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Lessons In English | by Chestine Gowdy, Lora M. Dexheimer



Every attempt of a child to express himself is a com-po-si-tion, - a putting together of ideas; and every classroom exercise that calls for self-expression, whatever its special purpose, is incidentally a language lesson. But the teacher can hardly stop in the midst of an arithmetic or a geography lesson to establish principles of speech and then fix them by the necessary drill. It is by special work that we must prepare the way for the incidental language work of the day and supplement it by extended drill; and it is for use in this special language work that these Lessons in English were written.

TitleLessons In English
AuthorChestine Gowdy, Lora M. Dexheimer
PublisherAllyn And Bacon
Year1915
Copyright1915, Chestine Gowdy, Lora M. Dexheimer
AmazonLessons in English

Book III: Grammar and Composition

-Preface
Every attempt of a child to express himself is a com-po-si-tion, - a putting together of ideas; and every classroom exercise that calls for self-expression, whatever its special purpose, is incidental...
-Part One. Chapter I. Section I. Picture
1. The First White Settlers Of New England What was the early home of the first white people who settled in New England? What name was given to them in Old England? To what country did they go b...
-Section II Poem
1. Reading Lesson At Sea A wet sheet and a flowing sea, A wind that follows fast And fills the white and rustling sail And bends the gallant mast; And bends the gallant mast, my boys, . Wh...
-Section III. Divided Quotations
1. Finding Rules Read these sentences: 1. Now, my dear, said her mother, don't stop by the way. 2. Pick that up, said Harry's father. You know it brings good luck to pick up a horsesho...
-Section IV. Story. 1
1. Reading Lesson Gulliver Is Shipwrecked My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire. He sent me to college at fourteen years old, where I resided three years. I then studied with an emi...
-Section V. Use Of Is, Was, Are, Were
1. Finding Rules 1. Here is John's hat. What does this sentence tell, or state, something about ? How many hats ? What does it tell about John's hat ? 2. Mary's hands are cold. What does t...
-Section VI. Poem. 1
1. Reading Lesson The Curate And The Mulberry Tree Did you hear of the curate who mounted his mare And merrily trotted along to the fair? Of creature more tractable none ever heard; In ...
-Section VII. Composition: The Grasshopper
1. Observation And Study Make a list of the facts you know about grasshoppers. Copy these questions. See how many of them you can find answers for by next Monday. Where do grasshoppers live? ...
-Chapter II. Section I. Poem
1. Preparation Tubal Cain lived in the days before the flood. He was an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron. That means that he was the first man to work in metals as a smith does. Y...
-Section II. Keeping A Diary
1. Study A diary is a record of one's own thoughts and doings. Writing a diary is like talking to a pleasant companion to whom we can say whatever we wish, and be sure of a good listener. Someti...
-Section III. Contractions
1. Study On page 15 you learned how to use certain words correctly. Look to see what they were: You have also learned what contractions are. For what words is each of these contractions used? ...
-Section IV. Story. 2
1. Reading Lesson Gulliver Is Searched The Emperor of Lilliput desired that I would not take it ill if he gave orders to certain proper officers to search me. These gentlemen made an exact inven...
-Section V. Poem
1. Preparation Have you ever seen a fountain? Have you seen pictures of large and beautiful ones? What makes the water flow? How does it look with light shining through it? What becomes of the wate...
-Section VI. Composition: How Trees Prepare For Winter
1. Preparation Make a list of the names of trees which you know when you see them. Try to get twigs from some of them to bring to class. Find answers to these questions: How much has the twig...
-Section VII. Use Of Comma In A Series
1. Study 1. A cold, wintry storm overtook us. What two words describe the storm? How are they separated? 2. Gulliver gave up his knife, razor, purse, and snuff-box. What words name the thi...
-Section VIII. Proverbs
1. Study 1. A stitch in time saves nine. 2. Where there's a will there's a way. 3. Haste makes waste. 4. Little strokes fell great oaks. What does each of these old sayings mean? Think ...
-Chapter III. Section I. Story
1. Reading Lesson The Battle I communicated to his majesty a project I had formed of seizing the enemy's whole fleet, which lay at anchor in the harbor. I consulted the most experienced seamen u...
-Section II. Use Of Comma In Address
1. Development Read these sentences: 1. Mother, may I go with you? 2. Where is your cap, John? 3. Come, girls, let us go to the playground. Read the first sentence without the word moth...
-Section III. Poem. 1
1. Preparation This poem gives a different picture of the Pilgrims from the one you studied at the beginning of the book. It will be interesting to you to see how many new thoughts you gain from th...
-Section IV. Word Forms: Went, Gone
1. Study Study these sentences until you can repeat them without the book. 1. I went to school. 2. I have gone to school. 3. He went to school. 4. He has gone to school. 5. You went ...
-Section V. Composition: The Moon
1. Conversation You have often noticed the moon in its different shapes. Have you wondered why it is not always the same? Tell what these mean: full moon, half moon, new moon. How long does each la...
-Section VI. Picture: End Of Labor
1. Study What time of day does the picture show? What season is it? What grows in the field? What have the women been doing? How has the harvesting been done? What things show this? What are ...
-Section VII. Poem. 1
1. Reading Lesson Hunting Song Waken, lords and ladies gay, On the mountain dawns the day; All the jolly chase is here With hawk and horse and hunting-spear; Hounds are in their couples yelling,...
-Chapter IV. Section I. Rhyme
1. Study We are but minutes, little things, Each one furnished with sixty wings With which we fly on unseen track, And not a minute e'er comes back. We are but minutes, use us well; For of our u...
-Section II. Story. 1
1. Reading Lesson Gulliver Leaves The Islands When I was preparing to pay my attendance on the Emperor of Blefuscu, I sent a letter to the secretary, signifying my resolution of setting out. Wit...
-Section III. Word Forms: Lie, Lay, Lain, Lying
1. Study The word lie means to take a certain position, or to be in that position. It has these five forms: lie, lies, lay, lying, lain. See if you can find its meaning in each of these sentences. ...
-Section IV. Poem. 1
1. Reading Lesson Christmas Everywhere Everywhere, everywhere, Christmas to-night! Christmas in lands of the fir-tree and pine, Christmas in lands of the palm-tree and vine, Christmas where snow...
-Section V. Composition: How To Prevent Dust
1. Preparation For Class Talk Be ready to answer as many of these questions as you can when you go to class: What are the things that are most necessary to health? Which of these may children he...
-Section VI. Story. 1
1. Reading Lesson A Christmas Tree I have been looking on this evening at a merry company of children assembled round that pretty German toy, a Christmas Tree. The tree was planted in the mid...
-Section VII. The Paragraph
1. Study 1. Read the Christmas story through again. Stop at the end of the first paragraph. Decide what the important thing is that is told in that paragraph. Tell in a few words what it is. Do the...
-Section VIII. Review: Word Forms: Set, Sit
1. Study 1. Set means to put or to place something in a certain position. Use these forms of this word in several sentences. Be ready to tell in class why your sentences are right. set set...
-Section IX. Poem. 1
1. Reading Lesson Christmas Bells I heard the bells on Christmas Day Their old, familiar carols play, And wild and sweet The words repeat Of peace on earth, good-will to men! And though...
-Chapter V. Section I. Composition: Carrying The Mail
1. Preparation For Class Conversation Answer as many of these questions as you can. Make inquiries to find out the things you do not know. What people do you know about who help in taking care o...
-Section II. Use Of Comma
1. Development 1. I saw my teacher, Miss Gray. Why are the words Miss Gray put into this sentence? What other word in the sentence means the same person? How are the words Miss Gray separated fr...
-Section III. Poem. 2
1. Reading By Teacher The Leap Of Roushan Beg L Mounted on Kyrat strong and fleet, His chestnut steed with four white feet, Roushan Beg, called Kurroglou, Son of the road and bandit chief, Se...
-Section IV. Story. 3
1. Reading Lesson Tom And The Otter A little English boy who was a chimney sweep was very wrongly treated. While trying to escape he plunged into a little stream, and was changed into a water ba...
-Section V. Word Forms. I, He, She, We, They
1. Study We are likely to make mistakes in using these words: I he she. we. they. me. him. her. us. them. When speaking of yourself and another, whom should you mention f...
-Section VI. Review: Letters, Diary
1. Study What two things must be written first in a letter? What are these two things together called? How should they be written? Where should the salutation be written? What does the word salu...
-Section VII. Composition: Pioneer Life
1. Study All of you know that our country did not always have pleasant homes and farms, nor towns and cities. What have you learned about the first white settlers of your own state? Perhaps you ...
-Section VIII. Poem. 1
1. Preparatory Conversation Who was Abraham Lincoln? At what time was he president? Why do we still honor him? How did Lincoln die? How did the nation feel at his death? Where is he buried? ...
-Section IX. Word Study: Like, Love
1. Study We should not use the word love when we mean that we like something. We love our parents; we like ice cream; we like to play tennis. 2. Exercises a. Think which word you should use a...
-Chapter VI. Section I. Picture
1. Conversation Did you ever slide, down hill as the girls in the picture are doing? How was this slide made? Should you like to be with this jolly party? Which one is having the most fun? Wh...
-Section II. Composition: Birthdays Of Great Men
1. Preparation In the month of February the birthdays of several noted men occur. Some of these birthdays we still celebrate. What day is George Washington's birthday? What day is Abraham Lincol...
-Section III. Word Forms: Who, Whom
1. In these sentences the word whom is used correctly. Read them so often that they sound right to you. 1. To whom does this knife belong? 2. Whom did you bring the flowers to? 3. Whom are yo...
-Section IV. Poem. 2
1. Reading Lesson The Miller Of The Dee There dwelt a miller, hale and bold, Beside the river Dee; He worked and sang from morn till night - No lark so blithe as he; And this the burden of...
-Section V. Letters. Review
1. Study Study this letter so carefully that you can write it correctly as your teacher dictates it to you in class: 412 Argyle Court, Clinton, Iowa, Aug. 15, 1912. Dear Jonas, I came h...
-Section VI. Story. 2
1. Reading Lesson Tom And The Lobster One day Tom was going along the rocks in three-fathom water, when he saw a round cage of green withes; and inside it, looking very much ashamed of himself, ...
-Section VII. Rhyme And Composition
1. Memory Work For want of a nail the shoe was lost; For want of a shoe the horse was lost; For want of a horse the rider was lost; For want of a rider the battle was lost; For want of a battle the...
-Section VIII. Word Study: Like, As, As If, That
1. Study You have learned that the word like should not be used if the part of the sentence which comes after it is a statement. You have also learned that as or as if should be used in its place i...
-Section IX. Outline And Composition: Good Roads
1. Study Find good answers to these questions: What kinds of roads or streets have you in your neighborhood? Have you heard people talk about making good roads? How are good roads or streets ...
-Section X. Poem. 1
1. Reading Lesson The Arrow And The Song I shot an arrow into the air, It fell to earth, I knew not where; For, so swiftly it flew, the sight Could not follow it in its flight. I breathed a s...
-Section XI. Composition: A Storm
1. Preparation For Class Conversation What kind of storms are we likely to have at this season? By what signs may we know they are coming? What effects do they have upon our work? Upon our play?...
-Chapter VII. Section I. Word Studies: Nice, Awful, Very
1. Study The word nice is often used to mean the same as these words as well as many others: good, kind, pretty, agreeable, expensive, pleasant. See if some other word does not express the meani...
-Section II. Composition: Early Gardening
1. Preparation For A Talk In Class Do you know of any one who has begun garden work? What are some ways in which garden work is begun when the earth is still too cold for out-of-door planting? F...
-Section III. Poem. 3
1. Reading Lesson Lochinvar Oh ! young Lochinvar is come out of the west, Through all the wide border his steed was the best And save his good broadsword, he weapons had none; He rode all unarme...
-Section IV. Review Of Punctuation. Composition
1. Study Read these paragraphs carefully. Why is it not easy to get their meaning? Copy them, and use the punctuation marks and capital letters that you think are needed. mother may I go to the ...
-Section V. Story
1. Reading Lesson The Miraculous Pitcher One evening in times long ago old Philemon and his good wife, Baucis, sat at their cottage door enjoying the beautiful sunset. They talked together about...
-Section VI. Them, Those
1. Study. You have learned in Book I that we should use the word those with the names of things we are speaking of. We say, those flowers; those boys; those horses; those big trees; those pretty f...
-Section VII. Rhymes
1. Memory Work These are some very old rhymes about the weather. Learn them. The Weather If the evening's red and the morning's gray, It's the sign of a bonny, bonny day. If the evening's gra...
-Section VIII. Composition: Directions For Play
1. Study And Writing There is a game which many children like to play and which has these different names in different places: Pom, pom, pull away Black man Hill dfll Use the title you ...
-Section IX. Poem. 2
1. Reading Lesson Spring Gentle Spring ! in sunshine clad, Well dost thou thy power display! For Winter maketh the light heart sad, And thou, thou makest the sad heart gay. He sees thee, a...
-Section X. Composition: Improving The School Yard
1. Preparation For A Talk To The Class Close your eyes and try to see the picture of your school building and its surroundings. What things make them pleasant and attractive? Are there other imp...
-Chapter VIII. Section I. Review: Capital Letters
1. Study Be able, in class, to give a reason for the use of each of the capital letters in these sentences: 1. We saw Dr. Brown drive past. 2. Have you seen the Alps? 3. My mother is going...
-Section II. Story. 2
1. Reading Lesson Rabbit Roads1 The rabbit is a runner. He can swim if he is obliged to. His interests, however, lie mostly in his heels, and hence in his highways. So Bunny has become an expert...
-Section III. Poem. 4
1. Reading Lesson Lord Ullin's Daughter A chieftain to the Highlands bound Cries, Boatman, do not tarry ! And I'll give thee a silver pound To row us o'er the ferry ! Now who be ye, ...
-Section IV. Use Of Slang
1. Class Conversation What is slang? Why do we use wo;-ds and expressions which are called slang? Does the use of slang help us to make ourselves understood? Does any harm come from using slang? ...
-Section V. Composition And Records: Early Flowers And Birds
1. Study And Observation What wild flowers do you know? Where does each kind grow? Which like sunny places best? Which grow best in shady places? How can we best enjoy wild flowers? Explain your...
-Section VI. Word Studies: Hole, Whole
1. Study The whole of anything means all of it. A hole in anything means an opening or a break in it. We speak of a hole in the ice, and of a whole loaf of bread. 2. Exercises 1. Write five s...
-Section VII. Review: Punctuation
1. Study Be able to give a reason for each punctuation mark and each capital letter used in these sentences: 1. Our dear companion, Will Stutely, hath been taken, cried Robin Hood. 2. Robin...
-Section VIII. Picture: Landing Of Columbus
1. Study Who is the chief person in this picture? For what do we remember him? What is Columbus doing in the picture? Why does he have the flag? What flag do you think it is? Why has he the swor...
-Section IX. Poem. 3
1. Reading Lesson The Daffodils I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o'er vales and hills, When all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, b...
-Part Two. Chapter I. Section I. Picture
1. Study Of The Picture This is a picture of the playground of a school for orphans in Germany. As you examine the picture, see if care has been taken to give the children; a good time. A G...
-Section II. Test On Is, Are, Was, And Were
You see the following exercise contains twenty sentences. Take a piece of paper and write the numbers of the sentences in a column at the left, as in the book. Then read each sentence and fill the bla...
-Section III. Poem. 5
1. Reading By Teacher As your teacher reads the poem, try to see the pictures that the poet saw. Ask her to read or to explain any part you do not understand. Rain In Summer How beautiful is ...
-Section IV. Review Of Rules For Punctuation Marks And Capitals
1. Test Write as many rules as you can for the use of capital letters, the period, and the comma. Compare your rules with those given in the earlier pages of the book. The index at the back of t...
-Section V. Story: How Robin Hood Met Little John
1. Preparation All peoples, like the Old Greeks, have loved to repeat stories of the daring adventures of the early heroes of their race. After they had been handed down for hundreds of years by th...
-Section VI. Words Meaning Number. Words Meaning Quantity
1. Discovering A Rule Divide these words into two lists. Put into one the words that you think refer to number, and into the other the ones that mean quantity: many several. much considerable. ...
-Section VII. Spelling Lesson
These words were found misspelled in a set of compositions written by a sixth grade class. Be sure that you know their meaning and can spell them. Then write sentences containing them. no off. k...
-Section VIII. Written Composition
Select one of the following subjects to write about. Before you begin to write, make an outline showing what each paragraph is to be about. 1. How to have a good football team. 2. Our garden exh...
-Section IX. Poem. 4
1. Reading Lesson Read the poem, then read it again until you think you can make the meaning clear when you read it aloud in class. You see it is made up almost wholly of conversation. You will ...
-Section X. Composition
1. Oral Composition Be ready to tell a short and interesting incident to your class. If there is one main point, let it come at the end as a surprise. In the first part of the story, lead up to ...
-Chapter II. Section I. Some Common Errors
1. Learning Correct Forms The sentences in the following group are correct. Many persons make mistakes in similar sentences. They say should of instead of should have, had ought instead of ought, h...
-Section II. Review Of Possessive Forms
1. Rules You learned these rules in the fourth grade: 1. The singular possessive is formed by adding the apostrophe and s to the common form. If the word itself is long and ends in s or some sim...
-Section III. Poem. 6
1. Introduction The poem that your teacher is to read describes something with which you are familiar. Try to decide what it is before the name is reached. Be ready to tell what led you to decide. ...
-Section IV. Compositions
1. Oral Composition Face the class and tell them as many reasons as you can why you should or should not choose maize for the emblem of the United States. Let some one write on the blackboard a ...
-Section V. That, This, Those, These
Every one, when he stops to think, knows that the words those and these mean more than one. Still it is a very common mistake to use them in speaking of only one. In which of these sentences are they ...
-Section VI. Written Composition
Explain carefully how to do some kind of work. First make a list of the different steps in the work. This will be your out ine. Then write a paragraph about each point. The following topics may sugges...
-Section VII. Poem. 2
1. Introduction Where is Mount Olympus? For what was it famous? How many of the dwellers on Mount Olympus can you name? Apollo was the beloved son of Zeus, or Jupiter. He was one of the mo...
-Section VIII. October Coloring
1. Preparation Make as long a list as you can of colors. Write after each color names of objects in nature that have . this color. Which do you like better, the landscape coloring in June or in ...
-Section IX. Robinson Crusoe
1. Introduction Most of you have heard or read part, at least, of the story of Robinson Crusoe. You know how, in spite of the entreaties of his parents, he determined to become a sailor and see the...
-Section X. Composition: The Protection Of Birds
Find out all you can about each topic in the following outline. After talking the subject over in class, write a composition following the outline. You will surely have several points under each to...
-Chapter III. Section I. Picture
1. Study Of The Picture Which do you notice first in looking at the picture, the balloon or the persons? What work have the people been doing? Are they thinking of it now? Do you think that Workers...
-Section II. Quotations
1. Divided Quotations. Review. In the following passage, the quotation marks are omitted. Find every quotation. Read the passage, omitting all explanations that are not parts of quotations. Is t...
-Section III. Poem. 7
1. Preparation Tell what you know or can find out about the little country called Holland. The name Holland has been said to mean Hollow-land. Is this a good name for the country? What is a d...
-Section IV. In, Into
Notice the meaning of the little words in and into in these sentences: A strange dog came into the schoolroom. He walked about in it, making friends with the children. 1. Rules Use in when...
-Section V. Most, Almost
Most means greatest in degree or number; thus, This is a most interesting story. Most people like this. Almost means nearly; thus, / am almost ready. Fill each blank with most or almost: 1. S...
-Section VI. Poem. 2
1. Preparatory Conversation Certain stones are called precious stones. How many of these stones do you know the color of: ruby, sapphire, emerald, onyx, diamond, amethyst? Have you ever noticed ...
-Section VII. Written Composition
Write a short composition about one of these subjects: 1. The travels of a pebble. If you remember Tennyson's poem The Brook, it may help you to imagine some of the adventures of the pebble. ...
-Section VIII. The Story Of Jess 1
1. Reading Lesson [Mr. Jones, a minister who lives in Chicago, once had some money given him. He was to buy a horse with the money, so that he might take long rides during his summer vacations. In ...
-Section IX. Composition
How a boy or a girl can help about a Thanksgiving celebration. Think of something that you can do, and tell just how you have done it or will do it. Suggested Topics 1. Gathering evergreen bo...
-Section X. Word Forms
1. Review Choose between the words in parentheses. 1. You------well, (did, done) 2. Have you------what you promised to do? (did, done) 3. Have you------the man? (saw, seen) 4. I------hi...
-Chapter IV. Section I. Written Composition: How Mary Or John Earned One Dollar
Remember to stick to the subject. Some members of a sixth grade class who once wrote upon this subject told more about spending the money than about earning it. You may write a little introduction tel...
-Section II. Stop, Stay
Stop means to cease from action, to halt. It does not mean to remain, to stay. We should not say, He stops at the hotel, but, He lives or stays there. Fill each blank with stop, stopped, stay, or s...
-Section III. To, At
1. Discovering A Rule See if you can tell from these sentences when to should be used and when at is the right word. Write the rule that you discover. 1. John walked to school in fifteen minutes...
-Section IV. Oral Composition. 1
Each pupil give directions for going to some spot. The other children may decide (1) whether any necessary fact has been omitted, (2) whether anything unnecessary has been told, (3) whether the sta...
-Section V. Written Composition: The Water We Drink At School
Learn all you can about each of the topics in the following outline, discuss in class what you have learned, then write a composition, following the outline. 1. The source of our water supply. (Dug...
-Section VI. Word Forms. Review Of Lie, Lay, Sit, Set, Rise, Raise
1. Review Remember that the words lie, lies, lay, lying, and lain refer to being in a certain position, while the words lay, lays, laid, and laying refer to putting into that position. The word lay...
-Section VII. Poem. 3
1. Reading Lesson Read the following poem, using the study helps as you read. Christmas Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky, The flying cloud, the frosty light: The year is dying in t...
-Section VIII. Business Letters
1. Matters Of Form Business letters should be correct in every matter of form. Read the following directions carefully: Margin. Leave a free margin at the left. The width should be about half an...
-Section IX. Written Composition: The Story Of A Christmas Tree
It will take several class periods and study periods to write all of this story. The following outline may be used, or the class may prepare another. Chap. I. The kind of tree. Chap. II. Where i...
-Section X. Poem. 2
1. Preparatory Study In 1066, Normans from the continent of Europe crossed the English Channel and conquered England, which was then the home of the Saxons. The leader of the band was William, Duke...
-Chapter V. Section I. Drill On Word Forms
Even though you have been trying for a long time to learn to use the forms /, me, he, him, she, her, they, them, we, and us correctly, you perhaps still make some mistakes. Read these correct sentence...
-Section II. Words Often Misused
1. Explanation Party, except in legal language, means a number of persons. Do not use it to mean one person. For example, do not say I met a party from the city unless you are thinking of a number ...
-Section III. Story From Hans Brinker, Or The Silver Skates 1
1. Preparation Recall all you have learned about Holland. Find pictures of the country and the people, if you can. What name is given the people? 1 Used by permission of Charles Scribner's Sons....
-Story From Hans Brinker, Or The Silver Skates 1. Part 2
3. Study To defy a person is to dare him. Say this in some other way: The ice flashed defiance. Explain the last line in the first paragraph. Describe a faultless plain of ice. Parisi...
-5. Reading Lesson. The Race
There are some familiar faces near the white columns. Lambert, Ludwig, Peter, and Carl are all there, cool and in good skating order. Hans is not far off. Evidently he is going to join in the race, fo...
-Section IV. Written Composition
Choose one of these subjects: 1. A crowd of people. The crowd may be gathering to watch a ball game, a circus procession, a race, or an athletic meet; or they may be at a fair or a Fourth of July c...
-Section V. Poem: Passages From Snow-Bound
1. Introduction You have already read part of this poem. Do you remember the description of the snow-storm and the pleasant picture of the kitchen on a winter night? Read these descriptions again i...
-Section VI. Business Letters, Continued
Suggested Exercises 1. Write an order for one or more articles to some large mercantile house in a distant city. 2. Write to the author of some one of your textbooks asking to have something in ...
-Section VII. Friendly Letters
1. How They Differ From Business Letters You have learned that business letters should be brief, containing only the facts that must be known in order that the business may be easily and properly d...
-Section VIII. Poem. 2
1. Introduction Imagine that you hear the sound of a grasshopper. What kind of picture comes to your mind along with the sound? What season is it? What time of day is it? Now imagine that you he...
-Chapter VI. Section I. Localisms
1. Explanation When we say that an expression is correct, or that it is good English, we mean that it is one that is used by the best writers and speakers wherever English is spoken. Some incorr...
-Section II. Oral Compositions
1. Read the poem, Paul Revere's Ride. Think over everything connected with the ride that you have ever learned. Be ready to tell the story of the ride as you would tell it to a small boy or girl wh...
-Section III Poem
1. Introduction In 1836 a monument was erected at Conbord in memory of the battle which took place there April 19, 1775, the day after Paul Revere's ride. This poem was sung at the completion of th...
-Section IV. Picture
1. Study Whom was the monument erected in honor of? Who were the minute men, and why were they given this name? Where is the monument situated? What main parts does it consist of? ...
-Section V. Biography
Whenever it is possible in your writing or talking, you should tell what you have found out for yourself. It is often well, in doing this, to compare what you have thought and observed with what other...
-Section VI. Abbreviations
1. Abbreviations Of Titles Learn these abbreviations: Gov., Governor Pres., President Gen., General Capt., Captain Hon., Honorable Dr., Doctor Remember that these abbreviations should not ...
-Section VII. Story
1. Review. Oral Composition. See how much you can remember about Jess and her owner, then read the story again (page 212). Be ready to tell the story in class. Tell it as if you were telling it ...
-Section VIII. Poem. 3
1. Reading Lesson This poem tells of the life of a Southern hero and his companion during our Revolutionary War. Recall all that you know about the adventures of Marion and his band, then read the ...
-Section IX. Oral Composition
It takes much practice to be able to talk easily and entertainingly. Many persons who wish to be bright and interesting at home and in society, or to become good public speakers, are always on the loo...
-Chapter VII. Section I. Word Study: Guess, Expect, Think
1. Explanation Expect refers to the future. It should never be used with reference to either the present or the past. Such common expressions as, I expect you were busy yesterday, and I expect she ...
-Section II. Alexander And Diogenes
1. Reading Lesson Many hundreds of years ago there lived in Greece a philosopher, named Diogenes. Now a philosopher is a seeker after wisdom, especially that sort of wisdom that shows men how to li...
-Section III. Picture
1. Study Of Picture Landseer, the English artist, was a famous painter of animals. He liked especially to paint dogs. He made this picture to illustrate the meeting between Alexander and Diogenes. ...
-Section V. Written Composition
1. Class Conversation Prepare to tell about the ways that each of these shows that spring is at hand: trees, shrubs, and other plant life, birds and other animals, streams, winds, the sun, and the ...
-Section VI. Poem. 3
1. Reading By Teacher Perhaps, as your teacher reads the poem, you will see how well the sound fits the meaning. Spring is represented as speaking, and the lines have a swinging movement that fits ...
-Section VII. Suggested Nature Study Lesson: Twigs Of Trees In Spring 1
1. Observation Bring to class several twigs of trees; for example, elm, oak, cottonwood, maple. Examine each twig. Find the buds, the leaf scars showing where the leaves were fastened last year,...
-Section VIII. Outline: Classification Of Trees
1. Make as long a list as you can of trees that grow in your neighborhood. Be sure that you spell all the names correctly. How many of these trees can you recognize when the leaves are on? How many...
-Section IX. Word Study: Most, Almost
1. Discovering A Rule Try to tell what most is used to show in each of these sentences: 1. Most of the girls came. 2. She spilled most of the milk. 3. That is the most beautiful pansy I ev...
-Section X. Composition And Debate
Which should you rather have, an automobile or a team of horses and a carriage? Think of as many of the advantages of each as you can. When you have decided which you should prefer, write your reas...
-Chapter VIII. Section I. A Common Error: Kind Of, Sort Of
1. Read each of these sentences and see if you should have expressed the thought in just the same way. 1. What kind of girl is she? 2. This is a poor sort of apple. 3. This kind of day makes ...
-Section II. Written Composition Subjects
1. A good plan for making a garden. 2. How to make home grounds attractive. 3. How our school yard might be made pleasanter. 4. How to make money from a small onion patch. 5. Just how to p...
-Section III. Poem. 8
1. Reading Lesson Sir Lark And King Sun Good morrow, my lord ! in the sky alone Sang the lark as the sun ascended his throne. Shine on me, my lord: I only am come, Of all your servants, to w...
-Section IV. Descriptive Words
Write sentences about birds in which you use at least half of these descriptive words. Be sure that they tell the truth. brilliant. showy. dull. indigo. mottled. slate-color. frie...
-Section V. Comparison Of Qualities
1. Explanation The words in Section IV express qualities. We can express three different degrees of a quality. We may say, for example, large, larger, or largest; beautiful, mare beautiful, or most...
-Section VI. Story: Calico And The Kittens1
1. Reading Lesson One spring day I found myself the sole help of two blind, naked infants - as near a real predicament as a man could well get. What did it matter that they had long tails and were ...
-Section VII. Discussion
A large oak tree stands in a field. Shall it be cut down? 1. Write clearly and carefully as many arguments as you can on each side. 2. Discuss arguments in class. 3. The class may be divided ...
-Section VIII. Review Of Some Words And Word Forms
Fill blanks, choosing between words in parentheses: 1. -----you sick yesterday? (was, were) 2. Either a robin or a bluebird-----building a nest in that tree, (is, are) 3. There-----two mistak...
-Section IX. Guessing Game: Birds
1. Reading Lesson Read these descriptions carefully and see if you can tell what bird each one describes. Give as many reasons as you can for each decision. 1. Oh, a winsome sight on an April da...
-Section X. Poem. 3
1. Reading Then came jolly summer, being dight In a thin silken cassock, colored green, That was unlined, all to be more light, And on his head a garland well beseene. 2. Word Studies Why is ...
-Preface to Book III
The habit of speaking clearly and correctly as well as easily and spontaneously is what every teacher would help his pupils to acquire. This book is written in the belief that this habit can be attain...
-Grammar And Composition. Part I. Sentence Analysis. Chapter I. Introduction. 1. Language
Have you ever stopped to think how you should get along for a single day without words? It is not strange if you haven't. We all accept our most wonderful possessions in a matter-of-fact way. We use t...
-2. Composition
To compose is to put parts together and so make a new thing. A composition, then, is something that is made by putting parts together. A piece of music, a picture, a poem, or a story is a composition....
-3. What Makes Composition Good
The great soldier, the Duke of Wellington, gave this concise advise concerning composition: Have something to say and say it. Do you see that he gave two distinct rules? Have something to say mea...
-4. The Relation Of Grammar To Composition
For several years you have been studying language and trying to improve your speech. Now you are old enough to take up in a definite way the special kind of language study called grammar. In gramma...
-Chapter II. The Declarative Sentence
Exercise I. Development I have in mind an animal. I wish to make you think of it. In what ways might I do this? Let me use a word, dog. I have in mind an action. I will represent it by the word ...
-6. What We May Assert
We may assert quality, condition, action, place, material, and class of various things. You will learn later that this list is not complete. Exercise 3 Which of the following groups of words are...
-7. The Subject Of Thought And A Subject Of Thought
When you converse with another person about some particular thing, that thing is the subject of your conversation. What a lecturer talks about is the subject of his lecture. You choose subjects for yo...
-8. An Attribute
An Attribute of a thing is anything (any peculiarity or characteristic) that we can assert about it; for example, a quality, a condition, an act, classification, material, or place. ...
-9. Picturing A Subject Of Thought
I am thinking of a subject of thought. I will tell you some of its attributes. See if you can tell what it is. It is soft, red, hollow. (Qualities). It is soiled, faded, old. (Conditions). It...
-10. Qualities And Conditions
Compare the qualities and conditions mentioned in 9. You will see that qualities are attributes that go to make up the nature of the thing. They remain with it, while its conditions change. ...
-11. Expressing More Than One Attribute In A Sentence
We may both assert and assume attributes of a thing in one sentence. In the sentence, The large blue book was on the table, the size and the color (qualities) of the book are assumed and the place ...
-Chapter III. The Essential Parts Of A Sentence
Exercise 6. Development Which of the following groups of words are declarative sentences? Answer in regard to each sentence (1) What is the subject of thought? (2) What word or group of words re...
-12. Three Essential Elements In Every Sentence
The preceding exercise shows that a declarative sentence must have three parts, - one to represent the subject of thought, or the thing about which the assertion is made; one to represent the attribut...
-13. The Subject Of A Sentence
The Subject Of A Sentence is the part that represents that about which something is asserted, or the subject of thought. In the sentence, The discoverer of America was courageous, something is asse...
-14. The Predicate Attribute
The Predicate Attribute of a sentence is the part that represents that which is asserted of the subject of thought, or the attribute. In the sentence, The discoverer of America was courageous, the ...
-15. The Copula
The Copula is the asserting element in the sentence. It may be (1) a single word (John is running), (2) a group of words (John has been running), or (3) it may be combined with the predicate attribute...
-16. Predicate
All of the sentence except the subject is called the predicate. How many parts must it contain? Exercise 7 Decide which of the following groups of words are sentences. Arrange the subjects, copu...
-17. The Base Of The Subject Or Of The Predicate Attribute
When the entire subject or predicate attribute consists of more than one word, there is generally some one word that can be chosen as the base, or the main part of the expression. In Sentence 4, Ex...
-18. Predicate Attributes Of Identification And Classification
The purpose of Sentence 8 in the preceding exercise is to identify the subject of thought, or to tell the name by which he is distinguished from other men. The name Mr. Allen is called a predicate att...
-19. Rule
A declarative sentence should begin with a capital letter and be followed by a period. Exercise 9. Composition Copy each sentence, using capitals and periods where they should be used. Change th...
-20. Predicate Attributes Of Existence
Two men were disputing. One said, There are blue roses. The other declared, There are not blue roses. What did the first one assert about blue roses? What did the second one deny? You see the f...
-21. There
The sentence, Blue roses are, does not seem to you to mean the same as the other two. The reason is that it has become the custom to use a peculiar kind of sentence such as, There are blue roses, when...
-22. Uses Of The Copula
The copula may do many things besides assert. If the copula merely asserted, the same copula would do for all sentences. The following exercises show some of its other uses. Exercise 14 Development...
-23. Time Expressed By Copula
The copula generally limits the time to present, past, or future time; but it may express all time. Exercise 15. Development 1. Mary is happy. 2. Mary may be (is perhaps) happy. 3. Mary se...
-24. State Of Speaker's Mind Expressed By Copula
The copula generally expresses certainty (Sentence 1, Exercise 15) or some degree of doubt (Sentences 2, 3, 4, Exercise 15) in the mind of the speaker. Exercise 16 Select the copulas and tell wh...
-25. Words Used As Copulas Alone Or As Copulas And Predicate Attributes
You have seen that the words is, are, grew, and appeared may be used as copulas alone, or as copulas and predicate attributes ( 20 and 21, Exercise 17). There are many other words and grou...
-26. Become And Became
These are two forms of the same word. This word means to come about, to happen. Think of the meaning of the sentence, John became angry. It surely does not mean that John became, or came about; theref...
-27. Rules
Use the copula is or was when the subject means but one. Use the copula are or were when the subject means more than one. Use these last copulas also with the subject you whether it means one or mo...
-28. An Anecdote
An Anecdote is an account of a single incident. It must be complete in itself. It should lead up to a surprise at the end. Nothing should be told that isn't necessary in order to make the point clear....
-Chapter IV. Modifications Of The Declarative Sentence. 29. An Interrogative Sentence
An Interrogative Sentence is such a modification of a declarative sentence as is used to ask a question. Declarative sentences are changed, or modified, into interrogative sentences in several ways...
-30. An Imperative Sentence
An Imperative Sentence is such a modification of a declarative sentence as is used to express a command or an entreaty. Declarative sentences are changed into imperative sentences in one of the fol...
-31. Rules
An interrogative sentence should be followed by a question mark. An imperative sentence should be followed by a period. Both kinds of sentences should begin with capital letters. Exercise 26. Compo...
-32. Telling Stories
One of the pleasantest ways for a group of friends to spend an hour or two together is for each one to tell a favorite story. Some time soon your teacher will let you spend a recitation hour or two in...
-Chapter V. The Object. 33. Two Parts Necessary To Some Predicate Attributes
Many predicate attributes have, besides the main word, another very important part called the Object. In order to understand this element it is necessary to notice an important difference between acti...
-34. Two Kinds Of Acts
Of course all acts must have an actor. You have just seen that some acts, such as tearing and breaking, require something besides the actor and that the acts can be asserted about this other thing as ...
-35. Transitive And Intransitive Acts
A Transitive Act is an act that has something besides the actor so closely connected with it that the act can be asserted of this other thing as well as of the actor. An Intransitive Act is an act ...
-36. Objects Connected With Predicate Attributes Of Action
The word that represents the other thing that a transitive act can be asserted about besides the actor is called the object unless it is the subject. ...
-37. Some Differences In Objects
Notice that if all objects were like those in Sentences 4,6, 10,14, 19, and 21 in Exercise 25, we might say that the object represents the result of the act expressed in the predicate attribute; if al...
-38. Objects Connected With Predicate Attributes Of Possession
When the predicate attribute expresses possession, the word that represents the thing possessed is called an object: thus, in the sentence, Mary has a doll, the word has is both copula and predicate a...
-39. Objects Connected With Predicate Attributes Of Lack Or Need
When the predicate attribute expresses a lack or need, the word that represents the thing lacked or needed is called an object; thus, in the sentence, I need rest, the word need is the copula and the ...
-40. Objects Connected With Predicate Attributes Of Obligation
If the predicate attribute expresses obligation, the word that represents what is owed is called an object. In the sentences, You owe obedience to your parents, You ought to obey your parents, and ...
-41. Summary Of Definition Of Object
The object is an important part of some predicate attributes. If the predicate attribute expresses a transitive act, the object represents some other thing which is necessary to the act besides the...
-42. Different Kinds Of Description
The selections that you have read in Exercises 41 and 44 illustrate two different kinds of descriptive writing. We may call them literary and informational. Both kinds have important places to fill. ...
-43. Writing To Give Pleasure
The writers of the first kind of description aim first of all to please. Their writings may give us higher ideas of beauty or make us more interested in persons, animals, or places. They may even give...
-44. Writing To Give Information
During this century the other class of writers is increasing rapidly. Their work is found in scientific and historical books, in magazine articles, and in pamphlets of different kinds. The United Stat...
-45. The Need Of A Good Vocabulary
Stevenson's writings are lively and entertaining because he took pains to choose from his great stock of words just the right ones to enable us to share his pleasures with him. The government employee...
-46. Some Suggestions For Increasing The Vocabulary
1. Notice when others use definite words where you should have used only vague, indefinite ones. Then make opportunities to use the new words yourself, being sure to use them correctly. After using a ...
-Chapter VI. The Predicate Attribute Of The Object
Exercise 46. Development 1. John bent the wire. 2. Anna is sweeping the floor. 3. The club elected Henry. What is the predicate attribute in each of these sentences? What does it express? ...
-47. A Predicate Attribute Of An Object
A Predicate Attribute Of An Object is a word that represents the effect of the act expressed in the predicate upon that which the object represents. Sometimes a predicate attribute of the object is...
-48. The Use Of Details In Writing
The general plan of a story or a description is important, but the suceess of most compositions depends largely upon the little things that are told to fill in the plan. If these details are well chos...
-Chapter VII. The Noun And Pronoun. 49. Parts Of Speech
Words, when used in sentences, are divided into eight classes, called Parts of Speech. They are called parts of speech because our talk is not made up of any one class of words. In our speech we put d...
-50. A Noun
A Noun is a word that names a subject of thought. The words man, lawyer, father, and friend (Exercise 53) are nouns. Which of the other words that we have just examined in Exercise 53 are nouns? ...
-51. A Pronoun
A Pronoun is a word that represents a subject of thought without naming it. The words who, he, and his in the sentences first studied in Exercise 53 are pronouns. Which of the other words that we e...
-52. Uses Of Nouns And Pronouns
You have already found four ways in which nouns may be used: (1) subject, (2) predicate attribute of classification and identification, (3) object, and (4) predicate attribute of the object. You will ...
-53. Rules
Use the pronouns I, he, she, we, they, and who, as subjects and predicate attributes. Use the corresponding forms me, him, her, us, them, and whom, as objects. Exercise 56 Analyze the followi...
-Chapter VIII. The Verb. 54. A Verb Is A Word That Asserts (Declares, States)
Exceptions (1) This definition holds good for the verbs in declarative sentences only, since in other sentences no assertion is made. To find the verbs in imperative and interrogative sentences, ch...
-55. A Copulative Verb
A Copulative Verb is a verb that contains the copula only. (Sentences 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, and 11, Exercise 59). This does not mean that a copulative verb merely asserts. Sections 22, 23, and 24 show...
-56. An Attributive Verb
An Attributive Verb is a verb that contains both copula and predicate attribute. (Sentences 1, 4, 5, 9, and 12, Exercise 59). Exercise 60 Select the verbs in the following sentences and classify...
-57. A Transitive Verb
A Transitive Verb is a verb that expresses (1) a transitive act, (2) possession, (3) obligation, or (4) lack or need. (Another kind will be studied later). It must be an attributive verb. A sentenc...
-58. An Intransitive Verb
An Intransitive Verb is a verb that does not express (1) a transitive act, (2) possession, (3) obligation, or (4) lack or need. All copulative and some attributive verbs are intransitive. Exercise ...
-59. Variety
What four qualities of good speech have already been discussed? A fourth attribute, variety, is also important. It helps to secure the others, since a varied speech is generally clearer and more inter...
-60. Overworked Words
One cause of monotony in speech is the frequent repetition of the same word. For many of our indefinite words that we use over and over, we should know at least a half dozen vivid, picture-making word...
-61. Art And Business Principles
The same article from which the passage in Exercise 68 is taken gives a second characteristic quotation from Mr. Ford. I'll tell you what any piece that isn't absolutely necessary will do - rattle E...
-Chapter IX. The Verbal. 62. Different Kinds Of Forms Of Verbs
Each of the forms break, breaks, broke, broken, and breaking is commonly spoken of as a word; but these forms do not count as five different words in the English language. They are the five forms of o...
-63. Verbals
The forms of verbs that do not assert are called verbals. (A more complete definition is given in 66). ...
-64. Forms Of The Verb Be
Be, am, is, are, was, were, being, and been are all forms of the verb be. The first form may be either a verb or a verbal; thus, Be happy (verb). We want to be happy (verbal). The next five are ...
-65. The Root Form Of The Verb
The form by which we name a verb is called the root form. In Exercise 70 the root forms were given first. In that exercise you used the forms of the verbs drive, drop, have, and write. Notice that ...
-66. A Verbal
A Verbal is a form of a verb that does not assert, but is like a verb in other ways. The name verbal means verb-like'. ...
-67. Ways In Which Verbals Are Like Verbs
A verbal is like a verb in different ways. For example- (a) A verbal may have exactly the same form as a verb ( 62, 64, 65). (b) If a verbal is a form of an attributive verb,...
-68. Writing Stories
A written story may differ much from one that is told. In telling a story, especially if it is told to a number of persons, the events must be made the main thing. It is heard but once, and if the thr...
-Chapter X. The Verb Phrase
Exercise 76. Development 1. The boys are gathering nuts. 2. She has been sick. 3. You may have forgotten the request. 4. They have been working patiently. 5. I shall soon be journeying ...
-69. A Verb Phrase
A Verb Phrase is a group of words made up of a verb and one or more verbals and consisting of a copula alone or of a copula and a predicate attribute. Exception A predicate attribute of identifi...
-70. A Copulative Verb Phrase
A Copulative Verb Phrase is a verb phrase that contains the copula only. She has been sick. She may have become too tired to go. John will be a doctor. ...
-71. An Attributive Verb Phrase
An Attributive Verb Phrase is a verb phrase that contains both copula and predicate attribute. The boys are gathering nuts. You may have forgotten the request. They have been working patientl...
-72. A Transitive Verb Phrase
A Transitive Verb Phrase is a verb phrase that expresses (1) transitive action, (2) possession, (3) obligation, or (4) lack or need. Transitive verb phrases, unlike transitive verbs ( 57), do...
-73. An Intransitive Verb Phrase
An Intransitive Verb Phrase is a verb phrase that does not express (1) transitive action, (2) possession, (3) obligation, or (4) lack or need. Exercise 77 Show that all copulative verb phrases a...
-74. To
There is one exception to the statement that every word in a verb phrase must be a form of a verb. The word to, which is neither a verb nor a verbal, is sometimes found in a verb phrase as in the sent...
-75. Expressions Sometimes Mistaken For Verb Phrases
You have learned ( 69, Exception) that not all groups of words that are composed of a verb and one or more verbals are verb phrases. You are now to find other illustrations of this fact. (1) ...
-76. Rule
The forms in the left-hand columns should be used as verbs only, while the ones in the corresponding right-hand columns should be used as verbals only; thus, She did the work well, She has done the wo...
-Chapter XI. Adjuncts
Exercise 83. Development 1. Quickly the little maiden descended the marble steps to bathe her face in the refreshing sea. What is the subject of the sentence? (Choose the base of the subject, &s...
-77. Essential Elements Of Sentences
A subject, a copula, and a predicate attribute are necessary to every sentence. Some predicate attributes require besides the main part another very important part, called the object, and a few requir...
-78. An Adjunct1
An Adjunct1 is a word or a group of words added to some part of a sentence to show something about what that part represents. The length of a sentence depends upon the number and complexity of its ...
-79. Classification Of Adjuncts According To Use
Adjuncts are classified according to use as adjective and adverbial adjuncts. ...
-80. An Adjective Adjunct
An Adjective Adjunct is a word or group of words that is added to a noun or pronoun. ...
-81. An Adverbial Adjunct
An Adverbial Adjunct is a word or group of words that is added to some part of a sentence that is not a noun or pronoun. Adverbial adjuncts are often added to verbs, and this fact gives them their ...
-82. Classification Of Adjuncts According To Form
Adjuncts are classified according to form as word, phrase, and clause adjuncts. ...
-83. An Adjective
An Adjective is a word that is added to a noun or a pronoun. Exception Such a word is not called an adjective if it is a noun or pronoun. It is then called a noun or pronoun used as an adjective...
-84. An Adverb
An Adverb is a word that is added to some other part of a sentence than a noun or a pronoun. Exception Such a word is not called an adverb when it is a noun or a pronoun. It is then called a nou...
-85. A Phrase
A Phrase is a group of words not consisting of a subject and a predicate and used like some one part of speech. Verb phrases have already been studied. Adjective and adverbial phrases are used as adju...
-86. An Adjective Phrase
An Adjective Phrase is a phrase that is added to a noun or pronoun. ...
-87. An Adverbial Phrase
An Adverbial Phrase is a phrase that is added to some part of a sentence that is not a noun or a pronoun. ...
-88. A Clause
A Clause is a group of words consisting of a subject and a predicate and used like an adjective, an adverb, or a noun. It is a dependent statement, or proposition. From this definition it will be seen...
-89. A Complex Sentence
A Complex Sentence is a sentence that consists of one independent proposition, and one or more dependent propositions, or clauses. ...
-90. A Simple Sentence
A Simple Sentence is a sentence that contains but one proposition. Some simple sentences are longer and more complex, using the term in its ordinary sense, than some complex sentences. Show that th...
-91. Variety
The constant use of the same form of sentence becomes as monotonous as the frequent repetition of the same word ( 60). One way to give variety to composition is to use different forms of adjunct...
-92. The Position Of Adjuncts Important
Read the following quotation and see if the writer said what he meant: Wanted, a young man to look after a horse that can drive.What is the clause, that can drive, put in to describe? What then is i...
-93. Rule
An adjunct should be so placed that its use in expressing the thought is clear. Usually it should be placed as near as possible to the word of which it is an adjunct. Exercise 96. Composition Fi...
-Chapter XII. Compound Elements And The Coordinate Conjunction
Exercise 98. Development 1. The children ran and played. What part of speech is the word ran? What is its subject? What part of speech is played? What is its subject? You see these two words ...
-94. Elements Of The Same Rank
Two elements that are used exactly alike in a sentence are said to be of the same rank. Two subjects of the same predicate, two predicates of the same subject, or two objects of the same verb are o...
-95. A Compound Element
A Compound Element is a part of a sentence consisting of two or more elements of the same rank. These elements are said to form a series. ...
-96. A Compound Sentence
A Compound Sentence is a sentence containing two or more independent propositions. These propositions may contain clauses. ...
-97. A Coordinate Conjunction
A Coordinate Conjunction is a word or group of words that connects parts of a sentence that are of the same rank. In the sentence, I as well as she was mistaken, the entire group of words, as well ...
-98. Rules For The Punctuation Of A Compound Element
The parts of a compound element are generally separated by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed. If the conjunction is used between the last two elements, the comma also is used; thus, ...
-99. Rule For The Punctuation Of A Compound Sentence
Separate the parts of a compound sentence by the comma unless one or both of them are subdivided by the comma. Separate them by the semicolon if one or both are subdivided by the comma. Exercise 10...
-100. Rule
Do not thoughtlessly string together statement after statement by the use of the conjunction and. Two or more simple sentences should not be combined into a compound one unless there is a close connec...
-101. Rule
Do not use the conjunction and within a sentence unless it clearly connects elements of the same rank. In the sentence, He left the room and without further leave taking, there are no such elements...
-102. Good And Poor Sentence Structure
In your study of grammar you have learned that both long and short sentences consist of essential elements and their adjuncts and that any of the parts may be compound. In this chapter and in the p...
-Chapter XIII. The Adjective. 103. Uses Of The Adjective
The adjective is used in several ways. The principal ways are described below. (a) It may be added directly to a noun; that is, it may be added without the help of any word. This is a beautiful ...
-104. Them
The word them should always be used as a pronoun. It is a very bad mistake to use it instead of those or these as an adjective. As a pronoun it should be used in certain noun constructions only. (&sec...
-Chapter XIV. The Adverb
Exercise 112 Select the adverbs. Prove that they are adverbs by showing clearly that they are added to some part of the sentence that is not a noun or a pronoun. Models The mother spoke very gen...
-105. Rules For The Use Of Some Words Often Misused
(a) The first of such pairs of words as attractive and attractively, firm and firmly should be used as adjectives and the second as adverbs. But it must not be thought that no adjectives end in ly. ...
-106. Explanation
We often wish to explain something: for example, how to do some work, or play some game; why we believe something is true; what a word means; how some machine works. You see an explanation is gener...
-Chapter XV. Nouns And Pronouns Used As Adjuncts. I. As Adjective Adjuncts
Exercise 119. Development 1. You have John's ball. 2. The child's hat was lost. 3. That is my cousin. 4. Your mother is coming. 5. That boy's boat is a canoe. 6. The boys' boat is a ...
-107. A Possessive Modifier Is A Noun Or A Pronoun Added To A Noun To Denote Possession
Occasionally a noun that has the form of a possessive modifier is added to another noun to express some other idea than possession. For example, in the expression Longfellow's poems, the noun Longfell...
-108. An Appositive
An Appositive is a noun or a pronoun added to another noun or pronoun without a connecting word and representing the same subject of thought. An appositive is used to classify, or identify, or merely ...
-109. Rule
An appositive with its adjuncts should be set off by the comma. Notice that it takes two commas to set off an expression that does not come at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. Notice also...
-110. Use Of Each Other And One Another
The first of these expressions should be used when speaking of two only. The second should be used when speaking of more than two. Exercise 123 Write sentences showing that nouns may be used as ...
-111. Nouns Closely Resembling Adjectives
A noun may be added to another noun precisely like an adjective. Exercise 125. Review In what ways may nouns be added to other nouns; that is, be used as adjective adjuncts? Show in sentences...
-112. Nouns And Pronouns Used Adverbially
Nouns and pronouns are often added to verbs, verbals, adjectives, and adverbs, and so are used adverbially. Exercise 127 Describe the nouns and pronouns used adverbially in these sentences: 1...
-113. An Indirect Object
An Indirect Object is a noun or pronoun which is used adverbially and which represents what is indirectly affected by the act expressed in the predicate. It generally represents that which receives th...
-Chapter XVI. The Preposition And The Prepositional Phrase
Exercise 133. Development I. The box on the table contains flowers. How are the box and the table related? What word shows this? What other words might be used to show different relations betwee...
-114. A Preposition
A Preposition is a relation word that joins a noun or pronoun to some part of a sentence. With this noun or pronoun and its adjuncts the preposition makes a phrase adjunct. The phrase is called a p...
-115. Punctuation Of Prepositional Phrases
Prepositional phrases are not generally set off by the comma; but if they are long and at some distance from the word to which they are added, or if they come between the subject and predicate, the co...
-116. The Syntax Of A Word Or Group Of Words
The Syntax Of A Word Or Group Of Words is its relation to some other part of the sentence. The con-struction of a word, or its use, is the same thing as its syntax. In giving the syntax of an adjec...
-117. Rule
The same pronoun forms that are used as objects (53) are used as objects of prepositions, and also in adverbial constructions, including the indirect object. Exercise 140 Fill blanks, choo...
-Chapter XVII. The Adjective Clause
Exercise 142. Development 1. The tree that towers above the others is a pine. 2. This sturdy tree, which must have been growing centuries, is an oak. Select the clauses in these sentences. Wh...
-118. A Limiting Adjective Clause
A Limiting Adjective Clause is one that is needed to point out what particular thing or things are meant by the noun or pronoun to which it is added. (Sentences 1 and 4, Exercise 142). ...
-119. A Purely Descriptive Adjective Clause
A Purely Descriptive Adjective Clause is one that is not needed to show what particular thing or things are meant by the noun or pronoun to which it is added. (Sentences 2 and 3, Exercise 142). Exe...
-120. Rule For Punctuating Adjective Clauses
A purely descriptive adjective clause should be set off by the comma. With a limiting clause the comma should not be used. How many commas are needed to set off an expression? Exercise 144 Se...
-121. The Position Of Adjective Clauses
Adjective clauses should be placed near the word to which they are added. Exercise 145. Composition Improve these sentences by changing the position of the adjective clauses. You may wish to mak...
-122. Comparison Of A Picture And A Description
If a picture is well composed, the main features stand out so distinctly that one can catch a good general idea of the whole picture at a glance. Further study will reveal additional details but will ...
-Chapter XVIII. The Adverbial Clause
Exercise 148. Word Studies 1. Explain and illustrate the meaning of these words: cause, purpose, result, evidence, proof. 2. Write answers to the three following questions in complete sentences:...
-123. Incomplete Clauses
Clauses that show degree are often incomplete. Sentence 31, Exercise 149 means, Mary is as tall as her mother is tall. Sentence 32 means, Mary is taller than her mother is tall. In Sentence 31 the ...
-125. Like
Never use like as the first word of a clause. Use instead as, as if, as though, or such as; thus, She acts as I do. It seems as if (or as though) I ought to help her. She felt as if (or as though) ...
-126. Punctuation Of Adverbial Clauses
If adverbial clauses are not needed to make clear the rest of the sentence, or if they are out of their natural position, coming, for example, at the beginning of the sentence, they are set off by the...
-Chapter XIX. The Noun Clause. 127. Uses Of The Noun Clause
Noun clauses are used in most of the constructions in which nouns are used. In the following exercise you will find them used as subjects, as objects of verbs, verbals, and verb phrases, as predicate ...
-128. It
The indefinite pronoun it is often used as the subject of a sentence, and an appositive clause, used to explain the pronoun, is put after the predicate. See Sentence 7, Exercise 160. 129. That is o...
-130. Rules For Punctuation Of Noun Clauses
A noun clause that is a direct quotation, or one that is used as an appositive and is not introduced by that, is set off by the comma. A direct quotation should be inclosed in quotation marks and s...
-131. A Newspaper
Did you ever stop to think of the number of departments in a newspaper? There are, as the name indicates, accounts of recent events, - local, state, national, and foreign. Then there are editorials, w...
-132. Making A Class Paper
Perhaps you will like to prepare a class paper. If you decide to do this, you should first elect a committee to act with your teacher in compiling the paper. Then each of you may go over the compositi...
-Part II. Parts Of Speech: Classification, Review Of Constructions, And Inflections. Chapter XX. Classes Of Nouns. 133. Word Study
Noun The word noun has come from a Latin word which means name, and that word is formed from another Latin word which means to know. A noun, then, is a name; or it is that by which a thing is known...
-134. A Proper Noun
A Proper Noun is a name applied to one of a class to distinguish it from others of the same class. Exercise 166 Give at least one proper noun suggested by each of the following common nouns. Som...
-135. A Common Noun
A Common Noun is a name that is not given to one of a class to distinguish it from others of the same class. All but proper nouns, you see, are called common nouns. You have seen that many common n...
-136. Classes Of Common Nouns
Most common nouns come under one of the classes defined below. A Glass Noun is a name applied to each one of a class; for example, continent, girl, animal. A Material Noun is a name applied to a...
-137. A Collective Noun
A Collective Noun is a class noun that even in the singular form represents more than one individual of the same kind. Notice that all class nouns in the plural form denote more than one. The word ...
-138. Rule
Most proper nouns, including the proper names of persons, places, days of the week, holidays, months, important periods of time, wars, documents, books, associations of people, pictures, animals, and ...
-139. Rule
The proper names of the seasons of the year, subjects of study, and diseases do not begin with capitals. Examples: spring, arithmetic, measles. ...
-140. Rule
(1) Common names of people, which are derived from proper names of places; (2) common names of members of political parties and churches; and (3) adjectives derived from names of political parties as ...
-141. Specific Words
You have seen that speech can be made more interesting and picturesque by using definite words that express the thought exactly instead of words that express it in a general way only. These definite, ...
-Chapter XXI. Classes Of Pronouns. Antecedents Of Pronouns
Exercise 177. Development 1. I know the man that passed us. Analyze the sentence. What clause do you find? What kind of clause is it? Why? What part of speech is the word that? Why? What noun...
-143. The Antecedent Of A Conjunctive Pronoun
The Antecedent Of A Conjunctive Pronoun is the noun or pronoun to which it joins the clause. Exercise 178 How was the conjunctive use of the conjunctive pronoun made clear in 142? Select ...
-144. Noun Uses Of The Conjunctive Pronoun
A conjunctive pronoun may be used in many of the noun constructions named in Exercise 179. The following suggestions will help you to determine in each case the exact noun use. (1) Put the antecede...
-145. Omitted Antecedents
The antecedents of the pronouns what, whatever, whoever, and whichever are generally omitted. For example, we say, I have what you are looking for, instead of, I have that what you are looking for; an...
-146. An Interrogative Pronoun
An Interrogative Pronoun is a pronoun that shows that the sentence or clause in which it stands is a question. Examples: What have you seen? Whom has mother written to? She said, Who was offended?...
-147. Direct And Indirect Questions
A Direct Question is a question in which the exact words of the speaker are used. It may be an entire sentence or a noun clause. It should begin with a capital and end with a question mark. If it is a...
-148. A Personal Pronoun
A Personal Pronoun is a pronoun that shows by its form that is, when standing alone, whether it represents the speaker, the one spoken to, or the one spoken of. A personal pronoun that represents t...
-149. An Adjective Pronoun
An Adjective Pronoun is a pronoun that is equivalent to an adjective and a noun. The adjective pronouns this and that are called demonstrative adjective pronouns. Find in the dictionary the meaning...
-150. The Antecedent Of A Pronoun
The Antecedent Of A Pronoun is the noun or pro noun to which it refers. (What peculiarity has the antecedent of a conjunctive pronoun?) ...
-151. Reference Of A Pronoun To Its Antecedent
Sometimes a pronoun has no antecedent. In the following sentences, the pronouns who and I have no antecedents, while the other pronoun has one: Who did the mischief? I did. Although sometimes a...
-152. Unity
You have learned that in story telling you should include no detail that is not necessary to the clearness or interest of your story, and that in description you should include nothing that does not h...
-Chapter XXII. Noun Constructions
Exercise 197. Review Make as long a list as you can of noun constructions. Write a sentence to illustrate each construction and be able to explain it. Compare lists in class. Exercise 198. Devel...
-153. A Nominative Of Address
A Nominative Of Address is a noun used independently to show who or what is addressed. ...
-154. Rule
A Nominative of Address with the words added to it should be set off by the comma. Exercise 199 Write five sentences, in each of which you use a nominative of address. Exercise 200 Analyze...
-Chapter XXIII. Inflection Of Nouns And Pronouns. 155. Inflection
You learned in 62 that verbs have different forms, - that write, wrote, writes, writing, and written are not really different words, but different forms of the verb write. Other words besides v...
-156. Number Forms Of Nouns And Pronouns
Most nouns and pronouns are inflected to show whether they represent one or more than one. The form that represents one is called the singular form. The form that represents more than one is called th...
-157. Singular And Plural Forms Alike
Some of the most common of the nouns that have their singular and plural forms alike are deer, sheep, trout, salmon, brace, yoke, pair, head (of cattle), heathen. The nouns mile and year must not b...
-158. Rule
A pronoun should agree in number with the noun or pronoun to which it refers. A few special cases need explanation. 1. A pronoun referring to a collective noun should be singular if the group named...
-159. Inflection Of Nouns To Show Sex
(1) Some nouns are inflected to show sex: lion, lioness; hero, heroine; baron, baroness; lad, lass; czar, czarina; goose, gander; prince, princess; host, hostess; sultan, sultana; poet, poetess; maste...
-160. Inflection Of Pronouns To Show Sex
Only two English pronouns have any inflection to show differences in sex. They are he and who. (1) The pronoun he has the form she which denotes a female, and the form it which stands for an object...
-161. Gender
Nouns and pronouns that denote objects of the male sex are said to be of the masculine gender, and those that denote objects of the female sex are said to be of the feminine gender. Nouns and pronouns...
-162. Rule For The Use Of Gender Forms Of Pronouns
A pronoun should agree in gender, as well as in number, with the noun or pronoun to which it refers. We have no singular pronoun to represent either male or female. When such a pronoun is needed, i...
-163. Case
Some pronouns have three forms in each number to denote differences in construction. They are therefore said to have three cases. The three forms are called the nominative case, the possessive case, a...
-164. The Nominative Case
The Nominative Case is the form that should be used in these constructions : (1) Subject of a verb or verb phrase. (2) Predicate attribute. (3) Appositive of a noun or pronoun in a nominative...
-165. The Possessive Case
The Possessive Case is the form that is used to show possession. This form is used also to show other things besides possession ( 107). ...
-166. The Objective Case
The Objective Case is the form that should be used in these constructions: (1) Object of verb, verbal, or verb phrases. (2) Predicate attribute of object. (A rare use of pronouns). (3) Apposi...
-167. Corresponding Nominative And Objective Forms Of Pronouns
In the English language there are seven pairs of pronouns that are alike except that one should be used in nominative constructions and the other in objective. Seven pairs are not many; but we use mos...
-168. Rules For Forming The Possessive Of Nouns
(1) Singular nouns, and plural nouns not ending in s, make the possessive form by the addition of the apostrophe and s; thus, dog's, man's, men's. (2) Plural nouns ending in s make the possessive f...
-169. Compound Nouns
Compound Nouns and expressions used like compound nouns form the possessive by adding the possessive sign to the last word of the compound; thus, father-in-law's house, school-master's meeting, King o...
-170. Joint And Separate Ownership
If two or more nouns denote joint ownership, the possessive sign is used with the last one only; thus, Read and White's store (one store), Mason and Dixon's line. If two or more nouns denote separa...
-172. Declension Of The Personal Pronoun Of The Third Person
SINGULAR PLURAL Masc. Fern. Neuter All genders Nom. he she it ...
-173. Declension Of The Personal Pronouns Of The First Person. Masculine And Feminine
SINGULAR PLURAL Nom. I we Poss. my, mine our, ours Obj. m...
-174. Declension Of The Personal Pronoun Of The Second Person
Common Ancient and Poetic SINGULAR AND PLURAL singular PLURAL Nom. you thou ye ...
-175. Declension Of The Conjunctive And Interrogative Pronoun Who. Singular And Plural
Masc, and Fern. Neuter Nom. who what Poss. whose Obj. whom ...
-176. The Conjunctive Pronouns That And Which
The Conjunctive Pronouns That And Which have but one form each. They sometimes borrow the possessive of who. ...
-177. The Adjective Pronouns That And This
The Adjective Pronouns That And This have the plural forms these and those. Exercise 217 Give the following forms of personal pronouns: (1) first person, singular, nominative; (2) third person, ...
-178. Letter Writing
For a number of years you have been writing letters both at home and at school. You have talked about business and friendly letters and you have learned proper forms for heading, address, salutation, ...
-179. Formal Invitations And Replies
Invitations to formal dinners, luncheons, and other entertainments are sometimes written in the third person. Replies to such invitations should correspond to them in form. Invitations in the third pe...
-180. Informal Social Notes
Informal invitations and replies written in the first and second person are now generally used. These notes should be friendly and informal in their wording, but they should be neat and in good form. ...
-Chapter XXIV. Adjectives: Classes, Inflection
Exercise 220 Review the uses of adjectives ( 103). Give the construction of the adjectives in the following sentences: 1. The bags are heavy. 2. Alfalfa made Kansas prosperous. 3. Th...
-181. Articles
The adjectives the and a or an are called articles. The is called the definite article. A or an is called the indefinite article. An is used before a vowel sound and a before a consonant sound. ...
-182. Rule
Do not use a and an after sort of and kind of. Say, I like this kind of book and What sort of man is he? instead of, I like this kind of a book and What sort of a man is he? Exercise 223 I...
-183. Inflection To Show Number
The adjectives this and that have the plural forms these and those. They are the only English adjectives that have two number forms. ...
-184. Rule
Do not use the plural forms these and those as adjuncts of singular nouns. These plural forms are often incorrectly used with kind and sort. Say thai kind of men, not those kind of men, unless you ...
-185. Inflection To Show Degree
Many adjectives are inflected to show degree; thus, large, larger, largest The three forms are called respectively the positive, the comparative, and the superlative degree. The Positive Degree, or...
-186. Substitute For Inflection
Degree is sometimes expressed by the use of more and most, instead of by the suffixes er and est. This is the usual method with adjectives of two or more syllables. The method to be used, however, dep...
-187. To Compare An Adjective
To Compare An Adjective is to express three degrees of the attribute that it represents. Adjectives are compared regularly either by the use of the suffixes er and est or by the use of the adverbs mor...
-188. Irregular Comparison
Some adjectives are compared irregularly. The comparison of the more common of these is given below. Their forms should be learned. Positive Comparative Superlative ...
-189. Figurative Language
You have been told repeatedly that one of the most important habits for you to gain in your study of language, is that of saying just what you mean. You will perhaps be surprised to be told now that t...
-190. A Simile
A Simile is a figure of speech in which things that are in most respects unlike are said to be alike. The comparison is made definitely by the use of like, or as, or so; thus: Like a merry guest's...
-191. A Metaphor
A Metaphor is a figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as if it were another. The two things are alike in some respects but different in most particulars. A metaphor is an assumed simile, li...
-192. Personification
The kind of metaphor in which lower animals or inanimate things are spoken of as if they were persons is called personification. Longfellow's poem, To the River Charles, The Voice of Spring by Mrs....
-193. The Use Of Figurative Language
The occasional use of good and fresh figures of speech, if they seem to be introduced easily and naturally, adds to the beauty, force, and effectiveness of speech. But there are dangers connected w...
-Chapter XXV. Classification Of Verbals. 194. Double Nature Of The Verbal
As you have learned ( 63), verbals are those forms of verbs that do not assert, but have some peculiarities of verbs. In their relation to the rest of the sentence, they are used exactly like th...
-195. Classes Of The Verbals
There are three classes of verbals, - participles, gerunds, and infinitives. ...
-196. A Participle
A Participle is a verbal used as an adjective and not having the root form of the verb ( 65). Verbs have two participles, the present participle, ending in ing, and the past participle, which...
-197. Uses Of Participles
Participles, like ordinary-adjectives ( 103), may be used (1) as direct adjuncts, (2) as predicate attributes (not of identity or classification), and (3) as predicate attributes of the object. ...
-198. Participle And Adjective Clauses
Participles used as direct adjuncts are often, if taken with their adjuncts, equivalent to adjective clauses; and adjective clauses are often equivalent to participles with adjuncts. Exercise 234 ...
-199. Rule
Every participle should have a noun or pronoun to which it is clearly added. It should not dangle, and it should not seem to be added to a wrong word. Exercise 236 Most of these sentences are ...
-200. A Gerund Is A Verbal Noun Ending In Ing
It is an accident that the present participle and the gerund are now spelled alike. Present participles once ended in end, ind, ende, or inde; while gerunds ended in ung. For example, the present part...
-201. An Infinitive
An Infinitive is the root form of a verb used as a verbal. It is generally used in some noun construction. ...
-202. The Word To And The Infinitive
The infinitive is often preceded by to. But this word is not used alike in all cases where it precedes an infinitive. Usually it is merely a mark or sign of the infinitive, having become attached to...
-204. The Infinitive With A Subject
The infinitive is frequently used in a sort of phrase known as the infinitive with its subject. Such a phrase contains a noun or a pronoun with an infinitive joined to it in such a way that the two ta...
-205. Slang
Frequently some imaginative person hits upon a new and striking way of saying an old thing. The new and vivid form of expression is generally figurative. It involves a comparison that suddenly pops in...
-Chapter XXVI. Inflection Of Verbs: Classification According To Inflection
Exercise 246. Development Assert the present happiness of Mary. Assert her past happiness. What verb did you use forms of? Assert her future happiness. What did you use instead of a verb? Ass...
-206. Tense
Verbs are inflected to show present and past time. Future time is generally shown by the use of a verb phrase. Present Tense The verb forms that usually express present time are said to be in th...
-207. Number
Verbs are sometimes inflected to show whether the subject represents one or more than one. (Explain why the word sometimes is necessary in the last sentence). Singular Number Verbs whose subject...
-208. Person
Verbs are sometimes inflected to show whether the subject represents the speaker, the one spoken to, or the one spoken of. For this reason verbs are said to have three persons. The First Person ...
-209. The Conjugation Of A Verb
The Conjugation Of A Verb includes a regular arrangement of all of its forms. (For complete definition see 280). Exercise 250 Copy this table, filling blanks with proper forms of the verb...
-210. Rule
A verb should agree with its subject in person and number. A few applications of the rule need special explanation. (1) A compound subject whose parts are connected by and is generally considere...
-211. Mode
Verbs are sometimes inflected to show the attitude of the speaker's mind; or, as was said long ago, to show the mode or manner of the assertion. Verbs are, therefore, said to have mode. There are thre...
-212. Summary Of Purposes For Which Verbs Are Inflected
You have learned in this chapter that verbs are sometimes inflected to show (1) time, (2) the person of the subject, (3) the number of the subject, and (4) the attitude of the speaker's mind. In Chapt...
-213. The Principal Parts Of Verbs
Principal Parts means chief forms. The root form, or the infinitive, the past form, and the past participle are called the three principal parts of verbs. They are given this name because, if these fo...
-214. Verbs Classified According To The Method Of Inflection
There is a third classification of verbs. It is made according to the mode of inflection. 215. Verbs of the New Conjugation, or Weak Verbs,1 are verbs that form their past tense and past participle...
-217. Why Called Old And New Conjugation Verbs
All the verbs that have come into our language for many centuries are new conjugation verbs. Give the principal parts of some very recent verbs; for example, telephone, electrocute motor. The old c...
-218. Irregular Verbs
Irregular Verbs are verbs that do not come regularly under the definition of either old or new conjugation verbs. ...
-219. The Chief Irregular Verbs
The verb be is a very irregular verb of the old conjugation. Its forms are from three different roots. Be, being, and been are from one; was and were from another; and am, is, and are from another. Th...
-220. How To Form A Club
There are many things that a group of persons organized into a club can do better than the same persons working separately. It is, therefore, often convenient to know how to form a club. The following...
-221. Doing Business By Motions
All business must be done by means of motions. To make a motion, stand, address the Chair as Mr. or Madam Chairman or President, wait to be recognized, state your motion. The following is a proper for...
-222. Writing A Constitution
Most constitutions contain articles on the following subjects : (1) Name of Club, (2) Purpose, (3) Membership, (4) Officers, - number, duties, method of election, (5) Meetings, (6) Method of amendment...
-223. Some Purposes Of School Clubs
The following are some purposes for which groups of pupils may well form clubs : 1. To improve the English of the club members. 2. To advance in every way the interests of the school. 3. To p...
-Chapter XXVII. Some Common Verb Phrases
Exercise 273. Review Review and illustrate each point in Chapter X. ...
-224. Necessity Of Verb Phrases
Latin verbs have more than a hundred forms to give different ideas of time, to show the attitude of the speaker's mind, and to show the person and number of the subject. As you have seen, most Engl...
-225. Verb Forms Found In Verb Phrases
The first word of a verb phrase is a verb, and each of the others is a present or past participle or an infinitive. Gerunds are not found in verb phrases. Remembering these facts, we can name each for...
-226. Future Phrases
Future Phrases may be copulative or attributive. When the phrase consists of but two words, the first word is either the verb shall or the verb will and the second word is an infinitive. The verb shal...
-227. Perfect Phrases
Perfect Phrases show that an act is completed or perfect, or that a condition is past at some time expressed in the sentence, or suggested by it. They may be copulative or attributive. Present pe...
-228. Verb Forms Found In Perfect Phrases
The last word of each perfect phrase is a past participle. Each phrase contains a form of the verb have, and each future perfect phrase contains either shall or will. ...
-229. Summary: Six Tenses
By the use of verbs and verb phrases we can express at least six different ideas in regard to time; thus, I praise, I praised, I shall praise, I have praised, I had praised, and I shall have praised. ...
-230. The Conjugation Of A Verb
The Conjugation Of A Verb is a regular arrangement (1) of the forms of the verb, and (2) of the verb phrases used to supplement these forms. (See conjugation,pages 336-338). Exercise 277 Use a t...
-231. Progressive Phrases
Progressive Phrases represent an act as continuing at some definite time. They occur in six tenses. The last word is a present participle and each contains a form of the verb be. Exercise 280 Wr...
-232. Emphatic Phrases
Verb phrases having do or did for the first word are called emphatic phrases because they are sometimes used for the sake of emphasis. They occur only in the present tense and in the past tense; thus,...
-233. Voice
A verb phrase is in the passive voice when its subject represents (1) something that is connected with the act expressed in the phrase in some other way than as actor, (2) that which is possessed, (3)...
-234. How To Change The Voice Of Verbs And Verb Phrases
Three changes are made in transforming a sentence containing a verb or verb phrase in the active voice into an equivalent sentence containing a passive verb phrase. Note the three changes in the follo...
-235. The Use Of The Passive
The passive voice is used in these cases : (1) when the actor is unknown, (2) when the speaker does not wish to name the actor, (3) when the other thing connected with the act is more important than t...
-236. The Synopsis Of A Verb
The Synopsis Of A Verb is a regular arrangement through one person and number only, (1) of the forms of the verb, and (2) of the verb phrases used to supplement these forms. A synopsis of the verb ...
-237. Sequence Of Tenses
It sometimes becomes necessary to express different times in the same sentence or in a group of connected sentences. In such cases, the tense forms must be so chosen as to express the relation between...
-238. The Choice Of Tense
A story is generally told chiefly in the past tense. But occasionally a narrator, wishing to make his story very vivid, tells it in the present tense, as if the event were actually passing before the ...
-239. Idioms
Read the following sentences slowly, thinking of the meaning of the words: She is laughing in her sleeve, She is out of her head, Look out or you will slip. Do you see why a foreigner just learning ou...
-240. Idioms, Slang, Provincialisms
Though idioms are illogical, they are not incorrect. They give liveliness and vigor to speech, and we could ill spare them. Some of them belonged originally to that class of slang expressions which me...
-Chapter XXVIII. Some Special Verbs. 241. Shall, Should
These are the only common forms of the verb shall, though shalt is sometimes seen. These forms are not always used alike. Let us compare the uses of should in these sentences: I knew I should se...
-242. Will, Would
These are the only common forms of the verb will. Willed and wilt are rarely used. You will regret your decision. I will go in spite of opposition. He willed the overthrow of the enemy. I will do w...
-243. Rules: Shall, Witt
You have seen that both shall and will can be used as copulative verbs to express future time, or as attributive verbs. The following are the principal rules for choosing between them. (1) As a cop...
-244. Rules: Should, Would
The rules for these verbs are similar to those for shall and will. The most common mistake is the use of would instead of should as a copulative verb in the first person. Exercise 298 Fill each ...
-245. Must
This verb has but one form. Compare its uses in these sentences. You must study, for you recite so well. You must study or you will fail. In the first, the act of studying is asserted. The sente...
-246. May, Might
These are the only forms of the verb may. Alice may expect you to wait for her. You may use my book if you like. In the first sentence, expecting is asserted and the infinitive expect is the pre...
-247. Can, Could
The verb can has only these two forms. It generally means to know or to be able; thus, I can read French, I can lift that weight. It is followed by an infinitive which shows what is known or what the ...
-248. Rule
Use may and might as attributive verbs when you wish to express permission. Use can and could as attributive verbs when you wish to express ability. Exercise 302 Fill each blank with may, might,...
-Chapter XXIX. Adverbs
Exercise 309. Review What is an adverb? Show that adverbs may be added to verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and verbals. Write sentences illustrating at least five different ideas that may be expre...
-249. A Conjunctive Adverb
A Conjunctive Adverb is an adverb that joins an adjective or an adverbial clause to some part of the sentence. An ordinary adverb or an adverbial phrase can be put in its place, but this change makes ...
-250. As
The word as was formed long ago from two words. It is a contraction of all and so. But you must not think it means the same as our common word also. It means all so, entirely so, just so. Sentence ...
-251. Inflection Of Adverbs
Some adverbs admit of comparison. They are compared in the same way that adjectives are. But they are generally longer than adjectives, and consequently fewer of them are compared by the use of er and...
-252. Rules For The Use Of Adverbs
1. Do not use an adverb of denial with another negative word. Say She would not do anything, or She would do nothing, instead of She would not do nothing. Two negatives make an affirmative. 2. I...
-253. The Form Of Poetry
You know that most poetry differs from prose in being written in lines that rhyme. There is another difference in the form of prose and poetry that you may not have clearly recognized. But you have fe...
-254. Kinds Of Rhythm
The passages that you have scanned show that there are two kinds of rhythm. In one the accented syllable comes at the beginning of the foot, and in the other it comes at the end. The first kind is som...
-255. Irregularities In Rhythm
You must not expect that you will often find a poem written entirely in one kind of foot. It is very common to combine the two kinds of rising rhythm or the two kinds of falling rhythm. Occasionally a...
-256. Poetry More Than Rhyme And Rhythm
Poetry, as you have seen, is partly a matter of form. But rhyme and rhythm alone do not make real poetry. The word poet means maker. A true poet must thus be original. He sees in the world around him ...
-257. The Value Of Studying Rhythm
In reading poetry, you should not noticeably overstress the accented syllables, as you have been doing in scanning; but you should recognize the poet's art in order not to spoil the succession of soun...
-Chapter XXX. Prepositions
Pages 145 and 146 should be reviewed here. ...
-258. History Of Prepositions
Most prepositions are transformed adverbs. As adverbs they had a meaning of their own. This meaning gradually grew fainter, and as prepositions they mean little when standing by themselves. They merel...
-259. Inflection
Prepositions are not inflected. Since they have so little meaning of their own, they cannot be compared, as were the adverbs from which they are derived. The words like and near are considered prep...
-Chapter XXXI. Conjunctions. 261. Classes
There are two kinds of conjunctions, coordinate ( 97) and subordinate conjunctions. ...
-262. Coordinate Conjunctions
Coordinate Conjunctions are grouped together according to their meaning into the following classes: 1. Those that merely join : and, as well as, both . . . and. In such sentences as Both Mary an...
-263. A Subordinate Conjunction
A Subordinate Conjunction is a word that joins an adverbial clause to some part of the sentence, but has no use in the clause. Subordinate conjunctions are like conjunctive pronouns and conjunctive...
-264. The Editorial
An editorial of a magazine or newspaper is sometimes called a leading article or a leader. It expresses the views of the editor and generally makes clear the position the paper will take on some matte...
-Appendix I. Rules For Forming Plurals Of Nouns
The Common Method Nouns form their plural regularly by adding s or es to the singular. s is added if the singular ends with a sound that unites easily with s; thus, boy, boys, es is added, forming ...
-Appendix II. Principal Parts Of Verbs
I. Principal Parts Of Strong Verbs [w. - weak verb. obs. - obsolete.] Present Past Past Participle abide abode abode ...
-Appendix III. Conjugation And Synopsis
Conjugation Of The Verb Be. Indicative Mode Present Tense SINGULAR plural 1. I am happy. We are ha...
-Appendix IV. Parsing
Parsing Of Nouns And Pronouns To Parse a Word is to give all those characteristics of it that have to do with grammar. A lesson in parsing nouns and pronouns, then, is a general review of all that ...
-Appendix V. Independent Expressions
An Independent Expression is an expression that has some connection in thought but no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence. A Nominative of Address ( 153) is used independentl...









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