional seamen of the world, descendants of the Vikings, and though numbering but 2,250,000 people, they have the fourth largest merchant marine in the world, most of it serving foreign nations. Their ships total 1,500,000 tons, a carrying capacity exceeded by only Great Britain, the United States and Germany.

Cuba has 1,500,000 people and suffers now and then for food, but she can support 15,000,000 if she can import foods paid for with the sugar and tobacco, which the land is capable of raising. She certainly cannot raise food for so many, and it is doubtful whether these people can compete with the better organized laborers of the North unless the brain work is done for them.

Density And Productiveness

The number of people per square mile in the below-mentioned countries shows that though the old world has always been saturated, the density depends upon productiveness as well as ability to import food paid for by manufactures.

Population Per Square Mile, United States Treasury Report, March, 1901

Canada.....

1.06

Australia.....

1.45

Argentine....

2.91

Bolivia....

3.56

Venesuela....

4.37

Brazil....

4.46

Peru.....

6.63

Paraguay....

6.69

Columbia.............................................

7.92

Honduras............................................

8.80

Nicaragua....

10.16

Ecuador....

10.58

Chile................................................

10.69

Uruguay....

11.65

Costa Rica....

13.04

Russia (including Asiatic dominions).....................

14.90

British Colonies (excluding Canada and India)............

15.35

Mexico....

16.47

Norway..............................................

17.05

Turkey (Europe, Asia and Africa).......................

22.34

Guatemala...

24.82

United States....

25.69

Sweden..............................................

29.48

Spain................................................

91.50

China...

94.82

Greece...

97.20

Roumania.................................................

122.40

Servia...............................................

128.70

Portugal....................... ................

129.03

Denmark....................... ..............

151.08

Hungary.............. ......

151.57

Austria Hungary................ ..................

185.73

France....

188.70

Switzerland....

195.30

India (excluding Feudatory States)......................

207.43

Austria.....

222.59

German Empire.....

268.00

Italy................................................

287.92

Japan....

296.30

United Kingdom......................................

338.00

Netherlands....

406 40

Belgium....

586.48

Egypt (including only settled part of valley and delta). . . .

722.75

Is it possible for us to become supersaturated and be compelled to import food like England? All other parts of the world now with a surplus of foods - our competitors in wheat and meats - are increasing to their saturation points as we are, and eventually there will be no place from which we can buy and import. Hence, our population, unlike England's, may never exceed the saturation point. It is a less vital necessity for us to sell our goods than for the English, for should we succeed in invading her markets and underselling her in all things, as we now do in a few things, then English population will drop to its saturation point, and that will allow us to increase to our saturation point, but not beyond it.