We can be safe in asserting that the invading race had mostly disappeared from Rome by the time it was necessary in the sixth century for Justinian to constitute every free Roman subject a full citizen. There were too few patricians left to be exclusive.

* Book I.

Even as early as Caesar's time, the armies were raised from the North of the Po, and, indeed, mostly North of the Alps - all husky Northern barbarians and many of them blond Aryans. This phenomenon of Northerners soldiering for Southerners is still kept up, for we find Northern soldiers and officers in Spain and Morocco. Irish names are very common in recent Spanish military history.*

The very early extinction of the invaders and the destruction of life in the high density of population caused by Aryans, are shown by Mr. A. M. Stevens, in an article in the Fortnightly Review, on "Prevalent Illusions of Roman History." "The nobles were a parcel of crafty intriguers who made and administered the laws with a view solely to their own interest and aggrandizement. In the Roman senate every man had his price. The love of gold was the sordid spring of the most brilliant enterprises of the republic. In this verdict history is unanimous. The plebians have very little more claim upon our consideration, for a more contemptible pack of rascals never sullied the pages of history. The body politic was clogged and hampered by a horde of frivolous and irresponsible citizens, hopelessly abandoned to ease and amusement.

Below the plebians were myriads of slaves, who bodily and mentally were equal to their masters, but who had no human rights, and were tortured, murdered, and outraged at will. In war the Romans were past masters in methods of barbarism. Their constant study was what Gibbon calls the art of destroying the human species. Then voracious appetites refused to be satisfied by war and conquest for a political opponent was invariably regarded as an enemy and pursued with bloody and implacable ferocity".

This is not the picture of an Aryan civilization but of a lower race in possession of a civilization thrust upon them. It is too high for them to keep up, and it is decaying. Even at the present day Lombroso has called attention to the fact that one-fifth of Italians are little better than savages. They are probably modern survivals of the paleolithic predecessors of neolithic man, and have never been able to advance in such a mild climate. They became the lower class as soon as a belated brainier upper class arrived from the North, and they have remained the lower class ever since.

* "A more serious regard was paid to the essential merit of age, strength and military stature. In all levies, a just preference was given to the climates of the North over those of the South" (p. 11, Vol. 1. Gibbon's "Rome").