Slowly, then, the evidence is establishing the fact that the classical Semites were originally a long-headed dark race like the neolithic man. If they ever evolved the blondness of Teutons before they migrated south, they lost it by a later reversal of the evolution. It is quite likely that they never were blond, but started south very early in neolithic times before the Aryans evolved blondness, and, indeed, before they learned to speak an inflected language, for the Semitic and Aryan languages are so fundamentally different in inflections that they must have evolved independently, even if from a common primitive tongue. The Aryans were evolving Aryan speech and Aryan blondness after their own migration northwards with the retreating ice cap and while they were evolving that larger brain which distinguishes them from Semites. It is probable that when these Semites arrived near the shores of the Mediterranean, they found earlier paleolithic arrivals, who, like themselves, were dark, short men with long heads, who had less brain, so that they were easily conquered and used as domestic animals (serfs or slaves). They must have lost their primitive languages as they were forced to speak Semitic dialects. We have here the conditions necessary for rapid evolution of civilization.

For some thousands of years, then, the Mediterranean was peopled by types exactly like the present, only they talked Semitic or more primitive tongues, as they still do on the southern shores. It cannot be doubted that the conquering brainy Semites were not content with staying on the northern shore, but flowed over to Africa, Egypt and Asia Minor, Palestine, Arabia, Mesopotamia, forcing their language upon earlier arrivals wherever they went. They found civilizations already in a high state in Egypt, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia, built up by Turanian broad-heads who had flowed down very early from Central Asia, conquering, enslaving and civilizing just as the Semites did in Europe. They had but little difficulty in conquering and Semitizing these less intelligent Asiatics and making them talk Semitic speech all the way to the confines of India. Processor Hilprecht has been reported as stating that his excavations at Nippur reveal remains of sixteen cities, one built upon the ruins of another, and Professor Cornill, speaking of the Babylonian records of 3800 b.c, says: "And even then the land had already a long and eventful history behind it. Sargon already bears a genuinely Semitic name. But there can be no doubt that the primitive Babylonian civilization, which has given even to the present day the names of the seven planets, and of the corresponding days of the week, the division of the circle into 360 degrees, the division of the year into twelve months, the week in seven days, the day in twenty-four hours, and the hour into sixty minutes, is older than the year 4000 B.C., and derived from a non-Semitic people. This people called themselves Sumerians, and by their language belonged to the Finnish-Turkish-Tartar race, the so-called Turanians." Recent excavations in Mesopotamia are bringing all this early Turanian history to light. "This highly civilized but unwarlike people was overwhelmed by a great Semitic migration," of a more powerful and energetic race, adopting the civilization, even the cuneiform writing, but carrying all of it on to further development. Egyptian civilization was built up long before 5500 B.C., by Asiatics, probably from Mesopotamia, but by 3500 B.C., the language was Semitic with many Sumerian words (Hommel's "Civilization of the East"), and by 1900 b.c. the Semitic conquest of Southern Asia was complete and this race was "the sole bearer of civilization for the next thousand years.

We must then consider the Mediterranean in early times as a Semitic lake, just as it later became an Aryan lake - Greek, Roman, Venetian, French and now Anglo-Saxon. It was ruled by Semites, though the lower subjected earlier arrivals were not Semitic, just as it is now ruled by Englishmen, though the subjected types are not English. M. Victor Berard* shows a very early Semitic cult in Greece. They dominated, exploited and civilized it. He believes the Odyssey itself is nothing but a Phoenician coaster's log book and the Phoenicians were the seafaring type of Mediterranean Semites. It was much later put into verse by the Aryans who flowed into the country, building up the Homeric Greek civilization. "The Phoenician navigators, who very early had sailed over the Mediterranean, brought back the stories of their voyages, and wrote them down on parchments, some of which have been preserved in their temples. Homer probably knew of these voyages and descriptions, and had access to these parchments, from which he reconstructed the voyage of the celebrated Ulysses".

* "The Phoenicians and the Odyssey".

The recent excavations in Crete have also raised the belief that Homer's songs were traditions of these dead civilizations wafted long afterward to the rude Aryan invaders of Greece. Indeed, it is not unlikely that many of these traditions are based on actual historical facts. The Cretan civilizations, by the way, all arose in situ each on the ruins of the last, and all were due to the Mediterranean races. They date back 4,000 years and are based upon a more primitive neolithic culture which had existed at least 6000 years, and, moreover, they were independent of the civilizations of Southern Asia, which antedated them at least 2000 years, if not more.

The excavations of Doctor Schliemann and others around the eastern end of the Mediterranean, have proved that "man in Hellas was more highly civilized before history than when history begins to record his state; and there existed human society [non-Aryan] in the Hellenic area, organized and productive, to a period so remote that its origins were more distant from the age of Pericles than that age is from our own. We have probably to deal with a total period of civilization in the *™gean not much shorter than in the Nile Valley."*

The discoveries relative to these early Mediterranean cultures are coming so rapidly, that it is already possible to separate them into various distinct periods, such as Mycenean and Minoan I, II, III, etc., but they are all distinctly lower than the later Aryan cultures. Indeed, the conditions of anarchy in modern Crete when Aryans lose control, would rather indicate that the ruling type in these ancient civilizations were really Northern invaders, and that modern Cretans are of the ancient conquered type.

* D. G. Hogarth, quoted by Clodd, "The Story of the Alphabet".