The future democracy can only arise by welding together the present nations, but each must surrender some of its independence in the same manner as the States of our union, and it cannot do this until the course of evolution has made them all more dependent than they are now. Nevertheless, the first steps have already been taken by the creation of the Hague Tribunal, in which the following nations are represented: Austria-Hungary, Belgium Bulgaria, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Servia, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United States. But each State still reserves the right to decide whether a question shall be referred to the Court or to war. It is still better to fight out some questions, for some nations must be destroyed when they stand in the way of a better and larger nation. Eventually, no doubt, every nation will be compelled by the others to submit all its international disputes to a court which the strongest will control. It will take time. It took time for trial by jury to replace trial by combat. When Henry II became King of England, trial by jury was legalized but not compulsory, and the accused person or litigant had the right to fight it out. It was not until seven centuries later (1819) that Parliament abolished the right of trial by combat and compelled the citizen to submit to the decision of a jury. Perhaps it will be seven centuries before arbitration will be compulsory.
Some nations have already agreed to submit all questions to arbitration, notably the Argentine Republic on one side and Chili and Paraguay on the other. Similarly, Spain and Uruguay have bound themselves, and the last treaty between France and Great Britain agrees to arbitration for certain questions. It is quite clear on biological grounds that union will take place long before absolute dependence arises. The assertion of independent rights will lead to wars which will be similar to insurrections. In spite of the absolute dependence of our States, the Civil War occurred nearly a century after union, but the South could not upset biological law, and neither can any nation. Every time independent nations have been welded together, as in Italy, for instance, it has been a bloody operation, and we need not be surprised if rivers of blood are spilled to weld the present nations together.
Mutual interests may bring about union sooner than war. For instance there is the utmost need for a police force on high seas to compel ships to keep in their proper roads and guard the dangerous crossing points to prevent collisions. Nations notoriously incompetent as sailors may be kept off the main highways. An international quarantine service is also an urgent necessity to prevent the embarkation of diseased persons. No locality on earth should be permitted to dump its invalids on any other unless by mutual consent, as in cases where climatic treatment is sought.