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Educational Woodworking For Home And School | by Joseph C. Park



Manual training is a general term which signifies the expressing of ideas in things by means of tools in working with such materials as paper, cardboard, clay, wood, iron, brass, copper, tin, etc. Manual training does not include work with apparatus, neither is its purpose to teach a trade. Man is by nature a tool-using animal and has been so from remote periods of antiquity. Let us stop to consider briefly how much of the history of mankind is written in the tools that have come down to us. We look at the pens made of reeds which were used by the ancient Egyptians and a series of facts are revealed by means of those tools which were used by man more than four thousand years ago.

TitleEducational Woodworking For Home And School
AuthorJoseph C.Park
PublisherMacmillan & Co., Limited
Year1908
Copyright1908, Macmillan & Co., Limited
AmazonEducational Woodworking For Home And School
Educational Woodworking For Home And School EducationalWoodwork 1

School Of Education Library Textbook Collection

Educational Woodworking For Home And School EducationalWoodwork 3

The MacMillan Company

We are always in these days endeavoring to separate intellect and manual labor; we want one man to be always thinking, and another to be always working, and we call one a gentleman, and the other an operative; whereas the workman ought often to be thinking, and the thinker often to be working, and both should be gentlemen in the best sense. As it is, we make both ungentle, the one envying, the other despising, his brother; and the mass of society is made up of morbid thinkers and miserable workers.

- John Ruskin.

-Preface
The increased popularity of manual training as a part of the curriculum of the public schools and the demand for a text-book that can be put into the hands of pupils so that they may be held responsib...
-Introduction. Manual Training: What It Is And Its Place In Education
Manual Training is a term used extensively by educators in defining a part of a system of general education. One would infer from the term manual, meaning hand, that this branch of education is the ...
-Manual Training: What It Is And Its Place In Education. Part 2
Economists have classified the activities of the race into three main divisions, as follows: First, the house industries, or the period of domestic economy, which lasted from the earliest times until ...
-Manual Training: What It Is And Its Place In Education. Part 3
In writing along this line, showing the child's interests in the activities of life, Dr. Grant Karr says,1Another one of these centers is the child's occupations. From the day of his birth he has bee...
-Manual Training: What It Is And Its Place In Education. Part 4
Professor James2 says: - The most colossal improvement which recent years have seen in secondary education lies in the introduction of manual training schools; not because they will give us a people ...
-Suggestions To Students
1. Provide yourselves with a serviceable apron, or something that will protect your clothing from being soiled. 2. If your locker has a combination lock, learn that combination as soon as possible. A...
-Tool List
Bench No. I. Measuring, Marking, And Testing Tools Price Metric rule, No. $.10 2-ft. rale, No. .15 Try-square, No. .30 ...
-Technical Terms
1. Blue Print A drawing which has been made by the blue print process is called a blue print. 2. Stock Rough lumber which has been cut to approximate sizes for class use is called stock. 3. Wo...
-Part I. Woodworking Tools
1. Benches One of the most important parts of a manual training equipment is the workbench, and it should be selected with great care. There are very many excellent benches on the market at the prese...
-Standards Of Measure And Tools Used In Measuring And Testing
2. English Measure The usefulness of a system of measure depends upon the unvarying identity of its unit together with its terminations. History informs us that from the earliest periods of civilizat...
-Standards Of Measure And Tools Used In Measuring And Testing. Continued
4. Rule A rule is an instrument or tool used in measuring. Its graduations are recorded in inches, halves, quarters, eighths, and sixteenths. For convenience in shop practice, a rule is made to, fold...
-How To Find The Length Of A Rafter
For a roof with 1/6 pitch (or the rise 1/6 the width of the building) and having a run of 12 feet: follow in the rafter table the upper or 1/6 pitch ruling, find, under the graduation figure 12, t...
-How To Find The Length Of A Rafter. Continued
13. Plumb And Level A plumb and level consists of two level glasses mounted as shown in Fig. 11. The level glasses are mounted in cherry, mahogany, or rosewood blocks, or in a built-up metallic frame...
-Edge Tools
20. Sloyd Knife A sloyd knife should be made of the finest grade of tool steel, highly tempered, having an extra strong blade with a thick back, and having a handle that fits the hand with an easy gr...
-Tools With Teeth
30. Saws And Their Construction Saws are classified as reciprocating in action and continuous in action. A reciprocating saw has a straight cutting edge, or an edge that is slightly curved, while the...
-Tools With Teeth. Continued
35. Back Saw The back saw is a cross-cut saw with very fine teeth. It is intended for fine and accurate sawing. The saw blade is very thin and this is reenforced by an iron strip extending along the ...
-Boring Tools
42. Auger An auger is a tool used in boring a hole in wood. Augers are made of the best grade of cast steel properly tempered. The blade is twisted in such a way that a perfect spiral groove is forme...
-Clamping Or Gripping Tools
54. Hand Screw A hand screw is used in clamping glued surfaces together while the glue is setting, or it may be used for clamping pieces together for other purposes. The jaws are usually made of mapl...
-Pounding and Punching Tools
63. Hammer A hammer is a tool used for driving nails, and in pounding metals or other substances. It is one of the most important tools in a bench equipment. The best hammers are made of solid crucib...
-Grinding Tools
69. Grindstone One of the most useful tools about a workshop is the grindstone, which is used in sharpening tools. Perhaps the best grindstones are obtained from the quarries in Ohio. One of the larg...
-Extra Tools
73. Cabinet Scraper The cabinet scraper is an oblong piece of polished saw steel and is used in scraping hard woods. Cabinet scrapers are made in assorted sizes. The 3 times 5 size is a good size f...
-Part II. Woodworking Machines
79. Work The overcoming of resistance of any kind through space is called work. It implies a change of position. The fundamental formula for work, therefore is W(Work) = F(Force) x s(Space). 80. En...
-Woodworking Machines. Part 2
82. Band Saw A band saw is a power saw that can be used for a wide range of sawing. It cuts rapidly and accurately, and is simple in construction. Band saws are made in the following sizes: 30 (diam...
-Woodworking Machines. Part 3
88. The Speed Of Circular Saws As a rule the rim of a circular saw should travel about 9000 feet (nearly two miles) per minute. Saws differ in diameter, and in order to get the correct speed differen...
-Woodworking Machines. Part 4
94. Formulae Used In Selecting Belts To Determine The Horse Power Of Belts Horse Power = Working Tension x Width x Speed 33000 To Determine The Working Tension Working Tension = Horse Power x 330...
-Part III. Wood (Outline Study). I. Classification Of Trees As To Kinds Of Leaves And Structure Of Wood
A. Coniferous Trees (Needle-Leaved, Naked-Seeded, Such As Pines, Cedars, Etc.), Soft Woods 1. Bark - outside or protecting tissue, thickest and roughest near the base, forms about 10 per cent of the ...
-V. Properties Of Wood
A. Weight Wood substance about 1.6 times as heavy as water - depends upon the amount of moisture in the wood substance - sapwood heavier than heartwood - the wood of saplings heavier than the wood of...
-Properties Of Wood. Continued
E. Cross-Breaking Or Bending Strength Laws 1. The strength of a timber varies approximately with the squares of the thickness and decreases directly with increasing length. 1 Less than. 2. Seasoni...
-Part IV. Fastening Devices Used In Wood Construction. Nails And Nailing
We read that a small, pointed piece of metal, usually with a head, to be driven into a board or other piece of timber, and serving to fasten it to other timber, or left projecting as from a wall, to ...
-The Screw As A Fastening Device In Wood Construction
Another very important fastening device in wood construction is the screw. The screw, as one of the mechanical powers, is a modification of the inclined plane, and may be conceived as a cylinder with ...
-Glue As A Fastening Device In Wood Construction
In wood construction, especially in joinery and cabinet-making, a process is involved known as gluing, whereby glue is employed to hold the different parts together. In the shop the technical processe...
-Glue Heaters
A glue heater is nothing more than a double boiler consisting of an outer boiler, called a jacket, in which water is boiled, or through which steam passes, and an inner boiler in which the glue is pre...
-Wood Fastenings (Dowels, Pins, Cleats, Keys, And Wedges)
Dowels are important fastening devices. They are turned wooden pins varying in diameter from 3/16 to 1. They are made from different wood, white birch being the kind of wood that is used most. In ca...
-Part V. Wood Finishing. Aims
There are two chief aims which should govern all methods of wood finishing, viz., preservation of wood and artistic finish. Wood exposed to atmospheric conditions (moisture being the greatest enemy to...
-Varnishes and Shellacs
Varnishes Varnishes are made from some hard gum, such as copal, rosin, etc., cut with turpentine, alcohol, or other suitable solvent. Varnishes are prepared for commercial purposes and are put up in ...
-Specifications For Finishes
Soft Woods (Pine, Basswood, Etc.) In Natural Color 1. Wood perfectly clean and smooth. 2. Apply with a soft brush one coat of hard oil, varnish, or shellac, and put aside to dry. 3. Sand very light...
-Part VI. Exercises
A. Knife Work For Schools Without Shops Tools Considerable work can be done in elementary woodwork in the regular schoolroom by using a whittling tray and the tools which accompany it, as shown in F...
-Exercises. Part 2
Match Box (Fig. 154) Stock See Fig. 154. Supplies No. 1 sandpaper, burnt umber stain, hard oil, glue, 1/2 20 steel wire brads (1/2 length, 20 size of wire). In making the match box proceed as f...
-Exercises. Part 3
Combination Coat And Trousers Hanger (Fig. 158) Stock 1 (3/4 x 4 1/2 x 17 1/2) maple, 2 (1/4 x 4 3/4 x 15) maple. Supplies Sandpaper, No. 12 plated wire, tin for braces, brass nails to faste...
-Exercises. Images
Fig. 166. Blotter pad. Fig. 167. Decorations for top of blotter. Fig. 168. Key rack. (Use six 3/4 screw hooka on which to hang keys). Fig. 169. Picture frame. Fig. 170. Counting board. ...
-Exercises. Images. Part 2
Fig. 176. Inkstand. Fig. 177. Tabouret. Fig. 178. Plant marker and bed marker. Fig. 179. Sleeve board. Fig. 180. Towel roller. Fig. 181. Corner shell. Fig. 182. Knife box. Fig...
-Exercises. Images. Part 3
Fig. 186. Dutch plate rack. Fig. 187. Mantelshelf. Fig. 188. Footstool. Fig. 19l. Sweet-pea rack. (Communal model). Fig. 192. Bookcase. Fig. 193. Book rack. Fig. 194. Footsto...
-Exercises. Images. Part 4
Fig. 196. Jardiniere stand. Fig. 197. Floor broom holder. Fig. 198. Picture frames. Fig. 199. Plate rack. Fig. 200. Magazine rack. Fig. 201. Umbrella rack. Fig. 202. Windmill vane....
-Part VII. Wood Turning
The process of shaping wood by means of a machine called a lathe, Fig. 208, is called wood turning. The block of wood to be shaped by the process of wood turning is put between two centers, called the...
-Wood Turning Exercises
Wood Turning Exercise No. 1 Stock 1 (2 x 2 x 9) whitewood or pine. Directions 1. Lay out your tools. 2. Oil your lathe. 3. Center the block of wood to be turned. If the block is approximately...
-Wood Turning. Images
Fig. 214. Showing the position of gouges in cutting concave curves. Fig. 215. Showing the position of chisel in cutting at an angle. Fig. 216. Turning exercises. - No. 5 and No. 6. Fig....
-Wood Turning. Images. Continued
Fig. 224. Showing face plate work in turning rosettes. Fig. 225. Showing bell chuck work. Fig. 226. Turning exercise. - No. 22. Fig. 227. Turning exercise. - No. 23. Fig. 228. Turning ex...
-Appendix A. Key To The More Important Woods Of North America
[The numbers preceding names refer to the List of Woods following the Key]. Directions For Using Key It is rather difficult at first to use a key of any kind. One must have some practice before accu...
-I. Non-Porous Woods
[Includes all coniferous woods]. A. Resin Ducts Wanting 1. No Distinct Heart Wood a. Color effect yellowish white; summer wood darker yellowish (under microscope pith ray without tracheids) . (Nos....
-II. Ring-Porous Woods
[Some of Group D and cedar elm imperfectly ring-porous]. A. Pores In The Summer Wood Minute, Scattered Singly Or In Groups, Or In Short Broken Lines, The Course Of Which Is Never Radial 1. Pith Rays...
-III. Diffuse-Porous Woods
[A few indistinctly ring-poroua woods of Group II, D, and cedar elm may seem to belong here]. A.Pores Varying In Size From Large To Minute; Largest In Spring Wood, Thereby Giving Sometimes The Appear...
-A. Coniferous Woods
[Arranged alphabetically]. Woods of simple and uniform structure, generally light, soft but stiff; abundant in suitable dimensions and forming by far the greatest part of all the lumber used. Cedar ...
-Coniferous Woods. Part 2
Pine Very variable, very light and soft in soft pine, such as white pine; of medium weight to heavy and quite hard in hard pine, of which longleaf or Georgia pine is the extreme form. Usually it ...
-Coniferous Woods. Part 3
Spruce Resembles soft pine, is light, very soft, stiff, moderately strong, less resinous than pine; has no distinct heartwood, and is of whitish color. Used like soft pine, but also employed as reson...
-B. Broad-Leaved Woods (Hardwoods)
Woods of complex and very variable structure and therefore differing widely in quality, behavior, and consequently in applicability to the arts. Ash Wood heavy, hard, strong, stiff, quite tough, not...
-Broad-Leaved Woods (Hardwoods). Part 2
Butternut. 55. Butternut (Juglans Cinerea) (White Walnut) Wood very similar to black walnut, but light, quite soft, not strong and of light brown color. Used chiefly for finishing lumber, cabinetwork...
-Broad-Leaved Woods (Hardwoods). Part 3
Hackberry. 70. Hackberry (Celtis Occidentalis) (Sugarberry) The handsome wood heavy, hard, strong, quite tough, of moderately fine texture, and greenish or yellowish white color; shrinks moderately, ...
-Broad-Leaved Woods (Hardwoods). Part 4
Mulberry. 83. Red Mulberry (Moms Rubra) Wood moderately heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, of coarse texture, durable; sap wood whitish, heart yellow to orange brown; shrinks and checks considerably ...
-Broad-Leaved Woods (Hardwoods). Part 5
Poplar And Cottonwood (see also Tulip Wood) Wood light, very soft, not strong, of fine texture, and whitish, grayish, to yellowish color, usually with a satiny luster. The wood shrinks moderately (so...
-Appendix B. Problems In Construction And Geometric Helps
The order of the letters and figures in the following indicates the order of construction and of reasoning in discussing the figures. Fig. 247. Direction of lines. Fig. 248. Line construction. ...
-Appendix C. Useful Tables. U. S. Weights And Measures
Long Measure (Measures Of Length) Ins. Feet Yards Fath. Bods Furl. Mile 12 = 1 36 = 3 = 1 ...
-Cut Nails And Tacks
The Term Penny As Applied To Nails The origin of the terms six-penny, ten-penny, etc., as applied to nails, though not commonly known, is involved in no mystery whatever. Nails have been made a...
-Sizes Of Numbers Of The U. S. Standard Gauge For Sheet And Plate Iron And Steel
An Act Establishing a Standard Gauge for Sheet and Plate Iron and Steel. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled: That for the ...
-Formulae For Making Blue Print Paper
Solution A Citrate of iron and ammonia......2 1/2 oz. Water....... . . . 10 oz. Solution B Red prussiate of potash......1 1/4 oz Water..........10 oz. Solution C Gum arabic........ . . 1/2 oz. ...







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previous page: Carpentry For Beginners - Things To Make | by John D. Adamspage up: Woodworking Booksnext page: The Elements Of Wood Ship Construction | by W. H. Curtis