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Expansion of Races | by Charles Edward Woodruff



Most of the manuscript was written in various parts of the world, while actually collecting the data and observing the phenomena described. Particular emphasis, of course, has been given to the conditions in the Philippines - topics of which most Americans are sadly ignorant.

TitleExpansion of Races
AuthorCharles Edward Woodruff
PublisherRebman Company
Year1909
Copyright1909, Rebman Company
AmazonExpansion of Races

By Charles Edward Woodruff, A.M., M.D.

Member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Fellow of the Medical Association of the Greater City of New York. Member of the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

Author of "The Effects of Tropical Light on White Men," and "The Evolution of the Small Brain of Civilized Man".

-Preface
In compliance with the custom which obliges one to apologize for presenting to the public anything new, it must be explained that this work is an anthropological study of one of the reasons for migrat...
-Chapter I. Population A Fluid. Man Subject To Natural Law
Man, being an animal, is under the influence of all the natural laws governing the evolution, increase and spread of other species. The possession of intelligence is generally, though falsely, assumed...
-Equality Of Births And Deaths
The number of deaths being due to the number and activity of enemies and the severity of the environment, it follows that when no care can be given to the offspring the birth rate is strictly proporti...
-Movements In Confined Fluids And Populations
Confined fluids which do not move as a whole, are still in internal motion, and there is a restless convection by which internal currents cause a ceaseless mixing of particles. In the same way there...
-Wave Motions
There are wave motions in fluids wherein each particle describes a tiny movement and then returns to its original place, the wave spreading widely. So, in population, a commotion at one spot is spread...
-Chapter II. Saturation Point Of Populations. Definition Of Saturation
Before discussing our fluid-like migrations, it is necessary to determine what is overcrowding. We will call a place saturated when it contains as many men as can be fed with food raised in that place...
-Tenuity Of Primitive Populations
From the difficulty of obtaining specimens of gorillas we can well assume that they are not numerous - a few thousand all told, perhaps. Similarly the density of population of primitive man, in the eo...
-Slowness Of Population Increases
Until the nineteenth century the advance of European civilization was slow, at first it was very slow, so that the saturation point rose very little per 1,000 years, scarcely doubling from 500 to 1500...
-Forced Increases Of Lower Races
When civilization is forced upon a lower race, establishing a higher government than they themselves can manage, there is more food production and a very rapid rise of the saturation point. In the sem...
-Relation Of Saturation Point To Rainfall
The saturation point is often incorrectly stated by omitting the contributing areas. Thus, it is said that California, in her irrigation lands, can support 500 per mile, but this is only one part of t...
-Density Of Tropical Populations
The inability to grow sufficient food is, of course, the reason why saturation points are low in tropical countries. The savage does not know how and must depend upon wild food. The evolution of culti...
-Subdivision Of Farms
The following table shows that the more dense the population the smaller are the land holdings: Acres per farm Population per mile Michigan............................ 86...
-Chapter III. Undersaturation And Supersaturation. The Farmers Increasing Surplus Food
Primitive man subsisted exclusively on the foods obtained in his immediate neighborhood, for even if he could have imported them he had nothing with which to buy. The basis of civilization is the farm...
-Loss Of Industries Prevents Supersaturation
Ireland is a sad illustration of the disasters following interference with the normal development of industries and trade which cause supersaturation. About 1800, her industries were completely destro...
-Industries Produce Supersaturation
The European populations increasing the most during the past century have been the manufacturing and food importing ones as a rule, such as Belgium three and a half fold, Denmark and the United Kingdo...
-Increase Of Urban Population
The difference between a supersaturated manufacturing population and an undersaturated agricultural one, is expressed in the proportion of the population in the towns. Western Europe is a huge manufac...
-Decrease Of Western Drift
The gradual decrease in the rate at which our center of population is traveling west gives a good idea of the approaching saturation of the country as a whole. According to the Census Bureau, the move...
-Chapter IV. Evidences Of Universal Overpopulation. Some Starve Where Food Is Plentiful
Overpopulation means that some of the people cannot obtain sufficient food. There have been places where, at times, there was more than plenty for every person, as in colonial New England, for instanc...
-Low Wages In Dense Populations
This brings us to one of the means of judging of overpopulation - the wages of labor. In undersaturated countries, like America, the demand is great and laborers few, and by the law of supply and dema...
-Insufficient Housing
Overcrowding of houses and rooms does not of itself prove the inmates to be underfed - the real test of overpopulation - for they may all be properly nourished, yet it is generally true that overcrowd...
-Urban Overcrowding
In the cities the conditions are worse. In Brussels, for instance, Consul-General Roosevelt reports that often ten people occupy a single room; that 4,636 people occupy 2,362 rooms; two-thirds of the ...
-Medieval Overcrowding
Two-thirds of the rural population in England nowadays taste beef perhaps once a month, and have milk, if at all, only in teaspoonfuls with tea.* This is an old, old phenomenon, for Draper* says o...
-Wealth Of The Efficient
By reason of our natural differences in ability, wealth is unequally distributed. The most efficient hunters secure the game, the best fishermen the fish, the best farmers the crop, the best fighters ...
-Gradual Uplifting Of The Efficient
There is nothing strange, then, in the fact that though our national wealth increased tremendously from 1890 to 1900, the average wages went down from $445 to $438 per year, while the value of the pro...
-Labor Combinations Due To Overcrowding
Modern labor unions are the direct results of overpopulation. There are too many workmen, and the price of labor must, therefore go down, unless they corner the market by uniting to work for only su...
-The Necessity For Poverty
The great mass of mankind, now as ever, live from hand to mouth, without forethought. They can live only when they work - if they stop for a day there is instant distress. It is the animal way - but i...
-Poverty Irremediable
Under the impression that poverty is remediable, every conceivable suggestion has been made to end it. The Chartists, who attracted so much attention during the dreadful industrial depression of 1830,...
-Starving The Children
Mr. John Spargo has confirmed the statement made by Hunter, that so many children in America are underfed - not the 60,000 or 70,000 in New York City alone, but about 3,000,000 in the United States, e...
-Famines
Starvation is, of course, the main proof of overpopulation. The phenomenon is generally treated in the opposite direction - the population is considered normal but the food deficient. It is self-evide...
-Chapter V. Pestilences Due To Overpopulation. Enemies Limit Populations
We must now modify the definition of the saturation point, for, in addition to food supply, there are other factors which limit the maximum numbers of any species in a given area. There are many enemi...
-Cleanliness And Civilization
The filthiness of all lower classes of civilized men, and of barbarians and savages is not conceivable to one who has not investigated. If savages cluster in groups as dense as barbarians, they die of...
-Plague And Dirt
The plague of India is a direct result of overcrowding of indescribably filthy people. In Calcutta, as many as 144,000 live in one square mile (London has 36,000 per square mile), 250 living where the...
-Tuberculosis And Overcrowding
The great white plague (tuberculosis) is a new and modern destroyer of population, claiming more victims than any other disease, more even than the plagues of the Middle Ages. It is said that every se...
-Civilization Avoids Disease
Sleeping sickness destroys millions in Africa and has always prevented dense populations because the natives did not know how to avoid it. Modern science has discovered the cause and method of trans...
-Typhoid An Index Of Overcrowding
In America we are now suffering from filthy habits normal to savages. By reason of the tenuity of population, we formerly adopted methods of disposal of our sewage, which are wholly inadmissible in cr...
-Chapter VI. Evolution Of Man. Evolution Of The Brain
It is reasoning in a circle to assert that man evolved from lower creatures because of natural selection in a struggle for existence, and then use this fact as proof of the overpopulation which caused...
-Cradles Of The Two Races
Scientists are not at all agreed as to the place of man's origin. It was once an article of faith that he arose in Central or Southern Asia, and this belief followed upon finding Aryan languages in As...
-Time Of Man's Origin
The time at which the evolution of man took place is very well fixed. Scientists are almost unanimous in placing the first steps prior to the glacial times during a very long period, some even going t...
-Migration Alters Evolution
A corallary following from these facts is of the utmost importance. If a wave of population migrated south into a milder climate where living was easier, and the stupid man could survive and raise chi...
-Modifications Due To Change Of Environment
When a race slowly migrates south it undergoes an enormous evolution of new physical characters to fit it to the new climate, and it does this by the same law of selection. Hence, the present descenda...
-Man's Evolution Due To Overpopulation
The evolution of man from a lower type of animal thus brings us back to the old question of starvation in overpopulation, and we find the early habits preserved in infancy still. For instance, monkeys...
-Chapter VII. Migrations. Migration Of The Least Efficient
All animals tend to stay where they were born, and when they change residence it is in search of food. Those which migrate with the seasons merely have two homes. The same conditions govern man. If he...
-Earliest Human Currents
A general survey of ancient human currents shows that they must have flowed from the two centers of origin, in Central Asia and Central Europe respectively. The Western stock began to spread as soon a...
-Early Streams From Asia
About the time that man found his way into Scandinavia, there occurred a remarkable invasion from Asia, where evolution of brain had apparently progressed at a more rapid rate. Consequently the early ...
-Aryan Streams From Europe To Asia
Dr. Leonhard Stejneger, of the National Museum, has brought together an immense number of facts showing a former land connection between Scandinavia and Scotland which possibly lasted long after man w...
-Later Aryan Streams
This Aryan movement must have begun about 2000 B.C., though it was not until some centuries later that it reached India - possibly not until 1000 B.C. The decay of the migrants was very rapid, probabl...
-Migration Of Languages
On account of the ease with which people change languages, speech has long been given up as a criterion of race affinities, yet there is a reaction from this extreme view because it is at last realize...
-Later Baltic Streams
The flooding from Scandinavia into England was checked by the Roman conquest, but when that control ceased wave after wave of high Aryan types flowed over - Jutes, Angles, Saxons, Danes and Scandinavi...
-Southern And Western Streams
Although believing in an African origin of man, Ripley shows * that in Europe there probably always was a swarming to the south - a constant drifting which only occasionally took the form of military ...
-Organization Of Migrants
It is evident that when races migrated, their organization corresponded to that of the period. The earliest emigrants were the men who escaped when the confining barrier first broke down, for we have ...
-Migrants Are Always Young
In these Aryan migrations, only men able to fight were chosen, and the old, sick, feeble or cowardly were left at home; also the rich and successful men or their immediate heirs, for these had no need...
-Slowness Of Early Migrations
The usual movements of population are so slow that they are scarcely perceptible in one man's lifetime. History only notes the outbursts or floods where artificial barriers have dammed back the fluid ...
-Chapter VIII. Early Southern Migrations Caused The First High Civilizations. Conquest Of Lower Types
A conquering race intruded in a warm climate much different from its native one is not able to do manual labor. The ruling types must protect themselves from the climate and leave the labor to the nat...
-Tribal Exclusiveness
Of all the dozens of forms of government which have been devised, why is it that with a few exceptions all have perished except the one called monarchy? It is surely the survival of the fittest, and t...
-Aristocratic Aloofness
The contempt of an intruding immigrant conquering race for the employments of the native conquered people is best shown by Aristotle's statement* that none of the citizens should be permitted to exer...
-Chapter IX. War, Murder And Disasters. Extermination Of Competitors
Migration to reduce overpopulation at home, of course, meant wars for extermination abroad. Migrating bands were resisted and forced to fight their way. Hence, war and the murder of competitors were t...
-Right-Handedness Due To War
The origin of right-handedness is a most interesting result of the wars when man first began to struggle against competing man, and shows how this first overpopulation has profoundly affected our phys...
-Denunciation Of War
In recent years it has become popular among certain clergymen to denounce war as incompatible with the religion of peace and good-will to all men, and yet religious ideas are generally expressed in wa...
-Evils Of Peace
In the recent outcry against war, there is but one man who has appreciated the evils of peace - Mr. Ferdinand Brunetiere, editor of the Revue des deux Mondes (Paris). He shows that the French advocate...
-Beneficence Of War
There have recently been several notable publications showing the necessity and beneficence of war - and one by a woman at that, Mrs. Adelaide R. Haldeman, editor of The Modern World (Denver). Two art...
-Legal Executions
As a general rule savage and semicivilized countries are more crowded proportionately to their saturation point than the civilized, and there results a greater contempt for human life. Its cheapness a...
-War, Murder And Disasters. Suicide
Suicide is so universal among lower races that it must also be considered one of the means for reducing population to its saturation point. If at any time the stress of life is so severe that the life...
-Infanticide
The gradual growth of infanticide can easily be traced to natural causes. We can presume that some form of permanent mating existed in man's immediate ancestors, and that marriage is immeasurably olde...
-Calamities
Such violent deaths as those by floods and volcanic eruptions are really remote results of overpopulation. The large rivers of China annually rise in flood and drown their thousands and occasionally t...
-Chapter X. Famine. Famine Causes War And Follows War
Deaths by famine are the ultimate outcome in every community where other means of relieving the overcrowding have failed. It seems almost too simple to mention that people cannot live without food, an...
-Indian Famines
As long ago as 1893,* Mr. C. E. D. Black, in official reports from India, stated that the famines were merely local phenomena due to lack of means of transporting foods from the areas where a surplus ...
-Old World Famines
Within recent years famines have been reported from almost every part of the world, even from East Africa, where the Government was trying to feed 50,000 natives of Uganda, where crops failed. It woul...
-Chapter XI. Nitrogen Starvation Or The Modern Famine. Nitrogen Is The Basis Of Life
Only within a few years have scientists awakened to the importance of the nitrogen part of our food, consequently the subject of nitrogen starvation is so new that it is popularly unknown. As it is th...
-Source Of Nitrogen
Prof. Emil Fisher, of Berlin, has shown that nitrogen, or rather protein, is our principal nourishment, and he has made considerable progress in analyzing it. He has even made some of its simpler form...
-Nitrogen Is Our Main Food
We can now note the fact that nitrogen is the main reliance of crowded populations all over the world, and that every single one of them except the flesh-eating savage, is partially starved for nitrog...
-Results Of Nitrogen Deficiency
The agricultural stations in the United States have here and there conducted extremely valuable nutrition experiments in the line of high and low proteid food. At the end of the experiments the subjec...
-Results Of Nitrogen Deficiency. Continued
Colonel Adair, Chief Surgeon in the Philippines, says: Beri-beri does not attack the army to any great extent, due largely to better conditions under which soldiers live as to shelter and more espec...
-Nitrogen Never In Sufficient Amounts
We can now take up the evidence that nitrogen starvation has been chronic since life first appeared on earth, and that it has had a potent influence in modifying organisms to adjust themselves for the...
-Nitrogen Never In Sufficient Amounts. Continued
The following press dispatch (1902), even if untrue, shows the process in ancient times: Human flesh, chiefly that of babies and young children, is being sold in market places throughout the Chinese...
-Defective Development In Nitrogen Starvation
A most potent cause of death in crowded communities is by degeneration in its modern sense - abnormal physique due to bad development of an unstable organism. It was once taught that degeneration was ...
-Diseases Of The Nitrogen Starved
In speaking of the relations of war, famine and pestilence we stated that the cause of pestilence following famine was partly the lessened resistance to infection which occurs in the underfed. It is n...
-The Dangerous Fad Of Low Nitrogen Diet
The case is clear, then - depressed vitality due to disease or to the nitrogen starvation of modern times is at the basis of the modern great white plague. In the exhaustions of tropical service soldi...
-The High Price Of Nitrogen
It is quite evident that nitrogen is and always has been the most difficult food to obtain. The monkeys search for it, in the midst of a profusion of fruits. Savage man was always on the hunt for fish...
-Chapter XII. The Diminishing Birth Rate. Reduction Of Births An Old Natural Phenomenon
Within recent years much attention has been given to the diminishing number of births per 1,000 of population, but only rarely has it been recognized as a phenomenon which has been going on since preh...
-French Birth Rates
M. Neymarck has lately examined various economic, financial and social causes that influence the birth rate. Some of his results are summarized in what follows: He believes, in the first place, that ...
-Child Labor Necessary In Large Families
Child labor and large birth rates are two parallel phenomena, and the relations of the two must be understood if we are to appreciate the benefits of the modern reduction of birth rates. A clergyman,...
-Large Families Cause Poverty
Charity organizations are coming to the belief that large families really keep people poor because the poorer the family the larger the birth rate, as seen in the following table presented by Dr. J. B...
-Chapter XIII. The Causes Of The Reduced Birth Rate. Marriage Customs
The processes by which the average modern families are becoming smaller are exceedingly numerous, but are always natural and normal. Women have generally been blamed - poor woman is always blamed whet...
-Sexual Selection
At a much later time, the necessity arose in property inheritance for a man to know who his children were. Before this, and partly as a result of polyandry, inheritance of names and property was alway...
-Elimination By Prostitution
Some years ago there were 300,000 known prostitutes in the United States, and as all of them are infected at some time, their sterility is probably due to its ravages, though much of it is really due ...
-Delay Of Marriage
When Malthus first wrote about overpopulation he suggested as a remedy that we should delay the time of marriage. He was unaware of the fact that this delay takes place naturally for other reasons, an...
-Increasing Celibacy
The increasing number of celibates is another universal phenomenon of civilization which reduces the birth rate, and by leaving childbearing to a few it has the effect of increasing the number of chil...
-Proper Age For Marriage
But the point we are coming to is this. We have within fifty years moved about half of our people into dense, urban masses, where moral companionship between sexes is possible without matrimony. A cen...
-Abortion
It is now necessary to mention two other natural phenomena which, like all others, have been so universally misunderstood - abortion and prevention of conception. From their very nature they prevent p...
-Prevention Of Conception
When we come to preventing conception, the Roman Church takes a modified attitude. It resolutely puts its face against any interference with nature, except by abstinence, which, when we sift it down t...
-Birth Rate Among The Overcrowded
In order to emphasize the benefits of a reduced birth rate, we must return to the question of the overcrowding of all large modern cities, in which it is impossible to build proper shelters for all th...
-Chapter XIV. Relation Of Birth Rate To Saturation Point And To Death Rate. Birth Rates Vary With Prosperity
Having explained the rather self-evident fact that death or migration always wipes out the surplus which cannot be fed, it is now in order to take up the other end of the problem - the fluctuations of...
-Large Rates In Undersaturation
In lower civilizations the birth rate seems to be unaffected by the density of population - the women give birth to many children and the surplus are killed off, starved, or wiped out in other ways, a...
-Large Rates In Undersaturation. Continued
Increasing industrialism has the same effect as undersatura-tion; the German birth rate, for instance, remained large as long as there was a demand for workers, but now there is an over-supply, a larg...
-Diminishing War Losses
As we advance in civilization, safety of each individual life is greater and greater. In time we will guarantee that the tiniest ovum, at the moment of conception, shall have all the rights of life of...
-Diminishing War Losses. Continued
War losses are lessened also because it has become a huge ghastly game with rules like chess, only in place of removing the pawns we are permitted to expend lives in certain ways, and ways which a...
-Lessening Death Rate From Disease
The main reason for the lessened death rate is warfare against disease, and here, too, the reason is the realization of the value of life. Modern science has shown that diseases once considered inevit...
-Every Life-Saving Device Lessens The Birth Rate
The point of the matter is the fact that every life saving discovery must, of necessity, reduce the birth rate, for it makes it unnecessary to produce so many children. That is, the trend of civilizat...
-Chapter XV. Commensalism Or Mutual Aid. Mutual Assistance In Unions
The diminution of the death rate, which is the cause of the diminution of the birth rate, is itself a result of the great natural law of commensalism or mutual aid which is at the basis of all coopera...
-Adaptation Of Parasites
Claude du Bois-Reymond, Berlin,* shows that disease is not a conflict between parasite and host; it is in truth a kind of imperfect symbiosis. That is, if germs killed us off they themselves would d...
-Mutual Dependence Of All Living Things
Domestic animals are all commensal, for without them civilized man cannot exist. The cat cannot exist without man, and it is tolerated for its benefits. The horse has been man's companion so long and ...
-All Men Aid Society
Political economists have repeatedly shown that it is utterly impossible for any one, except outlaws, to avoid aiding the social organism created to enable him to survive. By indirect taxation we all ...
-Human Life Is Sacred Because Useful
What benefit can be derived from supporting the old, feeble, sick, criminal, insane, idiots and other State charges? This is not a hopeless question, in spite of the apparent parasitism. Labor unions ...
-Mutual Benefit Of International Unions
The law of mutual aid is at the basis of all the larger international organizations now in process of evolution. Nations and races are drifting into a condition of dependence in which they are mutuall...
-Imperialism Is Commensalism
This brings us, then, to the modern movement which we have just inaugurated - a movement which has caused such an hysterical outburst from the anti-expansionists who did not understand its true signif...
-Chapter XVI. The Myth Of Acclimatization. Tropical Infections
Before showing that our tropical expansion is based on the commensalism existing between us and the natives, it is necessary to prove that we cannot colonize there. The history of attempts of white me...
-Adaptation To Environment
Anthropologists have at last learned to apply to man the laws which are found to govern the spread and survival of any other species. We have finally awakened to the fact that every character possesse...
-Uses Of Pigmentation
In no character is natural selection so evidently at work as in the amount of pigmentation of the outer epithelial structures, skin and hair. Color has long been used as a means of classifying man as ...
-Elimination Of Migrants
Of course it takes time for the unsuited to disappear, and during the process we see vastly different types inhabiting the same place as though there was no law, but the facts merely show intrusion of...
-Disappearance Of Hybrids
The disappearance of half-breeds is an illustration of the damage done by lack of adjustment to the climate. The mulatto, for instance, has characters half way between those of the parent type; his sk...
-Disappearance Of Hybrids. Continued
There is an apparent exception to the rule that Chinese hide from the light, and that is in the coolies who are porters, drivers, etc., but they mostly come from the Southern subtropical parts of Chin...
-Colonization In Zones
Nothing could be clearer, then, that residence in any climate is made safe by skin pigmentation in accordance with the maximum amount of sunlight at any season, and it proves the impossibility of colo...
-Illustrations Of Misplacement
The following examples are taken from Taylor's Origin of the Aryans, pages 199 to 202: In Jamaica both the whites and the mulattoes become sterile, while the negroes are prolific; and hence the ty...
-The Myth Of Acclimatization. Opinions Of Observers
As a result of English experience, Prof. J. Lane Notter, Netley Army Medical School, states that a prolonged residence in a hot climate doubtless deteriorates the system. Again he says that the grea...
-The Myth Of Acclimatization. Opinions Of Observers. Continued
* The Present Evolution of Man. Patrick Manson, Tropical Diseases, says (page 81): The most fatal form of malaria, hemoglobinuric fever (twenty-five to thirty per cent, fatal) never appears in ne...
-Negro Decay
Our own negroes in slavery times were like animals under domestication - fed, clothed, housed, doctored when sick, and kept in health as a matter of dollars and cents. Since emancipation a most intens...
-American Deterioration
The evidence as to deterioration of Northern European types in America is voluminous. Not only do workmen decay earlier than in Europe, but it is shown by Prof. B. Laquer* that German migrants to Amer...
-There Can Be No American Type
The types of future Americans can now be fairly well predicted. It has been generally assumed by unscientific writers, that through intermarriage we are being amalgamated into one uniform type capable...
-Chapter XVII. Tropical Neurasthenia. Adverse Factors
We have mentioned that the disappearance of migrated races which have journeyed to climates to which they cannot become acclimated by reason of physical characters which adjust them to colder and dark...
-Results Of Tropical Residence
Loss of memory, loss of muscular strength, increasing presbyopia (old-sight), and all other signs of exhaustion are very common. Punjab head or Burma head is a cerebral asthenia due to exhaustion ...
-Opinions Of Observers
Col. Charles R. Greenleaf regards it as inevitable that the strength of the most robust American soldier should be undermined by tropical service. He says that after a year of service in the Philippi...
-Greater Harm To The Young
Not only do children suffer in the tropics, but the men over fifty do not stand the climate as well as the young. The proper age to go to the tropics is in the time of the greatest physical vigor, fro...
-Chapter XVIII. Proper Nourishment For White Men In The Tropics. Prevalent Errors
We must now return to the subject of nitrogen starvation to show how difficult it is for a white man to nourish himself when he migrates to a hot climate to which he is unadjusted. He cannot live as t...
-Results Of Experience
What a crime, then, it would be to cut down our meat ration in the tropics, where there is more exhaustion than at home. Dr. C. L. G. Anderson * as a result of his experience, mentions tropical neura...
-Need Of Fats
Another standard blunder at home is the idea that no fat should be eaten in the tropics. It is also falsely stated that tropical natives do not use fats to any great extent. Doctor Semeleder, of Cordo...
-Need Of Sugar And Alcohol
In addition to all this, there is an actual need of the maximum amounts of sugar in the diet, for this easily digested food supplies available energy when most needed. Indeed, the excessive consumptio...
-Chapter XIX. White Races Dependent Upon The Tropics. Our Increasing Necessities
The tropics being then completely, absolutely and forever out of the question as spheres for colonization, what is the good of our new move? Are we simply streaming to a new environment merely to peri...
-Sugar
Sugar is a beautiful illustration of a former luxury which has become a necessity, and it also illustrates the increasing dependence of Northern races upon the foods produced by tropical peoples. It d...
-Caffeine
The problem of tea, coffee and other stimulants is equally instructive. There was a time when primitive men used no stimulants at all, but depended upon those stimulating internal secretions now known...
-Rubber
Rubber is now necessary for our existence, as without it, our telephone, telegraph and railroad systems would fall, the flow of food to cities would be checked and starvation result to hundreds of tho...
-Increase Of Tropical Imports
From all over the world a flood of evidence is now being presented showing the dependence on the tropics of every civilized people. Benjamin Kidd* clearly shows the fact that the English speaking worl...
-Tropics Dependent Upon The North
All tropical countries are quickly assuming a commensal relation to the Northern countries. Independence is so unnatural as to be impossible if both are to thrive. In the Forum, June, 1902, Prof. Paul...
-Tropics Dependent Upon The North. Continued
There is probably no land on earth of equal area possessed of equal natural wealth. For two centuries it was the richest colony in the New World, pouring inexhaustible riches into the treasuries of S...
-Chapter XX. Civilization's Dependence Upon Commerce. Food For Supersaturated Areas
White man's increasing dependence on tropical products, of course, makes commerce in those things necessary. But the problem is far deeper than that - things made in the dense populations must be sold...
-Increasing Commerce
The struggle for trade, then, is very old, because civilization has always created needs which could not be filled locally. For instance, the prehistoric lake dwellers of Switzerland had implements of...
-Importance Of Traders
Until a century or so ago the only public benefactors were those who fought for the public. Hence, public honors, rewards, titles and estates were awarded to soldiers, and to no others. The nobility a...
-American Trade
America's commercial invasion of foreign markets has been carefully investigated by Mr. Gilson Willets and described in a series of remarkable articles in Harper's Weekly, 1904, to which the reader mu...
-American Trade. Continued
In another article, * Mr. Emory showed that our importations are becoming more and more the mere raw material and less manufactured goods, as though we were on the road to needing raw materials from ...
-Survival Of The Best Workers
It seems that, like all other struggles, the fight for trade is destined to result in success to the most intelligent nations, for they are the ones who will be able to keep in the advance - all other...
-Chapter XXI. Semitic Civilizations. Primitive European Races
The history of ancient civilizations always shows a mutual dependence of higher and lower races, so that our Philippine problem is not a new thing, but is as old as civilization itself. We cannot unde...
-Semites And Mediterraneans
Slowly, then, the evidence is establishing the fact that the classical Semites were originally a long-headed dark race like the neolithic man. If they ever evolved the blondness of Teutons before they...
-Eurafrican Languages
Philologists have devoted much labor to the problem of proving some relation between Aryan and Semitic roots, and though there are some correspondences, they merely indicate that if the two were deriv...
-Semites In Asia
In Turkey and Persia the Turanian blood, as well as the Aryan seems to have disappeared from the ruling types - the Shah and Sultan are typical Semites, exactly as in Ancient Chaldea. There is, by the...
-Chapter XXII. Aryan Civilizations. Early Migrants
We have now come to the most important part of any discussion of modern migrations and modern expansion for the control of the world. The course of events for 3,000 years or more has been steadily and...
-The Greek Aryans
All the Homeric Greeks had traditions that they came from the North. They called themselves Hellenes or white men, and their land Hellas, though the first place called Hellas was a small district in...
-Roman Aryans
We can be safe in asserting that the invading race had mostly disappeared from Rome by the time it was necessary in the sixth century for Justinian to constitute every free Roman subject a full citize...
-Indian Aryans
Prof. H. Oldenberg* says that the immigrants into India who called themselves Aryans were fair skinned, and the natives whom they conquered were dark people, unbelievers that propitiate not the Gods....
-Religion
It is an orthodox article of faith among scholars that we are indebted to the Semitic races for the great religions of the world, but there are good grounds for believing that they are the productions...
-Religion. Continued
No wonder, then, that Christianity had to travel out of the country and settle among the Aryans of Europe - blood relatives of the peoples who originated the basic ideas. It was a parallel case to Bud...
-Modifications Of Aryan Religions
The most curious result of modern ethnology is the discovery that though men change languages easily, they rarely change religions, which are strictly separated according to race and brain development...
-Aryan Rulers
The descriptions we have already given of the migrations of the blond Slavs, Celts and Teutons, should leave no doubt in our minds that in all Europe, ever since the bronze age, Aryan civilizations ha...
-Half-Castes
The position of half-castes is invariably between the two parent races, and is due to this difference in intelligence which separates races the world over. The Mulatto, Mestizo or Eurasian is higher t...
-Half-Castes. Continued
* North American Review, October, 1902. It is not at all surprising that many, if not the most, of the faculty in Booker Washington's school at Tuskagee, Alabama, are mixed bloods, nor that the negro...
-Chapter XXIII. Aryan Democracies And Their Relation To Lower Races. Democracy
The future establishment of Aryan civilization in every nook and corner of the earth can now be safely predicted. It is even percolating into China. But their is a curious paradox which must be cleare...
-The Will Of The People Governs Kings
The election of a king was an Aryan custom in all of the early branches of the race. In the Vedic literature he is the rajan always mentioned as elected, and there is never any mention in these times ...
-The Will Of The People Governs Kings. Continued
As civilization advances we find as a natural evolution, that chief executives know less and less of military matters - they are not of the fighting strength at all. People became crowded and delegate...
-Modern Democracy
The medieval French were far from monarchic, but were essentially democratic; indeed, they elected their chiefs, and these warrior-nobles elected Hugh Capet, and he began a feudal system in which th...
-Aristocracies
Russian sovereignty resides in a very small aristocracy, most of whom are Aryans whose ancestors migrated East, and now rule the Asiatics who came West. Theoretically, the Czar is the only sovereign, ...
-Aristocratic Democracies
When democrats from Northern Europe flowed South is it not natural that they should establish democracies at the same time they ruled the lower conquered races? They died out in time and the democraci...
-Mutual Aid
Our motto is The Philippines for the Filipinos, and it does not mean that American interests are to be killed. The future prosperity of the Islands and their peoples demands that American capital be i...
-Chapter XXIV. The Balance Of Commensal Races In Democracies. Lower Races Dependent Upon The Higher
Though civilization increases the saturation point, and though savages left to themselves cannot exist in thick masses, yet it is an apparent paradox that when lower races have civilization forced upo...
-The Traders
The shopkeepers of a country are not necessarily of the racial type of that place. The real people are those who live upon the soil - farmers, and industrial workers, who are physically adjusted to ...
-Jewish Activities
As a result of past persecutions the Jew has developed variations which fit him for the specialties of modern civilization to a far greater extent than Aryans, who in time will evolve identical variat...
-Other Needed Types
The Chinese in the Philippine and Malay Archipelago are commensal, and precisely like the Jews in Europe, useful and beneficial when scattered and few, but parasitic in large concentrated numbers. The...
-Aryan Distrust Of The Alien
All these ideas are now forming themselves in the popular mind, and there is growing distrust of the immigrant. It is explained in an article by Dr. A. J. McLaughlin* He calls attention to the fact th...
-Chapter XXV. The Unnatural Democracy Of America. Search For Wealth
The undue increase of the lower commensal races in the United States has already brought about a deplorably unnatural condition never existing before in Aryan democracies, which are all based upon the...
-Asylum For The Unfit
There are many who believe that America should be the asylum for only the oppressed of the world, but it is not generally known that the oppressed are the unsuccessful, unfit, unintelligent, who are c...
-Low Moral Tone Of The Unintelligent
The low moral tone in the United States is an index of the low intellectual level of the lower masses, for after all is said morality and intelligence are more or less synonymous. To be sure, every no...
-Education Does Not Enlarge The Brain
The greatest impediments to good government in the United States are the school teachers, who assert that education is all that is needed to make little brains give out thoughts as good as the big one...
-Chapter XXVI. Modern Evolution Of Democracies. Centripetal And Centrifugal Forces
When civilizations were primitive and populations sparse organization into communities was on simple lines, but with the increased production of food and the resulting density of population, it has be...
-Centralizing And Democratic Parties
Biology gives us the reason for the wonderful organizing ability of the republican party. Notwithstanding the fact that the democratic party is based upon the greatest of human rights - liberty, indiv...
-Foreign Political Parties
In England the two main political parties, conservatives with tories, and liberals with radicals, are based on the same biological laws. But there is this difference - England's present parties arose ...
-Immigrants Are Normally Democrats
There is now a clear explanation of the reason why there is such a strong democratic sentiment among the hordes of immigrants who have flooded this land since 1850. The two forces, centripetal and cen...
-Roman Law Of Aristocracies
The difference between an Aryan democratic aristocracy and Aryan democracy is shown quite clearly in their laws. The legist, Fortescue, contrasted the Roman law, the inheritance of the Latin peoples,...
-Savage Life And Despotism
The two main political parties can exist only where the units and the organization are both powerful enough. Hence, there are no politics in savage life where the units are so democratic as to have al...
-Industrial Democracy
The Aryan, being a democrat by natural selection, demands a share in the management of every enterprise in which he engages - a vote. He introduces a spirit of democracy into all modern industrial org...
-Past And Future Politics
There is a library of literature on this one topic of society and the individual, whether society exists for the individual or the individual for society, and the general tendency is to take an extrem...
-Chapter XXVII. Christianity And Democracy. Egoism And Altruism
In a prior chapter we have shown that Christianity is indebted to Aryans for many of its ideas. It is now in order to show that it is an aid in the organization of democracies, and that without it, th...
-Origin Of Christianity
In a curious book called The Religion of the Early Christians, by F. J. Gould* there is a complete description of the method of the evolution of our present form of Christianity, which is probably m...
-Ideal Altruism
Now, there is another reason why Christianity appeals so much to modern civilized societies, and that is the intense altruism of it. Up to the time of Christ, all religions, except those originated in...
-Ideal Altruism. Continued
It is thus a strange state of affairs that it is biologically impossible to have a non-Christian high civilization, and yet the clergy of all denominations have done the most to retard the development...
-Chapter XXVIII. The Future Democracy. Evolution Of Specialists
The conflict of the two great forces of collectivism and individualism, represented by the republican and democratic parties, has already caused the evolution of a social organism which is a living be...
-The Future Democracy. Evolution Of Specialists. Continued
Organization now took the direction of increasing specialization, and the higher the organism the more limited is the sphere of duty of each cell. It has gone to such an extreme that the cell-citizens...
-Specialism In Society
Now, when an isolated nation of men is long established its invariable tendency is to take a similar course of evolution. The citizens become specialized, by reason of variation in development, and br...
-Fallacy Of Governmental Industries
These biological laws of evolution of society explain the utter failure of State management of what are called public utilities, but which are really local organs in the body politic. Hugo R. Meyer, f...
-The Franchise
It is now evident that the form of our future social organization is to be worldwide, containing as its units every man capable of doing some commensal good to the organism. All other men must and wil...
-Increasing The Efficiency Of The Units
A most interesting proof of the manner in which even the present organism is utilizing the unfit to get the most out of them, and is ending the old wasteful struggle for existence which wipes out so m...
-Socialism
Under the term socialism are grouped numerous more or less quixotic and unscientific plans to end the sufferings due to overpopulation and inequality of men. Communists honestly believe that propert...
-Society Owns Its Units
In the body of an animal some of the citizen cells are bred up for the sole purpose of sacrificing them for the good of the whole. All those which form the skin, hair, nails, etc., are deliberately sh...
-Chapter XXIX. The Control Of The Future Democracy. Specialization Of Nations
The units and groups of units of the future social organism, being dependent upon each other, must be coordinated in their activities to do the best team-work, as we have already explained, and it is ...
-Welding The Future World Nation
The future democracy can only arise by welding together the present nations, but each must surrender some of its independence in the same manner as the States of our union, and it cannot do this until...
-The Brain Of The Future Nation
The world democracy, or international nation, must then have its army and navy to preserve peace and enforce international law. The tremendous armies and navies now needed to keep the parts from destr...
-Home Rule
The future control of the United States from the Northwestern corner of Europe does not mean a political revolution, but a gradual, slow evolution which has been going on for some time unnoticed. On a...
-Chapter XXX. Value Of Services To Society. Universal Public Service
It is a fact that by the laws of commensalism in every organization, each unit inevitably works for the good of the whole while it is working for itself. Moreover, each has public as well as private d...
-High Wages For Ability
In the immense complexity and division of labor of modern corporations, among whom the struggle for existence is so keen, only those survive which have the most brains. Men with commodities for sale, ...
-The Love Of Titles
A Russian nobleman has been quoted as saying that The best talent and the highest ability and character among the Russian people naturally gravitate toward the throne. In America they gravitate away...
-Fees To Protectors
Soldiers have always received large fees. Leaders took the land, but the cities were given to the soldiers to loot - it was their pay for services rendered the home community. If the army received no ...
-Chapter XXXI. Future Evolution Of The American Democracy. Our Neighbors
While the laws of organization are slowly but surely welding together the nations of the world in mutual dependence, each nation is similarly welding into its organism smaller nations formerly living ...
-Latin Republics
In regard to the West Indies, Bryce's prediction was untrue, in that he stated that the necessity for excluding their products would exclude the Islands. He failed to realize that there could be tarif...
-The American Protectorate
The national platform of the democratic party once stated that if there is any land where a white man cannot live permanently, it should not be a part of the territory of the United States, and this p...
-Chapter XXXII. Future Populations. Future Density
The density of populations cannot be predicted for an extended period because the factors are so numerous and variable. Nevertheless, the changes are never abrupt and it has been possible in the past ...
-Estimates Of The Remote Future
The population beyond 1950 depends entirely upon the position we are to occupy in the future world nation, and, of course, no one knows what that is to be. If we are to sink into the position of a fee...
-Increases Cannot Be Prevented
It is proper to ask if increased population is desirable. In 1772 Benjamin Franklin said:* I thought often of the happiness in New England, where every man is a freeholder, has a vote in public affai...
-The World's Population
The world's population cannot increase faster than the food. The great increases of the last century are mere temporary phenomena due to the increased food supply from the Western Hemisphere and Austr...
-Future Types Of Man
The type of man who will constitute the future social organism, though a fascinating speculation, cannot possibly be predicted. Of course, we know that the production of more easily digested food, or ...









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