The two main political parties can exist only where the units and the organization are both powerful enough. Hence, there are no politics in savage life where the units are so democratic as to have almost perfect personal freedom. There is but little organization, and no such thing as our republican or the British conservative party. On the opposite side, there can be no true politics in such countries as Russia, where the vast majority of the units are too stupid to understand governmental matters, but merely exist in dense masses by reason of a civilization thrust upon them by a higher Aryan race. It is all organization and centralization by the ruling Aryan type, but no such thing as democratic personal liberty, as there are but few with brain enough to fight for it, as the English have done in the last eight or ten centuries. All the Russian brains, one might say, belong to the aristocratic or ruling type. It is an example of what happens if the centralizing forces of our republican or the English conservative party are unchecked by a healthy democratic party fighting for the health of the unit.

There have recently been three remarkable expressions of the real Russian conditions by three prominent Americans who have investigated the matters at first hand. Prof. Geo. F. Wright, of Oberlin College,* finds that the peasant has practical home rule in local affairs, and has much more liberty than is good for him - more liberty than brains - and is directly responsible for the low state of civilization, and if it were not for the ruling classes there would be anarchy. Melville E. Sione,*  General Manager of the Associated Press, asserts essentially the same thing, showing that nine-tenths of the people do not know what government by the people is. Although they do manage their local affairs they care nothing for the national. Most of them did not know that a war with Japan had begun, nor any of its causes. Andrew K. White, our former minister to Russia, has mentioned similar views, and taken all in all, they are a clear expression of the way democratic Aryans look upon lower races. There is a growing conviction that these people after migration to America, still continue in an utmost indifference to the needs of the nation, and are wholly unfit for the franchise.

Current literature is full of the official corruption in Russia, the persecution of the people (Jews, Poles, Finns, etc.), and the generally dreadful state of the peasantry, and all this exists in spite of the fact that the ruling class who have brought about this state of affairs are a cultured, brainy, generous, lovable and agreeable body of men. Russian war atrocities, by the way, are generally, if not always, the work of the soldier, who, as a rule, is an Asiatic belonging to the ruled and more brainless type. Savage life and despotism are the two extremes, then, brought about by the unchecked action of the centrifugal and centripetal forces, respectively.

The revolution in Russia is not for the purpose of sharing the sovereignty with the brainless types, but is a demand of the body of intelligent people for a share in what was once theirs but which had been given to the Czar and woefully misused by some of his parasites. The nation is now too big for a system found necessary some centuries ago, but a pure democracy is not dreamed of.

* New York Evening Post, January 13, 1906. *  New York Tribune, May 14, 1905.