It is evident that when races migrated, their organization corresponded to that of the period. The earliest emigrants were the men who escaped when the confining barrier first broke down, for we have seen that the prehuman ancestor was imprisoned in the north in some way and forced to the evolution of brain. These first migrations were so early that there could not have been any greater organization than a loose kind of family group. Hence the process was a slow one, a mere oozing along the soil, a spreading of a homogeneous fluid. The ne-grittos and allied lowest types of men are the descendants of a migration which probably lasted through the paleolithic times and well into the mesolithic. As the brain enlarged, civilization grew, societies became organized into families, clans and tribes and the migrating masses were similarly organized. The Aryans being cooped up in the North undergoing a long brain evolution, it necessarily happened that when they did start to spread, they possessed a high civilization, though to be sure, it was a rude, unlettered one, as they were so far away from the literary centers of the earth. But they had brains. Jhering mentions the high military organization of the branches which migrated to Asia, as found in Vedic literature.

* Livy, Vol. 36.

The interesting point is this, that migrations evidently became so necessary to thin out the home country, that the matter was placed on a regular, legal, organized basis. Certain young people either volunteered or were detailed to migrate at stated or irregular periods. Among the Scandinavians, in time of famine, it is said that a third or even a half of the population would be chosen by lot to migrate. This custom was even kept up after the Roman stream reached Italy and built up the Roman Commonwealth, and is shown in the institution called the ver sacrum. The description by Festus is generally accepted by scholars. "In times of severe distress the Government dedicated to the gods, for the purpose of moving them to compassion for the people, the entire offspring of both man and beast during the forthcoming spring. The children were allowed to live until they had grown up (twenty or twenty-one years); then the marriageable youth of both sexes had to leave the town and seek their fortunes abroad, and make a new home for themselves elsewhere. The nation severed all further connection with them, wherein lay the difference between the ver sacrum and colonization. The people did not concern themselves as to the fate of the wanderers, who were given over absolutely into the hands of the deity, who might do with them what he would. Hence, the name of ver sacrum, and of those who took part in it of sacrani." * Festus supposed this thrusting out took the place of the infanticide of primitive times, and many scholars agree with him, but infanticide by exposure was common in ail ancient nations - even the sacrifice of older children. Jhering believes the institution is merely a religious custom or survival of the old custom of migration in memory of then own separation from the parent stem. This is quite likely because the saving of the children for twenty years could not relieve a pestilence, calamity or famine, nor take the place of infanticide. Ethnic customs, once necessary, often survive as religious ceremonies for ages after their use has disappeared. All works on anthropology are full of illustrations of these survivals in meaningless customs and ceremonies of all peoples. The matter is brought in here to illustrate the extreme necessity there was for migration, for, as Jhering repeatedly states, there was constant pressure from overpopulation among these pastoral earliest Aryans, and a migration in search of food. They needed 100 times as much land than they would if they had even rude and imperfect agriculture. It is curious that Jhering did not note that if they were in search of food they would not travel to colder climates, as he claims, but to warmer. It was a Southern drift. He was still under the old philologic influence which ascribed a Southern origin to the Aryans.

* Jhering.