books



previous page: Elementary Woodwork | by George B. Kilbon
  
page up: Woodworking Books
  
next page: Modern Carpentry And Building | by W. A. Sylvester

Exercises In Wood-Working | by Ivin Sickels



With a short treatise on wood written for manual training classes in schools and colleges.

TitleExercises In Wood-Working
AuthorIvin Sickels
PublisherD. Appleton And Company.
Year1889
Copyright1889, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonExercises in Wood Working

By Ivin Sickels, M. S., M. D.

-Preface
The exercises in wood-working in this book were prepared by me during the summer of 1883, for the students of the College of the City of New York. Subsequent teaching suggested many changes and additi...
-Introduction
The tendency of modern systems of education is toward a proper distribution of practical with theoretical training. The mind is to be aided in its development by the action of the eye and hand; and, i...
-Part First. Structure Of Wood
If we examine the stem of a young plant, we find three distinct tissues composing it: On the outside is the bark or protecting tissue (a, Fig 3); inside there is a soft material, made up of many-sided...
-Composition Of Wood
Newly formed cells have the wall composed of cellulose, a substance similar to starch in composition. The contents of the cell are made up of a number of substances, the chief of which are albuminoids...
-Branching Of Stems
In the middle of a forest, trees grow straight, tall, and slender, as in Fig. 12, because it is necessary for them to push up the tops in order that they may receive sufficient sunlight, to enable the...
-Age Of Trees
Like animals, in growth and development plants are subject to influences of climate and nourishment. In its proper latitude, and with an abundance of water and food in the soil, a tree adds to its ann...
-Decay Of Trees
As long as a tree is in a healthy condition, its top or crown retains its small branches, but when these refuse to send forth leaves, and break off, it is a sign of decay, and the tree should be cut d...
-Milling
If near a stream, the logs are rolled or drawn to the water and floated to the mill, where they are examined and grouped according to fitness for special uses. A long immersion of the logs in water re...
-Drying Of Wood
In the preparation of lumber for use, it is necessary to remove its moisture, after which the wood is seasoned. The planks and boards after sawing are placed in large square piles in the open air, eac...
-Warping
Because of the unequal shrinking of the wood in drying, the planks and boards have a natural tendency to warp or curl. Those cut farthest from the center of the log warp the most, while those at the c...
-Properties Of Wood
Grain. - We have seen that wood is composed of long, hollow wood cells, or fibers, sometimes accompanied by vessels of varying diameters. The character and direction of these fibers constitute what is...
-Defects In Wood
Some of the defects found in lumber, as wind-checks, cross-grain, warping, and improper seasoning, have already been alluded to. Wood may be shaky (b. Fig. 14), which is a separation of the annual rin...
-Measure And Value Of Wood
Timber and lumber one inch or more in thickness are sold by the square foot, meaning one foot square by one inch thick, or containing one hundred and forty-four cubic inches. Boards less than one inch...
-Pine Group
White Pine, commonly called pine, is a rapidly growing tree in the Northern United States and in Canada. It attains a large size in favorable soils, and furnishes a light, soft, not strong wood, with ...
-Palm Group
While in many tropical countries the palms supply the inhabitants with many necessities, as building-woods, starch, sugar, fruits, fibers for ropes and cloth; in temperate climates the abundance of be...
-Oak Group
Birch. - Among the many species of birch, the cherry or black birch supplies the best lumber. The wood is heavy and strong, colored brownish-red, with a fine, compact, and evenly marked grain, due to ...
-Oak Group. Continued
Locust. - One of the largest forest trees, growing generally throughout the United States. Its hard, yellowish wood is composed of very wide annual layers, in which there are comparatively few and lar...
-Wood And Iron
Before the great advancement in the manipulation of iron and steel, wood had a much more extended application than exists at the present day. Structures such as buildings, furniture, and implements, w...
-Wood-Working Trades
While one or two men in a small community may furnish all the wood and metal work needed by it, in large towns and cities the great amount and variety of work required necessitate a division of labor,...
-Parasitic Plants
The forms of plant-life destructive to living trees and lumber belong to the higher orders of the group Fungi. These are parasites - that is, they do not possess chlorophyl (the green matter common to...
-Timber-Borers
From the outer bark to the innermost heart-wood, all trees have enemies, more numerous if not more destructive than man. If we go to the nearest saw-mill or wood-pile, almost the first thing we notice...
-Explanation Of Figure 23
1. Dorsal aspect of the head of Zopherus Mexicanus: I, labrum; p, palpus; c, clypeus; e, eye; a, antenna. 2. Inner face of the Iabrum: 6, fringing bristles; m, insertion of muscles; h, deep hinge, wi...
-Preservation Of Wood
To preserve wood it must be protected from those causes which induce warping, checking, and discoloration; be removed from those, conditions which favor the development of fungi and the boring of inse...
-Wood-Working
In arranging a workshop, the position of the work-bench with regard to the light is of prime importance. For carpentry and general joinery, the light should be at the head of the bench, so that it can...
-Tools (Plate A.)
The following are the ordinary measuring, marking, and holding tools: 1. Four-fold, two-foot rule. The graduations of inches and even fractions of an inch running from right to left. 2. Full size of...
-Tools (Plate B.)
The chief edge-tools used by the carpenter are: 1. Rip-saw and cross-cut, apple-wood or beech handles and steel blades. 2. Compass-saw. 3. Back-saw, a very thin blade stiffened by an iron or brass ...
-Drawing. (Plate C.)
The distance between the heavy lines in Fig. 1, measured according to the scale, three quarters of an inch to one foot, will be found to be 2 feet 3 3/4 inches. This measurement may be expressed by us...
-Exercise 1 . - Use Of The Chisel
Material. - A rough block of pine, about 2 square, and 8 long. Work. - 1. To cut one side of the block perfectly smooth and flat. 2. To cut an adjacent side smooth, flat, and at right angles with th...
-Exercise 2. - Use Of The Chisel Continued
Work. - 1. To mark the block of Exercise 1 for width of face. 2. To cut the remaining sides so that the block will be 1 1/2 square. 3. To chamfer the edges. Fasten the block in the vise with face u...
-Exercise 3. - Use Of The Gouge
Material. - A block of dressed pine, 2 wide, 1 1/2 thick, and about 6 long. Work. - To shape a molding with gouge and chisel. Lay out the block as shown in Fig. 1, using the measures as given in Fi...
-Exercise 4. - Use Of The Hammer
Material. - Sawed block of pine, 4 square and 16 long. Work. - To strike blows on the block, in order to learn the right manner of holding the hammer. Grasp the handle of the hammer firmly, whether...
-Exercise 5. - Use Of The Jack-Plane
Material. - The block used in the previous exercise. Work. - 1. To adjust the iron of the plane. 2. To plane two adjacent surfaces flat and square. In adjusting a plane, hold it in the left hand, wi...
-Jack-Plane
Ex. 5. Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4. Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 ...
-Exercise 6. - Plane Continued, And Marking-Gauge
Material. - Same as before. Work. - 1. To smooth the two planed surfaces of the block with the smoothmg-plane. 2. To mark with the gauge for the third side. 3. To plane the third and fourth sides o...
-Exercise 7. - Use Of The Rip-Saw
Material. - Squared block of the previous exercises. Work. - To saw the block into boards which may be planed to 1/2 thick. Examine the rip-saw; note that its teeth are about four and a half to an i...
-Exercise 8. - Use Of The Cross-Cut
Material. - Block of pine, 4 square and 16 long. Work. - 1. Plane the block to 3 3/4 square. 2. Practice sawing with cross-cut. Examine the cross-cut, and note the small, pointed teeth, shown enla...
-With The Oil-Stone
To sharpen or whet a chisel, moisten the oil-stone with a few drops of oil; hold the chisel by the blade in the right hand, as shown in Fig. 1, two or three fingers of the left pressing on the face of...
-On The Grindstone
The grindstone must be kept constantly wet with water while in use. Of the many positions in which the tool may be held against the grindstone, that shown at a, Fig. 1, is the easiest for a student. T...
-Saw-Filing
The easiest saw to file is the rip-saw, with teeth square across and standing at 90. Fasten the saw in the clamps as shown in Fig. 1. Pass a flat, smooth file lightly over the teeth first, to red...
-Exercise 9. - Construction Of A Half-Joint
Material. - Stick of sawed pine, 3 square and 4 long. Work. - To lay out and make a half-joint. Plane the stick to exactly 2 3/4 square, and mark the face-edge. Saw into two equal lengths after ma...
-Half-Joint
Ex. 9. Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 ...
-Exercise 10. - Modified Forms Of The Half-Joint
Fig. 1 shows the pieces in position and marked for a lap-joint, commonly used in building frame houses; Fig. 2, the upper piece cut to receive the vertical one. In nailing the pieces together, the ver...
-Exercise 11 . - Construction Of A Mortise-Joint
Materials. - The sticks of Exercise 9, after cutting off the half-joint. Work. - To unite the pieces with a through mortise-joint. Hold the pieces in the position shown in Fig. 1, with the faces towa...
-Exercise 12. - Pinning The Mortise-Joint
Material. - The joint of Exercise 11, and a piece of hard wood, 3/4 square and about 5 long. Work. - To fasten the tenon in the mortise with a pin. Bore with a 5/8 auger-bit, through the face of t...
-Exercise 13. - Construction Of A Stub-Mortise
Material. - The same pieces as before, after removing the pinned joint. Work. - To.lay out, cut, and fasten a stub-mortise joint. Use the same methods and measurements in marking as in Exercise 11, e...
-Exercise 14. - Construction Of A Dovetail-Joint
Material. - Same pieces as before, with stub-mortise sawed off. Work. - To lay out and construct an end-dovetail-joint. Wherever oblique cuts are to be made, great care is necessary in marking. Plac...
-Exercise 15. - Construction Of A Miter-Joint
Material. - A strip of pine, 2 1/2 wide, 1/2 thick, and about 16 long. Work. - To make a miter-joint. Mark with the try-square and knife two lines across the middle of the strip from a and e, Fig....
-Exercise 16. - Use Of The Miter-Box
Material. - A piece of molding, 18 long and 2 wide. Work. - To saw the molding in the miter-box and test the result by uniting the pieces. The successive cuts of the molding are shown in Fig. 4, st...
-Exercise 17. - Construction Of A Stretcher-Joint
Material. - Pine, 2 wide, 3/4 thick, and 12 long. Work. - To make a joint such as that used in frames for stretching canvas. This joint is a combination of miter and half joint, and is laid out as...
-Exercise 18. - Uniting With Dowels
Material. - Two blocks of wood, about 3 wide, 2 thick, and 4 to 5 long. Work. - To mark for the positions of the dowels, and join the pieces. Plane the surfaces of the blocks until perfectly flat...
-Exercise 19. - Gluing
Material. - Two blocks of wood. Glue prepared for use. Work. - To face the blocks and unite them with glue. To prepare glue: Fill the inner vessel of the glue-pot about one third full of dried glue;...
-Exercise 20. - Examples Of Glued Joints
Fig. 1 shows the usual way in which furniture is joined - that is, with dowels and glue. While there are many joints in furniture and cabinet-work for which the dowel is especially suited, there are a...
-Exercise 21. - Laying Out A Dovetailed Box
Material. - Dressed pine-board, 14 wide and 5/8 thick. Work. - 1. Saw off 17 of the board. 2. Lay out the parts of the box on the board. 3. Saw and plane the pieces to proper size. The dimension...
-Exercise 22. - Laying Out And Cutting The Dovetails
Material. - Front and back pieces of the dovetailed box. Work. - Marking and cutting the mortises. The pieces are marked with a sharp pencil on both sides and edge 5/8 from the ends, as at a, a, b, ...
-Exercise 23. - Marking And Cutting The Tenons
Material. - The end pieces of the dovetailed box. Work. - 1. Marking and cutting the tenons. 2. Gluing together the sides. Mark with a sharp pencil 5/8 from the ends all around the end pieces. Stand...
-Exercise 24. - Finishing The Box
Work. - 1. Examine and prepare the smoothing-plane for finishing. 2. Smooth and plane flat the bottom edge of the sides, and glue on the bottom piece. 3. Smooth the joints and sides. Remove and sha...
-Exercise 25. - Hinging The Top To The Box
Material. - 1 middle-size wrought-brass butts, 3/8 brass screws to fit. Work. - 1. Prepare the upper edge of the box for the top. 2. Smooth the top piece and square its back edge. 3. Fit and faste...
-Exercise 26. - Construction Of A Drawer
Material. - One piece of ash, to work 4 wide, 7/8 thick, and 9 1/2 long. Two pieces of maple, to work 4 wide, 5/8 thick, and 14 3/4 long. One piece of maple, to work 3 3/8 wide, 1/2 thick, a...
-Exercise 27. - Construction Of A Blind - Dovetailed Box
Material. - 1/2 dressed mahogany. Work. - To construct a box 9 long, 6 wide, and about 4 high, with hidden joints. The box will consist of two portions, the lower or box proper, and a 1 1/4 lid...
-Exercise 28. - Framing
In the eight exercises following, the actual sizes will be given, from which the student will calculate the proportionate measures for his models. Fig. 1 represents a portion of the frame of a wooden...
-Exercise 29. - Construction Of Window And Door
Frames. Material. - The following pieces enter into a window-frame the size of that mentioned in the previous Exercise: Two pulley-stiles, a, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, 1 1/4 thick, 5...
-Exercise 30. - Inclosing A Building
A building is inclosed by sheathing, placing window and door frames in position, putting on building paper, siding and shingling. If a frame is braced by oblique studs at the corners and possibly in ...
-Exercise 31. - Laying Floors. Trimming
Starting at one side, the floor-boards are laid with the tongued edge out (a, Fig. 1). Joints, b, marked with try-square and pencil, must come over a joist, and be as far removed from other joints as ...
-Exercise 32. - Construction Of A Sash
While in former times the smaller size and greater cost of glass led to uniformity in the construction of the sash, at present there are few designers who think at all of adapting the window to the si...
-Exercise 33. - Construction Of A Door
Doors are either batten or panel. Batten-doors are made by fastening several tongued and grooved boards to two or three cross-pieces, with clinch-nails or screws. If heavy, the doors should be braced...
-Exercise 34. - Construction Of Stairs
For ordinary stairs, the single step should have a riser (a, Fig. 1), between 6 1/2 and 7 1/2 high, and a tread, b, from 9 to 11. The distance between the floors, say 9' 8, is measured in the bui...
-Exercise 35. - Laying Out And Shaping The Hand-Rail
The hand-rail should always have a gradual and graceful change from one direction to another. In Fig. 1, a b represents a tread, b d a riser, and a d the pitch, which is the direction of the handrail;...
-Exercise 36. - Use Of The Frame-Saw. Bending Wood
For small work, a narrow saw, with fine teeth, as at a, 5, Fig. 1, is used; but for ordinary carpenter's scroll-work, a saw like that shown at c and d, held in a frame, as in Fig 4, Plate B, is employ...
-Exercise 37. - Construction Of A Pattern
Pattern makers receive drawings of finished iron-work; from these drawings they must lay out and construct the wood-work necessary to obtain molds for the castings. Fig. 1 represents a cast-iron pill...
-Exercise 38. - Shaping A Boat-Model
Material. - A block of pine, 2 high, 1 3/4 wide, and 9 long. Work. - To chisel out a half-model, conforming to the lines given in the plans. The design, which is that of a common yawl, is divided ...
-Exercise 39. - Veneering
Material. - Block of pine large enough to furnish a cube of 3. Six pieces of veneers, preferably of different woods and as near the same thickness as possible. Work. - 1. To plane the cube. 2. Glue...
-Polishing
Fasten the veneered cube in the vise, using cloth between the jaws and the cube. If it is too low, a hand-screw may be fastened in the vise and the cube held in the hand-screw. The work will be hasten...
-Painting
A new brush should stand in linseed-oil ten or twelve hours, after which it is ready for use. When finished the brush should be thoroughly cleaned with turpentine, and put aside in such a way that the...
-Appletons' Standard Geographies
Comprehensive, Attractive, Up to Date. THE SERIES: Appletons' Elementary Geography. This book treats the subject objectively, makes knowledge precede definitions, and presents facts in their logica...
-Appletons' Standard Copy-Books
THE SERIES: LEAD-PENCIL TRACING, three numbers, 1, 2, and 3. (Writing taught three grades lower than in any other books.) NEW TRACING COURSE, four numbers, 1, 2, 3, and 4. SHORT COURSE (without Tra...









TOP
previous page: Elementary Woodwork | by George B. Kilbon
  
page up: Woodworking Books
  
next page: Modern Carpentry And Building | by W. A. Sylvester