This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
The drips, tanks, wastes, etc., in pipe cellar, being below the level of the street sewer, are drained into a mason's cesspool. The contents of this tank are emptied periodically by means of a pump, and discharged through a proper waste pipe into an elevated.
trapped, and water-supplied sink in the basement, with waste to sewer. The tank is a round, open well, of 500 gallons capacity, 6 feet in diameter, and 3 feet deep. There are two sewer connections with the street sewer in New Street, each 6 inches in diameter, trapped by 6-inch traps and fitted with 5-inch fresh-air inlet pipes.
After the pipe lines were completed all openings of soil, waste, drain, and vent pipes and the ends of horizontal drains were securely closed by means of soil-pipe plugs, the lead bends of branches properly soldered up, and braced where required to withstand the pressure, and the whole system of piping was filled with water to the top of the building. The water remained at the original level for 12 to 48 hours without signs of leaking. This test was made in two parts, sections of the pipes being first filled up to the thirteenth story, as they were put in place from the bottom up.
Figure 4 shows the arrangement and connections of the intermediate tanks designed to relieve the excessive pressure on the lower sections of the pipes. No special provisions having been made for their reception it was necessary to limit them in size and place them in two tiers in a small closet on the eighth floor, where they are filled through the overflow pipes K and L from the roof by Croton and well water tanks respectively, the roof tanks having their electric indicators arranged to show when the pipes K and L are full and overflow begins. Provision for a separate pump line to the eighth floor has been contemplated, so as to avoid raising the water unnecessarily high for the lower floors, but, as the expense of pumping is only slightly increased by lifting the water an increased distance after it is once started, it was thought best, for convenience and simplicity, to arrange it as shown. In the four corners of the room were set special riveted steel columns C C C C. which support at convenient heights 10-inch rolled I beams, two of which carry each tank, so as to leave it well exposed and accessible for connections, inspection, and the manipulation of its.
valves, and to allow the convenient arrangement of pipes and valves with economy of space Croton water from the roof tank is delivered through the 3-inch falling main K and a gate valve to the three ball cocks B B B, arranged as shown in plan on a horizontal branch pipe, which is fastened to the upper edge of the tank, and having check chains to limit the motion of the floats. These tanks are entirely independent of and unconnected with each other, and all their pipes are carried up and down 'brough the adjacent large ventilation shafts at the rear.
Figure 5 shows the connections to the distributing drums in the cellar. They are made of boiler-iron and tested by a hydrostatic pressure of 500 pounds per square inch. Drum T for supplying the basement to the seventh floor inclusive with Croton water is 8½ feet long. 2 feet in diameter, and holds 200 gallons. It is supplied from the eighth-floor intermediate tank C by the 3-inch pipe A, and distributes water to the different lines of fixtures through the independent 1½ - inch risers B B, etc. each with a separate gate valve F and emptying valve D, by which its contents may be discharged into drip pipe E when D is open and F closed. G is a separate 3-inch main from the main roof tank to supply the drum directly if necessary, but its valve is ordinarily kept closed. Drum C. of about 100 gallons capacity, is intended to receive the artesian well water supply through 3-inch pipe H from the intermediate tank shown in Fig. 4. and distribute it to all flushing cisterns below the ninth' floor through the 1½ - inch pipes K K, but by opening valve L, which is usually closed, it may be supplied from the roof or intermediate tanks. M is a 3-inch main from the artesian roof tank W, Fig. 3, and its valve is usually closed.
It will be noticed that the pipes and valves are arranged with symmetry and connected with unions which allow the disconnection of any one without disturbing the rest. The valves allow each line to be separately cut out and emptied for new connections, alterations, etc. N N are 1½ - inch emptying pipes. Adjacent to these distributing drums, as shown in Fig. 1, is set on wrought-iron standards or supports a boiler-iron closed hot-water tank of 250 gallons capacity, 2½ feet diameter by 6½ feet long. This tank is warranted to have been tested by a hydrostatic pressure of 500 pounds per square inch. It is supplied from roof-tank pressure and provided with manhole, emptying pipe, and proper supply connections from the falling main. Inside of the tank is a 1-inch tinned brass steam coil, with connections to live and exhaust and return steam pipes, and a Powers automatic heat regulating attachment to shut off the steam supply when the temperature of the water rises to 150° Fabr. The tank has one 2-inch delivery pipe supplying the hot-water fixtures and a 1-inch return circulation pipe entering the emptying pipe at the bottom just above its valve. There is a 2-inch cold-water roof-tank supply pipe, and the tank has a non-conducting covering and a manhole opening.