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Clay Glazes and Enamels | by Henry R. Griffen



The subject of the manufacture of glazed brick and sanitary ware has been treated more by English writers from an English standpoint than it has by American writers. The clays of our country are so little known to-day, in respect to their adaptability to this purpose, and the majority of them are so different from the English clays in use, that English experience and receipts are hardly applicable to our purposes. We have no clay or class of clays that are known to be specially adapted to the manufacture of these goods, and, in consequence, we cannot have cut and dried rules for their production. The treatment given each clay must depend upon its various characteristics, and must vary therewith. As our experience becomes greater we may develop a clay or class of clays that are specially adapted to the business, and may be able to agree upon a best method of handling them. Until that time, each individual must do the best he can, and use such methods and schemes as he finds best adapted to the clays with which he has to deal.

TitleClay Glazes and Enamels
AuthorHenry R. Griffen
PublisherT. A. Randall & Co., Publishers
Year1896
Copyright1896, By T. A. Randall & Co
AmazonClay glazes and enamels,: With a supplement on crazing, its cause and prevention
Clay Glazes and Enamels Book Cover

Clay Glazes and Enamels,

With A Supplement On Crazing, Its Cause And Prevention.

By Henry R. Griffen, C. E.

The Whole Forming A Treatise On Glazing and Enameling Brick, Terra Cotta and Pottery, Including Exact Recipes and Formulas for All the Principal Colors Now in Use, and Full Instructions for Their Preparation and Application.

Indianapolis, Ind.:

T. A. Randall & Co., Publishers.

Price, $5.00.

-Preface
The subject of the manufacture of glazed brick and sanitary ware has been treated more by English writers from an English standpoint than it has by American writers. The clays of our country are so li...
-Chapter I. Historical And Introductory
Enameled brick have been unearthed in China which are supposed to be four thousand years old. I have seen specimens of these brick, and the glazed surface is as perfect today as it was when made. They...
-Historical And Introductory. Continued
Below is given analyses of English clays used for the manufacture of enameled brick and glazed sanitary ware. For these analyses I am indebted to The Manufacture of Glazed Bricks and Glazed Sanitary ...
-Chapter II. Selection Of Clay And Mixtures
In the manufacture of enameled or glazed clay material everything depends upon the correct selection of the clay or clays that will be suitable to the process or method employed. The principal methods...
-Selection Of Clay And Mixtures. Continued
A clay of a sticky nature - that is, one that does not easily polish - will be easier to make a slip or enamel adhere to than one of a fatty or easily polished nature. Such a clay is apt to contain or...
-Chapter III. Preparation Of Clay
The clay for the plastic process should be thoroughly ground and pugged. The methods of doing this may be any of the methods in use that do not leave the clay in a flaky or laminated condition, but th...
-Chapter IV. Methods Of Making The Blank
There is probably little doubt that the beet enameled brick can be made from a well-made hand-made blank, but there is just as little doubt that hand-made blanks are often poorly made. The hand-made b...
-Chapter V. Repressing
This is a necessary operation in the manufacture of enameled brick. At the same time it leads to much trouble and difficulty. An unpressed piece of clay is easy to enamel and have it smooth and perfec...
-Chapter VI. Slipping, Glazing And Enameling
The object in this chapter will be to teach the reader how to slip and glaze or to enamel clay. This cannot be done by giving a lot of receipts and stating they are the best or worst in the country. T...
-Slipping, Glazing And Enameling. Continued
Gypsum Natural hydrated sulphate of lime. This is plaster of paris before it has been burned and made into plaster. Barytes There are two materials which are used under this name, one the sul...
-Chapter VII. Receipts
White Slip for Brick English Ball Clay, No. 4 ...................................... 40 English China Clay, No. 7 ...
-Receipts. Part 2
We now come to the subject of stains. I will give a number of receipts for stains, but cannot vouch that the colors given will always be obtained, so much is dependent upon the materials employed, the...
-Receipts. Part 3
10 per cent crimson, 3 per cent oxide tin, 15 per cent white lead, 6 2-3 per cent paris white and 65 1-3 per cent lead glaze will make a crimson glaze. Matt Blue. Fire Very Hard - ...
-Chapter VIII. Preparation Of Slips, Glazes, Etc
The preparation of slips, glazes and enamels Is a simple operation, but is one requiring great accuracy and a mind perfectly free from other cares. It is very easy to make mistakes, and they are gener...
-Chapter IX. Dipping And Cleaning
There are different ways of dipping. Each way has its advocates, and there are undoubtedly good points about each. For most clays it is advisable to put a thin coat of slip on with a brush before the ...
-Chapter X. Setting And Burning
So far in our operations we have expended labor only. The material spoiled can all be sent back and reworked, but we are now to undertake an operation which, if unsuccessful, will entirely ruin it, ex...
-Chapter XI. Majolica Glazes And White Enamels
Majolica ware is ware that is decorated with colored glazes. These colored glazes may be transparent or opaque, though they are usually transparent. From this has come the custom of calling colored gl...
-Chapter XII. Bathtubs, Sinks, Etc
The demand for these goods is quite large, and the prices paid for them make them extremely profitable, unless the profits are too much cut down by losses in the course of manufacture. The same genera...
-Bathtubs, Sinks, Etc. Part 2
The glaze is invariably put on after the ware is thoroughly dry. It is usually put on with a brush, but some manufacturers prefer to pour it on. This requires considerable experience and skill in orde...
-Bathtubs, Sinks, Etc. Part 3
A Discussion of the Last Five Years' Writing on the Subject During the past five years there has been much written in the Clay-Worker, and somewhat in other papers, on this subject There has als...
-Bathtubs, Sinks, Etc. Part 4
Comparison of Methods The method employed of necessity depends upon several conditions - the nature of the clay obtainable, the character of the business and the conditions under which the goods mu...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention
The use of glazed clay products in buildings is of very ancient origin. Specimens of this character of work are in existence to-day which are supposed to be between three and four thousand years old, ...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 2
I do not mean to give the impression, from what I have said, that glazers generally do not know how to mix bodies and glazes that are adapted to each other, and in which the glaze will not craze, but ...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 3
The number of bases affect the fusibility of a clay. For instance, mixtures of lime and silica, potash and silica, soda and silica and alumina and silica can be made that will fuse at the same tempera...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 4
Bodies and glazes are compound silicates, or are, at least, largely composed of compound silicates, and the conditions under which glazed goods are made are such that the glaze must possess a lower fu...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 5
We have seen, in glazed vitrified bodies, that when the tendency to craze existed, crazing occurred at once, and that when crazing did not occur at once it never shows, and we therefore assume that th...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 6
So it may be that the natural glazes derive their strength and elasticity from the combination of iron and alumina. Thorough annealing of the glaze by slow cooling of kiln certainly must produce a ...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 7
Crude Brandywine Summit clay will act exactly as national clay does in regard to crazing, and English china clay No. 7 will act exactly as the Key's clay does in regard to shivering. The Brandywine Su...
-Crazing - Its Cause And Prevention. Part 8
Were I a thorough analytical chemist, I should analyze the clay and then mix from this analysis. I have never yet been fooled when I had a complete analysis to work from. Were my original clay a shive...









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