On account of the ease with which people change languages, speech has long been given up as a criterion of race affinities, yet there is a reaction from this extreme view because it is at last realized that language does give very valuable information. That which a race evolves is strictly in accord with its brain development, the lowest races having the simplest, and moreover, they modify and simplify a high language thrust on them as we see in "pigeon English." Low races cannot carry the qualifications, and the noun must be spoken first and its qualities later, and there are hundreds of similar illustrations. Now a language migrates with a people, but survives after the people die, the lower conquered type modifying it. Indeed, languages have a migration of their own. Modern philologists are thus finding facts of enormous ethnic value, Prof. Wm. Ridgeway* even going to the extreme of asserting that the basic European language was always Aryan. Nevertheless, until the time of the Aryan migrations, the state of affairs in Europe as to languages seems to be as follows: 1. There were evidently some poorly developed tongues spoken by all the primitive Eurafrican people, and remnants of these are said to have been detected in Gaelic, and have been named Iberian. John Rhys and David Jones * state that the Welsh pre-Aryan syntax agrees with Hamitic in almost every point where it differs from Aryan. This would show that the prehistoric Europeans had a widely extended language from the British Isles to Africa, while the Aryans were still cooped up in their Northern home. 2. The great Asiatic migration brought in Turanian languages, some of them being still spoken by the Basques, Huns, Finns, Permians, Samoyoids and others. 3. The Aryan migration from the north forced various Aryan dialects upon all. The latest and highest of these - English - seems destined to replace all others.

* "Chief Periods of European History".

The Finns, to a large extent, are racially Aryans - blond, tall, long-headed people - who have undoubtedly migrated from Scandinavia. "Their entire economical, political, and social development is Scandinavian; as much so, indeed, as if they had always been an integral part of the Scandinavian race." Nevertheless, the language is Asiatic in great part - the westernmost of the Ural-Altaic family. Isaac Taylor states * that the relations between Finnish and Aryan speech are intimate and fundamental. The similarities are in the pronouns, numerals, the pronominal suffixes of the verb and the inner morphological structure of the language - but not so much in the vocabulary. Surely this can be best explained by the introduction of an Aryan language into the Finnish, and it could have been accomplished by the blond Aryan conquerors who migrated among the true Asiatic Finns and became ruling types. They took up Finnish nouns just as we are taking up Malay nouns in the Philippines. This migration of blonds into Russia has been going on since prehistory. Indeed, much of the land east of the Baltic was Swedish territory until the eighteenth century. In 1703, Peter I won from Sweden the land on which St. Petersburg is built. It is said that there are 150,000 Germans in the Baltic provinces of Russia now, and as they are mostly landowners, they constitute one of the grievances of the Letts - another Aryan race which claims better rights to the land by prior arrival.

* Popular Science Monthly, December, 1908. *'The Welsh People," 1900. * "Origin of the Aryans".

Some philologists believe that Turanian tongues entered Ireland before the Aryan reached it. Charles de Kay* says that there are thousands of instances of Turanian words which have been adopted, and have become excellent Gaelic, both in Ireland and Scotland. Many of these are still closely allied to Finnic - Ugrian words. Since England had more of these lower Asiatic types than Scotland had, it was more easily conquered by the Romans, but the northern lands, peopled mostly by more recent Gaelic arrivals from Norway, were unconquerable.

What a curious analogy between England and the Philippines. Both were conquered by a Mediterranean race, for both the modern Spanish and ancient Roman armies were mostly of the Mediterranean type of man. The Mediterranean language (Latin or Spanish) was forced upon the native, though some refused to learn it, and continued their Malay or Gaelic. The Anglo-Saxon entered each island as soon as the Mediterranean type withdrew, and he is forcing English upon the Filipinos just as he forced it upon every race in Great Britain.