books



previous page: Make It And Make It Pay | by Catherine Robertspage up: Construction and Plumbing Booksnext page: Safety In Building Construction | by The Travelers Insurance Company

Blast Furnace Construction In America | by J. E. Johnson, Jr.



The blastfurnace is the key which unlocks Nature's stores of iron for our use. It is unique in having been unchanged in principle for several centuries, and in having no substitute. For the steam engine we have the gas engine, for the Bessemer converter the open hearth, but if the blast furnace were taken from us, civilization would be halted.

TitleBlast Furnace Construction In America
AuthorJ. E. Johnson, Jr.
PublisherMcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
Year1917
Copyright1917, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
AmazonBlast Furnace Construction In America

To James Gayley, founder of modern american blast-furnace practice, inventor of the dry blast generous and helpful friend to many furnacemen this work is respectfully dedicated

-Preface
The blast-furnace is the key which unlocks Nature's stores of iron for our use. It is unique in having been unchanged in principle for several centuries, and in having no substitute. For the steam eng...
-Introduction
Fundamental Conditions - Definition of Blast-Furnace -Classification by Fuels Used - Essentials of Plant. Iron is one of the most common elements in nature. Geologists state that it comprises about 4...
-Introduction. Continued
Most of these must await discussion in subsequent chapters, but one was vastly important because it made a radical alteration in the character of the product, and in the process. The original product ...
-Freedom From Sulphur And Phosphorus
The reason for the importance of this requirement is that next to carbon these two elements exert the most important influence of any of the common constituents in steel, both being destructive of qua...
-Chapter I. Handling The Raw Materials
The average ouput of blast-furnaces has increased in little more than a generation from about thirty tons per day to about five hundred tons per day. This great increase has occurred simultaneously wi...
-Stock Hoisting
The first change from the primitive arrangement I have described was the introduction of power hoists for taking the material to the top of the furnace. These were of two kinds, vertical and inclined,...
-Hand-Filling And Filling-Barrows
The system of handling raw materials in barrows was almost universal until the middle of the decade beginning in 1891. Many attempts had been made to eliminate at least a portion of the labor required...
-The Delivery Of The Stock To The Furnace
Returning now to the matter of handling raw materials from the stock piles to the barrows, this, as has already been stated, was at first done exclusively with shovels, but when the introduction of ra...
-Ore Handling Machinery
On account of the vast influence of the machinery developed for unloading vessels on the problem of stocking and reclaiming ore at the blast-furnace, it will not be amiss to illustrate here some of th...
-Ore Handling Machinery. Continued
The bridge, on the other hand, is an extremely expensive apparatus, and, being many times heavier than the gantries, cannot be moved back and forth as they are, though it can move with sufficient ease...
-Car Dumpers
Plants removed from the lake shore must, of course, receive their ore by rail, and the enormous quantity to be handled in the relatively brief open season has made desirable in some cases a greater sp...
-Design Of Bins
We may now consider the bins which serve for storage of the raw materials going immediately into consumption. These bins are of many types, bins having had a development covering many decades. Substa...
-Design Of Bins. Continued
Fig. 16. Furnace with Brown skip hoist and parabolic bins. Fig. 17. Parabolic bins. The style of bin and chute designed by Hoover & Mason is shown in Fig. 19. No attempt is made in this bin to use...
-Methods Of Hoisting In Mechanical Charging
In hoisting for mechanical filling, as apart from distribution (the latter being used in the technical sense of distributing the stock properly in the top of the furnace), there are two main systems i...
-Location Of The Hoisting Sheaves
One of the difficulties met in skip hoist design is that commonly the hoisting rope must run over a sheave located at the upper end of the skipway and come back over the top of the skip in order to be...
-Counterweighting
The bucket type of filling must use a counterweight in order to avoid excessive consumption of power, and more difficult control in handling its loads, because from the nature of the case the bucket t...
-Scales
One of the most important details of the whole system of charging a furnace, which as a whole is probably the most important single part of blast-furnace operation, is the weighing of the materials. I...
-Scales. Continued
These scales are also provided with a paper tape, and by means of a lever, which is pulled when the correct point is reached for each portion of the charge, the actual weight on the scales is stamped ...
-Chapter II. Filling The Blast-Furnace
This is the most important single step in the whole iron-making process. The details by which it was carried on in early years are quite unknown to me. The earliest system of which I have knowledge co...
-The Laws Of Stock Distribution
This is a field in which we have little or no theory to guide us. Our information comes solely from tedious and expensive empirical methods, better described as trial and error. Our knowledge of wha...
-The Laws Of Stock Distribution. Continued
Instead of having a circle divided into four equal parts of 90 deg. each, we have the first of 100 deg., the second of 90 deg., the third of 90 deg., and the fourth of 80 deg., or some similar arrange...
-Variations Of The Bell And Hopper Used With Hand-Filling
Many modifications of the bell have been made with the object of securing better distribution and better furnace work. These have sometimes been only changes in dimensions, but many other variations h...
-The Gas Seal
For a long time after the introduction of the bell and hopper to close the top of the furnace no effort was made to prevent the escape of the gas during the time that the bell was opened for the intro...
-Mechanical Charging
Many attempts had been made to use the skip for filling purposes as well as many other mechanical appliances, which would at least permit the elimination of men to dump the barrows at the top, since t...
-Skip Filling
The first installation of skip filling commercially successful on a large scale was made at the Edgar Thompson Steel Works, under the supervision of its furnace superintendent, D. G. Kerr (now first v...
-The Rowe Top
The Rowe top was invented by a young man of that name at a plant where they had suffered greatly from bad distribution. The extreme simplicity of his design enabled it to be applied to the furnace wit...
-Breakage Of The Coke
One of the most important factors in the whole subject of furnace operation was overlooked in the early designs of mechanically filled furnaces. This was the question of breakage of the coke. In some ...
-The Brown Top
Although I have referred to the persistence of hand-filling as almost universal up to the time of the Duquesne revolution, it is a fact that the first reasonably satisfactory apparatus for mechanical ...
-The Baker Top
This may be considered as a modification of the Brown top in that it distributes the material in heaps on the main bell. It is shown by Fig. 42. Endeavor has been made in the design of this top to ove...
-The Mckee Top
It has been very widely believed by many furnacemen, and is even yet, that one of the essential characteristics of a revolving top is that if the revolving apparatus ceases to work it should still con...
-The Bucket System Of Distribution
When the Duquesne furnaces were designed, as I have previously explained, practically all the traditions of blast-furnace design were discarded and the engineers struck out on lines boldly new in almo...
-Ford-Parkes Top
Various modifications of this type of filling system have been made. A general drawing of the Ford-Parkes design was shown in the previous chapter. The details of the top and bottom are shown by Figs....
-Guiding The Bell Movement
One point of extreme practical importance in all types of furnace tops is the path of the main bell in its descent. It is obvious that if it be attached directly to the end of the bell lever, the latt...
-Bell-Operating Apparatus
In the early days of the closed-top furnace the bell was probably always controlled by a hand-operated crab, consisting of a crank and connecting rod driven by gearing. A large gear having a crank p...
-Provisions For Access And Repairs - Means For Hoisting Main Bell
In the days when furnaces were hand-filled and practically the only mechanism on the top was the single bell with its lever and bell cylinder, considerations of accessibility played no part, there bei...
-The Stock Line Recorder
One of the most important points in connection with the filling of the blast-furnace is to maintain the stock line at the proper height. With hand-filling this was frequently very difficult to do. The...
-The Stock Line Recorder. Continued
Fig. 50. Operating mechanism for stock-line recorder. The amount of information obtainable as to the way the furnace is settling, whether steadily or by slips, is quite remarkable. One accustomed t...
-Chapter III. The Boiler Plant
In the early days of blast-furnaces when furnaces were small and the quantity of iron made per cubic foot of furnace capacity was very small as compared with present practice, the quantity of power re...
-The Boiler Plant. Continued
This gas containing, as has been said, roughly 50 per cent. of the total energy of the fuel charged, supplies the heat necessary for all the operations around the plant outside the furnace itself. Its...
-Horizontal Tubular Boilers
At the Illinois Steel Works in South Chicago, where coal was expensive as compared with Pittsburgh, and where a furnace plant and steel mill were early operated in conjunction, they used at one time a...
-The Heine Boiler
One of the types of boilers on this general plan is the Heine, built by the Heine Safety Boiler Company, and illustrated in Figs. 61 and 62. Fig. 61 shows the construction of the boiler independent ...
-The Babcock & Wilcox Boiler
This boiler differs from the Heine principally in having the water leg subdivided into as many sections as there are vertical rows of tubes, this being a still further extension of the sectional idea ...
-The Stirling Boiler
This boiler and its setting are both clearly shown in Fig. 67. This boiler is of an entirely different type from both the two preceding ones in two important particulars. First, there are no headers b...
-The Rust Boiler
This is the latest developed of any boiler in extensive modern use. It was invented to solve what had seemed for many years an insoluble problem, that of making a boiler containing nothing but straigh...
-Gas Burners For Boilers
Blast-furnace gas is a relatively lean gas. When of the normal composition given above it requires about 60 per cent. of its own volume of air for theoretically complete combustion, to which a small e...
-Boiler Cleaning
I have already described the earlier and cruder methods of cleaning water-tube boilers. It is not too much to say that these methods were so ineffective and the difficulty of keeping the tubes of thes...
-Chapter IV. Blowing Apparatus
The power first applied to blowing furnaces was that of water wheels, but something over a generation ago these passed out of use except at very small plants working under peculiar conditions, on acco...
-Blowing Apparatus. Continued
If in order to overcome the difficulty of having the valves slammed hard against their seats by the reversed currents, a weight or spring was applied to them to force them to their seats, the pressure...
-Corliss Valves
The Corliss or semi-rotating valve had proved its serviceability, its relative ease of operation, and its tightness under long continued wear, by almost half a century of successful use in the steam e...
-Pot Valves
The poppet type of valve has always been used for discharge valves and one of the first steps in replacing the Corliss valve for air cylinders was the introduction of a modified form of poppet valve w...
-The Return To Automatic Valves
The last two or three years have seen a development in this field which brings us back almost to the starting point. The gas-driven engine has received a great development in Germany and as the speeds...
-Methods Of Compounding
The growth of the demand for economy in blowing engines, previously described, obviously required the introduction of compounding, to which at first sight the long cross-head type of engine did not ad...
-Inertia Of Reciprocating Parts
This is not the place for an extended discussion of the subject of the inertia of the reciprocating parts, which is a mathematical problem of no mean order if it be handled completely and accurately. ...
-The Disconnected Compound
The problem of compounding blowing engines has been solved in the case of several of the types of engines above described, by building two separate units, one driven by the high-pressure steam cylinde...
-The Vertical Quarter-Crank Engine
This engine, shown in Fig. 95, is built in practically the same design by several of the best builders, and is not, as far as I know, recommended particularly by any of. them. I shall not, therefore, ...
-The Horizontal-Vertical
The horizontal-vertical, shown in Fig. 96, presents almost the same conditions, though these are offset by the fact that the running balance of these engines, if properly made, is excellent, and there...
-The Long Cross-Head Type
This engine requires small foundation and small space for a unit of given size, the vertical height required being about the same as that of any other type of engine with reciprocating parts in the ve...
-The Horizontal Cross-Compound With Tandem Air Cylinders
This type of engine, shown by Figs. 98 and 100, is open to the disadvantage that it requires the largest and most expensive foundation of any steam-blowing engine, and that it requires also a great ar...
-Steam Valves And Their Settings
The conditions as to the steam valves for blowing engines are no different from what they are in any other type under similar conditions of size, speed, and economy desired. It is therefore obviously ...
-Steam Valves And Their Settings. Continued
It will be noted that in this diagram (Fig. 75) and also to a less extent in Fig. 73, the exhaust of the steam is extremely slow. The exhaust valve does not open at all until the end of the stroke is ...
-The Turbo Blower
Within the last ten years the general introduction of the steam turbine and the high efficiency to which it has attained have brought about a great development in centrifugal machinery. It was formerl...
-The Southwark Turbo Blower
The internal construction of the Rateau machine as built by the Southwark Company is shown in Fig. 103. The U-shaped discharge passages by which the air discharged from one fan is delivered into the c...
-The General Electric Blower
The principle of this blower is the same as that of the Rateau, but the number of impellers used is smaller, and the whole of the blower is built in one body, without the feature of balancing by havin...
-The Disadvantages Of The Turbo Blower
I. Pulsation Of Discharge Under certain conditions of operation at considerably less than the rated capacity of these machines, they are liable to a very disagreeable pulsation of the discharge, the ...
-The Condenser
The auxiliaries of the steam plant at a blast-furnace do not differ from those of any other steam plant of similar size and character, and for that reason it is not necessary to discuss most of them h...
-Combination Of Turbine And Reciprocating Engine
There is an application of the turbo blower to blowing engines of which no actual installation has as yet been made, but the possibilities of which have been figured out on the basis of actual practic...
-The Gas-Driven Blowing Engine
It is now more than half a century ago that Otto first built internal combustion engines using the four-stroke cycle, and the economy of these engines was early recognized as being far superior to tha...
-The Difficulties To Be Overcome
The conditions to be met, and the difficulties to be overcome in making the gas-blowing engine a success may be briefly stated as follows: First Blast-furnace gas as it comes from the furnace contai...
-The Cleaning Of The Gas
Great harm was done to the gas engine in its early days by the premature publication of the results of an experiment in using gas which had not been thoroughly cleaned. It was claimed that only primar...
-Elimination Of Difficulties And Uncertainties Of Operation
This has been even more than the others a matter of patience and detailed attention to small and apparently unimportant points. The ignition system which was at one time under electrical control and w...
-Type Of Gas Engines
Owing to the length necessary on account of their tandem cylinders and to the excessive stresses to which they are liable from the nature of their working cycle, gas engines in large sizes for the iro...
-The Speeds Of Gas Engines
It is a remarkable fact that a number of builders of blowing engines should balk at the idea of running a steam-driven blowing engine more than 40 revolutions, yet regularly design and build gas engin...
-The Choice Of A Type Of Blowing Engine
From what has been said it will be seen that we have the choice of three separate and very distinct types of blowing engines. It would be desirable to make a definite pronouncement as to the superiori...
-The Outline Of The Solution
The first question to be asked and answered is as to the value of power for purposes outside the blast furnace. If no market is at hand or can be created this is obviously zero. If on the other hand t...
-Chapter V. Hot-Blast Stoves
In the third decade of the nineteenth century James Beaumont Neilson, who from plain beginnings had made for himself a distinguished position as a gas engineer and authority on matters of combustion, ...
-The Iron-Pipe Stove
This stove had a development which lasted about a half century before it was stopped by the preponderating advantages of the brick stove, and in this interval a type of construction was evolved which ...
-The Joints
The principle of these stoves is obviously very simple, but their construction and the maintenance have developed a number of problems. The joints between the U-pipes and the bed pipes are universally...
-The Roof Of The Stove
Many stoves have been built with arched roofs, but these are a great inconvenience when U-pipes have to be taken out and new ones put in, as unfortunately happens not infrequently with this type of st...
-Two Types Of Iron-Pipe Stoves
Stoves of this general type are divided into two classes, known respectively as the Glendon and Durham, from the former well-known works in the Lehigh Valley, which respectively used and advocated...
-Firebrick Stoves
The early stoves of this type were of large diameter in comparison with their height, and contained four passes, each passage of the gas vertically through the stove being called a pass. Following the...
-The McClure Stove
These two ideas underlie the design of the McClure stove, which is one of the best-known types of 3-pass stoves, built by the George W. McClure & Sons Co. This is shown in sectional elevation by Fig. ...
-Two-Pass Stoves
Commonly two-pass stoves have shared the preeminence with three-pass stoves in the best modern practice. In the case of the two-pass stove the valves are all at the ground level, so that any blast lea...
-The Nelson Two-Pass Stove
This stove is built by Arthur G. McKee & Co., contracting engineers, Cleveland, Ohio. The principal claims for the stove are that it secures a very large area of heating surface in proportion to the t...
-Stove Valves And Fittings. Hot-Blast Valves
One of the most important details connected with stoves is their hot-blast valves. Long experience with these has now developed a type which is in almost universal use on all stoves, subject, of cours...
-The Cold-Blast Valve
A standard design for this valve has gradually been evolved, and while the individual valves used by different stove builders differ in details, the general principle of all is the same. They are all ...
-Chimney Valves
One of the earliest forms of chimney valves is of the same form as the cold-blast valve, but very much larger and water-cooled to withstand the action of the hot chimney gases; its seat is also water-...
-Blow-Off Valves
In addition to the valves above described, there is also an air blow-off valve provided, the function of which is to blow off air left in the stove when it is taken off the furnace, since, of course, ...
-Stack For Stoves
Mechanical draft has never been applied to hot-blast stoves so far as I know, their draft always being supplied by a stack. The three-pass stoves each have their individual stack resting on top of th...
-The Size Of The Checkers
It has been the practice in the past to make the checkers about 9 square since smaller ones could not be maintained in operation, but this practice is now beginning to undergo a change which is likel...
-The Number Of Stoves Per Furnace
There is no theoretical reason why one iron-pipe stove should not be sufficient for a furnace, because it is an apparatus which works continuously by the conduction of heat through metal walls exactly...
-Equalizing The Blast Temperature
The proposal has been made by several blast-furnace engineers ana operators to apply an equalizer to remove the objectionable peaks from the charts of blast temperature, and several of these apparatus...
-The Size And Heating Surface Of Stoves
Practice in regard to these matters in the past has been based on general experience and the belief of the furnace man or engineer that stoves of about such a size would be sufficient to supply the ho...
-Chapter VI. The Construction Of The Blast-Furnace Stack. The Conditions To Be Met
In the construction of the blast furnace the conditions to be met are diverse and to some extent conflicting. The efforts to meet them have been almost innumerable, and the most varied types of constr...
-Resistance To Abrasion By The Stock
About one-half, by volume, of the charge of the furnace in almost all cases is coke, one of the most highly abrasive substances known. In practically all cases also limestone is added to the charge in...
-The Constructions Adopted
Had the builders of those tiny furnaces which dotted the Central Eastern states in the first half of the last century been shown these formidable specifications before having practical knowledge of th...
-The Hearth And Bottom
The necessity of resistance to chemical action for the furnace as a whole has been briefly described above. Fig. 164. Hearth and bosh of Inland Steel company's B furnace. This is particularly ne...
-The Ditch Around The Hearth Jacket
There is ordinarily a ditch around the outside of the hearth jacket extending from just above the base of the columns, which are bricked in solid, up to about a foot above the hearth level, and practi...
-The Tuyere Zone
This is the zone between the top of the hearth jacket and the bottom of the sloping bosh. Various styles of construction have been adopted for this, as for all the other regions of the furnace. One of...
-The Bosh
This divergent cone which begins at the top of the tuyere zone has received attention at the hand of a vast army of engineers and furnacemen, and many solutions of the problem of a suitable constructi...
-The Bosh. Part 2
One feature of a jacket of this kind must receive the most careful attention. It must be as near absolutely smooth as it can be made by good workmanship. The rivets must be countersunk on the outside ...
-The Bosh. Part 3
In coke furnaces using a bosh of this type I have several times used only nine inches of brick with very satisfactory results, and in the furnace shown by Fig. 167 which was to use charcoal and theref...
-The Shaft Or Inwall
Above the mantle only two styles of construction have been used in recent years. For many years nothing but plain firebrick from two to five feet in thickness was used from this point to the top of th...
-The Shaft Or Inwall. Continued
When these plates are installed, whatever kind may be used, provision must be made for obtaining access to them. In Fig. 165 two platforms for this purpose will be seen above the platform at the level...
-The Stock Line And The Top Of The Furnace
In this region the influences of chemical activity and temperature are greatly reduced over what they are in the lower portions of the furnace, but the lining is exposed to another form of attack whic...
-The Stock Line And The Top Of The Furnace. Continued
Since that time these angles have been used with some modifications at a considerable number of plants, and always, to the best of my knowledge, with entire satisfaction and success. Modifications hav...
-The Shape Of The Top Of The Furnace
It was formerly customary to run the shell practically vertical to the top, putting brackets in the inside to support the hopper ring and other brackets on the outside to carry the wheelway for the fi...
-Thin-Lined Furnaces
It has been recognized for many years that firebrick exposed to the conditions in the blast furnace would wear back until the amount of heat carried off by their bases about equaled the amount brought...
-Thin-Lined Furnaces. Continued
Fig. 171. Detroit Iron & Steel Company's thin-lined furnace. Fig. 172. Section of Warwick thin-lined furnace. The conditions in regard to thin lining for the inwall or any point above the top of...
-The Ashland Construction
The construction shown by Figs. 162, 163 and 165 in which the mantle is supported directly upon the tops of the columns, numbering in modern practice from ten to twelve, has virtually been the standar...
-Firebrick
There is scarcely any feature of the construction and operation of the blast furnace of more importance than this and probably none concerning which less is known by the great majority of those to who...
-Firebrick. Continued
At the top the conditions of abrasion are extreme, as has already been described, while the temperature in good practice in this zone of the furnace is generally below 1000, so that the necessity...
-The Laying Of The Firebrick
The mortar used for this purpose consists of ground fireclay which is mixed to grout of a consistency to suit the ideas of the furnaceman or the boss bricklayer, and usually kept hot during the mixing...
-The Filling Of The Packing Space
In former times when furnace shells were built not much more than a quarter as strong as they are to-day they were frequently burst by the expansion of the brickwork within them and it was therefore u...
-Drying The Lining
Even with the best possible practice several tons of fireclay are used in laying the lining of a furnace, and this being mixed with something like an equal weight of water there is a great quantity of...
-Bustle Pipe, Penstocks And Blow Pipes
The hot blast is delivered from the stoves through the brick-lined hot-blast main to a circular distributing pipe surrounding the furnace which is called the bustle pipe. This is a complete annulus of...
-Bustle Pipe, Penstocks And Blow Pipes. Continued
The ball joints are not held together by bolts in the ordinary way because all parts of the hot-blast system become heated to a high temperature and flange bolts under those conditions would become pr...
-The Wicket
The rear opening of the penstock is provided to give access to the tuyere for cleaning out and for plugging with clay in case of a stop, or the like. The cap which closes this opening is called the w...
-Chapter VII. Cleaning And Washing The Gas
The realization of the great heating value of the top gases of the blast-furnace was very slow in taking useful shape. For centuries, furnaces ran with their tops wide open, discharging the gas into t...
-The Outlets From The Furnace Top
From the time of the closed top or soon thereafter, some furnacemen claimed that the gas should be taken off either from the center of the furnace or at several points symmetrically arranged around th...
-Explosion Doors
Downcomers are generally provided with explosion doors for two purposes: First, when furnaces are stopped it is almost impossible to prevent air being drawn into the gas main at some point or other. T...
-Dust Catchers
Dust catchers were not considered a necessary part of a plant until within the last twenty or twenty-five years. The first ones were crudely designed, simply with the idea of providing an enlargement ...
-Dust Catchers. Part 2
This dust catcher has given very good satisfaction in use. The principal point to be guarded against is any fluctuation of the water level which will permit the end of the discharge nozzles to become ...
-Dust Catchers. Part 3
Third Unwashed at 400 Fahr. and containing 35 grains of moisture per cubic foot; in other words, its natural condition as it comes from the furnace. Three temperatures for the escaping products...
-Dud Content In Gas
The gas leaving the usual dust catcher contains an average of from 3 to 4 grains of dust per cubic foot, and its further cleaning is accomplished in one or two principal stages, depending on the ultim...
-Brassert-Witting Whirler
As shown in Figs. 183 and 184, the Brassert-Witting whirler consists of a vertical outer cylindrical casing, A, and an inner inverted tube, B, which at its upper end is integral with the gas main C, w...
-Dyblie Whirler
In this whirler, as in most of these types, the separation is accomplished by combined centrifugal force and the action of gravity. One of the principal features in this particular whirler is the arra...
-Zschocke System
Zschocke washers have been used almost entirely in Germany for wet primary cleaning. These consist of cylindrical or square steel towers fitted with a series of wooden grids or hurdles placed at suita...
-Final Wet Cleaning
(Some of these systems can also be applied to primary cleaning). The amount of cleaning accomplished in Zschocke and similar towers, and in the Bian washer, while satisfactory for stoves and boilers...
-Schwarz-Bayer Disintegrator Gas Washer
The Schwarz-Bayer system of gas cleaning makes use of the disintegrator principle, and its general arrangement is simple. The complete set of gas-cleaning apparatus consists of the disintegrator in co...
-Feld Gas Washer
The Feld washer, as shown in Fig. 200, consists of a series of superimposed sections, the bottom of each section being provided with ports for the passage of gas. The gas enters the bottom of the wash...
-Sepulchre Gas Washer
This system is designed as a final washer to further clean primarily cleaned and cooled gas to the degree necessary for use in gas engines. The principle of this system consists in creating in a verti...
-The Kapnograph
This instrument, shown in Fig. 204, continuously indicates the relative degree of cleanliness of the blast-furnace gas going to the gas engines, and is extensively used in European gas-engine stations...
-Brown Dust, Moisture, And Volume Determinator For Blastfurnace And Other Gases
This apparatus has been devised in order to determine accurately the amount of dust and moisture contained in blast-furnace gas, as well as the volume of the gas, and is used with considerable success...
-Chapter VIII. Handling The Iron And Cinder
In the early days of the blast-furnace it was probably the custom to allow the iron to run out in puddles in front of the furnace and there cool, but soon this crude practice developed into making a r...
-Casting In Chills
Next to this came a change forced by the introduction of the basic open-hearth process for the manufacture of steel. In this all silica introduced into the open-hearth furnace has to be slagged with l...
-Breaking The Iron
Each bed of iron when cast is obviously in the form of a huge comb and to render it merchantable this comb requires to be broken apart, and almost universally in foundry work the individual pigs requi...
-Pig Breaker
The labor involved in these operations is generally not excessive measured in foot-pounds of work performed, but must be done in a relatively short time to permit the cast house to be cleared for the ...
-Molding Up Sand Beds
The beds were formerly molded exclusively by hand and still are in many cases. The sand is leveled off in the cast house floor, there is a pattern for the sow and one for each pig, which are set down ...
-The Mixer
The late Captain W. R. Jones, of the Edgar Thompson Works, solved the difficulty by the invention of the mixer, a huge steel vessel lined with firebrick, mounted on trunnions and poured by tipping b...
-Casting Machines
The increase of furnace outputs during the nineties, of which I have spoken, required very large cast houses to take care of the iron, and the labor involved in breaking and carrying out these huge qu...
-Iron Trough And Skimmer
A violent explosion is caused by molten iron running on to even the smallest wet spot on anything made of iron, but it cannot bore into the iron as it does into the sand in case of a boil, so that the...
-Disposing Of The Slag
In the early days of the blast-furnace the slag was handled as clinker or ashes, and this method of procedure survived until very recent times in the crane-operated shovel, fork, etc., which I have de...
-Disposing Of The Slag. Continued
Fig. 225. General arrangement of Uehling casting machine. Fig. 226. Pollock cinder ladle. To eliminate these difficulties cars which dumped their contents by tipping bodily over were developed. Th...
-Slag Granulation
These difficulties have prevented the universal adoption of this means of slag disposal, and have caused the development of others, of which by far the most important is granulation. This was first ...
-Casting The Cinder And Handling It Cold
In recent years, since the very general introduction of concrete, it has been realized that slag allowed to cool slowly made one of the best aggregates that could be found, much better than limestone,...
-Chapter IX. Auxiliaries And General Arrangement Of Plants
In addition to the apparatus previously described which is required for each furnace there must be a considerable amount of other equipment for the plant as a whole. It goes without saying that the e...
-Auxiliaries And General Arrangement Of Plants. Continued
Several years ago, having occasion to provide a water supply for a small furnace near but not on the bank of a mountain river, subject to rises of some twenty or twenty-five feet, I installed a plant ...
-Pumping Machinery
Many different types of pumping machinery are used. For small plants and where steam economy is not important, and where the pump installation can receive attendance from the engine room force, direct...
-Stand Pipes
The water supply is vital to the life of the furnace plant and must be continuous, since the failure of the water supply on the tuyeres for two seconds would almost certainly cause them to be burnt, a...
-Water Mains
The character of the water main, like that of many of the other auxiliaries, is determined primarily by the size of the plant. For small plants probably nothing but cast-iron pipe is ever considered, ...
-Waste Water System
Until within recent years all the water used by the furnace was returned to the sewer so little polluted that it required no special treatment, the water having been used almost exclusively for coolin...
-Compressed Air Supply
In former times, before electricity had reached its present state of development, a supply of compressed air was one of the greatest conveniences that could be installed at a furnace plant. It was ver...
-Electric Supply
There are still a few furnace plants which are without an electric supply, these are lit at night by oil torches, colloquially known by the descriptive name of smoke pots, whose light is extremely p...
-General Arrangement Of Plants. The General Arrangement Of Furnace Plants
In early days blastfurnaces were very generally built singly, plants of two were scarce, and a greater number than that in charcoal practice were almost unknown. But as the world's consumption of iron...
-The Distance Apart Of The Furnaces
This is controlled by various circumstances. When the ore supply for the large part of a year has to be stocked that becomes one of the controlling factors because the cost of ore bridges increases ve...
-The Arrangement Of The Stoves And Hot-Blast Main
This is a subject deserving the most careful consideration. Stoves in modern practice are universally arranged in one straight row, where considerstions of room permit, but this exposes the maximum am...
-The Elevation Of The Furnace
Furnaces in the early days were set practically flat on the ground and their operating level was the general ground level, it being possible to walk about them without the use of stairs of any kind. B...
-The Arrangement Of The Boilers And Engines
The blast can be carried for very considerable distances from the blowing engines without much loss of pressure and with but little expense. It is therefore possible to locate the blowing engine house...
-Chapter X. The Dry Blast
This subject has aroused within the last ten years more comment and controversy than any other connected with the blast-furnace. In dealing with the thermal principles of the furnace I shall endeavor ...
-The Dry Blast. Part 2
As normal air is about two-thirds to three-fourths saturated and as the temperature in summer may easily rise to 85, it is very obvious that we have in summer to deal with moisture sometimes reac...
-The Dry Blast. Part 3
As these tests represent widely varying conditions it is clear that there is a trustworthy connection between the conditions of refrigeration and the power required for it in any case.1 The algebraic ...
-The Dry Blast. Part 4
To many it will be a matter of indifference how the results are reached, provided only that they are reached correctly and swiftly. To these it may be said that entropy is a mathematical quantity depe...
-The Dry Blast. Part 5
This is shown by Fig. 243, in which is plotted the ratio of water removed from 75 lbs. air below 40 F. to the power required for its removal. This is based on 70 F. condenser-temperature and...
-The Dry Blast. Part 6
Three stages could similarly be used, but with a much smaller saving, as an inspection of the area outside the 85 degree horse-power curve will show, so that the added complication of another stage ...
-The Dry Blast. Part 7
Fig. 247 shows the coolers C, D, E, F as if they were arranged in a straight line so as to show the currents through them. C is a heat exchanger in which the cold outgoing air is warmed up almost to i...
-The Dry Blast. Part 8
Another respect in which the pre-compression and the post-compression system differ is that with the former all the air is delivered to the blowing engine cold, and the reduction in volume resulting f...







TOP
previous page: Make It And Make It Pay | by Catherine Robertspage up: Construction and Plumbing Booksnext page: Safety In Building Construction | by The Travelers Insurance Company