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The Science And Art Of Phrase-Making | by David Wolfe Brown



A Series of Practical and Progressive Lessons, designed to teach Stenographic Phrasing by Principle, not by Rote, thus dispensing largely with Phrase-memorization and enabling the Student to make Good Phrases for himself. A Text-Book for Schools, Private Learners, and young reporters. Adapted to the use of writers of the Benn Pitman and Graham systems and other Pitmanic systems fundamentally similar.

TitleThe Science And Art Of Phrase-Making
AuthorDavid Wolfe Brown
PublisherDavid Wolfe Brown
Year1902
Copyright1902, David Wolfe Brown
AmazonThe science and art of phrase-making

By David Wolfe Brown Official Reporter, U. S. House of Representatives; Author of "The Mastery of Shorthand," "The Factors of Shorthand Speed," etc.

"Good phrases are surely, and ever were, very commendable." - Shakespeare's Henry IV.

Washington, D. C. Shorthand Publication Bureau Bliss Building "The truly expert shorthand writer is not a mere copyist, but is an artist." - -F. G. Morris.

"Whatever may be the amount of his practice, the reporter will sometimes find himself engaged in a chase with the speaker. It is then that perhaps a single convenient phraseogram will bring him, as with a bound, close up." - Benn Pitman.

"The mere desultory stringing of words together is not phrasing." - Pitman & Howard's Reporter's Companion.

"The student should endeavor to grasp the principle of uniting words, rather than endeavor to commit phrases to memory. - Isaac Pitman.

"If the pupil will familiarize and apply the principles of phrase-writing, ... he will find that the largest list of phrase-signs ever published will appear meagre indeed as compared with the phrase-signs which he will naturally, easily and readily form, under the guidance of these few and simple principles; and he will save himself from the burden of much empirical and imitative practice." - Andrew J. Graham.

"A science teaches us to know; an art, to do."

- Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences.

-Summary Of Contents
Preface. - Phrasing to be learned by principle, not by-rote. Study of phrasing by principle is far more interesting than the memorizing of alphabetically-arranged phrase-lists. Qualifies the learner t...
-Preface
1. A glance at the contents of this volume will show that it differs widely, both in plan and execution, from the ordinary phrase-book. It seeks to teach phrasing by a new method. From the start it ...
-Chapter I. Phrases Defended, Defined And Distinguished
13. One of the ablest and most distinguished reporters that ever lived, has said: In following a rapid speaker, the occurrence of a phrase or sentence which can be condensed into a convenient and fam...
-The American System Of Phrasing
14. This apt language, illustrating how highly reporters of large experience appreciate the value of good phrases'as speed-promoters, is the testimony of a man conservative almost to the point of timi...
-Good Phrases Promote Legibility
14 1/2. It should not be forgotten that, apart from the question of speed, good phrases conduce to legibility; and this they do in spite of the fact that in a phrase the accustomed positions of word-o...
-Simple Phrases
15. Phrasing is sometimes defined as the joining of words together without lifting the pen. But this definition is for several reasons too narrow. Good phrasing is much more than this. As Benn Pitma...
-Word-Blending Phrases
16. But the art of phrasing teaches us to write many common words in a way in which they are not, and cannot be, written when standing alone. Much more important and useful than the simple phrases jus...
-Broken Phrases
20. The definition already cited - that phrasing is the joining of words without lifting the pen - is further defective, because it ignores many phrases (commonly and properly so called,) in the wri...
-Elliptic Phrases
21. The definition already cited is further inaccurate, because it ignores the fact that, under the laws of phrasing, many words can be and are omitted altogether - not even indicated by any stenograp...
-Composite Phrases
22. Somewhat lengthy phrases are often formed by a combination of several shorter phrases. Thus the phrase I think yon are of my opinion may be compounded of the three shorter phrases, I think, you ar...
-Special Or Irregular Phrases
23. Another class of phrases ignored by the definition cited consists of those in which a brief, compact representation of certain words is attained by arbitrary and irregular methods of expression, p...
-Definition Of A Phrase
24. In view of the classification of phrases just given, the following, covering all these classes, will be found to be an accurate definition of a phrase: A combination of characters (simple or compl...
-Chapter II. The Phrasing Vocabulary. What Words May Be Phrased
25. The mere desultory stringing of words together is not phrasing. Even though the words may conveniently be joined, yet to phrase indiscriminately, without regard to the fitness of the words for p...
-Phrasing Vocabulary
merging with themselves, other common words, by means of the hooks, circles and other modifications or appendages which in phrasing represent whole words, and not, as in word-writing, merely portions ...
-Words Which May Not Be Phrased
27. While certain words phrase so readily that it may be said they invite the writer to phrase them, others, in order to be perfectly legible, require to stand alone. Among the class of words to be ph...
-Chapter III. The Requisites Of A Good Phrase
A good phonographic phrase is easy to write and pleasant to read. It brings the words harmoniously together like the members of a happy family; and to see them in such loving juxtaposition gives one ...
-Should Follow Natural Speech
28. A good phonographic phrase simply groups upon paper, words already grouped by the mind and tongue. Words which nature has thus blended and coalesced - which flow together as if they were the syll...
-Sense Relation
30. (b.) Words between which there is naturally a rhetorical or grammatical pause should not be joined. To connect words whose sense relation is not close gives a combination which is not suggestive. ...
-Some Bad Or Difficult Junctions Must Be Tolerated
33. But the young writer should not reject a phrase because he cannot at first make it with perfect ease and accuracy; for it may be a phrase quite desirable with reference both to speed and legibili...
-A Little Extra Care
34. It is impossible that all junctions should be equally good; and the writer must be content occasionally with some which are not absolutely unimpeachable - which are merely admissible. A distinguis...
-Bad Junctions Classified
39. It would be impossible to classify all the various species of bad junctions, and therefore the following list is not to be considered as exhaustive or complete. 40. (a.) One class of bad juncti...
-How May Bad Junctions Be Obviated?
48. (a.) By refraining from making the contemplated phrase; as by writing so large instead of (b.) By changing one of the word-forms, writing, for instance, so much instead ...
-Lineality, Etc
49. A good phrase should not extend inconveniently far above the line of writing, like the phrase literary researches, or rare resources; nor too far below, like the phrase to this day there appears t...
-Not Too Many Words
51. A good phrase does not contain an excessive number of words. The more words a phrase comprises, the harder it is for the mind, either in writing or in reading, to follow its course without confusi...
-A Good Phrase Is Legible
52. A prime requisite of a good phrase is that it should be capable of being read easily and unmistakably. Sometimes one phrase is liable to be mistaken for another, or for a word of several strokes. ...
-A Good Phrase Is Spontaneous
54. A phrase, to be of value, must be spontaneous. It should flow from the pen smoothly and pauselessly, without perceptible mental effort. Phrases which, while being written, require close attention ...
-Chapter IV. Limitations, Cautions, Etc
56. As the student, by practice and experience, gains gradually a mastery of the principles and rules of phrase-making, he will almost instinctively form, and form correctly, more phrases than can be ...
-Chapter V. Position
61. With a few exceptions, to be hereafter explained, the first word of a phrase must be written in its own position, that is, in the position which it properly occupies when standing alone; and the ...
-Partial Displacement
70. (a.) Sometimes normal position can be given to the second word of a phrase by slightly raising or lowering the first - enough to show that displacement is intended, but not enough to take the word...
-What Words Abe Thus Displaced
71. The words whose position may thus be modified without being absolutely sacrificed, are always words of the first position, and embrace, Certain tick word-signs, such as on, of, all, including I wh...
-Complete Displacement
72. (b.) In some cases distinctive position is secured for the second word of a phrase by taking the first entirely out of its normal place, provided it can be readily recognized when thus displaced. ...
-First Two Words Displaced
76. In a few cases, especially where a phrase begins with the a tick (which has no position), both the first and second words are accommodated to the position of the third, which is accorded its regul...
-When Is Initial Displacement Proper?
78. Initial displacement is not to be resorted to whenever practicable, but only when necessary. For the sake of legibility, it is generally desirable that the first word of the phrase, rather than th...
-Is," "His," "As," "Has
79. Some authors allow, and some reporters practise, complete and indiscriminate displacement of is, his, as, has, when any one of these words occurs as the first word of a phrase. Thus we see such ph...
-Distinction Of "I" And "He
80. The learner should be especially warned against writing initial I tick so low as to be mistaken for he, and initial he tick so high as to be mistaken for I. For certainty of distinction, as well a...
-Utility Of Initial Displacement
81. Where initial displacement occurs, the second word of the phrase is known to be in its normal position, because the first word is displaced. When, without initial displacement, the second word sim...
-Chapter VI. Word-Distinctions - Context
82. One of the greatest aids to a stenographer in reading his notes is context. Frequently it illuminates a sentence which otherwise would be hopelessly obscure. It is one of the commonest and most us...
-The Law Of Safe Ambiguity
83. The law of multiple meanings, or safe ambiguity, may be stated thus: Two or more significations may safely be attached to a single sign, if those significations are so remote in sense that when th...
-Three Methods Of Word-Distinction
85. Two or more words embracing the same consonants, if liable to be mistaken one for another (that is, if not distinguished by context), are, when written as isolated words, distinguished either by p...
-Exclusion Defined
88. Two words of similar outline, ordinarily and necessarily distinguished by position, may be distinguished for phrasing purposes by adopting it as an invariable rule that one of the words shall neve...
-Which Word Should Be Excluded?
89. When it is decided that of two particular words, one shall, for the sake of avoiding ambiguity, be excluded from phrases, the word selected for exclusion, (that is, selected for the slower method ...
-Variation Facilitates Junctions
91. It may be remarked incidentally that in a phrase, an unusual outline is often given to a word, not for the sake of word-distinction, but to accomplish an easy junction with the preceding or follow...
-Vocalization As A Substitute For Position
92. When distinction by Exclusion or by Variation seems unadvisable, there remains the method of distinction by Vocalization; that is to say, two words of similar outline, if liable to be confounded, ...
-Why Vocalization Is To Be Preferred
93. Of the three methods of distinction already pointed out as open to the phrase-writer - Exclusion, Variation and Vocalization - the last is generally the best. Unlike Variation, it does not disturb...
-Which Word Should Be Vocalized!
95. When, for the sake of word-distinction, resort is had to Vocalization, both of the words may be vocalized whenever they occur, or (what is decidedly preferable), one only may be vocalized, allowin...
-Full Vocalization Not Necessary
97. Usually the word distinguished by vocalization need not be fully vocalized; that is to say, all the vowels need not be inserted. Generally a single characteristic or distinctive vowel (that is, a ...
-Peculiar Vocalization
99. A method of vocalization peculiar to phrasing is practised by many reporters. Though an incomplete outline used as a word-sign does not usually require or even allow vocalization, such an outline ...
-Vocalization Of Badly-Shaped Outlines
100. Sometimes a word or a phrase which, if the characters were carefully shaped, would be perfectly legible, is, in the hurry of writing, slightingly or imperfectly formed; and the defect is instantl...
-Chapter VII. Variation Of Outline
101. Occasionally a word assumes in a phrase a form different from that which it takes when it stands alone. Uniformity of outline (in general highly desirable) is in these cases departed from in orde...
-Phrase Word-Signs
103. (1.) The circles, the hooks, the halving principle, the double-lengthing principle, etc., are used to furnish a body of word-signs peculiar to phrasing - signs which represent many of the leading...
-Word-Splitting
105. (3.) In some cases modifications may be applied to a stem to represent, not the whole of a succeeding word, but only the first part of it, the remainder being supplied by the next stroke. Thu...
-Restoration
106. (4.) For the sake of convenient phrasing, a full outline (that is, an outline embracing all the consonants of the word) may be substituted for an incomplete outline ordinarily used as a word-sign...
-Variation Without Curtailment
107. (5.) The varied form may embrace all the consonants of the regular form, but these (for the purpose of word-distinction or facile phrasing) may be combined or expressed in a different way from th...
-Variation Of Outline Fictitious Primitives
108. (6.) Occasionally, to achieve a phrase, a consonant stroke is substituted for a tick word-sign or a brief w or y word-sign or a circle word-sign, as where or is represented by the upward r in t...
-Omission Of Letters
109. (7.) Ordinary word-forms may be varied by the omission of one or more letters. This is sometimes done under some general law of ellipsis, as when we convert the st loop into a circle, and write m...
-Customary Phrases Varied
110. (8.) Sometimes a particular phrase, ordinarily written in a particular way, may, when it becomes part of a larger phrase, be varied in form or direction in order to facilitate a junction. Thus it...
-Contra-Normal Expedients Justified
111. (9.) Another form of variation occurs when, in the exercise of what may be called reporting license, we give to certain shorthand characters or elements a value or signification different in ph...
-Contra-Normal Expedients Classified
113. So far as these contra-normal expedients - expedients not so much outside of ordinary rules as against them - appear in the practice of reporters, they may be classified as follows: 114. (a.) ...
-Chapter VIII . The Law Of Implication
Words may often be entirely omitted, and yet no ambiguity ensue. - Mavor's Universal Stenography, (published 1807.) 122. For the sake of brevity, or to secure a facile phrase, several words, or a...
-Caution
128. The principle of ellipsis should not be applied to an unfamiliar phrase, and nothing is to be omitted except what may be called necessary connective words. The student, or even the advanced pract...
-Ellipsis Of "And
130. And, in the midst of a phrase, is frequently omitted and implied. ...
-Exebcise
Write the following phrases, omitting in each the conjunction and: again (and) again better (and) better deaf (and) dumb east (and) west forever (and) ever heaven (and) earth ladies (and) gentlemen...
-Ellipsis Of "Ob
131. Or, occurring in the midst of a phrase, is frequently omitted and implied. Exercise Write the following phrases, omitting in each the conjunction or: black or white more (or) less one (o...
-Ellipsis Of "The
132. The, occurring in the midst of a phrase, is frequently omitted and implied. Exercise Write the following phrases, omitting in each the article the: all (the) world at (the) present da...
-Ellipsis Exercise
Write the following phrases, omitting in each the preposition of: act (of) (Con)gress act (of) Parliament hill (of) lading bill (of) particulars bill (of) sale board (of) trade by way (of) illustra...
-Ellipsis Ob "Of The
134. Of the, in the midst of a phrase, is frequently omitted and implied. Cases of this kind, where of the is omitted, the adjacent words being joined, with nothing but the sense or construction to sh...
-Ellipsis Of "With
137. With may be omitted and implied at the end of such phrases as in conjunction with, etc. (See Paragraphs 328-329.) In the following phrases, with may be omitted: in accordance (with) in (com...
-Ellipsis Of "From
146. When in Congress, State Legislatures, or other deliberative assemblies, members of the body are referred to, not by their names, but by the localities from which they come, the word from, prec...
-Ellipsis Of "Con" Ob "Com
147. The prefix con or com, usually expressed in separately-written words by the dot, and in phrases by proximity,* may sometimes be omitted in a phrase, and the remainder of the word joined to the pr...
-Ellipsis Of "Ing
149. The participial termination ing may often be omitted and implied, to facilitate a junction with the next word; but in separately-written words or at the end of a phrase, the expression of ing wil...
-Omission Of Syllables Or Letters
150. As a general rule, to facilitate a phrase, we may omit a letter or a syllable when the omission does not make the word illegible, especially if the letter or syllable proposed to be omitted is ob...
-Ellipsis Of The Terminations "Al" And "Ly
151. The adjectival termination al and the adverbial termination ly are sometimes omitted to facilitate a junction, as in the phrases nation (al) expenditure, nation (al) resources, absolute (ly) nece...
-Ellipsis Of Initial "H
152. The h tick at the beginning of a word may frequently be omitted and implied, to facilitate a phrase. Illustrations: Ladies' (H)ome Journal our (h)ome market at (h)ome ...
-Ellipsis Of "T" Ob "D
153. To secure an easy junction, the sound of t at the end of a word may be omitted by changing an st loop to a circle. Illustrations: mus(t) be jus(t) now By means of this elisio...
-Two Circles Merged
158. A circle written instead of a loop at the end of a word may merge with a circle at the beginning of the Ellipsis next word, thus making a double circle, as in the phrases jus(t) as well as ...
-Ellipsis Of "S
159. For the sake of convenient phrasing, a single circle may be used for two sounds of s, and a double circle for three.** Illustrations: all that is said this (circum) stance ju...
-Hooks Elided
160. In order to facilitate phrasing, hooks, initial or final, are sometimes elided. Under this principle, the w at the beginning of well, willing and week is frequently omitted. Exercise Write ...
-Ellipsis Of Personal Pronouns
165. The personal pronouns I, you, he, we, they, when they occur in the midst of phrases like as near as you can, as much as I can, may be omitted, if the context will clearly and certainly suggest th...
-Phrases With Two Omissions
166. Frequently there are two omissions (and there may be more) in a single phrase. Illustrations: for (the) sake (of) in (the) sight (of) God ...
-Irregular Ellipsis
167. The cases of ellipsis already given in this chapter are capable of regular classification, each case falling under a given principle of omission. But there are some phrases which follow no genera...
-Chapter IX. The "Tick" Word-Signs
169. The tick word-signs, single and in groups, represent some of the most common and useful connective expressions of the language. They have been aptly termed the joints or hinges on which sentence...
-Initial Ticks
171. Of the ticks included in the list just given, all may be used initially (that is, at the beginning of a phrase), and when so used they occupy the position they would occupy if standing alone, the...
-173. Exercise On "Of" Tick (Initial)
of advantage of course of course it is of course they will of course they will be able of course this of everybody of God of honor of importance of law of life of m...
-178. Exercise On "All" Tick (Initial.)
*all are (are upward) all blessings all churches all (circum) stances all classes all (con)siderations all directions all his all his money all his own all honor all important all is not all ...
-179. Exercise On "Too" Tick (Initial.)
too careful too full too grave too great too important too late too little too many too much (men)* too recent too respectful too short too soon too sure too true too valuable 180. Exercise On ...
-181. Exercise On "Who" Tick (Initial.)
+who are (are downward) who are going who are laboring who are mostly who are only who are you who become who can ++who ca(n)not who could who could not who is *See Paragraphs 90 and 106. ...
-Exercise On "On" Tick (Initial)
182. In each of the following phrases, on is to be made upward: on all on all sides on being on bes(t) information on bes(t) terms on both on both sides on business on ...
-Exercise On "Should" Tick (Initial)
184. In the following phrases, should is to be made upward, except where otherwise indicated: should be should be able should be aware should be made should be mentioned should be remembered ...
-Exercises On "He" Tick
186. In the following phrases, he is to be made upward, except where otherwise indicated: *he calls he claims he finds he has another *It is strongly recommended that initial he be always ...
-Final Ticks
189. Most of the tick word-signs are joined freely to a preceding word without risk of illegibility, although when thus used they lose positional distinction, which can only be preserved at the ...
-Caution In Regard To Ticks
195. The ticks, as phrasing factors, are most conveniently used when prefixed to words having few or no initial circles, hooks, loops, etc., or affixed to words having few or no final appendages. To ...
-The "The" Tick
206. This tick is written either upward or downward, sometimes in the direction of p, but generally in the direction of chay, the effort being in each case to secure the best possible angle. Unlike ...
-The "I" Tick
209. For the personal pronoun I, beginning a phrase, we usually write only half the ordinary sign, striking the first half downward before certain strokes, or the second half upward before certain ...
-Exercise On "I" Tick (Upward)
I admit I agree I agree that I agree with I became I become I beg you will I beseech you I call I call for I can I ca(n) be there I ca(n) never be I ca(n) only s...
-I" And "He" Distinguished
220. It is absolutely necessary that I and he be in every case carefully distinguished. If the writer will make it an invariable rule that initial I shall be written in the first position, and ...
-The Tick Fob "There," Etc
231. According to Mr. Graham there, their, they are, and occasionally other, when they cannot otherwise be-conveniently expressed in a phrase, may be denoted by a heavy tick written in the direction ...
-Hooks On Ticks
234. According to Mr. Graham, each of the several tick word-signs may take an initial or a final hook (in some cases both), as follows: An l hook to add will or all, as who will of all ...
-Appendages To Hooks And Ticks
241. To a tick with an initial or a final hook there may be appended, according to Mr. Graham, an s circle, a tick, the personal pronoun you, the ing dot; and also the disjoined ticks a and the, ...
-Chapter X. The Circle Word-Signs
246. The circle word-signs, is, his, as and has, are freely used in phrases, initially, medially and finally. Each of these words, when beginning a phrase, should be written in its normal position, ...
-247. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "Is
is done is generally is he sure is not is not necessary is not now is now is probable (or probably) *Instead of giving to is, his, as and has at the beginning of a phrase...
-248. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "His
his honor His Honor Judge Smith His Honor (the) Judge his judgment his knowledge his own (I. D.) his own name (I. D.) his own opinion (I. D.) his own position (I. D.) his own volition (...
-249. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "As
as (a) matter as (a) matter (of) course as (a) matter (of) fact as (a) matter (of) law as early as (I. D.) as for a as good as good as as good as possible as great as gre...
-250. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "Has
has again and again has another has been has done has done it has found has had has had a has just has jus(t) as has known has long been (I. D.) has made h...
-S Circle For "Us
252. Us in phrasing is generally (but never at the beginning of a phrase) represented by a circle. Illustrations: for us by us of us to us Exercise 253. In ...
-Circles Joined To Ticks Or "Brief W Or Y" Word-Signs
254. A circle may be joined, if convenient, to a tick word-sign or a brief w or y word-sign. Illustrations: is to as to is a as a is the as the ...
-Coalescing Or Merging Of Circles
255. When a word consisting of or ending with a circle is joined to a following word consisting of or beginning with a circle, the two circles merge or coalesce, making a double-sized circle. ...
-261. Exercise Ox Initial "Is," "His," "As," Ob "Has," Making Part Of A Double Circle
as has as has been as has been done as has bee(n) said as has never as is known as is now as soon as as soon as it may as soon as they as soon as possible as suc...
-262. Exercise On Phrases Containing Two Medial Circles Merged
by his several does as much if his subject if his success if his suggestion for Chris(t's) sake for his sake gives his time (tm) gives sufficient in his senses in h...
-Circle Word-Sign Following A Final Circle
263. To a word with a final circle, a circle word-sign (especially us or his) may be added by converting the final circle into a double-sized circle. Illustrations: bless us or bless his, ...
-A Circle Word-Sign After A Double Circle
265. To a word ending with a double circle, a circle word-sign (most commonly us or his) may be added by carrying the additional circle to the opposite side of the stroke. Illustrations: raises us ...
-A Circle Word-Sign After A Loop
267. To a word ending with a loop, a circle word-sign (most commonly us or his) may be added by carrying the circle to the opposite side of the stroke. Illustrations: against us or against his ...
-Ellipsis Of A Circle
269. A single circle is often written instead of a double circle, to avoid the inconvenience of writing the latter upon a half-length character. Illustrations: all that is said it is ...
-Vocalization Of The Circle
273. When necessary to distinguish one circle word-sign from another, vocalization may be resorted to. For instance, it may sometimes be wise to distinguish in this way it has from it is ...
-Fictitious Primitive For "Is," "As," Or "Has
274. Is, as or has is sometimes represented by the fictitious primitive in order that it may be added by halving, or there by double-lengthing. Illustrations: is it as it ...
-Chapter XI. "Brief W And Y" Word-Signs
275. Subject to general phrasing laws as to convenience of junction, sense relation, etc., the brief w and y word-signs (we, with, were, what, would, you, ye, yet, beyond) may all be joined ...
-276. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "We."'
we admit we attempt we believe we blame we call we claim we decide we declare we deem (I. D.) we demand we deny we depend we design we did we did many things ...
-277. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "With.""
with a with advantage with each (I. D.) with its with itself with justice with much (I. D.) with one with one another with such with that with the with thanks (I. D.) ...
-278. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "Were
were a were chosen were discovered were done were generally were glad were his were just were jus(t) as necessary were once were only were seen were taken were the were t...
-279. Exercise On Phrases Ending With "Were
all they were and were as they were if they were many were since they were so many were so they were some were think they were till they were we were when they were when we were where they were where ...
-281. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "What
what answer what are the (are downward) what are you (are downward) what can be (the) reason what can be their reason what can it be what ca(n) there be what church what ...
-282. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "Would
would a (horizontal tick) would accept would another would ask would be would be able would become would be done would be glad would be made would be one would be only...
-283. Exercise On "Would" Joined To A Preceding Word
but would but would be but would not but would rather but would say each would each would be he would (he downward) he would do he would go he would know he would neve...
-285. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "You
you always you are (are upward) you are able you are aware you are becoming you are called upon you are doing you are going you are interested you are known you are neces...
-286. Exercise On "You" Joined To A Preceding Word
about you after you after you are (are upward) after you receive after you will be although you although you are although you may although you will beneath you hut you but y...
-287. Exercise On Phrases Beginning With "Ye," "Yet" And "Beyond
ye do ye had (I. D.) ye never ye think ye did not ye do not (I. D.) ye had not (I. D.) ye have yet another yet it is not yet it is nothing yet it is no doubt yet this ...
-Junction Of Brief "W" And "Y" Word-Signs
288. In a few cases where the junction is convenient, a brief w or y word-sign may be joined to another such sign. Illustrations: we were , were we what would In these ...
-Initial "W" Hook For "We" And "With
291. The initial w hook, which the rules of word-writing authorize upon five alphabetic strokes (el, lay, n, m and ray), may in phrasing be prefixed to any of those strokes to represent we or with. ...
-Exercise On "We Know
293. By writing the phrase we know, for the sake of distinction, below the line, we avoid the necessity which otherwise might often arise, of distinguishing it by vocalization from when in the first ...
-Inversion Of "You," "Were," Etc
298. We, were, would and you, when their regular forms would join inconveniently or not at all, may, for the sake of a phrase, be inverted; that is to say, the open or hollow side of the curve may be ...
-Position Of "You" And "Your
303. At the beginning of phrases, you and your, in their inverted form, may safely sacrifice their normal position and are generally written as high or low as may be necessary in order to bring the ...
-Expression Of "You Would," "Were You," Etc
304. Every shorthand writer of experience has had forced upon him in his daily practice the conviction that such common colloquial expressions as would you, what you, you were, with you, ought not to ...
-Exercise On "We Would" And "Would We
306. In the following phrases, we would is to be written with enlarged we, in horseshoe form, and without any thickening of the curve: ...
-Brief W And Y" Word-Signs. 1g5
I know we would if we would we would we would attempt we would call we would choose we would deny we would discharge we would dismiss we would do something we would find ...
-Exercise On "What We" And "What Were
308. What may be enlarged to add we or were. Illustrations: what we do what we ask In accordance with these examples, write the following phrases: what we what we are (are ...
-Exercise On "You Were" And "You Would
309. You may be enlarged to add were or would, as in the phrases you were ready you would go In accordance with these examples, write the following phrases: you were you were ...
-Quasi "R" Hook For "You
314 1/2. As a contra-normal expedient, you, according to the Graham system, may be joined in certain phrases in such a way that it resembles the r hook. Illustrations: you say you shall ...
-Chapter XII. Proximity
315. The bringing of words or parts of words close together, but without joining, for the purpose of indicating omitted words or parts of words, is called proximity; and the words or parts of words ...
-When "Of The" Cannot Be Indicated
318. (a.) If the clause of the follows a period or any other distinct pause, it cannot be indicated by proximity, because of the fundamental rule that words separated by a distinct pause cannot be ...
-From-To
324. In such expressions as from time to time, from place to place, etc., the words from and to may be omitted *Many Graham writers express all of by adding to all the f-v hook, to which, in the ...
-Of" Expressed By Proximity
327. In some special cases proximity indicates merely the omission of of, as in the phrase kingdom of God. In the Graham system of is very frequently thus indicated. con or com expressed by ...
-Prefixes In The Midst Of Phrases
337. Any word which, as ordinarily written, has a disjoined prefix (such as incompetent, recognize, etc.), takes in a phrase its ordinary form, the prefix being joined, if convenient, to the ...
-Ing A," "Ing The," Etc
339. When a word having the participial termination ing is immediately followed by a, an or and, the a tick (perpendicular or horizontal, according to convenience), may be written in the place of the ...
-The Termination "Ing There
343. When there or their immediately follows a word having the participial termination ing, a disjoined there tick (in the direction of either b or j) may be written in the place of the ing dot to ...
-The Termination "Ing His" Or "Ing Us
347. A disjoined circle may be written in the place of the ing dot to express ing his or ing us. Illustrations: taking his or taking us loving his or loving us Exercise 348. In ...
-Proximity IX Special Phrases
349. Sometimes a special phrase is not written by a continuous movement, but is broken by lifting the pen, the two parts being written in proximity. In such cases proximity serves the purpose ...
-Chapter XIII. "Will" Or "All" Expressed By The "L" Hook
350. The l hook, prefixed to a single consonant stroke, such as each, which, much, they, adds will or all. Illustrations: it will which will each will much will ...
-All" Following "Of" Or "With
358. Treating as a fictitious primitive for of. and as a fictitious primitive for with, we obtain the useful phrases of all and with all Exercise 359. ...
-Chapter XIV. The "R" Hook
are expressed by the r hook. 362. By combining the r hook with the consonant strokes which, such and they, we may add are. Illustrations: which are, they are such are ...
-The "R" Hook For "Our
364. To a few stroke word-signs - at, for, in, which, by, and possibly some others - our is added by prefixing the r hook. Illustrations: at our , by our Exercise 365. In the ...
-Addition Of "Or
369. In a few cases the r hook adds or, as in the phrases at or about , at or near, Exercise 870. Write the following: at or about at or near that place at or about that ...
-Chapter XV. Some Special Phrase-Signs
may be. 378. The stroke mb is freely used in phrasing to represent may be. Illustrations: it may be as may be you may be We may be prefixed to may be by ...
-In Re-
385. Phrases like in reply, in response, etc., in which the preposition in is followed by a word beginning with re-, may be written thus: in reply in response Exercise 386. ...
-In Recon-," Etc
387. Nr, disjoined from, but written in close proximity to, the following character, may represent in recon, in recom or in recog, as in the phrases, in recompense in recognition ...
-Chapter XVI. The Double-Length Principle - Expression Of "Their", "There" And "They Are."
399. In learning how to write single or separate words, the pupil has learned the use of the double-lengthing principle to express the consonant sounds thr, dr, tr, as occurring, for instance, in the ...
-Position Of Double-Length Strokes
*For a convenient method of writing such phrases as loves their, thinks their, says their, see Paragraph 396. 402. When standing alone or at the beginning of a phrase, the double-length stroke must...
-Double Length "Ing" And "Mb
405. In word-writing the double-lengthing of ing has the peculiar and exceptional effect of adding kr or gr, as in the words rancor and languor and the doubling of mb adds r, as in ...
-They Are
410. The phrase they are is frequently expressed by doubling, in the same manner and under the same restrictions as in the case of there or their. Illustrations: I know they are done I ...
-Other
412. Other may be joined to a preceding word by doubling; but the vowel must generally be inserted. (Mun-son.) But in doubling every, several, some, my, our and your to add other, vocalization is ...
-Whether
424. In a few cases, whether may be expressed by doubling the preceding stroke. Illustrations: you know whether it is I will think whether you are Exercise 425. In the ...
-Double-Length Strokes Joined Without An Angle
426. Although in general it is forbidden to run together two strokes of different lengths without an angle or distinct point of junction, to show where one stroke ends and the other begins, yet by ...
-Triple-Length Stroke
428. Sometimes a consonant stroke is extended to triple length, for the purpose of including therein an additional there or they are, as in the phrase whether they are ready Exercise 429. ...
-Unduly Long Phrases To Be Avoided
431. In order to avail himself of the doubling principle, the young stenographer is often tempted to make phrases extending upward, downward or laterally to an undue length.- If wise, he will adhere ...
-Double Lengthing Of Straight Strokes
432. According to the Graham system (not the Pitman) thr, tr and dr may, by doubling, be added to a straight stroke as well as a curve. Heavy straight consonants, when made double length for this ...
-Chapter XVII. The "N" Hook . Expression Of "One."
434. Subject to fundamental phrasing laws as to convenience of junction, legibility, etc., the n hook may be added to any full-length or double-length stroke to express one. Illustrations: every ...
-The "N" Hook. Expression Of "One". Continued
with your own hands with your own knowledge with your own name with your own neighbors with your own things 443. In many cases, own is conveniently joined by the n hook to with our, thu...
-Chapter XVIII. The Half-Length Principle
it expressed by halving. 460. To a word consisting of, or ending with, a full-length stroke, it may frequently be added by halving such stroke. Illustrations: if it until it ...
-"Would" Expressed By Halving
467. Certain single strokes representing respectively it, which, such, she, they, there and they are, may be written half length in the third position to add would; thus, it would such would ...
-"Would" Expressed By Halving. Continued
or. was not have not were not we will not we may not. we are not, they will not I think not why not. ...
-Expression Of "Not" By N Hook
475. In certain cases, the expression of not by n hook and half-lengthing is not practicable, because the stroke to which not is to be attached has already been halved. Hence the following rule: To ...
-Chapter XIX. The "F-V Hook."
have and to have expressed by the f-v hook. 480. In many cases, have or to have may be expressed by a hook, thus: which have such have it will have which will ha...
-485. Exercise
ought to have this ought to have that ought to have none ought to have now ought to have shown ought to have information ought to have been ought to have become ought to have found ought to have in...
-488. Exercise
it ought to have it ought to have the it ought to have his it ought to have none it ought to have nothing it ought to have enough it ought to have done it ought to have been it ought to have chosen...
-The "F-V" Hook
a number of cases a number of his a number of us ahead of another ahead of time (tm) another side of aware of aware of his aware of many aware of most *city of Annapolis city of Newark city of Newport...
-V" Hook On "Ith" And "The
508. The large final hook on the consonant strokes ith and the is theoretically a shun hook; but as such it is useless, there being no word in the English language which calls for the use of such ...
-Chapter XX. The "N Curl."
513. The initial n hook (otherwise called the in hook or the in curl) is used in word-writing to express the syllables in, un, or en at the beginning of such words as instruct unstrung ...
-The Combinations Represented By The "N Curl
514. The in hook with its accompanying circle may be prefixed to the following-named consonants and consonantal combinations: To pr, as in the phrase in spring To br, as in the phrase in ...
-Position Of "N Curl
516. As the n curl, like a tick, can never be written alone, it has no position of its own, and hence, with its accompanying circle, accommodates itself to the normal position of the succeeding word. ...
-Double Circle Following The "In Curl"
522. When the initial n hook and its accompanying circle are prefixed to a word beginning with a circle, the two circles merge or coalesce, forming a double-sized circle; thus: in his sympathy ...
-523. Exercise
in his (con)sideration in his description in his experience in his expression in his salvation in his secret in his security in his seeming in his simple in his sober in his sojourn in his...
-Chapter XXI. Special Methods Of Writing Particular Words Or Expressions
525. Ability. Disjoined b, which in word-writing expresses the termination bility, may be used in phrases to represent ability. Illustrations: my ability your ability , best (of) ...
-Special Methods Of Writing Particular Words Or Expressions. Part 2
538. Him and me, when occurring in the midst of phrases, need to be carefully distinguished, because in such cases the ordinary positional distinction is lost. In several instances the necessary ...
-Special Methods Of Writing Particular Expressions. Part 3
554. See, say. At the beginning of a phrase these words are distinguished by position. Elsewhere in a phrase, see should be vocalized, while say need not be. 555. Session is often added to a ...
-Chapter XXII. Invention Of Irregular Phrase-Signs
566. When particular word-groups are uttered over and over again, in either general or special matter, the speaker becomes accustomed to their utterance, and hence they are spoken with more than his ...
-Premeditated Phrase-Signs
568. In some cases these are provided beforehand, because of their foreseen necessity. The office stenographer, if anxious to give full satisfaction to his employer, will, when a lull of regular ...
-Off-Hand Phrase-Signs
569. But irregular phrase-signs must oft-times be invented by the stenographer during the course of note-taking. Such invention is generally a step-by-step process. Rarely does the reporter, on the ...
-Irregular Phrases Classified
570. The following are the principal classes of word-groups which, often recurring and not briefly enough written by ordinary methods, may be represented by irregular phrase-signs, similar in ...
-Cautions
573. In devising irregular phrases, the young writer may wisely bear in mind the following suggestions and cautions: (a.) In the writing of either words or phrases, the stenographer should avoid ...
-Chapter XXIII. Irregular Phrases Of General Utility
574. To some students the following list of Special or Irregular Phrases may at first glance appear disappointingly meagre. For such, a few words of explanation may be necessary. In the first place, ...
-Irregular Phrases Of General Utility. Continued
in writing Jesus Christ joint stock justification by faith learned counsel learned friend learned gentleman-men learned judge Lo...
-Chapter XXIV. Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases
575. The words composing the following phrases are written just as they would be if standing separate, except where, in the midst of phrases, they necessarily lose their normal position. The correct ...
-Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases
above his account book after he after such after the after that after them after they after this after which after you after your after yours agree that although this always be always ready a...
-Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases. Part 2
Christian principles Christian religion Christian system circuit court civil law civil power civil service reform commanding officer commercial freedom common law c...
-Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases. Part 3
if he ca(n) if he is if he is not if he was if his if his desire if possible if such if that if that has if that has been if that is if that is done if that is not if that w...
-Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases. Part 4
know better know it is not know nothing know that know that it is know them know this know where it is knows that knows them knows this law court letter book ...
-Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases. Part 5
such matters such may such men such only such persons such principles such therefore such you suppose you are sure way take another case take care take courage take notes take occasion takes occ...
-Simple Or Word-Joining Phrases. Part 6
very bad very best very certain very dear very good very great very late very lately very likely very many very much (m, ch) very near very probable very...









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