All tropical countries are quickly assuming a commensal relation to the Northern countries. Independence is so unnatural as to be impossible if both are to thrive. In the Forum, June, 1902, Prof. Paul S. Reinsch showed that dependent colonies cannot be independent and that the use by them of names and forms of machineiy of popular institutions of independent peoples is a mockery. The desire of the Filipinos for independence is quite natural, for it is a universal human characteristic, but even if possible it would be suicidal. Indeed, it would be a crime to desert these Malays, right on the eve of our mutual prosperity, as we have twice deserted the Cubans to their fate unaided, unassisted, cast off to go alone when they needed help as much as the Venezuelans do - people by the way who must be protected from themselves. To give them control is as awful a mistake as giving firearms to children. This whole article by Reinsch is a beautiful epitome of the application of the law of commensalism to colonial government. Its keynote is mutual aid - allowing natives to help themselves as much as possible, but protecting them from themselves and from exploitation.

Sir Frank Swettenham, an expert in East Indian affairs, of forty years' experience, sees no hope of the elevation of the Malay. It is a notorious fact that every one who believed that the Malay can be raised to the Aryan level of intelligence, is ignorant of the fact that the Malay is low for the same reason that horses are low - lack of brain. Most of the optimists, by the way, are newcomers who have had little experience, and they are generally teachers or clergymen, the two great classes of people under a delusion that teaching or religion is sure to raise a race intellectually. As a class, both of these professions are profoundly ignorant of the fact that if Malays could be raised to Anglo-Saxon level, then also should we be able to educate horses to take part in national elections. Prof. Alyne Ireland, of Chicago University, who has investigated Malasian affairs, is reported to be a "pronounced pessimist in all that concerns the improvement of the Malay".

Colquhoun states* that no Malay State has ever stood alone. Like every other lower race, it always deteriorates and must be assisted by a higher, so that to turn the Filipino loose to do as he likes, would be to ruin the Philippine Islands. By the side of successful Sarawak, in Borneo, where the British control, is the decayed Brunei, once a splendid State, but which the Malay has ruined. The commensal position of the Spanish Friars in the Philippines is very evident. By their superior intelligence they instituted irrigation and other works which made it possible for eight men to live where only one could before. They themselves benefited largely, of course, but if we do not take up their work and supply the intelligence the Malay lacks, we will see the works neglected and the population starve and diminish to its new saturation point, as it did in Ceylon when the higher Aryan type died out. Already the Spanish churches used by natives are tumbling down and no efforts are made to rebuild, and in a little while there will be no hemp or other things we need. A very fair account of the wonders accomplished by the Friars is given by Stephen Bonsai* and the shame of it all is that while they were doing this civilizing and uplifting, the ancestors of anti-imperialists were exterminating a related race in America.

* "Control of the Pacific," p. 253.

The lands and other properties created by the cooperation of the brains of Spanish Friars and the muscles of Malay peasants, belonged to both, and when we paid the Friars $7,500,000 for their share we drove a Yankee bargain. They deserved every cent of it, yet there are objections raised by people who see no wrong in one New York church which has acquired property worth from $50,000,000 to $100,000,000, and is morally not entitled to a cent of it, for it is the accumulation of unearned increments due to the labors of others. Indeed, this church actually exploits poor whites, while the Friars benefited the Malay. England once freed slaves by money sweated from murderous child labor, and some of our churches cany on immense charities with money derived from sweat shops. What a curious Christianity! How the Friars have been maligned by these pharisaical Christians!

Hayti, used elsewhere as an illustration of the law that civilizations built up by higher types must disappear when placed in the hands of lower races, is also an illustration of the awful results of our brutal neglect of duty to lower types which are really essential to our existence. We have wholly failed to realize that men are born dependent and unequal - no two alike - no two with equal physical or mental or social powers, and that each of us is a poor, helpless creature wholly dependent for existence upon the corporation called society. We have failed to realize that none of the lower races can manage or understand the corporation we have built up, and we have thought that all we had to do was to thrust a system called a democratic government upon negroes and all would go well. We did not know that these negroes of Hayti did not have the brain. The conditions brought about are best shown by a few quotations from an article by Wm. B. Hale, in Collier's Weekly:

* North American Review, October, 1902.

"The island of Hayti is nearly as large as Cuba. Its population is probably greater. It is one of the most beautiful countries on earth, while in productiveness and natural wealth of every description it far surpasses its sister isle. All tropical fruits and spices flourish; its tobacco is excellent; its coffee Belgium and France esteem the best that grows; its cacao alone would enrich a nation; its forests are capable of yielding immense quantities of rubber; the finest mahogany grows there, and other rare woods are plentiful; the precious metals, with copper, platinum, mercury, manganese, antimony, sulphur, asphaltum, salt, and phosphates, abound.