The names only of the various kinds of jointing of this nature are given below. A description will be found in

Chapter V.

1.

Halving.

2.

Mitreing.

3.

Slotting.

4.

Mortise and Tenon-jointing,

5.

Groove-jointing.

6.

Dove-tailing.

7.

Hooping.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

1

Long cut.

To cut off a piece of wood in the direction of the length of the fibres.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  90

Fig. 88.

2

Gross cut.

To cut off a piece of wood at right angles to the fibres.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  91

Fig. 89.

3

Oblique cut.

To cut off a piece of wood obliquely to the fibres.

4

Bevel cut.

To cut off a piece of wood in the direction of the length of the fibres in such a way as to produce a surface at an oblique angle to the adjacent surfaces.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Knife.

The knife is taken firmly by the handle, and the cut is made always in the direction of the fibres, but away from the worker. To steady and strengthen the hand which holds the wood, and to render the exercise easier, the piece of wood should always rest upon a board laid on the bench.

Knife.

The cut is made from both sides to avoid splitting (a - b). If the cut is short, the wood is laid upon the bench. If it is long, the wood is held in one hand and the upper arm is pressed against the body to secure greater strength and support during the exercise. For the manner of holding the knife see Ex. 1. For the proper position see Plate I.

Knife.

The cut is made in the direction of the fibres, not contrary to it. For the manner of execution see No. 2 (Fig. 89 c - d).

Knife.

For the manner of execution see No. 1.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

0

Sawing off.

To saw off a piece of wood at right angles to the fibres.

6

Convex cut.

To cut off a piece of wood, convex in shape.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  92

Fig. 90.

7

Long-sawing.

To rip up a piece of wood lengthwise.

8

Edge-planing.

To plane a piece of wood, the surface of which is narrower than the plane-iron.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  93

Fig. 91.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Broad-webbed bow-saw.

The piece of wood is screwed into the bench, and the saw is worked with long, gentle strokes parallel with the edge of the bench (see Fig. 89 a - b, and page 84). The final strokes must be made cautiously, because the wood may easily be split. Before beginning the exercise, the worker should see that both edges of the saw are in the same plane, and that the teeth of the saw point away from him.

Knife.

The fibres are cut obliquely (a - b). See further under No. 3. (See also Plate I. for the position of the worker.)

Broad-webbed bow-saw.

For the method of execution, see No. 5. See also Plate II. for the position of the worker.

Trying-plane.

The piece of wood is fastened between the. bench-pegs so that it lies firmly and evenly upon the bench. Before the plane is used it should be carefully set for the particular kind of wood to be planed, i.e., the plane-iron should come lower down in the case of loose-fibred wood than for hard wood, and the cover should be placed farther from the edge of the iron in the former case than in the latter (see page 98). The handle of the plane is firmly grasped in one hand,'and the other is placed right in front of the socket. The plane is then worked briskly to and fro over the surface. The path of the plane must always be horizontal, regulated by the difference in the pressure given by one or other of the hands. For the position of the worker, see Plate III.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  94

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Square.

The stock of the square is grasped in one hand; and its inner surface is applied close to the face of the work (i.e., the side first planed), while the blade rests upon the other side.

Marking gauge.

The stock of the marking gauge is held steadily and closely to the faced-up sides of the work parallel to which the fine is to be made.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

11

Boring with the shell-bit (pin-bit).

To make a hole of small diameter.

12

Face-planing.

To plane a piece of wood when the surf a is broader than the plane-iron.

13

Filing.

To dress up rough surfaces.

14,

Boring with the centre-bit.

To make a hole of large diameter.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Shell-bit (pin-bit).

The object in view is partly to make a hole and partly to avoid splitting the wood, when sprigs, larger nails, or screws are put in. The left hand is laid upon the brace stock, to give pressure from above downwards ; the right hand grasps the handle in the middle, and the brace is turned towards the right, care being taken that the centre of the bit enters the right place in the wood, and that the direction of the hole is perpendicular to the plane of the work or the bench. The latter condition presents some difficulty, especially to beginners, and is best fulfilled by the slojder's standing alternately in one of two positions, in order that he may see the bit from each side of a right angle. To give greater pressure and steadiness, the chin may be made to rest on the left hand. For the position of the worker see Plate IV. and V.

Trying-plane.

The manner of execution is shewn in No. 8 and in Fig. 91. The broader the surface, the more difficult is the exercise. To test whether the surface is really level, the plane is laid across it; or, better still, winding laths are laid, one on each end of the piece of work. If the upper edges lie in the same plane the surface is true.

File.

When the plane surface of an end piece is to be dressed up, the piece of wood should be secured in the carpenter's bench. If, on the other hand, the surface is convex, the work should merely be supported on it. In the former case the handle of the file is firmly grasped in one hand, whilst the other rests upon the back of the blade near the point. The tool is then passed steadily and evenly over the surface, pressure being exerted only when the file is going from the worker. If the work merely rests on the bench, the file can of course only be worked with one hand. When rounded surfaces are filed, the tool is worked in the direction of the fibres, or when this is impossible, obliquely to them.

Centre-bit.

For method of execution see No. 11. Care must be taken that the bit cuts evenly.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

15

Convex sawing.

To saw out a shape following a curved lin

16

Concave cut

To cut out a concave shape.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  95

Fig. 94.

17

Bevelling.

To plane a bevelled edge.

18

Convex modelling with the plane.

To plane a convex surface.

19

Sawing with tenon-saw.

To saw carefully when no other saw can advantageously be used.

20

Wave-sawing.

To saw out after a curved line.

21

Plane surface cut.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  96

Fig. 95. To form a broad surface with the knife.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Turn-saw.

The saw is worked in the direction of a curve previously drawn (see Fig. 90, a - b).

Knife.

The knife is worked both from the worker and towards him, while the arm is pressed gently against the side, to steady the hand which holds the work. See farther No. 1.

Trying-plane.

The plane is made to produce a surface at an oblique angle to two others, in the same direction as the fibres. See farther No. 8.

Smoothing-plane.

The work is fastened between the bench-pegs. See No. 8 for method of execution.

Tenon-saw.

As the tenon saw has smaller teeth than the other saws used in slojd carpentry, it is very suitable in cases where there is danger of splitting the wood. The tool should be worked with a light hand, and all pressure avoided.

Turn-saw.

For the method of execution see No. 7, bearing in mind that the frame of the saw must be inclined to the one side or to the other, according to the curves of the fine (c - d, Fig. 95).

Knife.

Greater strength is required for this than for the preceding cuts, as almost the entire length of the blade is used.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

22

Scraping.

To finish up surfaces.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  97

Fig. 96.

23

Stop-planing (obstacle-planing).

To plane a piece of wood which preser. obstacles to the advance of the plane.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  98

Fig. 97.

24

Perpendicular chiselling, or paring.

To cut down and smooth a surface.

25

Oblique chiselling, or paring.

To pare off a piece of wood obliquely to fibres, but in the direction in which the run.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Scraper.

The tool is worked, as far as possible, in the direction of the fibres; in every other case obliquely to them. When the scraper is efficiently used, other means of finishing need only be sparingly employed.

Smoothing-plane.

The method of execution is, as nearly as possible, that described under No. 33, with this exception, that the tool is passed somewhat obliquely over the surface, in order to smooth it as near the obstacle as possible. [There is an English plane specially adapted for this sort of work called a Stop Champher Plane. - Trs.]

Firmer chisel.

The tool is grasped firmly by the handle in one hand, and worked perpendicularly, the upper arm being pressed firmly against the side to give the necessary support. The other hand holds the work on a cutting-board on the bench. (See Plate VI. for position of worker.)

Firmer chisel.

The piece of work must either be held firmly on the bench with one hand, or, when it seems necessary, fastened between the bench-pegs. The tool is firmly grasped by the other hand, and its face pressed against the wood (see Fig. 89, c - d). Oblique chiselling is always done in the direction in which the fibres run.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

26

Gouging with the gouge and the spoon-iron

To produce depressions of various degrees depth in a piece of wood.

27

Concave chiselling.

To produce a concave surface.

28

Chopping.

To split up and dress off rough and uneven surfaces.

29

Smoothing or dressing up with the spoke-shave.

To dress up rounded surfaces.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  99

Fig. 98.

30

Modelling with the spokeshave.

To model rounded surfaces.

31

Oblique sawing.

To saw off a piece of wood obliquely to the fibres.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Gouge and spoon-iron.

The coarser preliminary work is done with the gouge, and. • the necessary pressure is given by mallet blows on the handle. The spoon-iron is worked with both hands, and the pressure thus given, being lateral, serves to remove the inequalities left by the gouge.

Firmer chisel.

The handle of the tool is firmly grasped in one hand, and the other hand rests upon the face of the blade to direct its course, which must always be in the direction in which the fibres run. The article should be made fast in the back bench-vice. (See Fig. 95, a - b.)

Axe.

One hand supports the piece of wood on the chopping-block; the other hand wields the axe. Should the wood be "contrary " it must be turned the way of the grain, or "humoured." For the position of the worker, see Plate VII.

Spokeshave.

The work is fixed in the bench-vice. The tool is firmly grasped in both hands, with heavy forward pressure from the thumbs, and downward pressure from the fingers. When necessary, the forward direction of working may be reversed. For the position of the worker see Plate VIII.

Spokeshave.

For method of execution see No. 29.

Broad webbed bow-saw.

For method of execution see No. 5, and Fig. 89, c - d.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  100

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Smoothing-plane.

For method of execution see No. 33.

Smoothing-plane.

For directions for fastening the work into the bench see No. 8. The plane is firmly grasped in front and at the back (see Fig. 99), and worked briskly over the surface of the work. To produce a fine surface, the iron must be very sharp and lie as nearly as possible in the same plane as the sole, while the cover must lie close to the edge to prevent the fibres from splitting, whatever direction the plane may take. (See p. 100.)

Smoothing--plane.

The piece of wood is fastened vertically into the bench. To avoid splitting at the corners, the work should proceed from corners to centre.

Knife.

1. The work is set out with square, compass, and marking gauge.

2. It is cut out with the knife.

3. The parts are fitted together.

This exercise requires great care and accuracy.

As a general rule greater strength is required for wood of this kind than for softer wood.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

37(a)

Fitting in pegs.

To joint two pieces of wood together means of a dowel or pin which fit accurately into a hole bored with center tre-bit or auger-bit.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  101

Fig. 101.

37(6)

Plugging.

To fill up a hole by means of a round plug

38

Bevelled edge-planing.

To produce a plane surface at oblique angle to two other plane surfaces.

Fig. 102.

Fig. 102.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Square; centre-bit ; knife.

1. The hole is drilled with the centre-bit.

2. After finding the centre of the peg, a circle is described with the bit to be used in order to get the size of the Peg-

3. The dowel or pin is set out with the square and made cylindrical with the knife, so that it may fit closely and steadily into the hole.

Centre-bit; knife; firmer chisel.

The centre-bit used for the hole is used for marking out the size of the plug, and the fitting is done with the knife and chisel.

Trying-plane.

The exercise is performed according to the directions given in No. 17, with this exception, that the work is laid fiat on the bench, and the plane is held obliquely at the angle required.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  103

Tools required.

Purpose of Exercise.

Bradawl.

See Chap. IV. pp. 121. 122.

The tool is worked with one hand, and turned steadily backwards and forwards under even pressure.

Screw-driver; firmer chisel; bradawl.

1. If the plate, etc. is to be sunk, the firmer chisel is used.

2. The plate is screwed on with the screw driver care being taken that the screw passes right down into the wood.

Hammer.

See jointing, Chapter IV (Jointing. A. Glueing)., pp. 123, 124.

Punch; hammer.

The punch is held steadily on the head of the nail and struck sharply with the hammer; otherwise it may slip aside and make disfiguring holes in the work.

Draw-knife.

The article is screwed into the bench, and the tool, held firmly by both handles, is worked steadily over the wood. The exercise is rendered considerably easier if the draw-knife is held obliquely, i.e., if the one end is somewhat in advance of the other. If contrary wood is encountered, the work should, if possible, be turned to allow the knife to cut in the direction of the fibres. [The face of the tool should be held towards the worker, with the bevelled edge on the work. - Trs.]

Gouge with edge on the convex side.

For method of execution see No. 24.

K

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

46

Plain jointing.

To plane pieces of wood intended to jointed by glueing.

47

Dove-tail clamping.

To insert a clamp in a broad piece of woe to prevent warping.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  104

Fig. 104.

48

Oblique gouging.

To pare a piece of wood in the direction the fibres, but obliquely to them.

49

Champhering.

To pare a piece of wood at an obtuse or an acute angle to its surface.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Trying-plane.

The greatest care is required in plain jointing in order that the surfaces which are to be united may fit accurately. The directions given in No. 8 must be followed. The trying-plane should be very finely set for this exercise, in order that it may remove very thin shavings. The angle which the edge makes with the side of the work must be frequently tested with the square; the straightness of the edge must also be tested by the eye. The second piece of wood is treated in the same way, and when it is ready, the edge of the first piece is placed upon it for trial. If the joint is accurate, the two surfaces will touch at all points, and when placed against the light will not allow a single ray to pass through. If any light shines through, the parts which are too high must be carefully planed down with long, steady strokes. If two or more planks are to be jointed for broad work, the surfaces must lie in the same plane, and this must be tested by placing against them the straight-edge or the blade of the square.

Compass; square; marking-point ; bevel; marking-gauge; knife; tenon-saw; groove-saw; firmer chisel; old woman's tooth-plane; jack-plane; trying-plane.

1. The groove for the clamp is set out with the compass, square, marking-point, bevel, and marking-gauge; and a start for the saw is made with the knife.

2. It is cut out with the tenon-saw or groove-saw, firmer chisel, and old woman's tooth-plane.

3. The clamp is made ready with the jack-plane and the trying-plane, care being taken that it fits accurately all round.

Gouge.

For method of execution see No. 25, with this difference, that the gouge is used instead of the firmer chisel.

Firmer chisel.

For method of execution see No. 25.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

50

Circular sawing.

To saw out a circular shape.

51

Screwing together, or fixing with screws.

To fasten two pieces of work together by means of screws.

52

Modelling with the draw-knife.

To produce a rounded surface of large extent

53

Planing across the grain.

To plane up a broad surface across the grain

54

Wedge planing with smoothing plane.

To plane an article not only in the direction of the fibres, but obliquely to them (or to form an oblique object).

55

Planing with round-plane.

To dress up broad concave surfaces.

56

Fixing with wooden pegs, for planing thin wood.

To fix down, by means of wooden pegs, a thin piece of wood on the surface of a larger piece, in order to plane the former.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  105

Fig. 105.

57

Single dove-tailing at right angles.

To dove-tail two pieces of wood together by means of one dove-tail pin.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  106

Fig. 106.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Turn-saw.

The piece of wood is fastened into the back bench-vice, and the saw is used according to the directions given in No. 15.

Screwdriver; pin-bit.

For method of execution see No. 41, and also jointing, Chap. IV., p. 124.

Draw-knife.

For method of execution see No. 44.

Trying-plane.

For method of execution see No. 12.

Smoothing-plane.

For method of execution see No. 33.

Round-plane.

For method of execution see No. 33. To produce a good result the plane must be worked very smoothly and steadily.

Pin-bit; knife; hammer.

Care must be taken that the under piece is level. The wood to be planed is placed on it, and holes are drilled with the pin-bit, close to each end of the upper piece, through to the tender piece. Suitable pins are then driven into these holes, and a stable foundation is thus provided for the work of the plane.

Compass; square; marking-point; bevel; cutting-gauge; knife; tenon-saw; groove-saw; firmer chisel; old woman's tooth-plane.

1. The groove is set out with compass, square, marking point, bevel and cutting-gauge, and a start for the saw is made with the knife.

2. It is cut out with the tenon-saw or groove-saw, firmer chisel, and old woman's tooth-plane.

3. The clamp is set out with the cutting-gauge, and cut out with the knife. Care must be taken that the dove-tail fits accurately.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  107

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Cutting-gauge; compass; bevel; square; dove-tail saw; marking-point ; firmer chisel.

1. The thickness of the wood to he dove-tailed is marked with the cutting-gauge across the ends of the pieces of wood on both sides.

2. The required bevel of the pins is indicated with compass, bevel, and square.

3. The pins are cut out with dove-tail saw and firmer chisel.

4. The pin end is held steaddy on the other piece of wood at right angles to it, and the pins are marked out with the marking point. Then these marks are squared across the end of the wood.

5. They are cut out with the dove-tail saw and the firmer chisel.

6. The parts are carefully fitted together.

Trying-plane; shooting-board.

For the proper setting of the plane see No. 8. Great care is necessary when the shooting-board is in use, because the worker may easily hurt himself. See p. 67.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

60

Hollowing out; or scooping out with gouge.

To produce narrow concave depressions; c to hollow out with the gouge.

01

Axle fitting. [This exercise only applies to one Swedish model, i.e., the shuttle. - Trs.]

To fit an axle into a hole.

62

Housing, or square grooving.

To divide boxes, etc. into two or more record tangular portions by means of pieces c wood.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  108

Fig. 109.

63

Long oblique planing.

To plane a long bevelled edge.

64

Setting out.

To set out divisions in the work.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Gouge.

For method of execution see No. 26.

Compass; bradawl ; firmer chisel.

1. The axle is set out with the compass.

2. The hole and the slot are made with the bradawl and chisel.

Compass; square; marking-gauge ; saw: firmer chisel ; smoothing-plane.

1. The groove is set out by means of the compass, square, and marking-gauge.

2. It is cut out with the saw and the firmer chisel.

3. The tenon, i.e., the piece which is set into the groove, is made to fit by means of the smoothing-plane.

Trying-plane.

For method of execution see No. 8.

Compass; marking-point; square.

1. The length is divided with the compass, first into larger, and then into smaller parts.

2. The lines are drawn with the marking-point at right angles to the edge of the object. Great accuracy is required in marking off the divisions.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

65

Panel-grooving.

To produce rectangular depressions in object, into which a flat piece of wood to be slotted.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  109

Fig. 110.

66

Glueing with aid of hand-screw.

To glue together with the aid of the ha screw.

67

Sawing with compass (or keyhole) saw.

To saw out a hole in a piece of wood.

68

Oblique edge-grooving.

To join two pieces of wood together by me of a single dove-tail, at an obtuse an

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  110

Fig. 1ll.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Hutting-gauge; knife; firmer chisel; plough.

1. The groove is set out with the cutting-gauge.

2. It is cut out with the knife and the firmer chisel. In the case of many objects the plough may be employed with advantage to cut out the groove.

Handscrew.

Before the glue is applied to the joint, the parts must fit accurately; otherwise the pressure of the handscrew will be of little service. A piece of wood should be laid between the work and the screw to prevent injury to the surface of the article, and also to distribute the pressure more equally.

Uentre-bit; compass-saw.

Two holes are drilled in the piece of work with the centre-bit. The article is then fastened vertically into the bench and the saw is worked from one hole to the other, following lines previously set out. (In the case of small articles, use may be made of a turn-saw, the blade of which is detachable at one end.)

Compass: square; marking point; bevel; cutting-gauge; knife; tenon-saw or groove-saw; tinner chisel; old woman's tooth-plane; smoothing-plane.

1. The groove is set out with the compass, square, markingpoint, bevel, and cutting-gauge; and a start for the saw is made with the knife.

2. It is cut out with the tenon-saw or groove-saw, firmer chisel, and old woman's tooth-plane.

3. The required form of the end of the dove-tail is set out with the cutting-gauge and the bevel, and it is bevelled with the smoothing-plane.

4. The clamp is cut out with the knife.

5. The parts are fitted together.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

69

Slotting.

To join two pieces of wood, of which one is thinner than the other, in such a manner that the former slots into the latter at a right angle.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  111

Fig. 112.

70

Dove-tailing in thick wood.

To make a rectangular corner-joint by dovetailing two pieces of thick wood.

71

Mitreing.

To make an end-joint with two pieces of wood at an angle of 45°.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  112

Fig. 113.

72

Common mortise and tenon.

To join by means of a mortise and tenon.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Square; marking gauge; tenon-saw (or dove-tail saw) firmer chisel; mallet.

1. The tenon (A a) and (B a), and the slot (B b), are set out with the square and the marking gauge.

2. The slot (B b) is cut down with the tenon (or dove-tail) saw, and cut out with a coarse firmer chisel, (or mortise-chisel) by aid of the mallet.

3. The tenon (B a) is made with the tenon (or dove-tail) saw and the firmer chisel. It is called a shoulder tenon. The tenon (A a) is simply fitted into the slot with the smoothing plane. It is called an unshouldered tenon.

4. The parts are fitted together, and if necessary the firmer chisel is used.

Cutting-gauge; compass; bevel; square; dove-tail saw; marking-point; firmer chisel.

For method of execution see No. 58; hut note that still greater accuracy is required, because exercises with the saw and the firmer chisel are always more difficult when the thickness of the wood either falls under a certain limit, or exceeds it (Fig. 107).

Square; compass; firmer chisel; smoothing-plane.

For method of execution see No. 25. The completion of the joint depends on the nature of the object in which the exercise occurs. It may require mortising, glueing, nailing, screwing together with wood screws, etc. When the object is large, the smoothing-plane is used in mitreing. [The English method of making this mitre is by means of a mitre-box and shooting-board, in which case the saw and trying-plane are used. - Trs,]

Square; mortise gauge; mortise chisel; mallet; tenon-saw.

1. The mortise is set out by means of the square and the mortise gauge.

2. It is cut out with the mortise-chisel with the aid of the mallet.

3. The tenon is cut out with tenon-saw and firmer chisel.

4. The parts are fitted together, the firmer chisel being employed when necessary.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

73

Half-lapping.

To joint together two pieces of wood by hi lapping the broad sides together, i.e., cutting half the depth of the wood from each.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  113

Fig. 114.

74

Rebating.

To make a rebate.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  114

Fig. 115.

75

Graving with V-tool or parting-tool (fluting).

To hollow out depressions or edges.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Square; marking point; marking-gauge ; tenon-saw ; firmer chisel.

1. The half-lapping parts are set out with the square, markingpoint and marking-gauge.

2. They are cut out with tenon-saw and firmer chisel.

3. The parts are fitted together with the aid of the chisel.

Marking-gauge; knife; firmer chisel.

1. The breadth and thickness of the rebate are set out with the marking-gauge.

2. It is cut out with the knife and the firmer chisel. [This holds good only of the small rebates which occur in Slojd carpentry. The plough and the rebate plane are used for larger work. - Trs.]

Parting-tool.

The object is screwed tightly into the bench, and the parting-tool is wielded with a steady hand.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

76

Half-lap dovetailing.

To produce a rectangular end joint by do\ tailing together two pieces of wood, that the dove-tailing does not show one side. To do this, one-third of to wood is not cut through on the si where the pins are. The socket piece cut right through and dove-tailed the ordinary way.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  115

Fig. 116.

77

Hinge-sinking, or fixing hinges.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  116

78

Lock-fitting.

D Jointing By Means Of The Formation Of The Parts  117

Fig. 117.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Cutting-gauge; compass; bevel; square; tenon-saw (dove-tail saw); marking point; firmer chisel.

For method of execution see No. 58, paying special attention to setting the piece on which the pins are in an oblique position in the back bench-vice. The pins are sawn out to the lines indicated by the marking point, which determine the thickness of the wood to be left. The spaces between are smoothed by perpendicular paring with the firmer chisel. (See No. 24)

Square; firmer chisel; bradawl ; screwdriver.

1. The position of the hinge is decided on and set out.

2. The depth to which the hinge has to be sunk is taken and gauged.

3. This part is then cut out with the firmer chisel.

4. For screwing on, see No. 41.

Pin-bit; firmer chisel; knife; bradawl; screwdriver; compass-saw.

1. The position of the lock is decided on.

2. The place is cut out with the pin-bit and the firmer chisel to a depth which permits the metal plate to lie on the same plane as the wood.

3. The hole for the key is cut out with the centre-bit, knife and chisel. (In larger work with the compass-saw).

4. For screwing on, see No. 41. l

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Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Bevel; dovetail saw; compass ; square; tenon saw ; firmer chisel; smoothing-plane.

1. Set out the angle at the ends with the bevel and saw off.

2. Bevel off the edges to correspond with the angle at the ends of the adjacent sides.

3. To get the angle in the horizontal plane at the ends, use the square in the following way : Place the face against the side of the wood, and let the blade rest flat on the plane of the bevelled edge. Then draw the line and plane off.

4. The required thickness of each piece is set out with the cutting gauge.

5. The pins are set out at right angles to the oblique end with the compass, bevel, and square.

6. They are made with the dove-tail saw and the firmer chisel.

[Another method of working this joint is by means of a prepared shooting board, by which the two angles at the ends can be obtained at once.

It may also be mentioned, that in the English method of oblique dove-tailing, the dove-tail pins run in the same direction as the grain, or obliquely to it, and are consequently stronger. There are theoretical reasons why this method is not followed at Naas.- Trs.]

Compass ; square ; bevel; marking-gauge; knife; firmer chisel; dove-tail saw.

1. The slot is set out with compass, square, and bevel.

2. The depth of the groove is set out with the markinggauge, and cut out with the knife and firmer chisel.

3. The slot is sawn out with the dove-tail saw, and cut out with the firmer chisel.

4. The parts are fitted together with the aid of the firmer chisel.

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Tools required.

Directions lor Work.

Compass; square; marking point; bevel; cutting gauge; knife; tenon-saw or groove -saw; firmer chisel; old woman's tooth plane; dove-tail saw.

1. The groove is set out with compass, square, markingpoint, bevel, and cutting gauge; cut out with knife, tenon-saw or groove-saw, firmer chisel, and old woman's tooth-plane

2. The shape of the dove-tail is set out with square and cutting gauge, and cut out with dove-tail saw and knife.

3. The parts are fitted together with the aid of the knife.

Round plane.

1. The required curve is set out at both ends.

2. The shape is produced by means of the roughing plane and the "round" plane. (See Fig. 121.)

Compass; bowsaw ; spoke-shave ; bevel; marking-point; marking gauge; knife; firmer chisel; trying-plane ; smoothing-plane; bradawl.

1. The bottom is made in the shape required.

2. The edge of the bottom is bevelled to the angle required for the sides of the article.

3. The position and breadth of the groove are set out with the marking-point.

4. The necessary inclination of the sides of the staves is determined by the bevel

5. The depth of the groove is set out with the marking-gauge and cut out with the knife and the firmer chisel.

6. The edges of the staves are planed and fitted together.

7. The staves are held together by means of wooden pins inserted into the edges from the inside.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

84

Hooping.

To fix iron hoops round a barrel or bucket to hold the staves together. (The wooden hoops frequently seen are not suitable for slojd work.)

85

Concealed tenoning.

To joint two pieces of wood together at right angles by means of a concealed or haunched tenon.

Fig. 122 a.

Fig. 122 a.

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Pig. 122 b.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Cold chisel; punch; hammer; set hammer.

1. The length of the hoop is taken and cut off with the cold chisel.

2. A hole is made with the punch and hammer about half an inch from each end.

3. The hoop is rivetted by means of a rivet, the head of which is larger than the hole.

4. The head of the rivet is then made to rest on a block of metal, and the rivet itself is hammered until a head is formed on the^other side.

5. The hoop is hammered from the inside of the article as it rests on the block, and thus made to fit.

6. The hoops are put on from the narrowest portion of the article, and driven home by blows from the set hammer.

Square; mortise gauge; firmer chisel; mortise chisel; mallet; bowsaw; tenon-saw.

1. The tenon and the mortise are set out at right angles.

2. The breadth of the mortise and the thickness of the tenon are set out with the mortise gauge.

3. The mortise is cut out with the mortise chisel.

4. The tenon is made with the bow-saw, firmer chisel, and tenon-saw.

5. The parts are fitted together with the help of the firmer chisel.

Number of Exercise.

Name of Exercise.

Purpose of Exercise.

86

Blocking.

To strengthen by means of blocks.

N.B. - In the illustration the fibres of the block are accidentally shown running in the wrong direction.

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Fig. 123.

87

Mortised blocking.

To strengthen by means of mortised blocks. [Sometimes called "button blocks." - Trs.]

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Fig. 124.

88

Up and down sawing.

To divide a long piece of wood into small pieces.

Tools required.

Directions for Work.

Dove-tail saw ; firmer chisel; square.

1. The piece to be strengthened is held close to the other piece with the handscrew.

2. The blocks are made with the dove-tail saw and the chisel.

3. The blocks are warmed, glued, and put into their places.

4. Before the handscrew is taken away, the glue must be quite dry.

Square; marking gauge; firmer chisel; dove-tail saw.

1. The mortise in the rail is set out at right angles with the square and the marking-gauge, and cut out with the firmer chisel.

2. The tenon on the block is set out in accordance with the size of the mortise with the square and the marking gauge; cut out with the dove-tail saw, and fitted with the firmer chisel.

3. Previous to the blocking, the object to be fixed is held in position with the^handscrew.

4. The blocks are warmed and glued on the two sides next the object, and put in their places.

Broad-webbed bow-saw.

The plank is placed on the bench and held in place by a hand-screw. The blade of the saw is set almost at right angles to the plane of the frame, and the handle is grasped by one hand, while the other holds the upper end of the side arm, and the saw is worked vertically with long easy strokes, with the blade at right angles to the plane surface of the plank.

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Plate I. Position : Convex Cut.

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Plate II. Petition: Long-sawing.

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Plate III. Position: Edge-planing.

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Plate IV. Position: Perpendicular boring with the brace.

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Plate V. Position: Horizontal boring with the brace.

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Plate VI. Position: Perpendicular chiselling.

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Plate VII. Position: Chopping.

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Plate VIII. Position: Smoothing, etc., with the spokeshave.

Plate IX. Plan of Slojd-room in Katarina Elementary School, Stockholm.

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A. Slojd room.

1. Benches.

2. Cupboard with two divisions :

(1) for tools ; (2) for models.

3. Cupboard with two divisions :

(1) for unfinished work.

(2) for finished articles.

4. Teacher's desk.

5. Cupboard: a. Iron vice.

b. Iron saw-file vice.

c. Anvil.

6. Lathe.

7. Racks for hand-screws and shooting-boards.

8. Vices for rough work.

9. Boring-stools.

10. Saw-bench.

11. Glue-pot.

12. Chopping-block.

13. Flat grindstone.

14. Revolving grindstone.

15. Wood-racks.

16. Wash-hand basins.

17. Stoves.

3 racks for saws are introduced between the windows on the long wall B. Lobby.

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Plate X.

A. Marking gauge (Johansson's) with stock adjusted by wedges. 1/2.

B. Marking gauge (Lundniark's modified) with stock adjusted by thumb-screw. 1/2. D. Plough-gauge, a and b, different methods of adjustment. 1/5.