Although believing in an African origin of man, Ripley shows * that in Europe there probably always was a swarming to the south - a constant drifting which only occasionally took the form of military masses, and that it still goes on - "Germans are pressing into Northern France, as they have always done. Swiss and Austrians are colonizing Northern Italy; Danish immigration into Germany is common enough. Wherever we turn we discover a constantly increasing population seeking an outlet southward." We are beginning the same Southern drift in America to replace the Southern families who are dying out. Canadians drift into the United States, and Northerners are rejuvenating the South.

* Popular Science Monthly, January, 189S.

We have already given in the chapter on Saturation enough to show the Western drift of population in the United States, and it need only be remarked here that it is merely a variation of the currents which have flowed out of Europe for so many thousands of years. The expansions of Americans into Northwest Canada is now a veritable flood, but it is not a reversal of current frc m north to south, but a mere eddy of that immense stream flowing into our West. British Columbia is very much undersaturated with an inferior type, but until recently it was not practical to fill it; the human stream is just reaching it, via the United States, and submerging the less intelligent earlier arrivals, who in this case are from France.*

During the eighties, Germans came here at the rate of 200,000 a year in search of food, but as soon as the stay-at-homes learned how to make goods with which to buy foods the outward flow lessened and the foods flowed toward them. From Italy, in 1905, about 750,000 flowed out - but mostly to South America, though the United States and Canada received a big share. In some districts of Brazil, the Italian language is crowding out the Portuguese. The present tremendous flow of Slavs to America is governed by the same laws.

* Mr. Wm. E. Stewart has a readable article in Cosmopolitan, April, 1903, on this migration. He says: "When the Hon. Clifford Sifton, Canadian Minister of the Interior, told a number of delegates from the London Chamber of Commerce, at a banquet given to them recently in Montreal, that 'Americans now own the Canadian Northwest,' he made a statement which was a recognition of one of the most remarkable movements of population which this continent has seen since its settlement. The significance of the Americanization of the northwestern provinces of Canada is emphasized by a consideration of the natural resources of the country and its capabilities for enormous development. It is estimated that there are 75,000,000 acres of arable land in Manitoba, Alberta, Assiniboia and Saskatchewan. Allowing one-eighth of this area for pasturage and other purposes, and, taking the average yield per acre for all grains of last season as a basis - about twenty-nine bushels - it becomes apparent that the district may grow, when all is under cultivation, 2,000,000,000 bushels of grain of all sorts yearly, to say nothing of various other products." Since the above was written, the flow continued, and it is said that by 1906 there were 150,000 American farmers in the new Canadian wheat fields, and in 1908 the land was "booming" with prosperity.

The migration from Spain still keeps up, for that country is as dreadfully overpopulated as ever. They are having bread riots every now and then, just as in England. Several times in recent years we have been given details of the stricken arid districts, including Seville, Jeres, Cadiz, Malaga and Cordova, whose inhabitants are mostly of the laboring class, dependent upon agriculture. A dry year means starvation. It is known that in the last few years one third of this population has emigrated mostly to South America, yet it is confessed that all this migration has not ameliorated conditions materially, an instance of constant overpopulation in spite of emigration.

Jhering, in his great work on "The Evolution of the Aryan," is about the only one who strikes the nail directly on the head. The foundation of all his accounts of their migrations is the fact that there is overcrowding and a search for food. He calls them indispensable periodical "blood lettings," some waves perishing while others succeeded. "Stern necessity drives them forth." He rightly says, "Everywhere throughout history, the cry has been Land! Land! not only with the Teutons, but also with the Celts in upper Italy, when under Brennus, they set out for Central Italy. For a grant of land they, too, were willing to lay down their arms.* This same motive underlies the establishment of colonies by the Greeks and Romans - lack of food for the increased population." It is not at all strange that the latest book by Rohrbach, the German writer on politics, should be based on this old, old cry for more room for the overpopulation, now so well recognized in Germany.