Until the nineteenth century the advance of European civilization was slow, at first it was very slow, so that the saturation point rose very little per 1,000 years, scarcely doubling from 500 to 1500 A. D. It follows, then, that even when civilization advances, the death rate cannot be much less than the birth rate, or overpopulation would result and the usual compensation occur. In prehistoric times the two rates were very nearly equal.

* Ancient Society.

The large rates of increase of population of a century ago were due to the rapid flaring up of civilization and food importations. The lessening of the rate subsequent to 1850, is shown in the following tables, copied from J. H. Schooling:*

Yearly Rates Of Increase Per 1000

1800-1850

1850-1890

United States .....................

.....39

25

Russia ...........................

.....14

8

United Kingdom ..................

.....13

8

Germany.........................

......8

8

Italy .............................

..... 7

6

Austria ..........................

......5

6

Spain....

......7

5

France.....

......6

2

For The Whole World

1810-28............................................

..12

1828-45............................................

..10

1845-74............................................

..11

1874-86............................................

.. 6

These few facts will explain a long-known law of population - the increase is inversely proportional to the density. That is, when the population is very dense further increase must be slow, as there is no more food.

The replacing of our buffalo by beef cattle is an illustration of the manner in which increased civilization increases density of population. The wild buffalo existed in herds for protection, hence they could not scatter to use up the available grass. The Indian could not domesticate them or keep down their enemies, the wolves. Civilized man has introduced domesticated cattle which are so scattered as to use more of the available food, and he exterminates the wolves and other enemies, so that it is probable that we now have one hundred cattle for every buffalo. The Indians killed few buffalo, but the wolves killed many. Through civilization, then, the grasses of our West are changed into more meat than before, and all the meat becomes food for man instead of wolves. As this food is exported in large quantities to Europe, we find that as the wolves in America decreased, the size of London increased. It is an illustration of the disappearance of animals which had been consuming food needed for man. The Indian could not accomplish this because he had not sufficient intelligence. Even now, if he goes into the cattle business, he must be supervised and helped by white men employed by the government for the purpose. In May, 1904, it was reported that bands of Indians from the upper Columbia River were roving over the hills and along the streams of Grant County, in Oregon, causing untold loss by spreading diseases from their useless ponies to the vast herds of cattle. If we allowed all our Indians to rove as they pleased our cattle would thus disappear, and some Englishmen in London would starve to death. The sympathy flowing out to our poor Indians - virtual prisoners on reservations - and to our useless buffalo, is very much misplaced. They both stood in the way of a vast increase of population, and they had to stand aside, with the wolves. We must make up our minds that we must care for the Indian forever - it is a white man's burden - but it is small compared to the advantage we have received by imprisoning him.

* Cosmopolitan, July 1901.