This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
If the cellar is wet and foundation or subsoil drains are needed, the discharge from them must not be direct to the house drains, but must be into a tight masonry or iron box below the cellar floor, with a cover in the floor, and with a securely trapped discharge connecting with the main drain. The box must be arranged to receive an infallible supply of water from a draw cock or fixture flush pipe, or must be provided with ball cock connected to the water supply. If direct connection is made with the house drain there is danger of stoppage in the house drain, causing the back-floodage of sewage into the subsoil and foundation drains, and consequent saturation of the earth with foul water *
Water-closets should be of earthenware with brass floor flanges and bolted connections with white lead and putty or other secure joints. Avoid rubber or other perishable washers. Brass back-air connections should be cemented in earthenware of closet and located so as to avoid receiving the splash from the closet into the back-air opening. When the closet is flushed the back-air coupling should be of ground brass. Avoid washer connections. Each closet should have an independent flush tank supplied by ball cock from the water supply pipe. No closet should have a direct flush from the water pipes. Avoid closets with valves or concealed fouling space; and leave the closet, as well as other fixtures, as much exposed as possible, and free from unnecessary joiner-work.
Bathtubs should be exposed, with accessible trap and with standing overflow, or overflow which can be readily cleaned. Baths may be of wood or indurated fiber lined with tinned and planished copper, steel-shell lined with tinned and planished copper, enameled iron or porcelain, the selection depending upon the available money to spend and the preference of the user. Avoid all unnecessary woodwork.
Basins should have an exposed overflow or standing overflow, which can be readily cleaned. Traps should be as close to outlet as possible.
Kitchen and butlers' sinks receive large amounts of grease, and the wastes from them are liable to stoppage. Provision should be made for the ready cleaning of these wastes. The sinks should have the least possible amount of absorbent material, and, if possible, should be set free from walls to admit of cleaning all around. Iron, copper stone, and earthenware are the materials employed. Avoid concealed overflows. Place the trap close to the sink.