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A Short History Of The English People | by John Richard Green



The story of how the Short History of the English People came to be written would be the story of Mr. Green's life, from the time when his boyish interest was first awakened by the world beyond himself until his work was done. So closely are the work and the worker bound together that unless the biography be fully written no real account of the growth of the book can indeed be given. But in issuing a Revised Edition of the History, a slight sketch of the historical progress of the writer's mind, and of the gradual way in which the plan of his work grew up, may not seem out of place...

TitleA Short History Of The English People
AuthorJohn Richard Green
PublisherNew York Harper & Brothers
Year1896
Copyright1896, New York Harper & Brothers
AmazonA Short History of the English People

By John Richard Green, Honorary Fellow Of Jesus College, Oxford

With Maps And Tables

England In The Nineteenth Century

England In The Nineteenth Century.

-Introduction
The story of how the Short History of the English People came to be written would be the story of Mr. Green's life, from the time when his boyish interest was first awakened by the world beyond himsel...
-Introduction. Part 2
There was then little help to be had for the history of Oxford or any other town. So wholly had the story of the towns, he wrote later, passed out of the minds of men that there is still not a hist...
-Introduction. Part 3
The nine years spent in the monotonous reaches of dreary streets that make up Hoxton and Stepney, the close contact with sides of life little known to students, had only deepened the impressions with ...
-Introduction. Part 4
When at last, by a miracle of resolution and endurance, the 1* Short History was finished, discouraging reports reached him from critics whose judgement he respected; and his despondency increased ...
-Preface To The First Edition
The aim of the following work is denned by its title; it is a history, not of English Kings or English Conquests, but of the English People. At the risk of sacrificing much that was interesting and at...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 450 - 1100
The English Kingdoms. 449-1016 449 English land in Britain. 457 Kent conquered by English. 477 Landing of South Saxons. 491 Siege of Anderida. 495 Landing of West Saxons. 519 Cerdic ...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 1100 - 1300
1100 Henry the First, died 1135. Henry's Charter. 11OI Robert of Normandy invades England. 1106 Settlement of question of investitures. English Conquest of Normandy. 1129 Fulk of Jerusalem, ...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 1300 - 1500
1301 Barons demand nomination of Ministers by Parliament. Barons exact fresh Confirmation of the Charters. 1304 Submission of Scotland. 1305 Parliament of Perth. 1306 Rising of Robert Bruce. ...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 1500 - 1600
1501 Arthur Tudor marries Catharine of Aragon. 1502 Margaret Tudor marries James the Fourth. 1505 Colet Dean of S. Paul's. 1509 Henry the Eighth, died 1547. 1509 Erasmus writes the ...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 1600 - 1700
1603 Mountjoy completes the conquest of Ireland. Death of Elizabeth. The Stuarts. 1603-1688 1603 James the First, died 1625. Millenary Potition 1604 Parliament claims to deal with both ...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 1700 - 1800
1700 Second Partition Treaty. 1701 Duke of Anjou becomes King of Spain. Act of Settlement passed. 1701 Death of James II. 1702 Anne, died 1714. 1704 Battle of Blenheim, August 13. Harley ...
-Chronological Annals Of English History. 1800 - 1900
1800 Surrender of Malta to English Fleet. Armed Neutrality of Northern Powers. Act of Union with Ireland. 1801 George the Third rejects Pitt's Plan of Catholic Emancipation. Administration of ...
-Genealogical Tables
-Chapter I. The English Kingdoms, 607 - 1013. Section I. Britain And The English
FOR the fatherland of the English race we must look far away from England itself. In the fifth century after the birth of Christ, the one country which we know to have borne the name of Angeln or the ...
-Britain And The English. Part 2
Inside this boundary the township, as the village was then called from the tun or rough fence and trench that served as its simple fortification, formed a ready-made fortress in war, while in peac...
-Britain And The English. Part 3
Raids so extensive could hardly have been effected without help from within, and the dim history of the time allows us to see not merely an increase of disunion between the Romanized and un-Romanized ...
-Section II. The English Conquest. 449 - 577
The story has since been told by Mr. Green in The Making of England]. It is with the landing of Hengest and his war-band at Ebbsfleet on the shores of the Isle of Thanet that English history begin...
-The English Conquest. 449 - 577. Part 2
It only tells that Horsa fell in the moment of victory; and the flint-heap of Horsted, which has long preserved his name, and was held in after-time to mark his grave, is thus the earliest of those mo...
-The English Conquest. 449 - 577. Part 3
The true conquest of Southern Britain was reserved for a fresh band of Saxons, a tribe whose older name was that of the Gewissas, but who were to be more widely known as the West-Saxons. Landing westw...
-The English Conquest. 449 - 577. Part 4
The strife between the kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia for supremacy in the North was closed by their being united under King aethelric of Bernicia; and from this union was formed a new kingdom, the ki...
-Section III. The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685
The conquest of the bulk of Britain was now complete. Eastward of a line which may be roughly drawn along the moorlands of Northumberland and Yorkshire, through Derbyshire and skirting the Forest of A...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 2
The fabric of the Roman law indeed never took root in England, but it is impossible not to recognize the result of the influence of the Roman missionaries in the fact that the codes of customary Engli...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 3
The Northumbrian king was in fact supreme over Britain as no king of English blood had been before. Northward his frontier reached the Forth, and was guarded by a city which bore his name, Edinburgh, ...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 4
The science and Biblical knowledge which fled from the Continent took refuge in famous schools which made Durrow and Armagh the universities of the West. The new Christian life soon beat too strongly ...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 5
The terrible struggle was followed by a season of peace. For four years after the battle of Winwaed Mercia was subject to Oswiu's overlordship. But in 659 a general rising of the people threw off the ...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 6
Once when he had done thus, and gone from the feast to the stable where he had that night charge of the cattle, there appeared to him in his sleep One who said, greeting him by name, ' Sing, Caedmon, ...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 7
Benedict Biscop worked towards the same end in a quieter fashion, coming backwards and forwards across the sea with books and relics and cunning masons and painters to rear a great church and monaster...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 8
In his work of organization, in his increase of bishoprics, in his arrangement of dioceses, and the way in which he grouped them round the see of Canterbury, in his national synods and ecclesiastical ...
-The Northumbrian Kingdom, 588 - 685. Part 9
His armies chased the Britons from southern Cumbria and made the districts of Carlisle, the Lake country, and our Lancashire English ground. His success in this quarter was quickly followed by fresh g...
-Section IV. - The Three Kingdoms, 685 - 828
The supremacy of Northumbria over the English people had fallen for ever with the death of Oswiu, and its power over the tribes of the north was as completely broken by the death of Ecgfrith and the d...
-The Three Kingdoms, 685 - 828. Part 2
For twenty years the overlordship of Mercia was recognized by all Britain south of the Humber. It was at the head of the forces, not of Mercia only, but of East Anglia and Kent, as well as of the West...
-The Three Kingdoms, 685 - 828. Part 3
So the days rolled on to Ascensiontide, and still master and pupils toiled at their work, for Baeda longed to bring to an end his version of St. John's Gospel into the English tongue, and his extracts...
-The Three Kingdoms, 685 - 828. Part 4
But while Offa was hampered in his projects by the dread of the West Saxons at home, he was forced to watch jealously a power which had risen to dangerous greatness over sea, the power of the Franks. ...
-Section V. Wessex And The Danes, 802 - 880
The effort after a national sovereignty had hardly been begun, when the Dane struck down the short-lived greatness of Wessex. While Britain was passing through her ages of conquest and settlement, the...
-Wessex And The Danes, 802 - 880. Part 2
The petty squadrons which had till now harassed the coast of Britain made way for larger hosts than had as yet fallen on any country in the west; while raid and foray were replaced by the regular camp...
-Wessex And The Danes, 802 - 880. Part 3
Throughout this Dane-law, as it was called, the conquerors settled down among the conquered population as lords of the soil, thickly in the north and east, more thinly in the central districts, but ev...
-Wessex And The Danes, 802 - 880. Part 4
But his mind was far from being prisoned within his own island. He listened with keen attention to tales of far-off lands, to the Norwegian Othere's account of his journey round the North Cape to expl...
-Section VI. The West-Saxon Realm, 893 - 1013
For this period see also Mr. Green's Conquest of England.] aelfred's work of peace was however to be once more interrupted by a new invasion which in 893 broke under the Danish leader Hasting upo...
-The West-Saxon Realm, 893 - 1013. Part 2
On aethelstan's death and the accession of his young brother Eadmund, the Danelaw rose again in revolt; the men of the Five Boroughs joined their kinsmen in Northumbria, and a peace which was negotiat...
-The West-Saxon Realm, 893 - 1013. Part 3
The death of Eadred however was a signal for the outbreak of political strife. The boy-king Eadwig was swayed by a woman of high lineage, aethelgifu; and the quarrel between her and the older counsell...
-The West-Saxon Realm, 893 - 1013. Part 4
It was not till the reign of the first Norman king that the preaching of Wulfstan and the influence of Lanfranc suppressed the trade in its last stronghold, the port of Bristol. But the decrease of...
-The West-Saxon Realm, 893 - 1013. Part 5
The government of the realm passed into the hands of the great nobles who upheld aethelred, and Dunstan withdrew powerless to Canterbury, where he died nine years later. During the eleven years fro...
-Chapter II. England Under Foreign Kings. 1013-1204. Section I. The Danish Kings
Britain had become England in the five hundred years that followed the landing of Hengest, and its conquest had ended in the settlement of its conquerors, in their conversion to Christianity, in the b...
-The Danish Kings. Continued
Eadric of Mercia, whose aid had given him the crown, was felled by an axe-blow at the King's signal; a murder removed Eadwig, the brother of Eadmund Ironside, while the children of Eadmund were hunted...
-Section II. The English Restoration, 1042 - 1066
It is in such transitional moments of a nation's history that it needs the cool prudence, the sensitive selfishness, the quick perception of what is possible, which distinguished the adroit politician...
-Section III. Normandy And The Normans, 912 - 1066
[Auihorities. - Dudo of S. Quentin, a verbose and confused writer, has preserved the earliest Norman traditions. His work is abridged and continued by William of Jumieges, a contemporary of the Conque...
-Section IV. The Conqueror, 1042 - 1066
It was not this new fervour of faith only which drove Norman pilgrims in flocks to the shrines of Italy and the Holy Land. The old northern spirit of adventure turned the pilgrims into Crusaders, and ...
-The Conqueror, 1042 - 1066. Part 2
Priests and nobles fled as the last breath left him, and the Conqueror's body lay naked and lonely on the floor It was the genius of William which lifted him out of this mere north-man into a great...
-The Conqueror, 1042 - 1066. Part 3
The difficulties in the way of his enterprise were indeed enormous. He could reckon on no support within England itself. At home he had to extort the consent of his own reluctant baronage; to gather a...
-Section V. The Norman Conquest, 1068 - 1071
It is not to his victory at Senlac, but to the struggle which followed his return from Normandy, that William owes his title of the Conqueror. During his absence Bishop Odo's tyranny had forced the...
-The Norman Conquest, 1068 - 1071. Part 2
The struggle which ended in the fens of Ely had wholly changed William's position. He no longer held the land merely as elected king, he added to his elective right the right of conquest. The system o...
-The Norman Conquest, 1068 - 1071. Part 3
Over the whole face of the land most manors were burthened with their own customs, or special dues to the Crown: and it was for the purpose of ascertaining and recording these that William sent into...
-Section VI. The English Revival, 1071 - 1127
Henry's administration is admirably explained for the first time by Dr. Stubbs in his Constitutional History.] The Conquest was hardly over when the struggle between the baronage and the Crown b...
-The English Revival, 1071 - 1127. Part 2
At a later period of his reign a conspiracy was organized to place Stephen of Albemarle, a near cousin of the royal house, upon the throne; but the capture of Robert Mowbray, the Earl of Northumberlan...
-The English Revival, 1071 - 1127. Part 3
But as soon as I could get out of her sight I used to snatch it from my head, fling it on the ground, and trample it under foot. That was the way, and none other, in which I was veiled. Anselm at onc...
-The English Revival, 1071 - 1127. Part 4
The advance of towns which had grown up not on the royal domain but around abbey or castle was slower and more difficult. The story of S. Edmundsbury shows how gradual was the transition from pure ser...
-The English Revival, 1071 - 1127. Part 5
We see the strength of the new movement in the new class of ecclesiastics that it forced on the stage; men like Anselm or John of Salisbury, or the two great prelates who followed one another after He...
-Section VII. England And Anjou, 870 - 1154
To understand the history of England under its Angevin rulers, we must first know something of the Angevins themselves. The character and the policy of Henry the Second and his sons were as much a her...
-England And Anjou, 870 - 1154. Part 2
His overthrow of Britanny on the field of Conquereux was followed by the gradual absorption of Southern Touraine, while his restless activity covered the land with castles and abbeys. The very spirit ...
-England And Anjou, 870 - 1154. Part 3
Flying to Oxford, she was besieged there by Stephen, who had obtained his release; but she escaped in white robes by a postern, and crossing the river unobserved on the ice, made her way to Abingdon. ...
-Section VIII. Henry The Second, 1154 - 1189
In his Select Charters Dr. Stubbs has printed the various Assizes, and the Dialogus de Scaccario, which explains the financial administration of the Curia Regis]. Young as he was, Henry mounted...
-Henry The Second, 1154 - 1189. Part 2
The next year saw him drawn across the Channel, where he was already master of a third of the present France. He had inherited Anjou, Maine, and Touraine from his father, Normandy from his mother, and...
-Henry The Second, 1154 - 1189. Part 3
After a stormy parley with him in his chamber they withdrew to arm. Thomas was hurried by his clerks into the cathedral, but as he reached the steps leading from the transept to the choir his pursuers...
-Henry The Second, 1154 - 1189. Part 4
The jurors were thus not merely witnesses, but sworn to act as judges also in determining the value of the charge, and it is this double character of Henry's jurors that has descended to our grand ju...
-Section IX. The Fall Of The Angevins, 1189 - 1204
We need not follow Richard in the Crusade which occupied the beginning of his reign, and which left England for four years without a ruler, - in his quarrels in Sicily, his conquest of Cyprus, his vic...
-The Fall Of The Angevins, 1189 - 1204. Continued
The easy reduction of Normandy on the fall of Château-Gaillard at a later time proved Richard's foresight; but foresight and sagacity were mingled in him with a brutal violence and a callous indiffere...
-Chapter III. The Great Charter. 1204 - 1265. Section I. English Literature Under The Norman And Angevin Kings
It is in a review of the literature of England during the period that we have just traversed that we shall best understand the new English people with which John, when driven from Normandy, found hims...
-English Literature Under The Norman And Angevin Kings. Continued
They are just the sort of lively, dashing letters that we find in the correspondence of a modern journal. There is the same modern tone in his political pamphlets; his profusion of jests, his fund of ...
-Section II. John, 1204 - 1215
Foul as it is, hell itself is defiled by the fouler presence of John. The terrible verdict of the King's contemporaries has passed into the sober judgement of history. Externally John possessed all ...
-John, 1204 - 1215. Continued
The King replied by confiscating the lands of the clergy who observed the interdict, by subjecting them in spite of their privileges to the royal courts, and often by leaving outrages on them unpunish...
-Section III. The Great Charter, 1215 - 1217
An island in the Thames between Staines and Windsor had been chosen as the place of conference: the King encamped on one bank, while the barons covered the marshy flat, still known by the name of Runn...
-The Great Charter, 1215 - 1217. Continued
They have given me five-and-twenty over-kings, cried John in a burst of fury, flinging himself on the floor and gnawing sticks and straw in his impotent rage. But the rage soon passed into the subt...
-Section IV. The Universities
From the turmoil of civil politics we turn to the more silent but hardly less important revolution from which we may date our national education. It is in the reign of Henry the Third that the English...
-The Universities. Part 2
Beket wandered to Paris from his school at Merton. But through the peaceful reign of Henry the Second Oxford was quietly increasing in numbers and repute. Forty years after the visit of Vacarius its e...
-The Universities. Part 3
Dante felt himself as little a stranger in the Latin quarter around Mont Ste. Geneviève as under the arches of Bologna. Wandering Oxford scholars carried the writings of Wyclif to the libraries of...
-The Universities. Part 4
He was without instruments or means of experiment. Without mathematical instruments no science can be mastered, he complains afterwards, and thse instruments are not to be found among the Latins, n...
-Section V. Henry The Third, 1216-1257
The death of the Earl Marshal in 1219 left the direction of affairs in the hands of a new legate, Pandulf, of Stephen Langton who had just returned forgiven from Rome, and of the Justiciar, Hubert de ...
-Henry The Third, 1216-1257. Part 2
Exaction followed exaction, the very rights of the lay patrons were set aside, and under the name of reserves presentations to English benefices were sold in the Papal market, while Italian clergy...
-Henry The Third, 1216-1257. Part 3
That misgovernment of this kind should have gone on unchecked, in defiance of the provisions of the Charter, was owing to the disunion and sluggishness of the English baronage. On the first arrival of...
-Section VI. The Friars
[Attthorities. - Eccleston's Tract on their arrival in England and Adam Marsh's Letters, with Mr. Brewer's admirable Preface, in the Monumenta Franciscana of the Rolls series. Grosseteste's Letters ...
-The Friars. Continued
The disappointment was too much for the temper of the monks, and the brothers were kicked roughly from the gate to find their night's lodging under a tree. But the welcome of the townsmen made up ever...
-Section VII. The Barons' War, 1258 - 1265
When a thunderstorm once forced the King, as he was rowing on the Thames, to take refuge at the palace of the Bishop of Durham, Earl Simon of Montfort, who was a guest of the prelate, met the royal ba...
-The Barons' War, 1258 - 1265. Part 2
Henry had sworn again and again to observe the Charter, and his oath was no sooner taken than it was unscrupulously broken. The barons had secured the freedom of the realm; the secret of their long pa...
-The Barons' War, 1258 - 1265. Part 3
With an army reinforced by 15,000 Londoners, he marched to the relief of the Cinque Ports, which were now threatened by the King. Even on the march he was forsaken by many of the nobles who followed h...
-The Barons' War, 1258 - 1265. Part 4
John Giffard left him because he refused to allow him to exact ransom from a prisoner contrary to the agreement made after Lewes. The young Earl Gilbert of Gloucester, though enriched with the estates...
-Chapter IV. The Three Edwards. 1265-1360. Section I. The Conquest Of Wales, 1265 - 1284
While literature and science after a brief outburst were crushed in England by the turmoil of the Barons' War, a poetic revival had brought into sharp contrast the social and intellectual condition of...
-The Conquest Of Wales, 1265 - 1284. Part 2
Four white trefoils sprang up wherever she trod. The touch of pure fancy removes its object out of the sphere of passion into one of delight and reverence. It is strange, as we have said, to pass ...
-The Conquest Of Wales, 1265 - 1284. Part 3
The homage which the first succeeded in extorting from the whole of the Welsh chieftains placed him openly at the head of his race, and gave a new character to his struggle with the English King. In c...
-The Conquest Of Wales, 1265 - 1284. Part 4
Near, however, as Llewelyn seemed to the final realization of his aims, he was still a vassal of the English crown, and the accession of a new sovereign to the throne was at once followed by the deman...
-Section II. The English Parliament, 1283 - 1295
[The second volume of Dr. Stubbs's Constitutional History which deals with this period was published after this History was written and the list of authorities prepared. - Ed]. The conquest of Wa...
-The English Parliament, 1283 - 1295. Part 2
His assembly of the ministers, the higher permanent officials, and the law officers of the Crown, for the first time reserved to itself in its judicial capacity the correction of all breaches of the l...
-The English Parliament, 1283 - 1295. Part 3
However small the estates thus created might be, the bulk were held directly of the Crown; and this class of lesser gentry and freeholders grew steadily from this time in numbers and importance. It...
-The English Parliament, 1283 - 1295. Part 4
The effort, however, to revive the old personal attendance of the lesser baronage, which had broken down half a century before, could hardly be renewed at a time when the increase of their numbers mad...
-The English Parliament, 1283 - 1295. Part 5
The burgesses could refuse indeed the invitation to contribute to the free aid demanded by the royal officers, but the suspension of their markets or trading privileges brought them in the end to s...
-The English Parliament, 1283 - 1295. Part 6
The King had twice at least summoned its proctors to Great Councils before 1295, but it was then only that the complete representation of the Church was definitely organized by the insertion of a cl...
-Section III. The Conquest Of Scotland, 1290 - 1305
For Edward's side see the preface of Sir F. Palgrave to the work above, and Mr. Freeman's essay on The Relations between the Crowns of England and Scotland.] The personal character of Edward the ...
-The Conquest Of Scotland, 1290 - 1305. Part 2
At his Round Table of Kenilworth a hundred lords and ladies, clad all in silk, renewed the faded glories of Arthur's Court. The false air of romance which was soon to turn the gravest political re...
-The Conquest Of Scotland, 1290 - 1305. Part 3
On the other hand, the kingdom of the Picts started into new life with its great victory, and pushed its way in the hundred years that followed westward, eastward, and southward, till the whole countr...
-The Conquest Of Scotland, 1290 - 1305. Part 4
Homage was sometimes rendered, whether for these lordships, for the Lowlands, or for the whole Scottish realm, but it was the capture of William the Lion during the revolt of the English baronage whic...
-The Conquest Of Scotland, 1290 - 1305. Part 5
It was certain that no appeal from a Scotch King's court to that of his supposed overlord had been allowed since the days of William the Lion, and the judicial independence of Scotland had been expres...
-The Conquest Of Scotland, 1290 - 1305. Part 6
For a moment it had all Waterloo's success. I have brought you to the ring, hop (dance) if you can, are words of rough humour that reveal the very soul of the patriot leader, and the serried ranks a...
-Section IV. The English Towns
From scenes such as we have been describing, from the wrong and bloodshed of foreign conquest, we pass to the peaceful life and progress of England itselt Through the reign of the three Edwards two re...
-The English Towns. Part 2
Then one of them fleeing from the other till he came to a certain little pit, as he stood on the brink of the pit, and was about to fall therein, his kinsman said to him 'Take care of the pit, turn ba...
-The English Towns. Part 3
Imperfect, however, as the union might be, when once it was effected the town passed from a mere collection of brotherhoods into a powerful and organized community, whose character was inevitably dete...
-The English Towns. Part 4
It is this struggle, to use the technical terms of the time, of the greater folk against the lesser folk, or of the commune, the general mass of the inhabitants, against the prudhommes, or...
-Section V. The King And The Baronage, 1290 - 1327
If we turn again to the constitutional history of England from the accession of Edward the First we find a progress not less real but chequered with darker vicissitudes than the progress of our towns....
-The King And The Baronage, 1290 - 1327. Part 2
From the first the King struggled fruitlessly against this overpowering influence; and his sympathies must have been stirred by the revolution on the other side of the Channel, where the French kings ...
-The King And The Baronage, 1290 - 1327. Part 3
No share in the enormities which accompanied the expulsion of the Jews can fall upon Edward, for he not only suffered the fugitives to take their wealth with them, but punished with the halter those w...
-The King And The Baronage, 1290 - 1327. Part 4
Piers Gaveston, a foreigner sprung from a family of Guienne, had been his friend and companion during his father's reign, at the close of which he had been banished from the realm for his share in int...
-Section VI. The Scotch War Of Independence, 1306 - 1342
To obtain a clear view of the constitutional struggle between the kings and the baronage, we have deferred to its close an account of the great contest which raged throughout the whole period in the n...
-The Scotch War Of Independence, 1306 - 1342. Continued
Stirling was in fact the key of Scotland, and its danger roused England out of its civil strife to a vast effort for the recovery of its prey. Thirty thousand horsemen formed the fighting part of the ...
-Chapter V. The Hundred Years' War. 1336 - 1431. Section I. Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360
Froissart's vivacity and picturesqueness blind us to the inaccuracy of his details; as an historical authority he is of little value. The incidental mention of Crecy and the later English expeditions ...
-Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360. Part 2
It is this new gladness of a great people which utters itself in the verse of Geoffrey Chaucer. Chaucer was born about 1340, the son of a London vintner who lived in Thames Street; and it was in Londo...
-Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360. Part 3
But the genius of Chaucer was neither French nor Italian, whatever element it might borrow from either literature, but English to the core, and from 1384 all trace of foreign influence dies away. The ...
-Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360. Part 4
Again Edward endeavoured to avert the conflict by a formal cession of Guienne into Philip's hands during forty days, but the refusal of the French sovereign to restore the province left no choice for ...
-Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360. Part 5
The failure of his foreign hopes threw Edward on the resources of England itself, and it was with an army of thirty thousand men that he landed at La Hogue, and commenced a march which was to change t...
-Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360. Part 6
A few months after Crécy a Scotch army which had burst into the north was routed at Neville's Cross, and its King, David Bruce, taken prisoner; while the withdrawal of the French from the Garonne enab...
-Edward The Third, 1336 - 1360. Part 7
He at once took a strong position in the fields of Maupertuis, his front covered by thick hedges, and approachable only by a deep and narrow lane which ran between vineyards. The Prince lined the vine...
-Section II. The Good Parliament, 1360 - 1377
If we turn from the stirring but barren annals of foreign warfare to the more fruitful field of constitutional progress, we are at once struck with a marked change which takes place during this period...
-The Good Parliament, 1360 - 1377. Continued
Poitou, Saintonge, and the Angoumois yielded to his general Du Guesclin, and Rochelle was surrendered by its citizens. A great army under the King's third son, John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, penetr...
-Section III. John Wyclif
Nothing is more remarkable than the contrast between the obscurity of Wyclif's earlier life and the fulness and vividness of our knowledge of him during the twenty years which preceded its close. Born...
-John Wyclif. Part 2
If extortion and tyranny such as this severed the English clergy from the Papacy, their own selfishness severed them from the nation at large. Immense as was their wealth, they bore as little as they ...
-John Wyclif. Part 3
Fierce words passed between the nobles and the prelate; the Duke himself was said to have threatened to drag Courtenay out of the church by the hair of his head, and at last the London populace, to wh...
-John Wyclif. Part 4
How rapid their progress must have been we may see from the panic-struck exaggerations of their opponents. A few years later they complained that the followers of Wyclif abounded everywhere and in all...
-Section IV. The Peasant Revolt, 1377-1381
The religious revolution which we have been describing gave fresh impulse to a revolution of even greater importance, which had for a long time been changing the whole face of the country. The manoria...
-The Peasant Revolt, 1377-1381. Part 2
This earlier step, however, in the modification of the manorial system, by the rise of the Farmer-class, was soon followed by one of a far more serious character in the rise of the Free Labourer. Labo...
-The Peasant Revolt, 1377-1381. Part 3
But sterner measures were soon found to be necessary. Not only was the price of labour fixed by Parliament in the Statute of 1351, but the labour class was once more tied to the soil. The labourer was...
-The Peasant Revolt, 1377-1381. Part 4
It was to defray the heavy expenses of the war that the Parliament of 1380 renewed a grant made three years before, to be raised by means of a poll-tax on every person in the realm. The tax brought un...
-The Peasant Revolt, 1377-1381. Part 5
It was with such a charter that William Grindecobbe returned to St. Albans, and breaking at the head of the burghers into the abbey precincts, summoned the abbot to deliver up the charters which bound...
-Section V. Richard The Second, 1381 - 1399
The best modern work on Richard II. is that of M. Wallon (Richard II. Paris, 1864)]. All the darker and sterner aspects of the age which we have been viewing, its social revolt, its moral and rel...
-Richard The Second, 1381 - 1399. Part 2
Though the poet is loyal to the Church, he proclaims a righteous life to be better than a host of indulgences, and God sends His pardon to Piers when priests dispute it. But he sings as a man consciou...
-Richard The Second, 1381 - 1399. Part 3
Lollardry had its own schools, its own books; its pamphlets were passed everywhere from hand to hand; scurrilous ballads which revived the old attacks of Golias in the Angevin times upon the wealth ...
-Richard The Second, 1381 - 1399. Part 4
Entering the Council he suddenly asked his uncle to tell him how old he was. Your Highness, replied Gloucester, is in your twenty-fourth year. Then I am old enough to manage my own affairs, said...
-Section VI. The House Of Lancaster, 1399 - 1422
Raised to the throne by a Parliamentary revolution and resting its claims on a Parliamentary title, the House of Lancaster was precluded by its very position from any resumption of the late struggle f...
-The House Of Lancaster, 1399 - 1422. Part 2
On the failure of the rising the law was rendered more rigorous. Magistrates were directed to arrest all Lollards and hand them over to the bishops; a conviction of heresy was made to entail forfeitur...
-The House Of Lancaster, 1399 - 1422. Part 3
The immediate result of the battle of Agincourt was small, for the English army was too exhausted for pursuit, and it made its way to Calais only to return to England. The war was limited to a contest...
-Chapter VI. The New Monarchy. 1422-1540. Section I. Joan Of Arc, 1422-1451
Lord Brougham ( England under the House of Lancaster) is still useful on constitutional points]. [Dr. Stubbs' Constitutional History, vol. iii., published since these pages were written, illust...
-Joan Of Arc, 1422-1451. Part 2
This great disfranchising statute, as it has been justly termed, was aimed, in its own words, against voters of no value, whereof every of them pretended to have a voice equivalent with the more wo...
-Joan Of Arc, 1422-1451. Part 3
Though Gloucester soon returned to England, the ruinous struggle went on for three years, during which Bedford was forced to remain simply on the defensive, till the cessation of war again restored to...
-Joan Of Arc, 1422-1451. Part 4
Her enthusiasm drove the hesitating generals to engage the handful of besiegers, and the enormous disproportion of forces at once made itself felt. Fort after fort was taken, till only the strongest r...
-Joan Of Arc, 1422-1451. Part 5
The English cause was indeed irretrievably lost. In spite of a pompous coronation of the boy-king Henry at Paris, Bedford, with the cool wisdom of his temper, seems to have abandoned all hope of perma...
-Section II. The Wars Of The Roses, 1450 - 1471
The ruinous issue of the great struggle with France roused England to a burst of fury against the wretched government to whose weakness and credulity it attributed its disasters. Suffolk was impeached...
-The Wars Of The Roses, 1450 - 1471. Part 2
The position of York as heir presumptive to the crown by descent from Edmund of Langley had ceased with the birth of a son to Henry; but the victory of Northampton no sooner raised him to the supreme ...
-The Wars Of The Roses, 1450 - 1471. Part 3
Henry himself with his Queen was forced to fly over the border and to find a refuge in Scotland. The cause of the House of Lancaster was lost: and with the victory of Towton the crown of England passe...
-Section III. The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509
There are few periods in our annals from which we turn with such weariness and disgust as from the Wars of the Roses. Their savage battles, their ruthless executions, their shameless treasons, seem al...
-The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509. Part 2
If we seek a reason for so sudden and complete a revolution, we find it in the disappearance of that organization of society in which our constitutional liberty had till now found its security. Freedo...
-The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509. Part 3
The founder of the new Monarchy was Edward the Fourth. As a mere boy he showed himself among the ablest and the most pitiless of the warriors of the civil war. In the first flush of manhood he looked ...
-The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509. Part 4
On the other hand, while the older literary class was dying out, a glance beneath the surface shows us the stir of a new interest in knowledge among the masses of the people itself. The correspondence...
-The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509. Part 5
He stood between two schools of translation, that of French affectation and English pedantry. It was a moment when the character of our literary tongue was being settled, and it is curious to see in h...
-The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509. Part 6
Among the nobles who encouraged the work of Caxton we have already seen the figure of the King's youngest brother, Richard, Duke of Gloucester. Ruthless and subtle as Edward himself, the Duke at once ...
-The New Monarchy. 1471 - 1509. Part 7
With the accession of Henry the Seventh ended the long bloodshed of the civil wars. The two warring lines were united by his marriage with Elizabeth: his only dangerous rivals were removed by the succ...
-Section IV. The New Learning. 1509 - 1520
Great as were the issues of Henry's policy, it shrinks into littleness if we turn from it to the weighty movements which were now stirring the minds of men. The world was passing through changes more ...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 2
The earnestness, the religious zeal, the very impatience and want of sympathy with the past which we see in every word and act of the man, burst out in the lectures on St. Paul's Epistles which he del...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 3
His purse was ever open to relieve their poverty. Had I found such a patron in my youth, Erasmus wrote long after, I too might have been counted among the fortunate ones. It was with Grocyn that E...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 4
The contest took the form of boyish frays, in which the young partizans and opponents of the New Learning took sides as Greeks and Trojans. The King himself had to summon one of its fiercest enemies t...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 5
England had again figured as a great power in Europe. But the millions left by his father were exhausted, his subjects had been drained by repeated subsidies, and, furious as he was at the treachery o...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 6
With the tacit approval of the Primate of a Church which from the time of Wyclif had held the translation and reading of the Bible in the common tongue to be heresy and a crime punishable with the fir...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 7
It was on one of his diplomatic missions that More describes himself as hearing news of the Kingdom of Nowhere. On a certain day when I had heard mass in Our Lady's Church, which is the fairest, t...
-The New Learning. 1509 - 1520. Part 8
The same foresight which appears in More's treatment of the questions of Labour and the Public Health is yet more apparent in his treatment of the question of Crime. He was the first to suggest that p...
-Section V. Wolsey. 1515 - 1531
There are many things in the commonwealth of Nowhere, which I rather wish than hope to see adopted in our own. It was with these words of characteristic irony that More closed the first work which e...
-Wolsey. 1515 - 1531. Part 2
These hopes were defeated by his great victory at Marignano. But Francis in the moment of triumph saw himself confronted by a new rival. Masterof Castile and Aragon, of Naples and the Netherlands, the...
-Wolsey. 1515 - 1531. Part 3
His hopes had been fanned by prophets and astrologers, and wild words told his purpose to seize the Crown on Henry's death in defiance of every opponent. But word and act had for two years been watche...
-Wolsey. 1515 - 1531. Part 4
He had walk for a hundred sheep, and my mother milked thirty kine; he was able and did find the King a harness with himself and his horse while he came to the place that he should receive the King's w...
-Wolsey. 1515 - 1531. Part 5
It was needful for the Cardinal to find some expedients to carry out the King's will; but his schemes one by one broke down before the difficulties of the Papal Court. Clement indeed, perplexed at onc...
-Section VI. Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540
It possesses, during this period, little or no historical value. ] The ten years which follow the fall of Wolsey are among the most momentous in our history. The New Monarchy at last realized its p...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 2
For success in procuring the divorce, the Duke of Norfolk, who had come to the front on Wolsey's fall, relied not only on the alliance and aid of the Emperor, but on the support which the project was ...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 3
A year had passed since Wolsey had been convicted of a breach of the Statute of Praemunire. The pedantry of the judges declared the whole nation to have been formally involved in the same charge by it...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 4
His title, like his office, recalled the system of Wolsey; but the fact that these powers were now united in the hands not of a priest but of a layman, showed the new drift of the royal policy. And th...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 5
The secular clergy alone remained; and injunction after injunction from the Vicar-General taught rector and vicar that they must learn to regard themselves as mere mouthpieces of the royal will. With ...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 6
Men felt in England, to use the figure by which Erasmus paints the time, as if a scorpion lay sleeping under every stone. The confessional had no secrets for Cromwell. Men's talk with their closest ...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 7
He bore them no grudge for it. When he heard the voice of one who was known to have boggled hard at the oath a little while before calling loudly and ostentatiously for drink, he only noted him with h...
-Thomas Cromwell. 1530 - 1540. Part 8
Lord Darcy, who stood first among the nobles of Yorkshire, and Lord Hussey, who stood first among the nobles of Lincolnshire, went alike to the block. The Abbot of Barlings, who had ridden into Lincol...
-Chapter VII. The Reformation. Section I. The Protestants. 1540 - 1553
At Cromwell's death the success of his policy was complete. The Monarchy had reached the height of its power. The old liberties of England lay prostrate at the feet of the King. The Lords were cowed a...
-The Protestants. 1540 - 1553. Part 2
But the mailer gentry shared in the general enrichment of the landed proprietors, and the new energy of the Lords was soon followed by a display of fresh political independence among the Commons thems...
-The Protestants. 1540 - 1553. Part 3
His homely humour breaks in with story and apologue; his earnestness is always tempered with good sense; his plain and simple style quickens with a shrewd mother-wit. He talks to his hearers as a man ...
-The Protestants. 1540 - 1553. Part 4
The doctrine of Transubstantiation, which was as yet recognized by law, was held up to scorn in ballads and mystery plays. In one church a Protestant lawyer raised a dog in his hands when the priest e...
-The Protestants. 1540 - 1553. Part 5
The Earl of Hertford, the head of the new men, and known as a patron of the Protestants, came to the front, and was appointed one of the Council of Regency which Henry nominated at his death. Ca...
-The Protestants. 1540 - 1553. Part 6
Delays in the completion of this Code prevented its legal establishment during Edward's reign; but the use of the new Liturgy and attendance at the new service was enforced by imprisonment, and subscr...
-Section II. The Martyrs. 1553 - 1558
The waning health of Edward warned Warwick, who had now become Duke of Northumberland, of an unlooked-for danger. Mary, the daughter of Catharine of Aragon, who had been placed next to Edward by the A...
-The Martyrs. 1553 - 1558. Part 2
Riding boldly to the Guildhall she appealed with a man's voice to the loyalty of the citizens, and when Wyatt appeared on the Southwark bank the bridge was secured. The issue hung on the question wh...
-The Martyrs. 1553 - 1558. Part 3
I lack not past two stiles to go over, and I am even at my Father's house!'... The streets of Hadleigh were beset on both sides with men and women of the town and country who waited to see him; whom w...
-The Martyrs. 1553 - 1558. Part 4
But pardon was impossible; and Cranmer's strangely mingled nature found a power in its very weakness when he was brought into the church of St. Mary at Oxford to repeat his recantation on the way to t...
-Section III. Elizabeth. 1558 - 1560
Never had the fortunes of England sunk to a lower ebb than at the moment when Elizabeth mounted the throne. The country was humiliated by defeat and brought to the verge of rebellion by the bloodshed ...
-Elizabeth. 1558 - 1560. Part 2
No nobler group of ministers ever gathered round a council-board than those who gathered round the council-board of Elizabeth. But she was the instrument of none. She listened, she weighed, she used o...
-Elizabeth. 1558 - 1560. Part 3
Brave as they were, the men who swept the Spanish Main or glided between the icebergs of Baffin's Bay never doubted that the palm of bravery lay with their Queen. Her steadiness and courage in the pur...
-Elizabeth. 1558 - 1560. Part 4
It was a time when men were being lifted into nobleness by the new moral energy which seemed suddenly to pulse through the whole people, when honour and enthusiasm took colours of poetic beauty, and r...
-Elizabeth. 1558 - 1560. Part 5
No marked repugnance to the new worship was shown by the people at large; and Elizabeth was able to turn from questions of belief to the question of order. She found in Matthew Parker, whom Pole's ...
-Elizabeth. 1558 - 1560. Part 6
Schooled by a long captivity in England, James the First returned to his realm to be the ablest of her rulers as he was the first of her poets. In the thirteen years of a short but wonderful reign jus...
-Section IV. England And Mary Stuart. 1560 - 1572
The issue of the Scotch war revealed suddenly to Europe the vigour of Elizabeth, and the real strength of her throne. She had freed herself from the control of Philip, she had defied France, she had a...
-England And Mary Stuart. 1560 - 1572. Part 2
But the pressure on her was great, and Mary looked to the triumph of Catholicism in France to increase the pressure. It was this which drove Elizabeth to listen to the cry of the Huguenots at the mome...
-England And Mary Stuart. 1560 - 1572. Part 3
No such danger had ever threatened Elizabeth as this, but again she could trust to Fortune. Mary had staked all on her union with Darnley, and yet only a few months had passed since her wedding day ...
-England And Mary Stuart. 1560 - 1572. Part 4
For the moment England was saved, but the ruin of Mary's hopes had not come one instant too soon. The great conflict between the two religions, which had begun in France, was slowly widening into a ge...
-England And Mary Stuart. 1560 - 1572. Part 5
The mass of the Catholics throughout the country made no sign; and the Earls no sooner halted irresolute in presence of this unexpected inaction than their army caught the panic and dispersed. Northum...
-Section V. The England Of Elizabeth
I have desired, Elizabeth said proudly to her Parliament, to have the obedience of my subjects by love, and not by compulsion. It was a love fairly won by justice and good government. Buried as s...
-The England Of Elizabeth. Part 2
England no longer sent her fleeces to be woven in Flanders and to be dyed at Florence. The spinning of yarn, the weaving, fulling, and dyeing of cloth, was spreading rapidly from the towns over the co...
-The England Of Elizabeth. Part 3
Their rough and wattled farmhouses were being superseded by dwellings of brick and stone. Pewter was replacing the wooden trenchers of the earlier yeomanry; there were yeomen who could boast of a fair...
-The England Of Elizabeth. Part 4
The growth of grammar schools realized the dream of Sir Thomas More, and brought the middle-classes, from the squire to the petty tradesman, into contact with the masters of Greece and Rome. The love ...
-The England Of Elizabeth. Part 5
But whether in the one work or the other, the flexibility, the music, the luminous clearness of Sidney's style remains the same. The quickness and vivacity of English prose, however, was first develop...
-The England Of Elizabeth. Part 6
The large number of such members whom Elizabeth called into the Commons, sixty-two in all, was a proof of the increasing difficulty which the Government found in securing a working majority. Had El...
-Section VI. The Armada. 1572 - 1588
The wonderful growth in wealth and social energy which we have described was accompanied by a remarkable change in the religious temper of the nation. Silently, almost unconsciously, England became Pr...
-The Armada. 1572 - 1588. Part 2
In her ecclesiastical policy Elizabeth trusted mainly to time; and time, as we have seen, justified her trust. Her system of compromise both in faith and worship, of quietly replacing the old priestho...
-The Armada. 1572 - 1588. Part 3
Few laymen were brought to the bar and none to the block under its provisions. The oppression of the Catholic gentry was limited to an exaction, more or less rigorous at different times, of the fines ...
-The Armada. 1572 - 1588. Part 4
In her earlier days France rivalled Spain in its greatness, and Elizabeth simply played the two rivals off against one another. She hindered France from giving effective aid to Mary Stuart by threats ...
-The Armada. 1572 - 1588. Part 5
A new courage had arisen since the beginning of her reign, when Cecil and the Queen stood alone in their belief in England's strength, and when the diplomatists of Europe regarded her obstinate defian...
-The Armada. 1572 - 1588. Part 6
The trial and death of Parry, a member of the House of Commons who had served in the Queen's household, on a similar charge, fed the general panic. Parliament met in a transport of horror and loyalty....
-The Armada. 1572 - 1588. Part 7
As the Armada sailed on in a broad crescent past Plymouth, moving towards its point of junction with Parma at Calais, the vessels which bad gathered under Lord Howard of Effingham slipped out of the b...
-Section VII. The Elizabethan Poets
We have already watched the revival of English letters during the earlier half of Elizabeth's reign. The general awakening of national life, the increase of wealth, of refinement and leisure, which ma...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 2
He followed Lord Grey as his secretary into Ireland, and remained there on the Deputy's recall in the enjoyment of an office and a grant of land from the forfeited estates of the Earl of Desmond. Spen...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 3
His Faerie Queen, in its religious theory, is Puritan to the core. The worst foe of its Red-cross Knight is the false and scarlet-clad Duessa of Rome, who parts him for a while from Truth and lead...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 4
Dian with her nymphs met the Queen as she returned from hunting; Love presented her with his golden arrow as she passed through the gates of Norwich. From the earlier years of her reign, the new spiri...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 5
Born at the opening of Elizabeth's reign, the son of a Canterbury shoemaker, but educated at Cambridge, Marlowe burst on the world in the year which preceded the triumph over the Armada, with a play w...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 6
With the poem of Venus and Adonis, the first heir of my invention, as Shakspere calls it, the period of independent creation fairly began. The date of its publication was a very memorable one. *...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 7
Whether as a tragedian or as a writer of social comedy, Shakspere had now passed far beyond his fellows. The Muses, said Meres, would speak with Shakspere's fine filed phrase, if they would speak E...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 8
The daring which turned England into a people of adventurers, the sense of inexhaustible resources, the buoyant freshness of youth, the intoxicating sense of beauty and joy, which created Sidney and...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 9
If the imaginative resources of the new England were seen in the creators of Hamlet and the Faerie Queen, its purely intellectual capacity, its vast command over the stores of human knowledge, the ama...
-The Elizabethan Poets. Part 10
His revolt from the waste of human intelligence, which he conceived to be owing to the adoption of a false method of investigation, blinded him to the real value of deduction as an instrument of disco...
-Section VIII. The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610
While England became a nest of singing birds at home, the last years of Elizabeth's reign were years of splendour and triumph abroad. The defeat of the Armada was the first of a series of defeat...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 2
The one living thing in the social and political chaos was the sept, or tribe, or clan, whose institutions remained those of the earliest stage of human civilization. Its chieftainship was hereditary,...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 3
Connaught, indeed, bowed to a nominal acknowledgment of Henry's overlordship; John De Courcy penetrated into Ulster and established himself at Downpatrick; and the King planned for a while the establi...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 4
But the time was at last come for a vigorous attempt on the part of England to introduce order into this chaos of turbulence and misrule. To Henry the Eighth the policy which had been pursued by his f...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 5
The sole test of loyalty demanded was the acceptance of an English title, and the education of a son at the English court; though in some cases, like that of the O'Neills, a promise was exacted to use...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 6
The bishops were summoned before the Deputy, Sir Anthony St. Leger, to receive the new English Liturgy, which, though written in a tongue as strange to the native Irish as Latin itself, was now to sup...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 7
His success stirred larger dreams of ambition; he invaded Connaught, and pressed Clanrickard hard: while he replied to the remonstrances of the Council at Dublin with a bold defiance. By the sword I ...
-The Conquest Of Ireland, 1588-1610. Part 8
Hugh O'Neill was brought in triumph to Dublin; the Earl of Desmond, who had again roused Munster into revolt, fled for refuge to Spain; and the work of conquest was at last brought to a close. Under t...
-Chapter VIII. Puritan England. Section I. The Puritans, 1583-1603
No greater moral change ever passed over a nation than passed over England during the years which parted the middle of the reign of Elizabeth from the meeting of the Long Parliament. England became th...
-The Puritans, 1583-1603. Part 2
Literature reflected the general tendency of the time; and the dumpy little quartos of controversy and piety, which still crowd our older libraries, drove before them the classical translations and It...
-The Puritans, 1583-1603. Part 3
The strength of the religious movement lay rather among the middle and professional classes than among the gentry; and it is in a Puritan of this class that we find the fullest and noblest expression ...
-The Puritans, 1583-1603. Part 4
The play, the geniality, the delight of the Elizabethan age were exchanged for a measured sobriety, seriousness, and self-restraint. But the self-restraint and sobriety which marked the Calvinist limi...
-The Puritans, 1583-1603. Part 5
In an ordered arrangement of classes and synods these Presbyters were to govern their flocks, to regulate their own order, to decide in matters of faith, to administer discipline. Their weapon was e...
-The Puritans, 1583-1603. Part 6
The old symbols of doctrine were gone, and the lawyers had not yet stepped in to protect the clergy by defining the exact limits of the new. The result was that at the Commission-board at Lambeth the ...
-Section II. The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623
To judge fairly the attitude and policy of the English Puritans, that is of three-fourths of the Protestants of England, at this moment, we must cursorily review the fortunes of Protestantism during t...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 2
Men like George Herbert started back from the bare, intense spiritualism of the Puritan to find nourishment for devotion in the outer associations which the piety of ages had grouped around it, in hol...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 3
Convocation in its book of Canons denounced as a fatal error the assertion that all civil power, jurisdiction,and authority were first derived from the people and disordered multitude, or either is o...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 4
He revelled in the opportunity for a display of his theological reading; but he viewed the Puritan demands in a purely political light. The bishops declared that the insults he showered on their oppon...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 5
If they had waived their right to deal with these matters during the old age of Elizabeth, they asserted it now. Let your Majesty be pleased to receive public information from your Commons in Parliam...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 6
Every year the expenditure of James reached a higher level, and necessity forced on the King a fresh assembling of Parliament. The great contract drawn up by Cecil, now Earl of Salisbury, proposed t...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 7
The lawyers had been subservient beyond all other classes to the Crown. In the narrow pedantry with which they bent before isolated precedents, without realizing the conditions under which these prece...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 8
A series of negotiations was begun for the marriage of his son with a Princess of Spain. Each of his successive favourites supported the Spanish alliance; and after years of secret intrigue the King's...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 9
They saw the execution of Ralegh, the sacrifice of the Palatinate, the exaction of benevolences, the multiplication of monopolies, the supremacy of Buckingham. Against none of the acts of folly and wi...
-The First Of The Stuarts. 1604 - 1623. Part 10
He sent for the Journals of the House, and with his own hand tore out the pages which contained it. I will govern, he said, according to the common weal, but not according to the common will A few...
-Section III. The King And The Parliament. 1623 - 1629
Ranke's History of England in the Seventeenth Century is important for the whole Stuart period]. In the obstinacy with which he clung to his Spanish policy James stood absolutely alone; for not ...
-The King And The Parliament. 1623 - 1629. Part 2
The war with Spain, it must be remembered, meant to the mass of Englishmen a war with Catholicism; and the fervour against Catholicism without roused a corresponding fervour against Catholicism within...
-The King And The Parliament. 1623 - 1629. Part 3
Eliot persisted in denouncing Buckingham's incompetence and corruption, and the Commons ordered the subsidy which the Crown had demanded to be brought in when we shall have presented our grievances,...
-The King And The Parliament. 1623 - 1629. Part 4
The French minister, Cardinal Richelieu, anxious as he was to maintain the English alliance, was convinced that the first step to any effective interference of France in a European war must be the res...
-The King And The Parliament. 1623 - 1629. Part 5
Shouts of assent greeted the resolution to insert the Duke's name in their Remonstrance. But at this moment Charles gave way. To win supplies for a new expedition to Rochelle, Buckingham bent the King...
-Section IV. New England
The dissolution of the Parliament of 1629 marked the darkest hour of Protestantism, whether in England or in the world at large. But it was in this hour of despair that the Puritans won their noblest ...
-New England. Part 2
We are knit together as a body in a most sacred covenant of the Lord, of the violation whereof we make great conscience, and by virtue whereof we hold ourselves strictly tied to all care of each other...
-New England. Part 3
The English ambassador in Paris was forbidden to visit the Huguenot conventicle at Charenton. As Laud drew further from the Protestants of the Continent, he drew, consciously or unconsciously, nearer ...
-New England. Part 4
Men noted as a fatal omen the accident which marked his first entry into Lambeth; for the overladen ferry-boat upset in the passage of the river, and though the horses and servants were saved, the Arc...
-Section V. The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640
At the opening of his third Parliament Charles had hinted in ominous words that the continuance of Parliament at all depended on its compliance with his will. If you do not your duty, said the King,...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 2
Forgery, perjury, riot, maintenance, fraud, libel, and conspiracy, were the chief offences cognizable in this court, but its scope extended to every misdemeanor, and especially to charges where, from ...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 3
Sir Thomas Wentworth, a great Yorkshire landowner and one of the representatives of his county, had stood during the Parliament of 1628 among the more prominent members of the popular party in the Com...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 4
A few insolent words, construed as mutiny, were enough to bring Lord Mountnorris before a council of war, and to inflict on him a sentence of death. But his tyranny aimed at public ends, and in Irelan...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 5
The system of Presbyterianism, as it grew up at the outset without direct recognition from the law, not only bound Scotland together as it had never been bound before by its administrative organizatio...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 6
Many years had gone by since he had vainly invited James to draw his Scotch subjects to a nearer conjunction with the liturgy and canons of this nation. I sent him back again, said the shrewd old...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 7
But if in this respect he falls, both in his earlier and later poems, far below Shakspere or Spenser, the deficiency is all but compensated by his nobleness of feeling and expression, the severity of ...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 8
Moreover what is law in England is law also in Scotland and Ireland. The decision of the judges will therefore make the King absolute at home and formidable abroad. Let him only abstain from war for a...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 9
I wish Mr. Hampden and others to his likeness, the Lord Deputy wrote bitterly from Ireland, were well whipt into their right senses. Amidst the exultation of the Court over the decision of the ju...
-The Personal Government. 1629 - 1640. Part 10
Every member of the Commons knew that Scotland was fighting the battle of English liberty. All hope of bringing them to any attack upon the Scots proved fruitless. The intercepted letters were quietly...
-Section VI. The Long; Parliament. 1640 - 1642
It is illustrated by a series of memoirs, of very different degrees of value, such as those of Whitelock, Ludlow, and Sir Philip Warwick, as well as by works like Mrs. Hutchinson's memoir of her husba...
-The Long; Parliament. 1640 - 1642. Part 2
He proved himself at once the subtlest of diplomatists and the grandest of demagogues. He was equally at home in tracking the subtle intricacies of royalist intrigues, or in kindling popular passion w...
-The Long; Parliament. 1640 - 1642. Part 3
The Commons endeavoured to strengthen their case by bringing forward the notes of a meeting of a Committee of the Commons in which Strafford had urged the use of his Irish troops to reduce this kingd...
-The Long; Parliament. 1640 - 1642. Part 4
Dublin was saved by a mere chance; but in the open country the work of murder went on unchecked. Thousands of English people perished in a few days, and rumour doubled and trebled the number. Tales of...
-The Long; Parliament. 1640 - 1642. Part 5
The doctrines of Cartwright had risen into popularity under the persecution of Laud, and Presbyterianism was now a formidable force among the middle classes. Its chief strength lay in the eastern coun...
-The Long; Parliament. 1640 - 1642. Part 6
Nothing but the absence of the five members, and the calm dignity of the Commons, had prevented the King's outrage from ending in bloodshed. It was believed, says Whitelock, who was present at the ...
-Section VII. The Civil War. July 1642 - Aug. 1646
The breaking off of negotiations was followed on both sides by preparations for immediate war. Hampden, Pym, and Hollis became the guiding spirits of a Committee of Public Safety which was created by ...
-The Civil War. July 1642 - Aug. 1646. Part 2
Sir Ralph Hopton, the best of the royalist generals, took the command of their army as it advanced into Somerset, and drew the stress of the war into the West. Essex despatched a picked force under Si...
-The Civil War. July 1642 - Aug. 1646. Part 3
Scotland, anxious for its own safety, hastened to sign the Covenant; and the Commons, with uplifted hands, swore in St. Margaret's church to observe it. They pledged themselves to bring the Church...
-The Civil War. July 1642 - Aug. 1646. Part 4
Pym, in fact, had hardly been borne to his grave in Westminster Abbey before England instinctively recognized a successor of yet greater genius in the victor of Marston Moor. Born in the closing years...
-The Civil War. July 1642 - Aug. 1646. Part 5
Cromwell had shown his capacity for organization in the creation of his regiment; his military genius had displayed itself at Marston Moor. Newbury first raised him into a political leader. Without ...
-Section VIII. The Army And The Parliament. 1646-1649
With the close of the Civil War we enter on a time of confused struggles, a time tedious and uninteresting in its outer details, but of higher interest than even the war itself in its bearing on our a...
-The Army And The Parliament. 1646-1649. Part 2
The Tudor theory of its relation to the State, of its right to embrace all Englishmen within its pale, and to dictate what should be their faith and form of worship, remained utterly unquestioned by a...
-The Army And The Parliament. 1646-1649. Part 3
Hated as they were by the Scots, by the Lords, by the city of London, the apparent junction of Charles with their enemies destroyed their growing hopes in the Commons, where the prospects of a speedy ...
-The Army And The Parliament. 1646-1649. Part 4
A rumour that the King was to be removed to London, a new army raised, a new civil war begun, roused the soldiers to madness. Five hundred troopers suddenly appeared before Holmby House, where the Kin...
-The Army And The Parliament. 1646-1649. Part 5
There were cries for a wide reform, for the abolition of the House of Peers, for a new House of Commons; and the Agitators called on the Council of Officers to discuss the question of abolishing royal...
-The Army And The Parliament. 1646-1649. Part 6
Fresh from its victory, the New Model pushed over the Border, while the peasants of Ayrshire and the west rose in the Whiggamore raid (notable as the first event in which we find the name Whig, wh...
-Section IX. The Commonwealth. 1649 - 1653
The news of the King's death was received throughout Europe with a thrill of horror. The Czar of Russia chased the English envoy from his court. The ambassador of France was withdrawn on the proclamat...
-The Commonwealth. 1649 - 1653. Part 2
Paid military officers and civil officials were excluded from election. The plan was apparently accepted by the Commons, and a bill based on it was again and again discussed, but there was a suspicion...
-The Commonwealth. 1649 - 1653. Part 3
Cromwell entered London amidst the shouts of a great multitude; and a month after Charles had landed on the shores of Scotland the English army started for the north. It crossed the Tweed, fifteen tho...
-The Commonwealth. 1649 - 1653. Part 4
The conquered lost six thousand men, and all their baggage and artillery. Leslie was among the prisoners: Hamilton among the dead. Charles himself fled from the field; and after months of wanderings m...
-Section X. The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660
The dispersion of the Parliament and of the Council of State left England without a government, for the authority of every official ended with that of the body from which his power was derived. Cromwe...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 2
Cromwell himself shared the general uneasiness at its proceedings. His mind was that of an administrator, rather than that of a statesman, unspeculative, deficient in foresight, conservative, and emin...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 3
Such an argument, however, told as much against the Parliament in which they sate as against the administration itself, and the bulk of the Assembly contented themselves with declining to recognize th...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 4
There were risings in Devon, Dorset, and the Welsh Marches, but they were quickly put down, and their leaders brought to the scaffold. Easily however as the revolt was suppressed, the terror of the Go...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 5
Even the Quaker, rejected by all other Christian bodies as an anarchist and blasphemer, found sympathy and protection in the Protector. The Jews had been excluded from England since the reign of Edwar...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 6
Though Blake sailed to the Spanish coast, he failed to intercept the treasure fleet from America; and the second expedition, which made its way to the West Indies, was foiled in a descent on St. Domin...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 7
Disappointed as it was, the Parliament with singular self-restraint turned to other modes of bringing about its purpose. The offer of the crown had been coupled with the condition of accepting a const...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 8
Summoning his coach, by a sudden impulse, the Protector drove with a few guards to Westminster; and setting aside the remonstrances of Fleetwood, summoned the two Houses to his presence. I do dissolv...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 9
In spite of Vane's counsels, it proposed a reform of the officers, and though a royalist rising in Cheshire during August threw the disputants for a moment together, the struggle revived as the danger...
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 10
For, lonely and unpopular as Milton was, there was one thing about him which made his house in Bunhill Fields a place of pilgrimage to the wits of the Restoration. He was the last of the Elizabethans....
-The Fall Of Puritanism. 1653 - 1660. Part 11
There is just as little of the wide sympathy with all that is human which is so loveable in Chaucer and Shakspere. On the contrary the Puritan individuality is nowhere so overpowering as in Milton. He...
-Chapter IX. The Revolution. Section I. England And The Revolution
The entry of Charles the Second into Whitehall marked a deep and lasting change in the temper of the English people. With it modern England began. The influences which had up to this time moulded our ...
-England And The Revolution. Part 2
One of the comedies of the time tells the courtier that he must dress well, dance well, fence well, have a talent for love-letters, an agreeable voice, be amorous and discreet - but not too constant....
-England And The Revolution. Part 3
Bacon had already called men with a trumpet-voice to such studies; but in England at least Bacon stood before his age. The beginnings of physical science were more slow and timid there than in any cou...
-England And The Revolution. Part 4
It is impossible to do more than indicate, in such a summary as we have given, the wonderful activity of directly scientific thought which distinguished the age of the Restoration. But the sceptical a...
-England And The Revolution. Part 5
Chillingworth and Taylor found successors in the restless good sense of Burnet, the enlightened piety of Tillotson, and the calm philosophy of Bishop Butler. Meanwhile the impulse which such men were ...
-Section II. The Restoration. 1660 - 1667
When Charles the Second entered Whitehall, the work of the Long Parliament seemed undone. Not only was the Monarchy restored, but it was restored, in spite of the efforts of Sir Matthew Hale, without ...
-The Restoration. 1660 - 1667. Part 2
No opposition was made to the resumption of all Crown-lands by the State, but the Convention desired to protect the rights of those who had purchased Church property, and of those who were in actual p...
-The Restoration. 1660 - 1667. Part 3
But in the elections for the new Parliament the zeal for Church and King swept all hope of moderation and compromise before it. Malignity had now ceased to be a crime, and voters long deprived of t...
-The Restoration. 1660 - 1667. Part 4
The Church of England stood from that moment isolated and alone among all the Churches of the Christian world. The Reformation had severed it irretrievably from those which still clung to the obedienc...
-The Restoration. 1660 - 1667. Part 5
We have a clue to the extent of the persecution from what we know to have been its effect on a single sect. The Quakers had excited alarm by their extravagances of manner, their refusal to bear arms o...
-The Restoration. 1660 - 1667. Part 6
It is now the most popular and the most widely known of all English books. In none do we see more clearly the new imaginative force which had been given to the common life of Englishmen by their study...
-Section III. Charles The Second. 1667 - 1673
The thunder of the Dutch guns in the Medway and the Thames woke England to a bitter sense of its degradation. The dream of loyalty was over. Everybody now-a-days, Pepys tells us, reflect upon Olive...
-Charles The Second. 1667 - 1673. Part 2
It was difficult for Englishmen to believe that any real danger to liberty could come from an idler and a voluptuary such as Charles the Second. But in the very difficulty of believing this lay half t...
-Charles The Second. 1667 - 1673. Part 3
But the severance of the two kingdoms from England was in itself a gain to the royal authority; and Charles turned quietly to the building up of a royal army at home. A standing army had become so hat...
-Charles The Second. 1667 - 1673. Part 4
In England the irritation was great and universal, but the public resentment fell on Clarendon alone. Charles had been bitterly angered when in 1663 his bill to vest a dispensing power in the Crown ha...
-Charles The Second. 1667 - 1673. Part 5
Few measures have won a greater popularity than the Triple Alliance. It is the only good public thing, says Pepys, that hath been done since the King came to England. Even Dryden, writing at the t...
-Charles The Second. 1667 - 1673. Part 6
Charles in fact yielded the point to which he had hitherto clung, and, as Ashley demanded, promised that no Catholic should be benefited by the Indulgence. The bargain once struck, and his ministers o...
-Section IV. Danby. 1673 - 1678
The one man in England on whom the discovery of the King's perfidy fell with the most crushing effect was the Chancellor, Lord Shaftesbury. Ashley Cooper had piqued himself on a penetration which read...
-Danby. 1673 - 1678. Part 2
To the bitterness of such a discovery was added the bitterness of having aided in schemes which he abhorred. His change of policy was rapid and complete. He pressed in the royal council for the withdr...
-Danby. 1673 - 1678. Part 3
Ever since the opening of his reign he had clung to a system of balance, had pitted Churchman against Nonconformist, and Ashley against Clarendon, partly to preserve his own independence, and partly w...
-Danby. 1673 - 1678. Part 4
The bill however failed in the Commons; and a grant of supply was only obtained by Danby's profuse bribery. The progress of the war abroad, indeed, was rousing panic in England faster than Danby could...
-Danby. 1673 - 1678. Part 5
They were stirring rebellion in Ireland; in Scotland they disguised themselves as Cameronians; in England their aim was to assassinate the King, and to leave the throne open to the Papist Duke of York...
-Section V. Shaftesbury. 1679 - 1682
The new Parliament was elected in a tumult of national excitement. The members were for the most part Churchmen and country gentlemen, but they shared the alarm of the country, and even before their a...
-Shaftesbury. 1679 - 1682. Part 2
The extent of these provisions showed the pressure which Charles felt, but Shaftesbury was undoubtedly right in setting the plan aside as at once insufficient and impracticable. He continued to advoca...
-Shaftesbury. 1679 - 1682. Part 3
Fresh informers were brought forward to swear to a plot for the assassination of the Earl himself, and to the share of the Duke of York in the conspiracies of his fellow-religionists. A paper found in...
-Shaftesbury. 1679 - 1682. Part 4
The King's aim was to frighten the country into reaction by the dread of civil strife; and his summons of the Parliament to Oxford was an appeal to the country against the disloyalty of the capital, a...
-Section VI. The Second Stuart Tyranny, 1682 - 1688
The flight of Shaftesbury proclaimed the triumph of the King. His marvellous sagacity had told him when the struggle was over and further resistance useless. But the country leaders, who had delayed t...
-The Second Stuart Tyranny, 1682 - 1688. Part 2
The strength of the Country party had been broken by its own dissensions over the Exclusion Bill, and by the flight or death of its more prominent leaders. Whatever strength it retained lay chiefly in...
-The Second Stuart Tyranny, 1682 - 1688. Part 3
Their leader fled from the field, and after a vain effort to escape from the realm, was captured and sent pitilessly to the block. Never had England shown a firmer loyalty; but its loyalty was chan...
-The Second Stuart Tyranny, 1682 - 1688. Part 4
A gorgeous chapel was opened in the palace of St. James for the worship of the King. Carmelites, Benedictines, Franciscans, appeared in their religious garb in the streets of London, and the Jesuits s...
-The Second Stuart Tyranny, 1682 - 1688. Part 5
It was plain that the attempt to divide the forces of Protestantism had utterly failed, and that the only mode of securing his end was to procure a repeal of the Test Act from Parliament itself. Th...
-Section VII. William Of Orange
Amidst the tumult of the Plot and the Exclusion Bill the wiser among English statesmen had fixed their hopes steadily on the succession of Mary, the elder daughter and heiress of James. The tyranny of...
-William Of Orange. Part 2
The intervention of the Empire was guarded against by a renewal of the old alliances between France and the lesser German princes. A league with the Turks gave Austria enough to do on her eastern bord...
-William Of Orange. Part 3
The whole Protestant world was defied by the persecution of the Huguenots which was to culminate in the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. In the mind of Lewis peace meant a series of outrages on the ...
-William Of Orange. Part 4
It was sent from London on the day after the acquittal of the Bishops. The general excitement, the shouts of the boats which covered the river, the bonfires in every street, showed indeed that the cou...
-William Of Orange. Part 5
He fled to London to hear that his daughter Anne had left St. James's to join Danby at Nottingham. God help me, cried the wretched King, for my own children have forsaken me! His spirit was utterl...
-Section VIII. The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697
The blunder of Lewis in choosing Germany instead of Holland for his point of attack was all but atoned for by the brilliant successes with which he opened the war. The whole country west of the Rhine ...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 2
At daybreak they fell on their hosts, and in a few moments thirty of the clansfolk lay dead on the snow. The rest, sheltered by a storm, escaped to the mountains to perish for the most part of cold an...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 3
Through the long agony of Londonderry, through the proscription and bloodshed of the new Irish rule, William was forced to look helplessly on. The best troops in the army which had been mustered at Ho...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 4
At no time had the Church been so strong or so popular as at the Revolution, and the reconciliation of the Nonconformists would have doubled its strength. It is doubtful whether the disinclination to ...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 5
In the autumn of the year 1689 the Duke of Schomberg, an exiled Huguenot who had followed William to England, had been sent with a small force to Ulster, but his landing had only roused Ireland to a f...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 6
But whatever the discontent of Tories and Non-jurors against William might be, all signs of it vanished with the landing of the French. The burning of Teignmouth by Tourville's sailors called the whol...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 7
The Ministers who had charge of them were not its servants, but the servants of the Crown; it was from the King that they looked for direction, and to the King that they held themselves responsible. B...
-The Grand Alliance. 1689 - 1697. Part 8
The discovery of the resources afforded by the national wealth revealed a fresh source of power; and the rapid growth of the National Debt, as the mass of these loans to the State came to be called, g...
-Section IX. Marlborough. 1698 - 1712
What had bowed the pride of Lewis to the humiliating terms of the Peace of Ryswick was not so much the exhaustion of France as the need of preparing for a new and greater struggle. The death of the Ki...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 2
The Emperor still protested, but his protest was of little moment so long as Lewis and the two maritime powers held firmly together. Nor was the bitter resentment of Spain of more avail. The Spaniards...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 3
The independence of justice was established by a clause which provided that no judge should be removed from office save on an address from Parliament to the Crown. The two principles that the King act...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 4
The discovery of his designs roused the King to a burst of unusual resentment. Were I and my Lord Marlborough private persons, William exclaimed, the sword would have to settle between us. As it w...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 5
As a statesman the high qualities of Marlborough were owned by his bitterest foes. Over the Confederacy, says Bolingbroke, he, a new, a private man, acquired by merit and management a more decided ...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 6
The English foot at once forded it on the left and attacked the village of Blindheim in which the bulk of the French infantry were entrenched; but after a furious struggle the attack was repulsed, whi...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 7
The year which witnessed the victory of Ramillies remains yet more memorable as the year which witnessed the final Union of England with Scotland. As the undoing of the earlier union had been the firs...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 8
It was only by the threat of resignation that he had forced her to admit Sunderland to office; and the violent outbreak of temper with which the Duchess enforced her husband's will changed the Queen's...
-Marlborough. 1698 - 1712. Part 9
At the opening of 1712 the Whig majority in the House of Lords was swamped by the creation of twelve Tory peers. Marlborough was dismissed from his command, charged with peculation, and condemned as g...
-Section X. Walpole, 1712 - 1742
The accession of George the First marked a change in the position of England in the European Commonwealth. From the age of the Plantagenets the country had stood apart from more than passing contact w...
-Walpole, 1712 - 1742. Part 2
While their adversaries were divided by differences of principle and without leaders of real eminence, the Whigs stood as one man on the principles of the Revolution and produced great leaders who car...
-Walpole, 1712 - 1742. Part 3
The death of Lewis ruined all hope of aid from France; the hope of Swedish aid proved as fruitless; but in spite of Bolingbroke's counsels James Stuart resolved to act alone. Without informing his new...
-Walpole, 1712 - 1742. Part 4
But they refused to go further in carrying out a Hanoverian policy; the anger of the King was seconded by intrigues among the ministers; and in 1717 Townshend and Walpole had been forced to resign the...
-Walpole, 1712 - 1742. Part 5
The Emperor Charles the Sixth had issued a Pragmatic Sanction, by which he provided that his hereditary dominions should descend unbroken to his daughter, Maria Theresa; but no European State had yet ...
-Walpole, 1712 - 1742. Part 6
The Excise Bill of 1733 met this evil by the establishment of bonded warehouses, and by the collection of the duties from the inland dealers in the form of Excise and not of Customs. The first measure...
-Walpole, 1712 - 1742. Part 7
Ballad-singers trolled out their rimes to the crowd on the cur-dog of Britain and spaniel of Spain. His position had been weakened by the death of the Queen; and it was now weakened yet more by the ...
-Chapter X. Modern England. Section I. William Pitt, 1742-1763
The fall of Walpole revealed a change in the temper of England which was to influence from that time to this its social and political history. New forces, new cravings, new aims, which had been silent...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 2
Speech was governing English politics; and the religious power of speech was shown when a dread of enthusiasm closed against the new apostles the pulpits of the Established Church, and forced them t...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 3
The great body which he thus founded numbered a hundred thousand members at his death, and now counts its members in England and America by millions. But the Methodists themselves were the least resul...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 4
The French evacuated Germany. The English and Austrian armies appeared on the Rhine; and a league between England, Prussia, and the Queen of Hungary, seemed all that was needed to secure the results a...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 5
The bulk of his forces dispersed with their booty to the mountains, and Charles fell sullenly back to the north before the Duke of Cumberland. On the 16th of April the armies faced one another on Cull...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 6
With a few hundred English and sepoys he pushed through a thunderstorm to the surprise of Arcot, the Nabob's capital, entrenched himself in its enormous fort, and held it for fifty days against thousa...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 7
But the nation of which Chesterfield despaired was really on the eve of its greatest triumphs, and the miserable incapacity of the Duke of Newcastle only called to the front the genius of William Pitt...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 8
His real strength indeed lay not in Parliament but in the people at large. His significant title of the great commoner marks a political revolution. It is the people who have sent me here, Pitt ...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 9
But it was fortune rather than his genius which showered on Pitt the triumphs which signalized the opening of his ministry. In the East the daring of a merchant's clerk made a company of English trade...
-William Pitt, 1742-1763. Part 10
In an hour the French centre was utterly broken. I have seen, said Contades, what I never thought to be possible - a single line of infantry break through three lines of cavalry, ranked in order ...
-Section II. The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782
Never had England played so great a part in the history of mankind as in the year 1759. It was a year of triumphs in every quarter of the world. In September came the news of Minden, and of a victory ...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 2
Their whole population amounted in the middle of the eighteenth century to about 1,200,000 whites and a quarter of a million of negroes; nearly a fourth of that of the mother country. The wealth of th...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 3
He longed for the time when decrepitude or death might put an end to Pitt; and even when death had freed him from this trumpet of sedition, he denounced the proposal for a public monument to the g...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 4
It was in vain that Pitt enforced his threat of resignation by declaring himself responsible to the people; and the resignation of his post in October changed the face of European affairs. Pitt ...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 5
Day by day George himself scrutinized the voting-list of the two Houses, and distributed rewards and punishments as members voted according to his will or no. Promotion in the civil service, prefermen...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 6
While the paper which formed the subject for prosecution was still before the courts of justice it was condemned by the House of Commons as a false, scandalous, and seditious libel. The House of Lo...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 7
The assembly of Virginia was the first to formally deny the right of the British Parliament to meddle with internal taxation, and to demand the repeal of the acts. Massachusetts not only adopted the d...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 8
A declaratory act was brought in, which asserted the supreme power of Parlia-men. over the Colonies in all cases whatsoever. The passing of this act was followed by the introduction of a bill for th...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 9
The House of Commons do not represent the people. Meanwhile a writer who styled himself Junius attacked the Government in letters, which, rancorous ana unscrupulous as was their tone, gave a new powe...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 10
Only a few months indeed passed before the quarrel was re-opened; for no sooner had the illness of Lord Chatham removed him in 1767 from any real share in public affairs, than the wretched administrat...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 11
With characteristic largeness of feeling he set aside all half-measures or proposals of compromise. It is not cancelling a piece of parchment, he insisted, that can win back America: you must resp...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 12
Howe meanwhile sailed up the Chesapeake, and advanced on Philadelphia, the temporary capital of the United States and the seat of the Congress. The rout of his little army of seven thousand men at Bra...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 13
Clive set an example of disinterestedness by handing over to public uses a legacy which had been left him by the prince he had raised to the throne of Bengal; and returned poorer than he went to face ...
-The Independence Of America. 1761 - 1782. Part 14
Old as he was, his generalship retained all its energy; and a disciplined army, covered by a cloud of horse and backed by a train of artillery, poured down in 1780 on the plain of the Carnatic. The sm...
-Section III. The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793
That in the creation of the United States the world had reached one of the turning points in its history seems at the time to have entered into the thought of not a single European statesman. What sta...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 2
The Shelburne Ministry only lasted long enough to conclude the final peace with the United States; for in the opening of 1783 it was overthrown by the most unscrupulous coalition known in our history,...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 3
His policy from the first was one of active reform, and he faced every one of the problems, financial, constitutional, religious, from which Walpole had shrunk. Above all he had none of Walpole's scor...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 4
The ten earlier years of his rule marked a new point of departure in English statesmanship. Pitt was the first English Minister who really grasped the part which industry was to play in promoting the ...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 5
India owes to Pitt's triumph a form of government which remained unchanged to our own day. The India Bill which he carried in 1784 preserved in appearance the political and commercial powers of the Di...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 6
Society itself rested on a rigid division of classes from one another, which refused to the people at large any equal rights of justice or of industry. We have already seen how alien such a conception...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 7
In the spring of 1790 Joseph died brokenhearted at the failure of his plans and the revolt of the Netherlands against his innovations; and Austria practically withdrew from the war with the Turks. ...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 8
He would see no abuses in the past, now that it had fallen, or anything but the ruin of society in the future. He preached a crusade against men whom he regarded as the foes of religion and civilizati...
-The Second Pitt. 1783 - 1793. Part 9
Misled by their belief in a revolutionary enthusiasm in England, the French had hoped for her alliance in this war; and they were astonished and indignant at Pitt's resolve to stand apart from the str...
-Section IV. The War With France. 1793 - 1815
From the moment when France declared war against England Pitt's power was at an end. His pride, his immoveable firmness, and the general confidence of the nation still kept him at the head of affairs;...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 2
Spain sued for peace; Prussia withdrew her armies from the Rhine; the Sardinians were driven back from the Maritime Alps; the Rhine provinces were wrested from the Austrians; and before the year ended...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 3
All communication between France and Buonaparte's army was cut off; and his hopes of making Egypt a starting-point for the conquest of India fell at a blow. Freed from the dangers that threatened h...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 4
The bitter lesson of the last conquest, however, long sufficed to check all dreams of revolt among the natives, and the outbreaks which sprang from time to time out of the general misery and disconten...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 5
A few weeks after the close of the rebellion nine hundred French soldiers under General Humbert landed in Mayo, broke a force of thrice their number in a battle at Castlebar, and only surrendered when...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 6
His words gave strength to the hopes of Catholic Emancipation, or the removal of what remained of the civil disabilities of Catholics, which were held out by the viceroy, Lord Castlereagh, in Irelan...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 7
Both parties in this gigantic struggle however were at last anxious to suspend the war. It was to give time for such an organization of France and its resources as might enable him to reopen the strug...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 8
The alarm of the Continental Powers had been brought to a head by Napoleon's annexation of Genoa; Pitt's subsidies had removed the last obstacle in the way of a league; and Russia, Austria, and Sweden...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 9
On the refusal of this pledge the Ministry was dismissed. Its fall was the final close of the union of parties brought about by the peril of French invasion; and from this time to the end of the wa...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 10
The landing of the wreck of Moore's army and the news of the Spanish defeats turned the temper of England from the wildest hope to the deepest despair; but Canning remained unmoved. On the day of the ...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 11
Galled however as was America by outrages such as these, she was hindered from resenting them by her strong disinclination to war, as well as by the profit which she drew from the maintenance of her n...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 12
With social and political troubles thus awaking about them, even Tory statesmen were not willing to face the terrible consequences of a ruin of English industry, such as might follow from the junction...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 13
Though held at bay for a while by the sieges of San Sebastian and Pampeluna, as well as by an obstinate defence of the Pyrenees, Wellington succeeded in the very month of the triumph at Leipzig in win...
-The War With France. 1793 - 1815. Part 14
But Napoleon had thrown aside all thought of a merely defensive war. By amazing efforts he had raised an army of two hundred and fifty thousand men in the few months since his arrival in Paris; and in...
-Epilogue. 1815 To 1873
With the victory of Waterloo we reach a time within the memory of some now living, and the opening of a period of our history, the greatest indeed of all in real importance and interest, but perhaps t...
-Epilogue. 1815 To 1873. Part 2
The refusal drove him from office; and for the first time after twenty years the Whigs saw themselves again in power under the leadership of Earl Grey. A bill for Parliamentary Reform, which took away...
-Epilogue. 1815 To 1873. Part 3
Successful as it proved itself abroad, the Conservative Government encountered unexpected difficulties at home. From the enactment of the Corn Laws in 1815 a dispute had constantly gone on between tho...
-Works Treating Of English History
Published by HARPER & BROTHERS, New York. Harper & Brothers will send any of the following works by mail, postage prepaid, on receipt of the price. History of the English People. By John Rich...









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