books



previous page: Haven's Complete Manual Of Practical Phonography
  
page up: Language Books
  
next page: The Reporter's Companion | by Benn Pitman

The Manual of Phonography | by Benn Pitman And Jerome B. Howard



This work is a presentation of the system of phonetic shorthand, the elementary parts of which were originally invented by Isaac Pitman, of Bath, England, in 1837 ; which was modified, improved, and named "Phonography" by him, in 1840; and which, developed and perfected through the suggestions, experiments, and tests of a multitude of practical writers in England and America, reached, substantially, its present form in the later fifties.

TitleThe Manual of Phonography
AuthorBenn Pitman And Jerome B. Howard
PublisherThe Phonographic Institute Company
Year1897
Copyright1897, By The Phonographic Institute Company
AmazonThe Manual of Phonography

Cincinnati: The Phonographic Institute Company

New York: The Baker And Taylor Company. 1902.

Copyright, 1860, by Benn Pitman.

Copyright, 1885, By Benn Pitman And Jerome B. Howard.

Copyright, 1897, By The Phonographic Institute Company.

The American System Of Shorthand

The American System Of Shorthand.

-The Phonographic Magazine. Special Subscription Coupon
JEROME B. HOWARD, Editor. The purchaser of this book is entitled to receive The Phonographic Magazine for one year at half price. To secure this reduction, this coupon must be returned to us befor...
-Preface
This work is a presentation of the system of phonetic shorthand, the elementary parts of which were originally invented by Isaac Pitman, of Bath, England, in 1837 ; which was modified, improved, and n...
-Introduction
1. Sound-Writing Phonography is the art of writing according to sound. This is done by means of signs which represent the sounds of speech. A scientific system of phonetic writing must give to each...
-Consonants, Their Signs, Names and Powers.
Consonants 15. Direction Of Strokes Of the consonants on the opposite page every straight line is written in the direction of one of the lines in the first of the following diagram...
-Long Vowels
29. The Vowel Scale The alphabet of a language professedly contains a letter for every sound heard in the distinct utterance of that language. The Roman alphabet does not, as has been shown, provid...
-Short Vowels
39. Short Vowel Scale In addition to the six long vowels, there are six short vowels used in English speech, as heard in the following words: it ell am odd up pull Between the short and long vow...
-Diphthongs
42. Vowel Glides A diphthong is not a simple speech-element, but is the result of continuous voice-production during a change made in the shape of the oral cavity. A diphthong may therefore be desc...
-Coalescents
47. Two-Fold Nature Of The Coalescents The vowels 00 and ee, the two extreme members of the long-vowel scale, are, from the exceeding closeness of their formation in the mouth, of such a nature tha...
-Concurrent Vowels
53. Consecutive Vowels Written Separately a. When a word begins with two consecutive vowels the first is written further away from and the second nearer to the following stroke. See line 1. b. When...
-The Aspirate
56. The Tick-H When h begins a word and is followed by k, g, s, z, lay, ar, m, mp or w, the aspirate is represented by a light short tick struck down invariably in the direction of ch. See lines I ...
-Upward And Downward L, R And Sh
61. Initial L a. When / begins a word followed by k, g, m, mp or n, use lay (see lines I and 2); but (b) should an initial vowel precede / followed by these strokes, use el (see line 3). 62. Fin...
-Logograms
68. Unequal Recurrence Of Words It is an ascertained fact that fewer than two hundred words, through being frequently repeated, make up at least one-half the bulk of any ordinary written or spoken ...
-Consonant Logograms
71. Logograms Represent Derivative Words As Well As Prim-Itives It will be noticed that when a logogram represents a primitive word it also frequently represents one or more of it...
-Diphthong, Coalescent And Aspirate Logograms
74. Coalescent Logograms Unshaded We, ye and you are theoretically written with heavy signs, but in practise it is not necessary to shade them. 75. Ye Distinguished from I. - The sign ...
-Appendages
77. Briefer Signs Supplied With the signs already given it is possible to write any word in the language in a manner phonetically correct and complete. But while these signs are much briefer than t...
-Circles S And Z
79. Manner Of Attaching The Circles One of the most frequently-recurring pairs of sounds in the language is s-z. These sounds are represented by the most easily-formed appendage - a small circle , ...
-Circle Ses, Sez, Zes, Zez
85. Representation Of Plurals It will have been perceived that one of the most important uses of the circle s-z is the representation of the plural number of nouns. In cases where the singular alre...
-Loop-St
91. The Small Loop St with no intervening vowel is represented in phonography by a small loop one-half the length of the stroke to which it is attached, written in the involute direction to straigh...
-Loop-Str
96. The Large Loop A large final loop written involute on straight strokes and on the concave side of curves, represents str without intervening vowels (see lines 12 and 13). This loop extends abou...
-Circle And Loop Logograms
98. Manner Of Writing Disjoined Circles And Loop The disjoined circles used as logograms should be written with evolute motion, while the disjoined loop, representing first, should be written...
-The N-Hook
101. Manner Of Attachment A small final hook may be attached to any stroke to represent n. When attached to straight strokes the n-hook is written in the evolute direction (see lines I to 3); when ...
-The F-V Hook
108. Manner Of Attachment A small final hook may be attached to any straight stroke with involute motion to represent f or v. 109. F And V Distinguished When critical accuracy is required the...
-The Shun-Hook
113. The Shun-Hook The syllable which is variously represented in longhand by sion, sian, shion, tion, tian, cion, cian, may in phonography be expressed by a large final hook. 114. Manner Of Att...
-Final-Hook Logograms
-Punctuation
119. Punctuation The same marks of punctuation are used in phonography as in longhand except the period , the exclamation mark , the dash and the hyphen . The comma should be...
-The Small W-Hook
122. The Small W-Hook A small hook at the beginning of /, ray, m, and n represents w. See lines I to II. 123. Attachment To Curves Like all other hooks the w-hook takes the motion of the curv...
-Double Consonants
130. The Liquids The peculiar quality of / and r, which causes them to be classed as liquids, is their power of combining with or, so to speak, flowing into other consonants. Either lor rmay com...
-Triple And Quadruple Consonants
141. Triple Consonants When s precedes the double consonants a series of triple consonants is formed, as heard at the beginning of such words as splash, spray, straw, scream, etc. This series of so...
-The Backward N-Hook
148. Backward N-Hook A small backward hook written through the stroke may be used to represent the initial syllables in, en, un, as preceding (a) any straight triple consonant of the spr series (se...
-The Large W-Hook
149. Large W-Hook A large initial involute hook may be attached to the strokes t, d, k, g, to represent the combinations tw, dw, kw, gw, (see lines 8 to 12). These combinations are best named tway,...
-Initial Hook Logograms
INITIAL LETTERS, Etc. 155. Initials Initials of names or titles may be written in phonography or in longhand, many writers preferring the distinctiveness of the latter method. ...
-The Halving Principle
158. Vocal Affinity A strong affinity exists, in the English and in other languages, between sounds of a like nature with respect to vocality - that is to say, a voiced sound is much more likely to...
-Half-Length Logograms
172. Logogram for Read.-The word read in the foregoing table is the present tense of the verb. The past tense and participle are written 173. Position Of Half-Length Logog...
-The Doubling Principle
175. Ter And Der Added By Doubling Any curved stroke may be doubled in length to represent the addition of ter or der. See lines 1 to 7. 176. Ther And Dher Added By Doubling Any curved stroke...
-Double-Length Logograms
183. Compounded Logograms It often happens that a gram-malogue forms a part of some other word, and in such cases the corresponding logogram may sometimes be used to form a part of the ...
-The Ticks
184. The Ticks The articles the, a, an, and the conjunction and are frequently written in phonography by means of a short tick joined to the outline of the next preceding or the next following ...
-Disjoined Affixes
187. Disjoined Affixes Certain frequently-recurring affixes are conveniently represented by special signs which are disjoined from the outline of the main word or stem. Disjoined suffixes are ...
-Outline Formation
190. New Kind Of Practise Recommended The student who has thus far carefully studied the text and illustrations and who has mastered the writing exercises, is prepared to benefit by practise of a ...
-Exercises In The Corresponding Style
Benevolence. modified strokes or to write them out in full with the alphabetic strokes. In the case of medial s and z no difficulty is felt, for the circle is almost invariably th...
-Table Of Grammalogues
ARRANGED alphabetically for the writer. * The logogram is written above the line. Table Of Grammalogues Continued. Table Of Grammalogues Concluded. ...
-Table Of Logograms Arranged Phonetically For The Reader
*The logogram is written above the line. Table Of Logograms Continued. Table Of Logograms Concluded. ...
-Writing Exercises. Directions To The Student
200. Necessity For Writing Exercises The explanations and reading exercises in the preceding portion of this book will, if carefully studied, enable the learner correctly and rapidly to read ...
-Exercise I
Combinations Of Consonants See paragraphs 21 to 24. Pars. 21 and 22. - P-lay, b-ray, d-lay, ch-lay, j-ray, v-lay, s-lay, lay-b, lay-d, lay-f, lay-dh, ray-d, ray-p, ray-v, ray-ish. Par, 23 a. ...
-Exercise II
Combinations Of Consonants Continued. - See paragraphs 25 to 28. Par. 25 a. - P-p, d-d, k-k. Par. 25 b - F-shay, th-ng, lay-w, m-z. Par. 25 c. - P-ng, t-ish, t-v, v-k, m-p, f-ar, dh-s, z-t...
-Exercise III
Words Containing Long Vowels See paragraphs 29 to 33. Write the six long vowels after the consonants p, t, g, f, s, ray, m, n. Write the six long vowels before the consonants b, d, ch, v, s, ...
-Exercise IV
Words Containing Long Vowels Continued. - See paragraphs 34 to 38. In writing this exercise the pupil must pay no attention to the usual spelling of a word, but simply to its sound when delibera...
-Exercise V
Words Containing Short Vowels See paragraphs 39 to 41. First-place light dot: Bit, pick, tick, ditch, pitch, pig, pith, big, Dick, dig, dip, dim, tip, pity, pitchy, finny, pithy, ditty, Biddy, b...
-Exercise VIII
Words Containing Medial A. Careful speakers make a clear distinction between the a in ask, mica, avow, etc., and the vowel in alms, far, guard on the one hand, and the vowel in am, fat, gad on the ...
-Exercise IX
Words Containing U (E, I) before R. The vowel heard in hurt, err, fir, (heard only before the consonant r) is in quantity a long vowel, but in quality it very closely resembles the second-place lig...
-Exercise X
Words Containing Diphthongs See paragraphs 42 to 46. I: Tie, bile, dire, pyre, pie, eyes, vie, thigh, thy, nigh, bite, dyke, type, knife, chide, chime, gibe, live, guile, five, lyre, rhyme, mime...
-Exercise XI
Words Containing Coalescents See paragraphs 47 to 52. Write the long we, wa, wah, etc., before t. Write the short wi, we, wa, etc., before t. Write the long ye, ya, yah, etc., before t. ...
-Exercise XII
Concurrent Vowels See paragraphs 53 to 55. Par. 53 a. - Iota, Ianthe, Ionic, aorta, Iowa, Eolic, iambic, iodic. Par. 53 b. - Payee, bayou, avowee, Leo, Fabii, genii, radii, Ohio, Pompeii, cac...
-Exercise XIII
The Aspirate See paragraphs 56 to 60. Par. 56. - Hem, whom, hazy, heal, Hawley, halo, hallow, hair, hock, hug, humming, whggishi, help, Hiram, harp, herb, humpy, whiplash, humanity, hilarity, he...
-Exercise XIV
Upward And Downward L See paragraphs 61 to 63. Par. 61 a. - Use lay: Limb; loam, leak, lock, luck, lackey, Lena, looming, lunch, lounge, lookout, lineage, lenity, Laocoon, legate, luggage, locke...
-Exercise XV
Upward And Downward R See paragraphs 64 to 66. Par. 64 a. - Rock, rogue, ruby, wreathe, roach, reissue, rag, rang, Raleigh, racy, renew, ready rebuke, royalty, rank, ravage, Roanoke, wryneck, ri...
-Exercise XVI
Upward and Downward Sh. Par. 67. - Use ish: Abash, ambush, marshy, Ishmael, coyish, unshod, charade, famish, Russia, push, shy, hush, oceanic, barouche, shank, perish, shadowy, gnash, cashier, wash...
-Exercise XVIII
Vowel Grammalogues. Par. 70. - Write the signs for the grammalogues, filling a line with each sign: The, a, an, and, all, too, two, already, before, ought, aught, who, of, to, or, but, on, should. ...
-Exercise XIX
Simple Consonant Grammalogues. Page 38 Write the signs for the grammalogues, filling a line with each sign: Up, be, it, do, which, advantage, common, come, give, together, for, have, think, them...
-Exercise XX
Simple Consonant Grammalogues Concluded. Page 40 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each: Will, are, me, my, him, may, important, imp...
-Exercise XXI
Diphthong, Coalescent, and Aspirate Grammalogues. Page 42 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each: I, how, we, with, were, what, would, ...
-Exercise XXII
Joining Of Circles S And Z See paragraph 79. Par. 79 a. - P-s, t-s, ray-s, s-p, s-g, n-t-s, k-ch-s, t-ray-s, n-h-s, s-p-t, s-p-ray-b, s-t-k, s-g-n-f, s-ray-v, s-t-s, s-ray-s, s-t-k-s, s-j-k-s, s...
-Exercise XXIII
Words Containing Circles S And Z See paragraph 81. Par. 81 a. - Base, decks, keels, hops, palace, rouse, oppose, tongs, collapse, rankness, veracious, educe, chops, happiness, genius, luscious, ...
-Exercise XXIV
Circles Ses, Sez, Zes, Ze.z.. - See paragraphs 85 to 90. Par. 85. - Pieces, offices, tosses, horses, kisses, axes, abases, heiresses, bodices, affixes, embosses, atlases, taxes, advices, elapses, a...
-Exercise XXV
Loop-st - See paragraphs 91 to 95. Par. 91 a. - Post, best, faced, moist, attest, educed, assist, wrist, roast, hoaxed, ballast, utmost, affixed, mixed, lanced, robust, earnest, inmost, announced, ...
-Exercise XXVI
Loop-Str See paragraphs 96 and 97. Par. 96. - Pester, boaster, faster, duster, coaster, castor, bolster, barrister, Munster, lobster, chorister, Zoroaster, register, barge-master, songster, team...
-Exercise XXVIII
The N-Hook See paragraphs 101 to 107. Par. 102 a. - Union, dampen, happen, often, heaven, amain, widen, attain, weaken, seven, Spain, skein, pagan, obtain, balloon, barren, famine, violin, muffi...
-Exercise XXIX
The F-V Hook See paragraphs 108 to 112. Par. 110 a. - Puff, beef, doff, chaff, calf, Gough, reef, rebuff, tariff, sheriff, scuff, seraph. Pave, dive, rave, heave, dative, repave, Argive, bere...
-Exercise XXX
The Shun-hook. See paragraphs 113 to 118. Par. 114 a. - Fashion, evasion, omission, oration, abolition, violation, intimation, mention, division, ignition, ascension, domination, assignation, reani...
-Exercise XXXI
Final Hook Grammalogues. Page 60 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each : Upon, been, ten, done, general, generally, can, again, gone, ...
-Exercise XXXII
The Small W-Hook See paragraphs 122 to 129. Par. 122. - Wail, wall, walrus, wane, war, warden, warm, wan, wealth, weariness, welcome, welfare, wench, wile, willow, win, wince, window, wolf, woma...
-Exercise XXXIII
The L-Hook See paragraphs 130 to 134. Par. 133. - Plea, plow, blow, flee, flow, claw, clay, glue. Apple, able, idle, addle, eagle, ogle, awful, evil, oval, idol. Apply, ably, idly, eclat, ugly, awf...
-Exercise XXXIV
The R-Hook See paragraphs 135 to 137. Par. 135. - Pry, bray, free, trio, draw, throw, shrew, crow, gray. Offer, eater, eider, ether, usher, acre, augur. Affray, agree. Prop, prowl, brea...
-Exercise XXXV
Irregular Double Consonants See paragraphs 138 and 139. Par. 138. - Panel, final, venal, tunnel, kennel, unless, original, nominal, flannel, spinal, signal, diagonal, analyze, channel, penalty, ...
-Exercise XXXVI
Intervocalization See paragraph 140. Par. 140. - Generic, marble, paralysis, locality, develop, analogy, anarchic, philology, telescope, barter. Verb, border, affirm, nerve, church, portray, ...
-Exercise XXXVII
Triple And Quadruple Consonants See paragraphs 141 to 147. Par. 141. - Splash, splice, spleen, splutter, splatter, splicing, spliced, splenetic, splenetical, spleenishness, Sclavonic. Supply,...
-Exercise XXXVIII
The Backward N-Hook See paragraph 148. Par. 148 a. - Unscrew, unsoberly, unstring, unstrung, inscribe, insuperable, insuperableness, insuperably, insuppressible, unsuppressed, instruction, unscr...
-Exercise XXXIX
The Large W-Hook See paragraphs 149 to 153. Par. 150 a. - Twain, twang, tweak, tweezers, twice, twig, twin, twinkle, twitter. Dwarf, dwarfish, dwell, dweller, dwelling-house, Dwight, dwelling...
-Exercise XL
Initial Hook Grammalogues. . Page 74 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each : Well, where, when, one, tell, till, twelve, call, difficu...
-Exercise XLI
The Halving Principle See paragraphs 158 to 164. Par. 159. - Fit, aft, east, sheet, hushed, caught, act, heaped, packet, merit, tippet, turret, eject, enact, adopt, hesitate, fatal, esteem, act...
-Exercise XLII
The Halving Principle Concluded. - See paragraphs 165 to 171. Par. 165. - Paint, haunt, faint, vaunt, mount, lint, arrant, count, latent, fountain, patent, blunt, occupant, augment, scant, unben...
-Exercise XLIII
Half-length Grammalogues. Page 80 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each: Did, could, got, get, good, after, thought, without, that, le...
-Exercise XLIV
Half-Length Grammalogues Concluded. Page 82 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each: Particular, particularly, part, spirit, behind, ...
-Exercise XLV
Words From Which Consonants Are Omitted See paragraph 174. Par. 174a. - Tempt, damped, thumped, camped, swamped, trumped, exemption, prompt, assumption, glimpse, encamped. Par. 174 b. - Anxio...
-Exercise XLVI
Double-Length Strokes See paragraphs 175 to 182. Par. 175. - Water, meter, thermometer, trumpeter, rafter, lifter, fighter, waiter, loiter, inviter, swelter, dissenter, winter, voter, de-serter,...
-Exercise XLVII
Double-length Grammalogues. Page 86 For each of the following grammalogues write the corresponding logogram, filling a line with each : Neither, another, letter, matter. 1. This world is noth...
-Exercise XLVIII
Compounded Logograms. Par. 183. - Use the list of words given in the text. This list contains almost all the useful English words written according to this principle. ...
-Exercise XLIX
The Ticks See paragraphs 184 to 186. Par. 185. - Write the downward: After-the, all-the, are-the, as-the (write as involute), be-the, between-the, come-the, down-the, for-the, in-the, like-the, ...
-Exercise L
Disjoined Affixes See paragraphs 187 to 189. Par. 188 a. - Use the stvoke-ing: Pacifying, vieing, thawing, scathing, fishing, lashing, piling, puzzling, annoying, chastening, ringing, pacing, re...
-The Reporting Style
209. The Corresponding Style The present work treats especially of the corresponding style of phonography ; that is, phonography in its full and complete form, which, being an exact and ...
-Reporting Logograms
Contractions Phrases Words, Contractions And Phrases For Business Amanuenses ...
-Exercises In The Easy Reporting Style
Speech of Patrick Henry. Delivered March 28, 1775, before the Virginia Convention of Delegates. KEY. Speech of Patrick Henry. Mr. President: It is natural for man to indulge in the il...
-Business Letters.
i. La Crosse Lumber Co., La Crosse, Wis. Gentlemen: Referring to the claim presented by you April 21, 1897, for alleged overcharge in weight on various shipments of pulp wood forwarded from W...
-Appendix A. Speech
1. Speech, physiologically considered, is the result of the joined operation of the vocal and articulating organisms upon the current of expired breath. 2. Underlying both these organisms, and esse...
-Appendix B. A Scheme Of Phonographic Notation By Means Of Common Types
The following plan for indicating the construction and vocalization of phonographic outlines by means of common types was first printed in the Phonographic Magazine for June I, 1895. It is built mainl...
-Appendix C. The Extended Alphabet
1. For the representation of foreign sounds not heard in English, and for a more exact representation of English than is given in ordinary phonography, an extended alphabet is required and is here pre...
-The American System Of Shorthand. Catalog Of Phonographic Works
By BENN PITMAN and JEROME B. HOWARD. Published By The Phonographic Institute Company, Cincinnati, OH There is no question whatever of the truth of the statement that the Benn Pitman System...
-Phonography Instruction Books.
The Manual of Phonography. [420th Thousand.] By Benn Pitman and Jerome B. Howard. Designed for instruction in Schools, Academies, Business Colleges, etc., as well as for self-instruction, in the art o...
-Books Printed in Phonography.
On Self-Culture, Intellectual, Physical, and Moral. A vade mecum for young men and students. By John Stuart Bi.ackie, professor of Greek in the University of Edinburgh. Printed in the Easy Reporting S...
-Miscellaneous.
How Long - A Symposium Consists of contributions on the length of time required for obtaining verbatim speed in shorthand writing, from the following eminent reporters: Jerome B. Allen, Eliza B. Bu...
-Phonographic Periodical Publications.
The Phonographic Magazine. Edited by Jerome B. Howard. Publisht once a month. Each number contains beautifully-engraved Phonography, mostly in Brief Reporting Style, with Key; facsimile notes and port...
-Phonographic Stationery
Reporting Paper, per quire, 6 cents, postpaid............................ 11 Per ream, $1.00; five reams, $4.50, sent by express at purchaser's charge. In ordering, specify whether single or double...
-Phonographic Tracts. For Distribution By Teachers And Others.
No. 1. What They Say about Phonography - Opinions of Fifty Eminen Men and Journals. 2. Some Reasons why You should Learn Phonography. 3. Can Phonography be Self-Taught ? 4. The Long Gains of ...









TOP
previous page: Haven's Complete Manual Of Practical Phonography
  
page up: Language Books
  
next page: The Reporter's Companion | by Benn Pitman