The following table shows that the more dense the population the smaller are the land holdings:

Acres per farm

Population per mile

Michigan............................

86

42.2

Ohio................................

93

102.

Indiana.............................

103

70.1

Wisconsin...........................

115

38.

Illinois..............................

127

86.1

Missouri.............................

129

45.2

Iowa....

151

40.2

Minnesota...........................

160

22.1

Kansas.....

181

18.

Nebraska......

190

13.9

South Dakota.....

227

5.2

North Dakota.....

277

4.5

The States out of line are those with more or less manufacturing interests. It is given to show the reason for the fact that as a country grows older and more saturated, the farms are more and more divided up. The process is constantly going on in our West. But we are a long distance yet from the conditions in the Old World, where individual holdings are exceedingly limited - mere garden patches. This is one of those internal currents which we have mentioned, a constant shifting or oozing of the fluid along the surface to places where it is easier to get a living.

Mr. L. G. Powers, Chief Statistician of the Census, has called attention to the greater increase of farms than of farm population. It simply means that modern machinery enables the farmer to raise more than formerly, so that as time progresses the number of men required to raise, say, a thousand bushels of wheat, will be smaller and smaller. But the trouble with farm machinery is this, there is always a harvest time when many laborers are needed for a short period, and it will always be impossible to get them, because they demand constant employment and not intermittent. Hence, the natural course is toward the small farm which one owner or tenant can manage with the cooperation of neighbors, independent of floating labor. Even in our now thickly settled East - Maryland, for instance - much farm land is idle for the want of laborers, and the constant tendency is toward the splitting up of farms once worked by slaves. The same phenomenon is now found in the Southwest, which is witnessing the passing of the big ranches, which are being divided up into small grazing ranches and farms. Cattlemen are selling their valuable lands and are drifting south and west, and the former ranges are now producing corn, wheat and oats - land is already too valuable for grazing if there is enough water for crops.

Migrations For Larger Farms

It is remarkable the number of farmers from Missouri, Illinois and Iowa who are selling out and moving further on, to take the place of those who have sold out and moved still further west. A chapter could be written on this great migration, which is filling the country to its saturation point. It seems as though the immigrants arriving on the Atlantic coast are actually pushing the whole mass westward.

The partial disappearance of the old New England families is not entirely due to extinction but to that inevitable "moving on," for they are found all over the United States, their places in the Northeast being taken by later immigrants from Canada or Europe. Canada has the same drift. The western provinces showed a population of 349,646 in 1891, and 888,100 in 1901, but by 1908 there was an enormous increase. The overflow from the United States has also been tremendous, and we will subsequently discuss that subject. The result of this drift from the East and South is evident in the tremendous wheat production of Western Canada. In some years, particularly 1904 and 1905, the crop was so large that the railroads could not move it. To accommodate the growing needs of the country, railroad construction goes on apace, towns are springing up like mushrooms and new provinces being organized. No attempt to populate this country was formerly made because it was considered unproductive, but it is now destined to be saturated to its fullest capacity. Politicians who predicted that the Canadian Pacific Railroad would fail, and two lines of iron rust mark its folly, are now clamoring for more railroads to fill up the land with people. Wheat is doing what the fur trade failed to do.