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The Trend Of The Races | by George Edmund Haynes



Two score and nineteeen years have passed since the Emancipation Proclamation set America free. Since that time modern science and invention and world movements have brought the questions of race relations and democracy to the forefront of public policy, both national and international. The records of the past have left mainly the experience of conflict and conquest in the dealings of the strong with the weak and the white with the black. Consequently, the world faces the new situations and the rising tide of race consciousness with quite as limited knowledge of whether the principles of racial appreciation and cooperation can be made practicable and how they may be achieved.

TitleThe Trend Of The Races
AuthorGeorge Edmund Haynes
PublisherCouncil Of Women For Home Missions and Missionary Education Movement Of The United States And Canada
Year1922
Copyright1922, Council Of Women For Home Missions And Missionary Education Movement Of The United States And Canada
AmazonThe Trend Of The Races

George Edmund Haynes, Ph.D.(Columbia)

Secretary of the Commission on the Church and Race Relations of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America. Recently Director of the Division of Negro Economics, Department of Labor. Sometime Professor of Sociology and Economics at Fisk University.

Author of: "The Negro at Work in New York City"; and "Negro Newcomers in Detroit, Michigan".

To My Wife And Son Companion And Follower In The Paths Of Peace.

-A Foreword
Again a new home mission study book is added to the lengthening series of such books issued by the Council of Women for Home Missions and the Missionary Education Movement. Their purpose primarily is ...
-Author's Preface
Two score and nineteeen years have passed since the Emancipation Proclamation set America free. Since that time modern science and invention and world movements have brought the questions of race rela...
-Chapter I. We Face The Future
South and west from Philadelphia, one may visit here and there the open spaces and modest buildings of boarding-schools, institutes, and a few colleges filled with cheerful, buoyant youths whose smili...
-We Face The Future. Continued
A young white Southern college graduate accepted a call in the early seventies to start a school for Negroes in a small Georgia city. In the face of the belief on the part of many white people that Ne...
-Two Methods Of Race Adjustment
Generally prevailing opinion has regarded the conflict of interests of classes, nations, and races as due solely to the personal faults or human depravity of the opponents. Such belief in depraved hum...
-Conditions Surrounding America's Choice
Again, after sixty years, America has come to a place of choice between cooperation, for the general welfare and permanent progress, and conflict that may give temporary relief. The nation has an oppo...
-White And Negro Public Opinion
The white world of opinion in America still believes in the inferior capacity of the Negro and has a very limited knowledge of Negro progress. This estimate was made a generation or two ago. Probably ...
-White And Negro Public Opinion. Continued
1 Since this was written, an attack upon the Negro Church and upon other Negro leaders has seemed to weaken greatly the influence of their published organ and their speakers. The two ideas this movem...
-The Task In Racial Relations
These two worlds of opinion outlined in the preceding paragraphs have grown up as the two races have developed life more and more separately. They do not now know each other, as in the past. Here, the...
-Chapter II. Sixty Years Of Progress
Viscount Bryce is reported to have said that the American Negro in the first thirty years of his liberation made greater advance than was ever made by the Anglo-Saxon in a similar period. Twice thirty...
-Progress In Economic Relations
In support of the statement that the Negroes are a wage-earning people, four important facts meet us at the threshold: (1) In 1910 there were 71 per cent of Negroes in the United States and 87.6 per ...
-Development In Industrial Relations
The first field of occupations in historical importance is employment in Southern agriculture, principally in the raising of cotton, of corn, of sugar-cane, and of tobacco. The second field is in Sou...
-Development In Industrial Relations. Continued
The Negro is a gang worker. He is not a soloist. He 19 superstitious, lacks initiative, and, taken alone, is scared even of the dark. He is not a man for work requiring risk. He is strong, reliable, ...
-Growth Of Business Enterprises
Next to the number of farms owned and operated, the operation of business enterprises is a clear sign of economic progress and prosperity.1 In 1860 Negroes were estimated to have owned 2,100 business ...
-Progress In Morals
In the matter of Negro crime there are several considerations in dealing with figures of arrests, commitments to prison, or other evidences of crime. It is a well-known fact that the Negro suffers a l...
-Development Of Homes
Another evidence of Negro progress may be seen by looking at the thousands of Negro homes. Much has been written about the homes of white people. Many a Sunday photographic supplement of white newspa...
-Development Of Homes. Continued
The Negro in the town and city has to face a situation somewhat different. Here there are two main types of home. First, there is the tenement, either a single building of two or three rooms arranged ...
-Progress In Education
While there can be no absolute measure of the increase in intelligence of a people, fair indications, without doubt, are furnished by the facts about progress in provision for education and by evidenc...
-Progress In Education. Continued
It is inevitable that the majority of the people must depend upon public funds for their common school education, consequently a larger proportion of funds should come from the public treasury than fr...
-Advance In Inventions And Scientific Discovery
Inventions and a few scientific discoveries are clear evidences of the progressive use Negroes are making of their educational opportunities. Among the foremost things that have promoted the progress...
-Progress In Religious Life
The highest expression of Negro life both in individuals and in groups is through their churches. Religious expression has been the very life blood of the Negro heart. Shut out from many of the civic ...
-Need For Increased Opportunities
It should be pointed out in closing that, as a result of experiences North and South, the development of these people and the development of leadership to carry them forward during the coming years ca...
-Chapter III. The Trend Of The Negro World
The practical test of human capacity, physical, mental, and spiritual, is the struggle of life. After all the discussion about the capacity of the Negro, his struggles and achievements under the condi...
-Evidence Of Mental Capacity In The Negro
The test of mental capacity and temperamental efficiency is the use of the mind.1 The evidence of such capacity and efficiency in the Negro is the acquisition and use of such education as the surround...
-Feelings Influence Attitudes And Conduct
When we turn to feelings, attitudes, and habits of action of Negroes, two lines of facts are before us. First, there are certain mental feelings, attitudes, and habits that have resulted in definite c...
-Capacity For Music
For the expression of musical feeling and conception in past generations, the Negroes have not been dependent upon theatrical audiences and technical equipment. When music welled up in their souls, th...
-Capacity For Poetry
Music, probably, has always been the companion art of poetry as the highest expression of spiritual life of a nation or a race as it has striven to give voice to its deepest feelings, desires, and pro...
-Religious Genius Of The Negro
In quite another direction, that of religious fervor and faith, we may study characteristic attitudes and expressions of Negro mind as it reacts to the currents of the surrounding world. This is not a...
-Personal Relations Valued Above Property Possession
The first of these characteristic states of mind of the Negro in reaction to the white world may be termed a philosophy of everyday relations. From the Negro point of view the basis of communication i...
-Self-Forgetful Loyalty Of The Negro
The self-forgetful loyalty to the interests and cause of others even where it conflicts with self-interest has been shown repeatedly as a characteristic attitude of Negroes. Expression of this loyalty...
-Tolerance And Optimism Under Oppression
Another characteristic expression of Negro mind in race relations may be called its attitude of patient tolerance and sustained optimism. These are illustrated in Negro forbearance under opposition, r...
-Rising Tide Of Race Consciousness
In addition to these characteristic reactions, the Negro has acquired certain other feelings and attitudes, especially during the last fifty years, that should be noted in considering the Negro mind i...
-Increasing Resentment And Suspicion
To paint only the bright and sunny side, however, would not give a complete picture of the feeling and thought among Negroes. There are shadows in the background. One of these is the Negro's increasin...
-Survival Of Superstition And Backwardness
An unfavorable symptom of Negro life in contact with current American opinion is the continuance of many of the old superstitions among the rank and file, such as are common to other ignorant people i...
-What The Negro Wants
There have been among the Negro people those men of intelligence and vision, if not always of learning, who have not bowed the knee to Baal, to the popular superstitions and whims, personal lust of we...
-Growing Dependence Of Negroes Upon Their Own Leaders
The separation of the races has more and more left Negroes in a group isolation. They have thus been thrown back upon their own leaders for knowledge and guidance. Negroes, too, both as individuals an...
-Chapter IV. The Negro's Offering To The Stars And Stripes
If one goes to Boston Common he sees there a monument bearing the name of Crispus Attucks, the first martyr of the American Revolution. He was a Negro, a former slave. From the time of the controversi...
-In The Conflict Of 1812
In the War of 1812 Negroes were used in both the land and naval forces. The achievements of the Negro in the Revolutionary War and the lack of troops left no room for debate as to the utility of Negro...
-In The Civil War
The service of the Negroes in this struggle is so well known that only a brief statement is necessary. It is estimated that more than 180,000 Negro soldiers were enlisted in the Union Army and that th...
-Negro Citizenship
By the time of the Spanish-American War, the experience of a generation of freed-men had thrown the light of the years upon the question of Negro citizenship. Before the outbreak of the World War the ...
-Friction Due To Exercise Of The Franchise
The exercise of the franchise guaranteed by the Fifteenth Amendment has been one of the factors of the Negro's status as a citizen which has brought the most discussion, controversy, and friction. Wha...
-In The World War
The story of the Negro in the army during the World War may be described first in four phases besides the fighting to which Negroes contributed so largely; namely, Negro music in the camps and in the ...
-In Agriculture And Industry During The War
The Negro workers, men and women, in agriculture and industry, North and South, also took their part in the work of producing the food, the supplies, and the ships to win the war. They were among thos...
-Negro Economics During The War
In dealing with the matter of the cooperation of Negro workers, the Secretary recognized that, since they constituted about one seventh of the working army, their enthusiasm, confidence, and cooperati...
-Negro Women And The World War
Negro women were also in the volunteer work for war relief and other activities. Their spirit during the War is illustrated in what was said by the President of the National Association of Colored Wom...
-In Liberty Loan And Food Campaigns
It is impossible to get the figures for an exact estimate of the total amount of subscriptions of Negroes to Liberty Bonds. From individual records like those which follow, it has been estimated that ...
-The Negro In The Army
There were 342,277 Negroes accepted for full military service, a larger percentage of Negro men than of white men, for of white men there were 26.8 per cent accepted, and of Negro men, 31.7 per cent. ...
-The Negro In The Army. Continued
The momentous registration day, June 5, 1917, came. It should be borne in mind that in only a few localities were Negro citizens allowed to serve as selective service registrars. Even with this racial...
-Negro Troops In Action
The 92d Division, composed entirely of Negro units which had been trained at seven different camps, was ordered overseas in May, 1918. Following eight weeks of training there in the new war tactics, t...
-Negro Troops In Action. Continued
1From a letter of Colonel Hayward, quoted in Scott, E. J., work cited, pp. 204-206. The first American soldiers, black or white, to receive the French Croix de Guerre, were Needham Roberts, of Trento...
-Chapter V. The Trend Of The White World1
Within human life two impulses press forward to control the affairs of men. One is self-assertive, self-centered, and dominating, considering only gain in wealth and power. The other is self-denying, ...
-Attitudes And Ways Of Action Due To Conscience
From under the door-posts of the house of Negro bondage flow waters that come from the two different springs described in the opening paragraph. The humanitarian and religious impulses of conscience h...
-Influence Of Economic Motives
Negroes were brought to America as labor recruits when indentured servants from Europe and Indian slaves could no longer meet the growing demands. From the first there were those who sought to prevent...
-Survivals From The Past
Although nearly sixty years have passed since the emancipation of the Negro, there is still in American thinking much that was brought down from slavery. However kindly disposed individual owners may ...
-Survivals From The Past. Part 2
1 See Woofter, T. J., work cited, pp. 52-73. 2 Murphy, Edward G., Problems of the Present South, pp. 154-157. 3 Murphy, E. G., work cited, p. 163. In two states and two hundred and forty-eight coun...
-Survivals From The Past. Part 3
2 Murphy, E. G., work cited, pp. 51-54. 1 Pritchard, N. G, Analyzing the Race Problem, Christian Century, August 11, 1921. 2 Mecklin, Democracy and Race Friction, pp. 47-82; Smith, William B., The...
-Effects Of Principles And Ideals Of Democracy
From the Declaration of Independence to the proclamation of America's entrance into the World War, there have been gradually evolving certain principles which Americans consider fundamental to our dev...
-Chapter VI. A Way To Interracial Peace
The preceding chapters have attempted to define the task and to describe present conditions and relations of the two races in the main ways of life where they meet and where adjustment is necessary. I...
-Church Cooperation Leads To Better Understanding
In Atlanta, in 1916, a Committee on Church Cooperation was formed composed of representatives from the ministry and laity of white evangelical denominations. Among several standing committees was on...
-Cooperative Organization May Be General
One of the white men from Nashville and one from Atlanta, who had been active in the cooperative movements described above, saw the tense racial situation, especially in the South, following the Armis...
-Mutual Economic And Life Interests
We have passed from a deficit economy of the past when no group had enough to go around to a surplus economy of the present when, if fairly distributed, there may be enough and to spare. Furthermo...
-Mutual Economic And Life Interests. Part 2
1The biological basis of mutual aid or cooperation has been treated by several writers of scientific standing. Henry Drum-mond in his Ascent of Man was one of the first Kropotkin, the Russian, has wri...
-Mutual Economic And Life Interests. Part 3
The majority of Negro children in America to-day live in houses either on plantation or farm, in town or in the city, that are grossly deficient in ordinary sanitary conveniences. Many of these homes ...
-The Church An Avenue Of Racial Cooperation
The Church doubtless ranks next to the home as the conservator of our ideals of brotherhood and justice. In all ages and in all climes men have looked to religion for assistance in their life problems...
-The Negro Church Forced Through Discrimination
A description of the Negro Church and its progress has been sketched in Chapter II (Sixty Years Of Progress). For our purpose here it is important to point out that the Negro Church arose mainly out o...
-Cooperative Contacts Through Government
Touching our every-day lives at even more points than the Church and the school, and most profoundly affecting the home, is the organized machinery of the government. Through its arms of city, county,...
-Cooperative Contacts Through Government. Continued
It should be borne in mind, too, that the representatives should, as far as possible, be chosen by their own group or agency and that there should be a Negro executive on the Negro side of the equatio...
-Popular Education Needed
Popular educational activity among Negroes and white people to inform each race about the other and about race relations is imperative for such purposes. This might be called propaganda. If so, it is ...
-Mutual Inheritance Of Ideals
As America looks out upon a war-torn world, she hears the Macedonian cry of the nations. Peace conferences and disarmament conferences may set up the framework; only the good-will of the Master can cr...
-Mutual Inheritance Of Ideals. Continued
Finally, probably as big a problem as any other is to cultivate the ideal of respect of each race for human personality no matter what happens to be the color of the covering. Most social and racial f...
-Appendix. Supplementary To Chapters III And V. On The Question Of Mental Capacity Of The Negro
It is well to have at hand a brief summary of the principal scientific opinions on the question of mental capacity of the Negro. Scientific data to-day which would be a basis for drawing conclusions a...
-A Select Reading List
The books starred (*) are those which may well be purchased for a limited library. The prices quoted are subject to change. Historical *Brawley, Benjamin G. A Social History of the American Negro. 1...







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