This section is from the book "American Plumbing Practice", by The Engineering Record. Also available from Amazon: Plumbing: A working manual of American plumbing practice.
(Published In 1892.)
In the recently finished house of C. K. Forrest, Esq , Hartford, Conn., of which Andrews, Jacques & Rantoul, of Boston, were the architects, and Albert L. Webster, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., of New York, was the sanitary engineer, the general plans for the drainage and water-supply systems were carefully drawn to a scale of one forty-eighth, and showed the correct position and length of all pipe lines, their sizes and principal fittings. Accurate detail drawings were also made of special or complicated arrangements, and diagrams of each room bearing marginal specifications, notes for all fixtures, workmanship, and details required there, were also furnished by the engineer to the contractors. The requirements and specifications were thus made unmistakable, and were neatly and conveniently incorporated with the plans. All main drains were run on side walls, and supported on brick piers, and had direct vertical columns to fixtures above. Main cold-water pipes were run on the basement ceiling, with risers following the soil columns. The hot-water circulation pipe Z, Fig. 2, was carried in a covered safe trough along the attic floor. All pipes are accessible, generally exposed, and have numbered tags, corresponding to a diagram, attached to all their main cocks and valves. All parts of all soil and drain pipes are commanded by suitably located cleanout holes.
DRAINAGE AND WATER SUPPLY OF A HARTFORD, CONN , HOUSE.
Figure 1 is a general cellar plan and Fig. 2 a vertical section and elevation of the house. As will be seen by the key on Figs. 1 and 2, hot and cold water pipes are here indicated by light full lines, circulation hot-water pipes by a line broken by two dots, soil pipe and sewer pipe by heavy full black, and tile drain by heavy broken lines. In the original drawings, from which we have prepared these illustrations, these different lines were respectively shown by single full blue lines, single full red lines, double full blue lines washed with red, and full heavy green lines. On the original drawings tags 6, 10, and 14 designate special valves regulating the hot-water circulation flow; all others designate ordinary stop cocks, or a few globe valves. Numbers 18 and 25 empty the hot-water supply system and the cold supply to the cold kitchen boiler, and are so noted on the drawings.
In the detail drawings for this work special pains were taken to furnish detailed information of the work on the general plans and diagrams (similar to Fig. 3) of each room, were accompanied by written notes, in which each fitting or fixture was named, the method of fitting prescribed, and the character of all the details and work concerned was stated. Obviously this is of great advantage where the engineer or architect has to rely upon a distant contractor with whom he cannot be in daily communication. It leaves nothing to be assumed and saves the very frequent embarrassment of permitting violations of the specifications to stand, or of having work pulled out after it is once erected.
Figure 4 shows the plan of the third-floor bathroom as originally arranged, with one door D into ante-room E, which communicated by the open doorways A A with the principal chambers B and the servants' quarters C. This plan made the room so crowded that it was modified, as shown in Fig. 5, where the washbowl was set on brackets and double doors D1 D1 were set, so that when they were opened to the positions D1 D1 they closed the portals A A, and practically added the ante-room E to the bathroom. Figure 6 shows the connections to soil column O (Fig. 1), and Fig. 7 shows the slopsinks at the second and third floors on soil column D (Fig. 2). Figure 8 shows vertical and horizontal sections of the outside manhole Y, Fig. 1, which gives access to the running trap T of the main sewer pipe and to the several cleanout holes at this point. Figure 9 is a horizontal and a vertical section of the brick sump X, Fig. 1, which contains the traps for subsoil drains laid under the cellar floor. The sewer air is cut off by an ordinary running trap T, which is vented by an open handhole H, and an additional hole trap S is put in to prevent back-flow of sewage into the subsoil drain in case of stoppage in the house drain beyond the point where the subsoil drain joins it. The opening between the two traps and the bolt in the iron cover would permit the back-flow to come out on the cellar floor and make it known that there is a stoppage in the house drain.
Figure 10 shows details of the automatic supply to the furnace pan at Z, Fig. 1, in connection with a supply to the subsoil trap just described. Water is admitted to the receiving tank B, through ball cock A, and is always replenished when its level falls below Z Z. Every time the ball cock opens a little excess of water is received, which discharges through the overflow D and seals the subsoil traps S and T, Fig. 9. Overflow D has a bent inlet C, so as to preserve a water seal of about 2 inches against the cellar air from the trap. The water pan in the furnace being connected with the supply tank below the water surface, prevents dust and air from the cellar entering the furnace. A small loss of water by evaporation opens the ball cock and fills the tank and furnace pan, at the same time giving a small supply to the subsoil traps through the pipe D.
Robert Garvie, of Hartford, was the plumber, and the work was done by day's labor.