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Phonetic Shorthand | by William W. Osgoodby



A complete manual of Pitman's phonography with all the modern improvements

TitlePhonetic Shorthand
AuthorWilliam W. Osgoodby
PublisherN. Y. Williams & Rogers
Year1896
Copyright1894, by William W. Osgoodby
AmazonPhonetic Shorthand

Note. - The Phonetic Shorthand Speed-book, references to which appear in the text of this Manual, contains extensive practice exercises for the use of students desiring to review after completing their course in school. Price, $1.25.

By William W. Osgoodby

Thirty-Four Years Official Stenographer Of The New York Supreme Court; Ex-President Of The New York State Stenographer's Association; Foreign Associate Of The London Shorthand Society; Author Of The Phonetic Shorthand Word-Book, Speed-Book, Etc.

Eighth Edition.

To Isaac Pitman,

By whose Genius the Basis of Phonographic Art was laid, and to the many Practitioners by whose Labors it has been brought to its present State of Perfection, all Stenographers of the English-speaking World owe a Debt of profound Gratitude.

-Alphabet
Consonants. Name. Sound. Pe P in Pip Be B in Bib Te T in Tight De D in Died Chay ...
-Phonetic Shorthand
Sec. I. Introductory. - a. In Phonetic Shorthand words are spelled as they are pronounced, and no silent letters are used. In the English alphabet the sounds of Ch as in chain, Th in thin, Sh in show,...
-The Alphabet
Sec. 2. The alphabet of Phonetic Shorthand contains forty letters, representing the forty elementary sounds of the English language. These letters are divided into two general classes, namely, Consona...
-Consonants
Sec. 3. The consonants are divided into three groups, viz.: 1. Regular Straight Stems; 2. Regular Curved Stems: 3. Irregular Stems. The regular stems are arranged in pairs,the second one of each pair ...
-Vowels
Sec. 4. There are sixteen vowel sounds provided for in Phonetic Shorthand, and these are divided into three classes, namely: 1. Long Vowels; 2. Short Vowels; 3. Diphthongs. Long vowels are indicated b...
-Rules For Writing L, R, And Sh
Sec. 5. When the stems representing L, R, and Sh, are written upward, they are named Lay, Ray and Shay, respectively; when written downward, they are named El, Ar, and Ish. The following rules are to ...
-The Aspirate
Sec. 6. The stem is seldom used, but the sound of H is usually indicated in one of the following ways: 1. By a small dot opposite a vowel sign; 2. By a light tick struck in the direction of Chay...
-Small Circle For S And Z
Sec, 8. S is most frequently represented by a small circle, initial or final, named Iss, written on the right side of an upright or inclined straight stem (except Ray), on the upper side of Ray, Kay, ...
-Large Circle For Ses And Sez
Sec. 9. A large circle, called Ses, indicates that syllable or any similar one. It is written on the same side of a stem as the Iss-circle. It may be vocalized by writing a vowel sign within it, and, ...
-Loops For St And Str
Sec. 10. Iss is changed into a short loop, to indicate the sound of St; and by widening and lengthening the loop, Str is indicated. The Str-loop is not used initially. a. The St-loop is less than hal...
-Combinations Of Consonants
Sec. 11. Certain combinations of consonants are of frequent occurrence, and they are represented by attaching, a hook to the stem indicating the first sound in such combinations. With respect to these...
-Initial Hook For R
Sec. 12. A small initial hook, on the Left side of any upright or inclined straight stem except Bay; on the lower side of Ray. Kay, and Gay; or on the inner side of a curved stem: indicates that the s...
-Initial Hook For L
Sec. 13. A small initial hook, on the right side of any upright or inclined straight stem except Ray; or on the Upper side of Ray, Kay, or Gay; indicates that the sound of L occurs immediately after t...
-Hooks Combined With Circles And Loops
Sec. 14. Iss is combined with the R-hook, by changing the hook to a circle, on straight stems, and by writing the circle within the hook on curves. If the R-hook on a straight stem be changed to a loo...
-Vocalization Of Initial Hooks
Sec. 15. When vowels occur between stems and their initial hooks, they are indicated as follows: Dot vowels are represented by small circles, written in the position of the vowel, before the stem to i...
-Final Hook For N
Sec. 16. A small final hook, on the R-hook side of straight stems, and on the inner side of curves, indicates an added N. a. The N-hook is always read after the stem to which it is attached, and afte...
-Final Hook For F And V
Sec. 17. A small final hook, on the L-hook side of a straight stem, or a lengthened final hook on the inner side of a curved stem, indicates an added F or V. [Lines 1-4.) a. S or Z is added to the F-h...
-Initial Hook For Y
Sec. 18. A large initial hook, on the R-hook side of straight stems, or a long and narrow initial hook on the inner side of curves, adds the consonant sound of Y. This hook is used in phrasing only, a...
-Initial Hook For W
Sec. 19. A large initial hook, on the L-hook side of straight stems only, adds the sound of W, and is read after the stem but before any final hook, circle, or loop. (Lines 1-3.) a. Phrasing. - The W-...
-Final Hook For Ter, Der And Ther
Sec. 20. A large final hook written in place of the N-hook, on any straight stem, adds to the stem the syllable Ter, Der, or Ther, to be read after the stem and after any vowel or initial hook, but be...
-Final Hook For M
Sec. 21. A short, broad final hook, written in place of the F-hook on straight stems, and on the inner side of curves, adds the sound of M to the stem. This hook is read after the stem, and after any ...
-Final Hook For Tion
Sec. 22, The syllables Tion, Sion, etc., are expressed by a small circle and back-hook similar to the expedient for Sn. (See Sec. 8, g, h). A small circle may be written within the back-hook to add S....
-Lengthening For Ter, Der, And Ther
Sec. 24. Lengthening a curved stem, or a straight stem which ends with a hook, adds the syllable Ter, Der, or Ther. The added syllable is read after all vowels and hooks, but before a final circle. (L...
-Special Rules And Suggestions
Sec. 25. - a. When a regular verb in the present tense ends with a half length stem, the syllable -ed may be added for the past tense by an inclined final tick struck at a distinct angle with the half...
-Prefixes And Affixes
Sec. 26. One of the most important methods of abbreviation in Phonetic Shorthand, is that of using certain signs for frequently occurring prefixes and affixes, rules for which are given in this sectio...
-Phrasing
Sec. 27. The student will have noticed that there are two kinds of phrase-writing taught in the rules heretofore given - Simple Phrasing, which is the joining of two or more outlines; and Group Phrasi...
-Contractions And Word-Forms
Simple Contractions Initial Circles Final Circles And Loops R-Hook L-Hook Circle And Hook Combinations F-Hook N-Hook Large Hooks Tion-Hook ...
-Rules Of Stenotypy
A very convenient way of indicating stenographic forms, is by the use of Stenotypy, a method exhibited in the following rules and illustrations: 1. The stems Chay, Ith, The, Ish, Zhe and Ing, which c...
-Contractions And Word-Forms - Alphabetically Arranged
Anniversary A Abstract, Bs3trt Abstraction, Bs3trsn Accept, spt3 Account, Knt3 Accustom, Ksm3 Aetionable-y, Ksb3 Actual-ly, Kt2l Actuality, Ktlt3 Acknowledge, Kj Acknowledged, Kjd Acknowledgement, [...
-Contractions And Word-Forms - Alphabetically Arranged. Part 2
E Early, Rl East and west, St1wst Easterly, St1l Eastern, St1n Editor, Dtr Effect, Ft Efficiency, Fsns Efficient, Fsnt Either one, Dhrn1 Either way, Dhrw1 Electric-al, Lk Electricity, Lkst Emphatic-...
-Contractions And Word-Forms. Part 3
No other, Nj [NrsTh North and South, North Carolina, Nrkrl North Dakota, Nrdk Northerly, Nrthrl Northern, Nrdhn Notify. Ntf1 Not withstanding, [NtsTnd1 November, Nv Now, Np O Objection, Jsn1 Objecti...
-Initials
In writing proper names, the consonant stems may be used for initials, except for C, Q and X, which may be indicated by the ordinary script letters, made very small, (lay should be used for both the w...
-Similar Words Distinguished
Apostle, Ps1l Epistle, Ps1l Postal, Psl Patient, Pshnt Compassionate, Psnt Passionate, Ps3nt Opposition, Pssn1 Position. Pssn Possession, Pssn3 Apposition Pssn3 Pertain, Prtn Appertain, P3rt...
-Positive And Negative Words
Advisable, Dv2b Inadvisable, Ndv2b Appear, Pr1 Disappear, Ds1pr Artillcial, Rt2fsl Inartificial, Nrt2fsl Balanced, Blnst2 Unbalanced, N Blnst2 Broken, Brkn Unbroken, Nbrkn Ceremonious, srmns Unce...
-Outlines For Important Words
A A, An, or And is . indicated by a K-tick, ill phrasing. In a very few instances the T-tick is used where the K-tick will not make a distinct angle with the stem. Abruptness Brpt Absolute Bslt3 Abst...
-Outlines For Important Words. Part 2
[Vnjlssn3 Evaporate Vprt 3 Eventually Vntl Eventuate Vntyt Everlasting Vrlsng Exact Gskt, or skt 3 Exaction Gsksn, or [sKsn3 Example Gsmpl Excellence Kslns Excellency Kslns Exasperate Gssprt Exception...
-Outlines For Important Words. Part 3
N Narrate Nrrt 3 . Narration [Nrrsn 3 Narrative Nrrtv 3 Navigate Nvg 3 Navigation Nvgsn 3 Necessarily Nssr 1 Needful Ndf1 1 Needle Nd11 Needless Ndls 1 Negative Ngtv Nomenclature Nmn Nondescript [Nn...
-The Choice Of Outlines
In the foregoing lists, the student is furnished with nearly four thousand useful outlines. Of these, the word-signs and contractions should be perfectly memorized. The other outlines given are not on...
-Table Of Contrasts
Bee Key, next page. Diagram of Vowels. - This diagram should be carefully compared with the rules contained in section 4, d, on page 8, which give directions for the placing of vowels between two s...
-Table Of Contrasts. Continued
e. Diphthongs. - The signs for the diphthongs must not be inclined. When I occurs between two stems, it is sometimes more convenient to write it in the third place, rather than to carry the pen back t...
-Initial Ticks On Simple Stems
He. - When a phrase begins with He, always use the Chay-tick, ( / ) except before Lay, where a T-tick ( 1 ) is used. He cannot be indicated by a joined tick before either of the stems I. - I is ...
-Medial Ticks
In the middle of a phrase, either He or The may be indicated by the P-, Ray-, or Chay-tick, but no tick is to be used where it will not make a distinct angle with the stems. is never written in the m...
-Final Ticks
He and The are indicated by a P-, Ray-, or Chay-tick, at the end of a phrase. A, An, and And, are indicated by a K- or T-tick, at the end of a phrase. I is indicated finally, by the T-tick only. ...
-Initial Ticks Before The R-Hook
The ticks are used somewhat differently upon stems bearing hooks, than on simple stems. The outlines below are indicated by stenotypy, rules for which are given on page 56, which see. Italic capitals ...
-Initial Ticks Before The L-Hook
He. - He cannot be prefixed by a tick to Ll, Rl, Ml, Wl, or Hl. To all other stems bearing the L-hook, He is prefixed by the Chay-tick. I. - I is prefixed to Ll, Ml, and Hl, by the Ray-tick. To all o...
-Final Ticks After The N-Hook
He, The. - Use the Ray-tick for He or The, after Fm Vn, Nn, and Ngn; the P-tick after Kn, Gn, Thn, Dim, Zn, Mn, Yn Rn. Use the Chay-tick for either of these words, after any other N-hook combination. ...
-Final Ticks After The F-Hook
He, The. - Use the Chay-tick for He or The, after Sf, Zf, Shf, Zhf, Rf, and Wf; the Ray-tick after Pf, Bf, Kf, Gf, Ff, Vf, Hi, Ngf, and Rf. Use the P-tick for either of these words after any other F-h...
-Final Ticks After The F-Hook. Continued
e. f. Transition, concession (Knssn), dispensation, condensation (with Con-dot), compensation, organization. Transitional. Fusionist, visionist, factionist, elocutionist. 1. Before the decision, ther...
-Words Ending With L
The figures give the positions of the outlines. The signs indicated by small capitals should be inserted. ...
-Hook L
1. Comply, ply, plea. 2. People, compel, play. 3. Apply, apple, plow. 1. Belong-ed, by all. 2. Beliefve-d, able-y. 3. Blue, blew, about all. 1. Tall, what will. 2. Till, tell, it will, at all. ...
-Downward L
Pall, ap-peal, pile, pill. Pale, pail, pole, poll. Pull, pool. Ball, bill, boil, bile. Bale, bail, bell, bowl. Bull, buhl. Teal, tile, toil. Tale, tail, toll. Towel. Deal, doll, dial, ideal. Dale, d...
-Upward L
Pillow. Haply. Happily, pulley. Belie, bailee, by-law. Below, bellow, belay. Bully. At law. Tallow, tally, outlaw. Differently, ideally,oddly. Daily, dahlia, delay. Dally, duly. Chilly. Jolly....
-Words Ending With R
The figures give the positions of the outlines. The signs indicated by small capitals should he inserted. ...
-Hook R
1. Appear, proper, pry. 2. Upper, pray, prey,pro. 3. Practice, prow. 1. Liberty. 2. Remember. 3. Brother, number, bre\v. 1. Internal, tree. Eater. 2. Truth, tray, utter. 3. True, outer, contra...
-Downward R
CoM-peer, pier, pyre. Com-pare, pour, payer. Happier, poor, power. Beer, bier, buyer, [er. Bear, bore, burr, obey-bar, boor, bower. Tier, tear, at-tire. Tare, tear, tore. Tar, cox-tour, tower. Deer, c...
-Upward R
Opera, pariah, peri. Apiary. Pure, parry. Borrow. Bury, burrow, borough. Barrow,bureau,bowery Tyro, tiara. Terra, tory. Tarry. Diarrhoea, diary. Dairy, dory. Dowry. Cheery. Chary, cherry....
-Upward R. Continued
In the daytime, Ntdm In the night time, Ntnttm In the world, Nt1.rld In their possession, Ntrpssn In what position, Ntpssn In your opinion, Nynn1 Is it possible, Zt1ps Is there anybody, strnbd1*...
-Reading Exercises - Early Reporters
Webster's Reply to Hayne Reporting from Memory A Doctored Speech Charge To A Jury Writing Exercises Stenographers In New York.* There are many hundred stenographers in Ne...
-Reading Exercises - Early Reporters. Part 2
We-must not-only think in words, but-we-must-also try to use-the best words, words which-will most clearly put into-the-minds of others the ideas which-are resting in-our-own minds. This-is-the great ...
-Reading Exercises - Early Reporters. Part 3
I-further instruct-you that-the-plaintiffs in-this-case were-not holders of-the-draft for-value. The-law in-regard-to-the title to commercial paper is well settled and-well understood. A-person who ta...
-Reading Exercises - Early Reporters. Part 4
That arrangement must-have-had two-sides, we-should-suppose, and so we-find-the-fact to be, for-he-was to furnish-the City Bank with paper equal in amount to-the-currency furnished to-him. But it-was-...
-Reading Exercises - Early Reporters. Part 5
The buildings erected by the various religious denominations were especially worthy of attention. They showed at-once a healthy financial condition, and the capability of their architects and mechanic...
-Reading Exercises - Early Reporters. Part 6
9. It is impossible to declare any reasonable suggestion why these companies should be excepted from a regulation of such import. Anything so extraordinary and questionable has heretofore been unknown...
-Optional Expedients
The expedients given below are intended for the use of expert writers only. Students should not attempt to use them, until they have had considerable experience in actual work. Some of the special phr...









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previous page: The Compendium Of Tachygraphy: Or Lindsley's Phonetic Shorthand
  
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