In these Aryan migrations, only men able to fight were chosen, and the old, sick, feeble or cowardly were left at home; also the rich and successful men or their immediate heirs, for these had no need to go. Even on the march the sick and old had to be sacrificed for the common good. It was a young people's affair entirely. Jhering even mentions a species of property tax, laid upon the wealthy stay-at-homes, who had to contribute largely of their cattle and goods to provision this poorer element thrust out for the common good. Assisted emigration is still with us. Even as late as 1906 the town of Leith, Scotland, dumped several hundred of its unemployed on the Province of Ontario, and, strangely enough, the taxpayers were alarmed at the possibility of such expenses becoming a serious drain on their resources.
Yet it is a natural phenomenon, seen even in the swarming of bees, for which the greatest preparations are made, though curiously enough the old ones desert the hive to the young, perhaps driven out by those best fitted to carry on the species.
How like to all this was our own Aryan exodus from New England and the Atlantic seaboard toward the West during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Certain young married people "trekked" west, helped by the contributions of the old folks. It was Aryan to the core. Jhering, by the way, believes that the Roman processes of divination by observing the passage of birds was a remnant of a custom of migratory Aryans looking for the proper way to travel, and that divination by examining the intestines and other organs of animals is a remnant of the habit of looking for diseases among the domestic animals the emigrants slaughtered en route to see if the region was a healthy one.
The pitiful overcrowding of Switzerland is mentioned by a writer in the London Lancet of October 28, 1905, in an article on the feeding of school children and on other socialistic schemes. It is said that the children are taught that they cannot stay at home, but must go out into other countries to make their living as soon as they are able. We can almost imagine this to have been the normal condition among Aryans. The cruises of the Vikings and swarming of all the Teutonic tribes were but instances of the same necessity. Every farmer's boy in America grows up with the idea that he must move off when his time comes; only the lower races allow the surplus to stay at home to starve.
The interesting thing about the migrations into America is the undoubted fact that they are comparatively recent phenomena, for there is no evidence whatever of primitive man on this continent. The first arrivals were in the neolithic stage of culture, and though that period began some thousands of years ago, it was a very short stage compared with the previous paleolithic. All the alleged finds of primitive man prove, on investigation, to be recent, and Hrdlicka has proved that even the skulls dug up from apparently undisturbed strata are of the same type as recent Indians. That is, this continent was unoccupied for immense periods of time after man had been existing in great numbers in the Old World. It seems as though the glacial period did not find, as in Europe and Asia, an anthropoid sufficiently intelligent to survive the severe conditions or could not coop them up. The existing monkeys were killed off or driven south. When the glacial period ended there was left a country eminently fitted for man, but it was not discovered for a very long time, and then was invaded by an Asiatic type unable to use it to its greatest capacity. Though very high Maya civilizations did grow up in Central America at least several thousand years ago, they may not have taken very long to develop from the neolithic culture introduced by the first settlers. These high cultures arose here, for certain essential things are not found which would be present if the civilization itself came from Asia.* Nor is it necessary to imagine migration across the Pacific or by a land connection between Asia and America, for the present island of the Bering Sea and even Bering Strait itself are competent to account for the movement. A very few immigrants, with a birth rate of six per family, would increase in four centuries to the maximum number the land could support. Even yet, the types on the northwest coast of America and northeast coast of Asia are so nearly alike, that common ancestry cannot be doubted. The recent flooding of the Pacific Islands by the Japanese is merely a reestablishment of the prehistoric current.