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Fish Hatching, And Fish Catching | by Barnwell Roosevelt, Seth Green



During the few years which have intervened since the discovery of fish culture, its practise has advanced with rapid strides, and although it is still little more than in its infancy; the laws which govern its management have been so far ascertained and applied that it is now an established art, capable of yielding vast results for the benefit of mankind. The days of doubt and uncertainty have passed away, and numerous experiments lending invariably to the same end have established it on a firm basis...

TitleFish Hatching, And Fish Catching
AuthorR. Barnwell Roosevelt, Seth Green
PublisherUnion And Advertiser Co
Year1879
Copyright1879, R. Barnwell Roosevelt
AmazonFish Hatching, And Fish Catching
Fish Hatching, And Fish Catching Book Cover

Fish Hatching, And Fish Catching.

R. Barnwell Roosevelt,

Commissioner of Fisheries of the State of New York, Author of Game Fish, etc., etc.,

And Seth Green,

Superintendent of Fisheries of the State of New York.

Rochester, N. Y.:

Union And Advertiser Co.'s Book And Job Print. 1879.

-Introduction
During the few years which have intervened since the discovery of fish culture, its practise has advanced with rapid strides, and although it is still little more than in its infancy; the laws which g...
-Kinds Of Water And Fish-Fecundity-Cold-Blooded Creatures
Fish can be raised with less trouble and cost than other articles of food. The lakes and rivers are full of animal and vegetable organizations upon which fish can live, now wasted, but which should be...
-Chapter I. Fish Culture
We do not propose to trace back the science of fish culture to its origin, nor settle the disputed claims of individuals or nations, to its discovery. That the old stagnant, almond-eyed nation of the ...
-Fish Culture. Continued
But if with comparatively little care and expense our great rivers can be stocked, in the meanwhile there is room enough for private enterprise. There are tew farmers in our country who do not have up...
-Chapter II. Trout Culture. General Considerations
There are but few salmon rivers in this country. This may be changed by the introduction of the California salmon, which will endure a higher temperature than the trout; but at present the only rivers...
-Trout Culture. General Considerations. Part 2
Unpromising as all this is, however, for a good crop of trout in the natural way, it is only the beginning of the trouble. The danger of disease or physical injury is always present. Heavy rains come ...
-Trout Culture. General Considerations. Part 3
Before leaving this branch of our subject, it is well to consider the geographical distribution of trout dependent as this is upon the character of the water in different sections of the country. Tro...
-Chapter III. Trout Ponds
Location It is very easy with good spring water to raise a few trout anywhere in temperate latitudes. But to raise a large number requires care in the selection of a location. Plenty of pure spring w...
-Trout Ponds. Continued
Bottom Of Ponds It matters very little of what material the bottom is composed. Anything - mud, clay or moss is good, except gravel, and this is bad, not from the nature of the substance, but because...
-Chapter IV. Hatching House
As a convenient illustration of a hatching house, we will present a view of the State establishment at Caledonia, as it was in the year 1875, the subsequent changes not being material to its efficienc...
-Hatching House. Continued
Troughs These should be made of seasoned timber, one and a half inches thick. They should be six inches deep and about fifteen inches wide, inside measurement. It would be better, perhaps, if the tro...
-Chapter V. Treatment Of Eggs
Placing Eggs In The Troughs The eggs of a trout are about one-sixth of an inch in diameter, and nearly round. They are generally of a light straw or salmon color. The color varies with the meat of th...
-Treatment Of Eggs. Continued
Transportation Of Eggs Eggs should be packed in round tin boxes, about three inches wide and two and one-half inches deep; a few small holes are punched in the bottom to let the water run off, as wat...
-Chapter VI. Young Trout And Salmon
Appearance After the eggs have lain in the water from fifty to seventy-five days, according to the temperature, the Trout will begin to make their appearance, the egg appears to be endowed with life,...
-Young Trout And Salmon. Part 2
Cleaning the troughs must be peformed daily, in the morning and evening. A thin board nearly as wide as the trough and shaped like a hand shovel, is made with a short stick for a handle nailed across ...
-Young Trout And Salmon. Part 3
Growth There will be a great difference in the growth of the fish noticeable after the first few weeks of their existence. Some, of course, will be larger and more vigorous than others from their bir...
-Salmon Ponds
In order to hatch salmon it is necessary to have ponds where they can be retained till they are ripe after they appear in the spring, although as they are migratory, it is impossible to keep them thro...
-Chapter VII. Adult Trout
Supply Of Water For Given Number Of Trout This has never been accurately determined, and we do not know that any general rule can be given applicable to all times and places. The quantity required fo...
-Adult Trout. Part 2. Color and Food
Color A. trout is always the color of the bottom over which it lies; and in passing from one color of bottom to another, it will change in a minute. The trout in deep and shaded pools are notoriously...
-Adult Trout. Part 3. Food
Fish of any kind are a very good food for trout. If they are small they may be put into the water whole, the trout will take them all the better if they are alive. Any coarse fish which can be obtaine...
-Adult Trout. Part 4. Temperature Of Water
Temperature Of Water The colder the water is, down to forty degrees, the better the trout will do. They will die in the ponds if the water rises to seventy degrees, unless there is a spring in the po...
-Adult Trout. Part 5. Diseases And Enemies
Diseases And Enemies The diseases to which adult trout are subject are numerous and often fatal. Some times a trout will be observed to have a white fungus growing upon it in spots. This will spread ...
-Adult Trout. Part 6
The fish farmer can always tell by looking at his trout in the morning whether they have been disturbed during the night. If they have been molested, whether by birds, mink or men, they will appear ex...
-Chapter VIII. The Holton And Other Hatching Boxes
One of the most valuable, practical inventions in reference to the hatching of the eggs of the salmonidae was made by Marcellus Holton, while in the employ of the New York fishery commission. It consi...
-The Holton And Other Hatching Boxes. Continued
We have said that whitefish work up through the trays and pass over the rim into the reservoirs. This is the habit with whitefish and with shad, but the salmon, salmon trout and brook trout, work down...
-Chapter IX. Manipulating Salmon And Trout
Spawning Season The salmon family of the Atlantic States, including the eastern salmon, the salmon trout, the brook trout, the whitefish, and the lake herring, spawns in the autumn and fore part of w...
-Manipulating Salmon And Trout. Part 2
After five or ten minutes the male pays her a visit to see how she is getting along. He looks around a little, eats a few of the eggs if he can find any uncovered, and then retires to his lurking plac...
-Manipulating Salmon And Trout. Part 3
It must be remembered in this and all subsequent handling of the fish, that it the outer skin of a trout is broken or abraded by the hand or in contact with any hard substance, it will, in nineteen ca...
-Manipulating Salmon And Trout. Part 4
The large trout are harder to handle, struggle more violently, and are more apt to be killed than the smaller ones and do not average so many eggs, although now and then one will have a very large num...
-Manipulating Salmon And Trout. Part 5
Dead Ova The following is taken from the Ohio Report on fisheries, as it expresses our views on the possibilities and limits of impregnating the eggs of dead fish: An opinion has long been prevalent...
-General Remarks On Trout Breeding
There are other methods of hatching the eggs which are partly natural and partly artificial, and which persons can use who are not in condition to oversee the eggs during their long period of incubati...
-General Remarks On Trout Breeding. Part 2. Stocking Streams
Stocking Streams Persons who own trout-streams would very often like to have them re-stocked, and some make feeble attempts to do it, by putting in a few thousand young fish. This would re stock a sm...
-General Remarks On Trout Breeding. Part 3. Transporting Live Fish
Transporting Live Fish Many expensive tanks have been constructed for transporting fish alive, answering the purpose more or less perfectly. We give here a simple and inexpensive method: Take a barre...
-General Remarks On Trout Breeding. Part 4. Fishways
Fishways The selection of a proper form of fishway is a difficult matter, and has never yet been determined. Several forms and plans have been selected, from the plain, open, inclined shute to a syst...
-Grayling
Before passing to the consideration of other kinds of fish, we desire to speak of species allied to the salmon and trout, although different in many of their habits. Much excitement was created in th...
-Blue Backed Trout. Salmo Oquossa
This fish which is a species of char or salmo umbla of Europe, has only been noticed heretofore in some of the lakes of Maine, although varieties of char are found in most of the waters of Canada and ...
-Smelt
These fish which are a variety of the salmon-oids are to be treated very differently from the trout and salmon, for their eggs are exceedingly adhesive. They ascend the rivers in early spring. In the ...
-Whitefish
We have received the following communication on the hatching and raising of whitefish. No one has had greater experience or success with this peculiarly delicate and difficult variety of fish than the...
-Chapter XII. Shad Culture
The fish for cultivation in American waters, the fish which nature has given us preeminently as one of its best gifts to man is the shad. Adapted to all our seaboard streams; once numerous in every ri...
-Shad Culture. Part 2
When the mature shad prepare to perform the duty of propogating their race they direct their energies to that, and without intermission. They seem to be pressed by an overpowering necessity, and will ...
-Shad Culture. Part 3. Artificial Method
Artificial Method Shad eggs differ essentially from trout eggs and require wholly different manipulation. They are much smaller and lighter. If a trout or salmon egg is dropped into water it sinks at...
-Shad Culture. Part 4. Handling The Eggs
Handling The Eggs Shad do not spawn during the day, but commence these operations about dusk and continue them till midnight. For the purposes of artificial cultivation they must be taken when they a...
-Chapter XIII. Black Bass And Other Fish
We now come to the consideration of other species of fish that need entirely different treatment. Most of them are rarely cultivated on the purely artificial plan in consequence of peculiarities of th...
-The Black Bass
This is among the finest sporting as well as food fish in America. It abounds in the clear waters of the Western and Northern lakes; bites fiercely at fly or trowlling spoon, makes a vigorous fight fo...
-Oswego Bass, White Perch, Rock Bass
The same observations apply to these varieties as to the black bass. They spawn a little earlier, say in May and early June, and are to be treated in the same way. The Oswego bass is not so exacting, ...
-Pike-Perch
This fish which passes under many aliases as the grass pike, the pike of the lakes, the walleyed pike and pickerel of Canada, is an inhabitant of many of the larger waters of our country, and was form...
-Gold Fish And Carp
May be hatched precisely like pike perch. They spawn in June and can be raised to advantage by the artificial method, as in their natural state the old ones devour the young as fast as they appear. Pe...
-Sturgeon
As an article of food the flesh of this fish is not to be despised. In England, being a royal dish, it is held in high estimation, and every sturgeon captured in the British Isles is the property of H...
-Striped Bass, Rockfish of the South
Contrary to the opinions of most fish culturists, the ova of the striped bass have been found to be entirely free from the gelatinous covering which always surrounds the eggs of the perch, pike, black...
-Catfish
These have habits somewhat like the black bass. They make nests and guard over them and their young. They spawn in June, and are exceedingly prolific. The young grow rapidly, and should be transported...
-Lobsters
The American lobster is found upon the Atlantic coast from New Jersey to Labrador, and yet almost nothing has been published in regard to its traits and local distribution. It lives upon rocky, gravel...
-Frog Culture
There are many stagnant pools about the country useless in their present state, which can be utilized by converting them into frog ponds, and the man who could raise a million of frogs and get them sa...
-Preserving Fluid
The ordinary methods of preserving specimens of eggs and fish, have never proved satis factory. We have obtained the following receipt, and have tested it thoroughly, both for delicate young fry and f...
-Chapter XIV. Fish Catching
We now come to the second division of our work. Having told our readers how to hatch fish, we will now tell them how to catch them. We do not propose to enter into a minute consideration of the subjec...
-Fish Catching. Continued
It is too much the habit with all anglers to seek their sport only during the day, for often better fishing and far pleasanter can be had at night. So common is this mistake that few persons know that...
-Salmon Fly Fishing
Casting the fly is essentially the same sort of art, whether it is east for salmon or for trout, and is the highest development of the angler's skill. It is no more difficult, perhaps, than easting th...
-Lines
Practically there is but one line for fly-fishing, either for salmon or trout, the braided silk covered with a water-proof preparation, and tapered. We have a fondness theoretically for the horse-hair...
-Casting Line
More important even than the line is the casting line or leader, as we usually call it, made of lengths of silk-worm gut. For the salmon fishing it should be of round, clear, transparent single strand...
-Flies
This is a subject of infinite variety. We scarcely know where to begin, nor how much to say. We would advise every angler to learn to tie his own flies - not that he will or should always do so, becau...
-Hooks
As to the selection of the best shape of hook for fly tying, there is a difference of opinion between the editors of this work, and the reader will have to choose between them. One favors his own disc...
-Fly Tying And Salmon Flies
It is generally considered that fly making cannot be taught by written instruction, but at all events there is something that the experienced, and an immense deal that the partially instructed beginne...
-Fly Tying And Salmon Flies. Continued
No. 6, The Parson. - This is a beautiful and efficient fly; the wings are mixed, and very similar to those of No. 1, but have a slight mixture of wood duck in them ; the body is of very dark claret si...
-Reels
There is probably no better reel than the ordinary click reel. It should have the handle set in the plate and not on an arm around which the line will be forever catching. For salmon fishing of course...
-Casting The Fly
We can think of no way of giving oral or written instruction in fly fishing. The purpose is to get the line out straight, clear and lightly as far as possible, and skill in doing so is only to be acqu...
-Other Methods Of Fishing
As salmon. and trout are only taken for sport, they should never be caught with anything but the fly, which is the highest development of sport in fishing. Salmon are never fished for in any other way...
-Salmon-Trout
As the fishing for salmon-trout is altogether different from that for salmon or trout, we will give separate directions in reference to it. These fish are known under several names, both scientific an...
-Fishing Black Bass
These fish are taken with the fly either cast as in trout fishing or trolled behind a boat and with spinning tackle. They are also caught with bait and show a preference for fresh water helgramite and...
-Fishing Oswego Bass
These fish resemble the black bass so closely that they are often confounded with them, but they are quite inferior. They inhabit a lower class of waters, prefering ponds and streams with sluggish cur...
-Fishing Mascallonge
This fish, which is the king of the pickerel tribe, grows to a great size and gives good sport. He is strong and willful, and is much better on the table than his smaller kinsmen. He is taken by troll...
-Fishing Pickerel And Yellow Perch
The most artistic way of taking pickerel in summer is with the spear, but they are generally taken with a spoon and line bait. They furnish poor food and worse sport, as a general thing, and are not e...
-Fishing Shad Fly-Fishing
Shad can be taken with the fly, but only where they are collected together in considerable quantities, or over a reef, or where they are obstructed by a dam or falls. The same rule obtains with salmon...
-Fishing Striped Bass
The fishing for striped bass is altogether different from anything that has heretofore been described. It requires a different rod, reel, line and bait. It is true that at certain places bass may be t...
-Lines And Leaders
The best lines are of grass or raw silk, but they are expensive, rot easily, require the utmost care, and will whip out against the bars of the reel. Silk lines are apt to stick and will not deliver r...
-Lines And Leaders. Continued
Lobster which is also used as a bait in this style of fishing is deficient in tenacity, and has to be tied on like menhaden, and probably the natural squid would be an effective and manageable bait, c...
-Fishing Blue Fish
These fish furnish one of the most remarkable instances of the appearance and disappearance of species on our coast. As in our day with the Spanish mackerel, that favorite of the gourmand, so in forme...
-Fishing Spanish Mackerel
These splendid fish which have become quite abundant at times on our coast of late years, are shy and difficult to capture. They were occasionally taken while trolling for blue fish, but we have sale....
-Fishing Weak-Fish And King Fish
The latter of these are exceedingly the better fish to eat, and are deserving of the angler's attention whenever they can be found, which is only in a few of the salt water bays or inlets of our coast...
-Chapter XVII. Nets And Netting
Before closing this work we will say a few words concerning nets and the dangers that follow unrestricted net fishing. When the country was sparsely populated, and fish were abundant, the most ready a...
-Nets And Netting. Continued
It took up its permanent residence with us and proceeded to increase and multiply. It is now the most abundant of our salt water fishes. It stands at the head of the list and yet it may be on the way ...









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