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The American Cyclopaedia Vol1 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol1

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Aaron Bancroft
Aaron Bancroft, an American clergyman, born in Reading, Mass., Nov. 10, 1755, died in Worcester, Mass., Aug. 19, 1839. He was educated in the Calvinistic ...
-Aba Mohammed Kasem Ben Ali Hariri
Aba Mohammed Kasem Ben Ali Hariri, an Arabian poet, born in Bassorah about 1050, died there in 1121 or 1122. The name Hariri, dealer in silk, is believed to ...
-Aba Sambal, Or Abusimbel Ipsambul
Aba Sambal, Or Abusimbel Ipsambul, a place in lower Nubia, on the left bank of the Nile, 30 m. S. W. of Derr, lat. 22 22' N., Ion. 31 40' E., remarkable for ...
-Abel Aubert Du Petit-Thouars
Abel Aubert Du Petit-Thouars,, a French naval officer, born Aug. 3, 1793, died March 17, 1864. He entered the navy in 1804, and was rapidly promoted. From 1837 ...
-Abel Francois Villemain
Abel Francois Villemain, a French author, born in Paris, June 9, 1790, died there, May 8, 1870. He completed his education at the imperial lyceum (the present ...
-Abel Stevens
Abel Stevens, an American clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1815. lie studied at Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn., and in 1834 was settled as ...
-Abiel Holmes
Abiel Holmes, an American clergyman, born in Woodstock, Conn., Dec. 24, 1763, died in Cambridge, Mass., June 4, 1837. He graduated at Yale college in 1783, and ...
-Abol-Hasan Ali Ben Hnsoin Ben All Masidi
Abol-Hasan Ali Ben Hnsoin Ben All Masidi, an Arabian scholar, born in Bagdad about 890, died probably in Cairo in 956. He belonged to a family illustrious from ...
-Abraham Clark
Abraham Clark, an American patriot, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, born at Elizabethtown, N. J., Feb. 15, 1726, died at Railway, Sept, ...
-Abraham Cowley
Abraham Cowley, an English poet, born in London in 1618, died at Chertsey, Surrey, July 28, 1667. His father died before his birth, and by the solicitation of ...
-Abraham De Moivre
Abraham De Moivre, a French mathematician, born at Vitry, Champagne, May 26, 1667, died in London, Nov. 27, 1754. Upon the revocation of the edict of Nantes he ...
-Abraham Duquesne
Abraham Duquesne, a French naval officer, born in Dieppe in 1610, died Feb. 2,1688. He was educated in his native town, early entered the naval service, and ...
-Abraham Gottlob Werner
Abraham Gottlob Werner, a German mineralogist, born at Wehrau, Upper Lusatia, Sept. 25, 1750, died in Dresden, June 30, 1817. He completed his studies at ...
-Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln, sixteenth president of the United States, born in Hardin (now Larue) co., Ky., Feb. 12, 1809, died in Washington, D. 0., April 15, 1865. His ...
-Abraham Tucker
Abraham Tucker, an English metaphysician, born in London, Sept. 2, 1705, died at his seat in Surrey, Nov. 20, 1774. He was educated at Oxford. In 1727 he ...
-Abraham Whipple
Abraham Whipple, an American naval officer, born in Providence, R. I., Sept. 16, 1733, died near Marietta, O., May 29, 1819. In early life he was captain of a ...
-Abram Newkirk Littlejohn
Abram Newkirk Littlejohn, an American bishop, born in Montgomery co., N. Y., Dec. 13, 1824. He graduated at Union college in 1815, and was ordained deacon in ...
-Achille Tenaille De Vaulabelle
Achille Tenaille De Vaulabelle, a French historian, born at Chatel-Censoir, Yonne, in October, 1799. He began life as a journalist, and in 1838 became an ...
-Adalbert Chrzanowski
Adalbert Chrzanowski, a Polish general, born in the palatinate of Cracow in 1788, died in Louisiana in 1861. He took part in Napoleon's campaign against Russia ...
-Adalbert Von Ciiamisso
Adalbert Von Ciiamisso, or Louis Charles Adelaide de Chamisso de Bonconrt, a German poet and naturalist, born at Boncourt, France, Jan. 27, 1781, died in ...
-Adam Clarke
Adam Clarke, LL. D., a British clergyman, born at Moybeg, Londonderry co., Ireland, in 1700 or 1762, died in London, Aug. 20, 1832. He joined the Methodist ...
-Adam Gottlob Oehlenschlager
Adam Gottlob Oehlenschlager, a Danish poet, born in Copenhagen, Nov. 14, 1779, died there, Jan. 20, 1850. His father was steward of the royal palace of ...
-Adam Gurowski
Adam Gurowski, count, a Polish author and revolutionist, born at Rusocice in the palatinate of Kalisz, Sept. 10, 1805, died in Washington, D. C, May 4, 1866.
-Adam Lux
Adam Lux, a German enthusiast, born at Obernburg, Bavaria, in 1766, executed in Paris, Nov. 4, 1793. He was the son of a farmer, and studied medicine, but did ...
-Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz, a Polish poet, born in Novogrodek, Lithuania, in 1798, died in Constantinople, Nov. 27, 1855. He studied physics and chemistry at the ...
-Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick, an English geologist, born at Dent, Yorkshire, about 1785, died in Cambridge, Jan. 27, 1873. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1808, ...
-Adam Smith
Adam Smith, a Scottish philosopher, born at Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, June 5, 1723, died in Edinburgh, July 8, 1790. He studied at the university of Glasgow for ...
-Adamantios Coray
Adamantios Coray, a Greek author, born in Smyrna, in April, 1748, died in Paris, April 6, 1833. Educated a merchant, he was also an ardent student of the ...
-Adelaide Phillips
Adelaide Phillips, an American singer, born in Bristol, Eng., in 1833. She came to America when seven years of age, and has since lived in Boston and its ...
-Adolf Hermann Schlagintweit
Adolf Hermann Schlagintweit, and Robert, German travellers, the first born in Munich, May 13, 1826; the second born Jan. 9, 1829, killed in Kashgar, Aug. 26, ...
-Adolf Wilhelm Theodor Stahr
Adolf Wilhelm Theodor Stahr, a German author, born in Prenzlau, Prussia, Oct. 22, 1805. He completed his studies at Halle, and in 1826 became a teacher there, ...
-Adolph Bastiaa
Adolph Bastiaa, a German traveller, born in Bremen, June 26, 1826. He is the son of a merchant, was educated as a physician, and in 1851 went to Australia as ...
-Adolph Bernhard Marx
Adolph Bernhard Marx, a German composer, born in Halle, Nov. 27, 1799, died May 17, I860. He held a judicial office at Nuremberg, but subsequently devoted ...
-Adolph Henselt
Adolph Henselt, a German pianist, born at Schwabach, Bavaria, May 12, 1814. He first studied the violin, but abandoned it for the piano. At the age of 17 he ...
-Adolphc Gueroult
Adolphc Gueroult, a French journalist, born at Radepont, Jan. 29, 1810, died in Paris, July 22, 1872. He was the son of a wealthy manufacturer, and early ...
-Adolphe Mel
Adolphe Mel, a French general, born at Mu-et, Haute-Garonne, Oct. 4, 1802, died in Paris, Aug. 13, 1869. He entered the polytechnic school of Paris in 1821, ...
-Adolphe Napoleon Didron
Adolphe Napoleon Didron, a French archaeologist, born in Hautevillers, department of Marne, March 13, 1806, died in Paris, Nov. 13, 1867. He travelled on foot ...
-Adolphus Gustavus II
Adolphus Gustavus II., king of Sweden, sixth of the line of Vasa, son of Charles IX. and Christina of Schleswig-Holstein, born in Stockholm, Dec. 9,1594, ...
-Adolphus Gustavus IV
Adolphus Gustavus IV., king of Sweden, only son of the preceding, born Nov. 1, 1778, proclaimed king March 29, 1792, died Feb. 7, 1837. He was declared of age ...
-Adolpue Bernard Granier
Adolpue Bernard Granier, commonly called A. Granier de Cassagnao, a French journalist, born in the department of Gers about 1806. He was educated at the ...
-Adriano Balbi
Adriano Balbi, an Italian geographer, born in Venice, April 25, 1782, died there, March 14, 1848. After holding a professorship of geography, sciences, and ...
-Adrien Marie Legendre
Adrien Marie Legendre, a French mathematician, born in Toulouse in 1752, died near Paris, Jan. 10, 1833. He evinced an early taste for mathematics, and through ...
-Adrienne Lecouvreur
Adrienne Lecouvreur, a French actress, born at Lamery about 1690, died in Paris, March 20, 1730. She was the daughter of a hatter who established himself in ...
-Aertha Hertha, Or Nerthus
Aertha Hertha, Or Nerthus, the goddess of earth (Anglo-Saxon, eorthe, Ger. Erde), anciently worshipped by the AEstii, Lombards, Angles, and many other Teutonic ...
-Agnes Strickland
Agnes Strickland, an English authoress, born at Reydon hall, Suffolk, July 19, 1796, died in London, July 13, 1874. She was carefully educated under the ...
-Agustin De Iturbide
Agustin De Iturbide, emperor of Mexico, born at Valladolid (now Morelia), Sept. 27, 1783, executed near Padilla, July 19,1824. His parents were from Pamplona, ...
-Aime Bonpland
Aime Bonpland, a French traveller land naturalist, born at La Rochelle, Aug. 22, 1773, died in Uruguay in May, 1858. He studied medicine, and served as a ...
-Alacedouio Mellom
Alacedouio Mellom, an Italian physicist, born in Parma in 1801, died in Portici, near Naples, Aug. 11, 1853. He was professor of natural philosophy in the ...
-Alain Rene Le Sage
Alain Rene Le Sage, a French author, born at Sarzeau, Brittany, May 8, 1668, died in Boulogne, Nov. 17, 1747. An only son, and an orphan at 14 years of age, ...
-Albert Barnes
Albert Barnes, an American theologian, born at Rome, N. Y., Dec. 1, 1798, died in Philadelphia, Dec. 24, 1870. He graduated at Hamilton college in 1820, ...
-Albert Bieustadt
Albert Bieustadt, an American artist, born in Diisseldorf, Germany, in 1829. When he was two years of age his family emigrated to Massachusetts, and finally ...
-Albert Grisar
Albert Grisar, a French composer, born in Antwerp, Dee. 26, 1808, died at Asnieres, near Paris, June 14, 1869. He was sent to Liverpool to qualify himself for ...
-Albert Gustav Lortzing
Albert Gustav Lortzing, a German composer, born in Berlin, Oct. 23, 1803, died there, Jan. 21, 1851. His father, who was connected with the theatre, introduced ...
-Albert Pike
Albert Pike, an American poet, born in Boston, Dec. 29, 1809. When he was four years old the family removed to Newburyport. At the age of 16 he entered Harvard ...
-Albert Schwegler
Albert Schwegler, a German historian, born at Michelbach, Würtemberg, Feb. 10, 1819, died in Tübingen, Jan. 5, 1857. He studied at Tübingen, and became a ...
-Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston, an American soldier, born in Mason co., Ky., in 1803, killed at the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862. He graduated at West Point in 1826, ...
-Albert Smith
Albert Smith, an English author, born at Chertsey, May 24, 1816, died at Fulham, near London, May 23, 1860. He was educated for the surgical profession in ...
-Albert Taylor Bledsoe
Albert Taylor Bledsoe, an American author and instructor, born in Kentucky about 1808. He entered the military academy at West Point in 1825, graduated in 1830, ...
-Albrecht Durer, Or Albert
Albrecht Durer, Or Albert, a German painter and engraver, born in Nuremberg, May 20, 1471, died there, April 6, 1528. His father was a Hungarian goldsmith ...
-Albrecht Thaer
Albrecht Thaer, a German agricultural writer, born in Celle, May 14, 1752, died at Moge-lin, near Potsdam, Oct. 26, 1828. He studied at Gottingen, and in 1780 ...
-Albrecht Von Haller
Albrecht Von Haller, a Swiss physiologist, born in Bern, Oct. 10, 1708, died there, Dec. 12, 1777. He studied theology at Tubingen, and medicine and natural ...
-Albrecht Wenzel Ensebins Von Wallenstein (Properly Waldstein)
Albrecht Wenzel Ensebins Von Wallenstein (Properly Waldstein), count, and duke of Friedland, Mecklenburg, and Sagan, an Austrian general, born at the family ...
-Alessandro Di Cagliostro
Alessandro Di Cagliostro, count, an Italian charlatan, born in Palermo, June 2, 1743, died in the dungeon of Fort San Leon, in the duchy of Urbino, in 1795.
-Alessandro Manzoni
Alessandro Manzoni, count, an Italian novelist, born in Milan, March 8, 1784, died there, May 22, 1873. His father possessed little cultivation; his mother was ...
-Alessandro Stradella
Alessandro Stradella, an Italian musician, born in Naples about 1G45, assassinated in Genoa in 1678. He was a singer, violinist, and composer. At Venice he was ...
-Alessandro Volta
Alessandro Volta, an Italian physicist, born in Como, Feb. 18, 1745, died there, April 5, 1827. He belonged to a noble family, and early studied electrical ...
-Alexander Bach
Alexander Bach, baron, an Austrian statesman, born at Loosdorf, Jan. 4, 1813. He succeeded his father in an extensive law practice, and was at first a liberal; ...
-Alexander Bain
Alexander Bain, a Scottish philosopher, born in Aberdeen in 1818. He was educated at Marischal college, and was teacher of moral and natural philosophy there ...
-Alexander Barclay
Alexander Barclay, an English poet, born in the latter part of the 15th century, whether in England or Scotland is uncertain, died at Croydon in June, 1552. He ...
-Alexander Beaufort Meek
Alexander Beaufort Meek, an American author, born in Columbia, S. C, July 17, 1814, died in Columbus, Miss., Nov. 30, 1865. Ho graduated at the university of ...
-Alexander Bestuzheff
Alexander Bestuzheff, a Russian poet and patriot, born at his father's country seat in the government of Voronezh in 1795, killed in battle in the Caucasus in ...
-Alexander Bryan Johnson
Alexander Bryan Johnson, an American author, born at Gosport, England, May 29, 1786, died in Utica, N. Y., Sept. 9, 1867. He came to the United States in 1801, ...
-Alexander Campbell
Alexander Campbell, founder of the religious sect calling themselves Disciples of Christ, but commonly known as Campbellites, born in county Antrim, Ireland, ...
-Alexander Chalmers
Alexander Chalmers, a British author, born at Aberdeen, Scotland, March 29, 1759, died in' London, Dec. 10, 1834. He was the son of a printer, received a ...
-Alexander Cruden
Alexander Cruden, author of the Concordance to the Bible, born in Aberdeen, Scotland, May 31, 1701, died in London, Nov. 1, 1770. He was educated at Mareschal ...
-Alexander Dallas Bache
Alexander Dallas Bache, an American savant and hvdrographer, born in Philadelphia, July 19, 1806, died in Newport, R. I., Feb. 17, 1867. He was the son of ...
-Alexander Duff
Alexander Duff, a Scottish missionary, born near Pitlochrie, Perthshire, about 1806. He entered the university of St. Andrews at the age of 15, and while a ...
-Alexander Gordon Laing
Alexander Gordon Laing, a British traveller, born in Edinburgh, Dec. 27, 1794, murdered near Timbuctoo, Africa, in September, 1826. He was educated for a ...
-Alexander Hamilton
Alexander Hamilton, an American statesman, born in the island of Nevis, West Indies, Jan. 11, 1757, died in New York, July 12, 1804. His father had emigrated ...
-Alexander Hamilton Stephens
Alexander Hamilton Stephens, an American statesman, born in Taliaferro co., Ga., Feb. 11, 1812. He graduated at Franklin college, Athens, Ga., in 1832, was ...
-Alexander Hill Everett
Alexander Hill Everett, an American diplomatist and author, born in Boston, March 19, 1792, died in Canton, China, May 29, 1847. He graduated at Harvard ...
-Alexander James Dallas
Alexander James Dallas, an American statesman, born in the island of Jamaica, June 21, 1759, died at Trenton, N., Jan. 14, 1817. He was educated in London, ...
-Alexander Keith Johnston
Alexander Keith Johnston, a Scottish geographer, born in Kirkhill, Mid-Lothian, Dec. 28, 1804, died at Ben Rhydding, July 9,1871. He was educated in Edinburgh, ...
-Alexander Macomb
Alexander Macomb, an American soldier, born in Detroit, April 13, 1782, died in Washington, June 25, 1841. He entered the army in 1799 as a cornet of cavalry, ...
-Alexander Mavrocordatos
Alexander Mavrocordatos, a Greek statesman, born in Constantinople in February, 1791, died in Aegina, Aug. 18, 1865. He made himself an accomplished linguist, ...
-Alexander Mcgillivray
Alexander Mcgillivray, a chieftain of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, born on the Coosa river near the present site of Wetumpka, Ala., about 1740, died in ...
-Alexander Mcwhorter
Alexander Mcwhorter, an American clergyman, born in Newcastle co., Del., July 15, 1734, died in Newark, N. J., July 20, 1807. In 1756 he entered the junior ...
-Alexander Monro
Alexander Monro, an English anatomist, born in London, Sept. 19, 1697, died in Edinburgh, July 10,1767. In 1720 he began at Edinburgh a course of lectures on ...
-Alexander Murray
Alexander Murray, an American naval officer, born at Chestertown, Md., in 1755, died in Philadelphia, Oct. 6, 1821. In 1776 he was appointed a lieutenant in ...
-Alexander Nikolayevitcli Luders
Alexander Nikolayevitcli Luders, a Russian general, born in 1790, of a German family long settled in Russia, died in St. Petersburg in February, 1874. He ...
-Alexander Nowell
Alexander Nowell, an English clergyman, born at Readhall, Lancashire, in 1507, died in Oxford in 1602. He was educated at Oxford, was admitted fellow of ...
-Alexander Oreilly
Alexander O'Reilly, count, a Spanish soldier, born in Ireland about 1725, died in Spain in 1794. He entered the Spanish service at an early age, and was ...
-Alexander Pope
Alexander Pope, an English poet, born in London, May 22, 1688, died at Twickenham, Middlesex, May 30, 1744. His father was a Roman Catholic, who, having ...
-Alexander Selkirk
Alexander Selkirk, a Scottish seaman, born at Largo, Fifeshire, about 1676, died on board H. B. M. ship Weymouth in 1723. He went from England in 1703 as ...
-Alexander Sergeyevitch Pushkin
Alexander Sergeyevitch Pushkin, a Russian poet, born in Pskov, June 6, 1799, died in St. Petersburg, Feb. 10, 1837. He was the son of a nobleman, studied at ...
-Alexander Slidell Mackenzie
Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, an American naval officer, born in New York, April 6, 1803, died in Tarry town, N. Y., Sept. 13, 1848. His name was originally ...
-Alexander Tnrney Stewart
Alexander Tnrney Stewart, an American merchant, born near Belfast, Ireland, Oct. 27, 1802. He studied at Trinity college, Dublin, but did not take a degree, ...
-Alexander Viets Griswold
Alexander Viets Griswold, a bishop of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States, born in Simsbury, Conn., April 22, 1766, died in Boston, Mass., Feb.
-Alexander Wilson
Alexander Wilson, an American ornithologist, born in Paisley, Scotland, July 6, 1766, died in Philadelphia, Aug. 23, 1813. He was the son of a distiller, and ...
-Alexander Winchell
Alexander Winchell, an American geologist, born in Northeast, Dutchess co., N. Y., Dec. 31, 1824. He graduated at Wesley an university in 1847, taught natural ...
-Alexandre Angnste Ledri-Rollin
A French politician, born in Paris, Feb. 2, 1808. The son of a wealthy physician, he studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1830. Soon after, in order to ...
-Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna Walewski
Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna Walewski, count and duke, a French statesman, born in the chateau of Walewice, Poland, May 4,1810, died in Strasburg, Oct. 27, ...
-Alexandre Rodolphe Vinet
Alexandre Rodolphe Vinet, a Swiss author, born near Lausanne, June 17, 1797, died near Vevay in May, 1847. He studied at the academy of Lausanne, and taught ...
-Alexandrine Petronella Frantina Tinne
Alexandrine Petronella Frantina Tinne, a Dutch traveller, born at the Hague, Oct. 17, 1835, murdered in Fezzan, Africa, Aug. 1,1869. Her father was an English ...
-Alexis Charles Henri Clerel De Tocqueville
Alexis Charles Henri Clerel De Tocqueville, a French author, born in Paris, July 29, 1805, died in Cannes, April 10, 1859. He studied law, was appointed a ...
-Alexis Piron
Alexis Piron, a French dramatist, born in Dijon, July 9, 1689, died in Paris, Jan. 21, 1773. He took his degree as an advocate at Besancon, but had not the ...
-Alfonso Di Lamarmora
Alfonso Di Lamarmora, marquis, an Italian general, born Nov. 17,1804. He was admitted to the military academy of Turin in 1816, and left it in 1823 with the ...
-Alfonso Maria Da Liguori
Alfonso Maria Da Liguori, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born at Marianella, near Naples, Sept. 26, 1696, died in Nocera, Aug. 1, 1787. He belonged to a ...
-Alfred Armand Louis Marie Velpeau
Alfred Armand Louis Marie Velpeau, a French surgeon, born at Bréche, department of Indreet-Loire, May 18, 1795, died in Paris, Aug. 24, 1867. He was brought up ...
-Alfred Ednmud Brehm
Alfred Ednmud Brehm, a German naturalist and traveller, born at Renthendorf, Feb. 2, 1829. He studied under his father, Christian Ludwig Brehm, an eminent ...
-Alfred Guillaunie Gabriel D Orsay
Alfred Guillaunie Gabriel D' Orsay, count, a man of fashion, born in Paris, Sept. 4, 1801, died there, Aug. 4, 1852. He was the son of a general, and early ...
-Alfred Henri Armand Mame
Alfred Henri Armand Mame, a French printer, born in Tours, Aug. 17, 1811. In 1833 the printing establishment founded by his father in Tours came into his ...
-Alfred Joseph Naquet
Alfred Joseph Naquet, a French chemist, born in Carpentras, Oct. 6, 1834. He completed his studies in Paris, where he took his medical degree in 1859. In ...
-Alfred Marshall Mayer
Alfred Marshall Mayer, an American physicist, nephew of Brantz Mayer, born in Baltimore, Md., Nov. 13, 1836. He was educated at St. Mary's college, Baltimore.
-Alfred Meissner
Alfred Meissner, a German poet, born at Teplitz, Oct, 15, 1822. He is a grandson of the voluminous miscellaneous author August Gottlieb Meissner (1753-1807).
-Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace, an English naturalist, born at Usk, Monmouthshire, Jan. 8, 1822. He was employed for several years in the architectural office of his ...
-Alfred Stille
Alfred Stille, an American physician, born in Philadelphia,.Oct. 30, 1813. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania in 1832, and was resident physician ...
-Alfred Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson, an English poet, born at Somersby, Lincolnshire, in 1809. His father was the Rev. George Clayton Tennyson, rector of Somersby and vicar of ...
-Alfred Victor De Vigny
Alfred Victor De Vigny, count, a French poet, born at Loches, Touraine, March 27,1799, died in Paris, Sept. 18, 1863. He studied in Paris for a time, till his ...
-Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne, an English poet, born in London, April 5, 1837. He is a son of Admiral Charles Henry Swinburne. After studying in France, he ...
-Algernon Sidney
Algernon Sidney, an English statesman, born about 1622, executed on Tower hill, London, Dec. 7, 1683. He was the second surviving son of the second earl of ...
-Algistlmans, Or Hermits Of St
Algistlmans, Or Hermits Of St. Augustine, a. religious order in the Roman Catholic church, which traces its origin to the great bishop of Hippo, and professes ...
-Alice Bradley Haven
Alice Bradley Haven, an American authoress, born in Hudson, N. Y., Sept. 13, 1828, died at Mamaroneck, N. Y., Aug. 23, 1863. Her maiden name was Emily Bradley, ...
-Allien Partridge
Allien Partridge, an American soldier, born in Norwich, Vt., about 1785, died there, Jan. 17, 1854. He graduated at West Point in 1806, and acted as assistant ...
-Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps
Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps, an American teacher, born in Berlin, Conn., in 1793. At the age of 19 she taught school at her father's house, and not long ...
-Aloizy Prosper Biernacki
Aloizy Prosper Biernacki, a Polish agricultural reformer, born near Kalisz in 1778, died in Paris in August, 1856. He devoted himself to scientific agriculture, ...
-Alonso De Ercilla Y Zunlga
Alonso de Ercilla Y Zunlga, a Spanish poet, born in Madrid, Aug. 7, 1533, died about 1594. He was a scion of an ancient Biscayan family, and after the death of ...
-Aloys Senefelder
Aloys Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, born in Prague, Nov. 0, 1771, died in Munich, Feb. 26, 1834. He was sent to In-golstadt to study few, and while ...
-Alphonse Marie Louis De Lamartine
Alphonse Marie Louis De Lamartine, a French poet, born in Macon, Oct. 21, 1790, died in Paris, March 1,1869. His early education was superintended by his ...
-Alvar Cabeqa De Vaca (Nunez)
Alvar Cabeqa De Vaca (Nunez), a Spanish explorer, born about 1490, died in Seville in 1564. He was chief officer under Narvaez in the expedition to Florida in ...
-Amable Guillaume Prosper Barante
Amable Guillaume Prosper Barante, baron de Brugiere, a French statesman and historian, born at Riom in Auvergne, June 10, 1782, died in Auvergne in 1866. He ...
-Amable Jean Jacques Pelissier
Amable Jean Jacques Pelissier, duke of Ma-lakoff, a marshal of France, born at Maromme, near Eouen, Nov. 6, 1794, died May 22, 1864. He studied at the military ...
-Amand Bazard
Amand Bazard, a French carbonarist and St. Simonian, born in Paris, Sept. 19, 1791, died at Courtray, July 29, 1832. In 1818 he became the principal editor of ...
-Amantine Lucille Aurore Dupin Dudevant
Amantine Lucille Aurore Dupin Dudevant, a French novelist, celebrated under the assumed-name of George Sand, born in Paris in July, 1804. Her father, Maurice ...
-Amariah Brigham
Amariah Brigham, an American physician, born at New Marlborough, Berkshire co., Mass., Dec. 26, 1798, died at Utica, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1849. He commenced the ...
-Amasa Walker
Amasa Walker, an American political economist, born in Woodstock, Conn., May 4,1799, died at North Brookfield, Mass., Oct. 29, 1875. He was a merchant in ...
-Ambroise Marie Francois Joseph Beau-Vois De Palisot
Ambroise Marie Francois Joseph Beau-Vois De Palisot, a French naturalist, born in Arras in 1752, died in Paris, Jan. 21, 1820. He sailed for the coast of ...
-Ambroise Pare
Ambroise Pare, a French surgeon, born at Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, in 1517, died in Paris, Dec. 22, 1590. He went to Paris in his 17th year, and his progress ...
-Ambrose Everett Burnside
Ambrose Everett Burnside, an American soldier, born at Liberty, Ind., May 23, 1824. He graduated at West Point in 1847, was stationed at Fort Adams, Newport, R.
-Ambrose Philips
Ambrose Philips, an English poet, born about 1671, died in London, June 8, 1749. He graduated at Cambridge in 1696, and was one of the authors of the ...
-Ambrosias Anrelius Theodosius Macrobius
Ambrosias Anrelius Theodosius Macrobius, known as the grammarian, a Latin author of the 5th century. Little is known of his life, but the frequent Hellenisms ...
-Ambrosio De Spinola
Ambrosio De Spinola, marquis, a Spanish soldier, born in Genoa in 1509, died near Casale, Piedmont, Sept. 25, 1630. He was a son of the marquis Filippo Spinola, ...
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume II
Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Second Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Henry Carey Baird, Philadelphia. Bank. WlLLARD BARTLETT.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume III. Bolan Pass-Carmine
Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Third Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: WlLLARD BaRTLETT. Bombay. Borneo. Burmah. Calcutta. Prof.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume IV. Carmona - Coddington
Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Fourth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: WlLLARD BARTLETT. Celebes. COANZA. Prof. C. W. Bennett, D.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume IX. Hortensius - Kinglake
Among the Contributors to the Ninth Volume of the Revised Edition are following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Hurricane. Willard Bartlett. India.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume V. Code - Demotic A
NEW YORK: D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 549 AND 551 BROADWAY. LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN 1874. Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by D.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume VI. Dempster - Everett
Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Sixth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Dew. Earthquake.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume VIII. Glasgow - Hortense
Among the Contributors of New Articles to the Eighth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Hail. WlLLAED ...
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume X. Kinglet - Magnet
Among the Contributors to the Tenth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Magnet. Paul Arpin, late Editor of ...
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume XI. Magnettsm - Motril
Among the Contributors to the Eleventh Volume, of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Meteorology. Rev. R. W. Allen, ...
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume XII. Mott - Pales
Among the Contributors to the Twelfth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following; Frederic Adams, Newark, N. J. Orange, N. J. A. Arnold. Mowing and ...
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume XIV. Prior - Shoe
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. 549 AND 551 BROADWAY. LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN. 1875. Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by D. APPLETON AND ...
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume XV. S.Homer-Trollope
Among the Contributors to the Fifteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C. Snow. Storms. Trade Winds. Bvt.
-The American Cyclopaedia. Volume XVI. Trombone-Zymosis
Among the Contributors to the Sixteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. 0. Water Spout. Whirlwind. Wind.
-The American Cyclopedia. Volume XIII. Palestine - Printing
Among the Contributors to the Thirteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are the following: Jose; de Armas y Cespedes, Havana, Cuba. Poey, Felipe. Poet, Andres.
-Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian navigator from whom the name of America is derived, born in Florence, March 9, 1451, died in Seville, Feb. 22, 1512. He was in ...
-Amos Binney
Amos Binney, an American savant and patron of art and science, born in Boston, Mass., Oct. 18, 1803, died in Rome, Feb. 18, 1847. He was educated at Brown ...
-Amos Eaton
Amos Eaton, an American physicist, born in Chatham, N. Y., May 17, 1776, died in Troy, May 6,1842. He was early employed as a surveyor, graduated at Williams ...
-Amos Kendall
Amos Kendall, an American politician, born in Dunstable, Mass., Aug. 16,1789, died in Washington, D. C, Nov. 11, 1869. Until the age of 16 he worked on his ...
-Anastasio Bustamante
Anastasio Bustamante, a Mexican physician, soldier, and statesman, born at Jiquilpan, in the province of Michoacan, July 27, 1780, died at San Miguel de ...
-Anatole De La Forge
Anatole De La Forge, a French author, born in Paris, April 1, 1821. He was for several years in the diplomatic service, and from 1848 to 1863 was a prominent ...
-And Crenates Crenic Acid
And Crenates Crenic Acid (Gr. Kpnvn, a spring or fountain), an acid and its compounds, so named by Berzelius from having been first found by him in spring ...
-And Jana Janus
And Jana Janus, two divinities of ancient Rome. Their names are believed to be corruptions or abbreviations of Dianus and Diana, designating the sun and moon.
-And Margarie Acid Margarine
When olive oil is cooled down to 32 F. and submitted to pressure, a solid residuum is obtained, which, when more completely separated from the oily portion ...
-And Ungalata Unguicijlata
And Ungalata Unguicijlata, terms originally applied by Ray to mammals, according as they possessed claws or hoofs, though Aristotle had made a similar division ...
-And VI. Of Scotland James I Of England
Son of Henry, Lord Darnley, and Mary, queen of Scots, born in Edinburgh castle, June 19, 1566, died in the palace of Theobalds, March 27, 1625. His reign began ...
-And VII. Of Scotland James II Of England
Second surviving son of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, born at the palace of St. James, Oct. 15, 16'33, died at St. Germain, France, Sept. 16, 1701. He was ...
-Andre Ernest Modestc Gretry
Andre Ernest Modestc Gretry, a French composer, born in Liege, Feb. 8, 1741, died at Montmorency, near Paris, Sept. 24, 1813. At six years of age he was placed ...
-Andre Jean Chabrol De Crouzol
Andre Jean Chabrol De Crouzol, count, a French statesman, born at Rioni, Nov. 16, 1771, died at Chabannes, Aug. 7, 1836. He took orders, and during the French ...
-Andre Leo
Andre Leo, a French novelist (who adopted the Christian names of her twins as her nom de plume, her real name being Leonie Champ-seix), born at Champagne, ...
-Andre Massena
Andre Massena, prince of Essling, a marshal of France, born in Nice in May, 1758, died in Paris, April 4, 1817. It has been said that he was of Jewish origin, ...
-Andrea Doria
Andrea Doria, a Genoese statesman and admiral, born at Oneglia, Nov. 30, 1468, died in Genoa in November, 1560. He belonged to a family celebrated for the ...
-Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna, an Italian artist, born near Padua in 1431, died in Mantua, Sept. 13, 1506. When quite young he was placed under the instruction of Francesco ...
-Andrea Palladio
Andrea Palladio, an Italian architect, born in Yicenza, Nov. 30,1518, died there in August, 1580. He was brought into notice by his design for the loggie or ...
-Andrea Vanucchi Del Sarto
Andrea Vanucchi Del Sarto, commonly called Andrea del Sarto,. an Italian painter, born in Florence about 1488, died there in 1530. After passing some time in ...
-Andreas Andrea Cesalpino (Caesalpinijs)
Andreas Andrea Cesalpino (Caesalpinijs), an Italian physician and naturalist, born at Arezzo in 1519, died in Rome, Feb. 23, 1603. He was for a time professor ...
-Andreas Carlstadt
Andreas Carlstadt, a German reformer, born at Karlstadt, in Franconia, about 1483, died in Basel, Dec. 25, 1541. He adopted the name of his native town, but ...
-Andreas Hofer
Andreas Hofer, a Tyrolese patriot, born Nov. 22, 1767, in a tavern at St. Leonard's in the Passeyr valley, called the Sand house (whence his popular name of ...
-Andreas Justious Kerner
Andreas Justious Kerner, a German physician, born in Ludwigsburg, Wurtemberg, Sept. 18, 1786, died at Weinsberg, Feb. 21, 1862. After completing his school ...
-Andreas Osiander
Andreas Osiander, often called by his German name of Hosemann or Hossmann, a German reformer, born at Gunzenhausen, Fran-coma, Dec. 19, 1498, died Oct. 17, ...
-Andreas Vesalius
Andreas Vesalius, a Flemish physician, born in Brussels, Dec. 31, 1514, died in the island of Zante, Oct. 15, 1564. He was educated at Louvain, Montpellier, ...
-Andreas Von Baimgartner
Andreas Von Baimgartner, baron, an Austrian statesman and savant, born at Friedberg, Bohemia, Nov. 23, 1793, died at Hietzing, near Vienna, July 28, 1865. He ...
-Andrew Atkinson Humphreys
Andrew Atkinson Humphreys, an American soldier, born in Pennsylvania about 1812. He graduated at West Point in 1831, and served mainly in topographical duty ...
-Andrew Coltee Ducarel
Andrew Coltee Ducarel, an English antiquary, born in Normandy in 1713, died in London, May 29, 1785. He was educated at Eton, and at St. John's college, Oxford, ...
-Andrew Crombie Ramsay
Andrew Crombie Ramsay, a British geologist, born in Glasgow, Jan. 31, 1814. He was early connected with the geological survey of Great Britain, of which he ...
-Andrew Crosse
Andrew Crosse, an English electrician, born in Bromfield, Somersetshire, June 17, 1784, died July 6, 1855. He was matriculated at Brazenose college, Oxford, in ...
-Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White, an American scholar, born at Homer, N. Y., Nov. 7, 1832. He graduated at Yale college in 1853, studied for two years in Europe, and in ...
-Andrew Jackson Davis
Andrew Jackson Davis, an American clairvoyant, born at Blooming Grove, Orange co., K Y., Aug. 11, 1826. Early in 1843, while he was a shoemaker's apprentice in ...
-Andrew Jackson Downing
Andrew Jackson Downing, an American landscape gardener, born in Newburgh, N. Y., Oct. 30, 1815, drowned in the Hudson river, near Yonkers, July 28, 1852. From ...
-Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson, seventeenth president of the United States, born in Raleigh, N. C, Dec. 29, 1808. His father, Jacob Johnson, who died in 1812, was city ...
-Andrew Marvell
Andrew Marvell, an English author, born at Kingston-upon-Hull, Nov. 15, 1620, died in London, Aug. 16, 1678. He was the son of the Rev. Andrew Marvell, master ...
-Andrew Melville
Andrew Melville, a Scottish religious reformer, born at Baldo-vy, Forfarshire, Aug. 1, 1545, died in Sedan, France, in 1622. He was educated at the university ...
-Andrew Michael Ramsay
Andrew Michael Ramsay, known as the chevalier de Ramsay, a Scottish author, born in Ayr in 1686, died in St. Germain-en-Laye, France, May 6, 1743. He was ...
-Andrew Preston Peabodt
Andrew Preston Peabodt, an American clergyman, born in Beverly, Mass., March 19, 1811. He graduated at Harvard college in 1826, studied theology, and in 1832-3 ...
-Andrew Reed
Andrew Reed, an English clergyman, born in London, Nov. 27, 1788, died there, Feb. 25, 1862. He studied at Hackney college, and in 1811 was ordained pastor of ...
-Andrew Ure
Andrew Ure, a Scottish chemist, born in Glasgow in 1778, died in London, Jan. 2,1857. He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, took the ...
-Andros Miavlis
Andros Miavlis, a Greek admiral, born in the island of Negropont about 1770, died in Athens, June 23, 1835. His father, Demetrius Vokos, owned a felucca (Turk, ...
-Ange Henri Blaze De Bury
Bury. I. Ange Henri Blaze De, a French author, born at Avignon in May, 1813. His name is properly Blaze, that of Bury being assumed from his mother, who was of ...
-Angel De Saavedra Rivas
Angel De Saavedra Rivas,duke of, a Spanish poet, born in Cordova, March 1, 1791. After advocating constitutional government in the cortes, he was exiled from ...
-Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts
Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts, baroness, an English philanthropist, youngest daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, born in April, 1814. The fortune of her ...
-Angelica Catalani
Angelica Catalani, an Italian singer, born at Sinigaglia about 1785, died in Paris, June 13, 1849. When only seven years old she attracted general attention by ...
-Angelo Mai
Angelo Mai, an Italian scholar, born near Bergamo, March 7, 1782, died at Albano, Sept. 8, 1854. He entered the novitiate of the society of Jesus, and in 1813 ...
-Angelo, Or Angelas Politianus Poliziano
Angelo, Or Angelas Politianus Poliziano, an Italian poet, born at Monte Pulciano, near Florence, in July, 1454, died in Florence in 1494. He was educated under ...
-Angiist Bockh
Angiist Bockh. a German philologist and antiquary, born at Carlsruhe, Nov. 24,1785, died in Berlin, Aug. 3,1867. He was the son of a functionary and the ...
-Angnste Comte
Angnste Comte, a French philosopher, founder of the system of positivism, born in Mont-pellier, Jan. 12, 1798, died in Paris, Sept. 5, 1857. He received his ...
-Angnste Francois Biard
Angnste Francois Biard, a French painter, born in Lyons in 1800. He began life as a chorister with a view of connecting himself with the church; but following ...
-Angnstin Calmet
Angnstin Calmet, a French scholar and Benedictine of the congregation of St. Vannes, born Feb. 26, 1672, died in Paris, in October, 1757. He began to study ...
-Anguste Joseph Alphouse Guatry
Anguste Joseph Alphouse Guatry, abbe, a French theologian, born in Lille, March 30, 1805, died at Montreux, Switzerland, Feb. 0, 1872. In 1841 he was appointed ...
-Angustin Eugene Scribe
Angustin Eugene Scribe, a French dramatist, born in Paris, Dec. 24, 1791, died there, Feb. 20, 1861. He studied law, and produced at the age of 20 Les dervis, ...
-Anicius Maulius Torquatus Severinas Boethius
Anicius Maulius Torquatus Severinas Boethius, a Roman philosopher, born between A. D. 470 and 475, executed at Pavia about 525. His grandfather Flavins, ...
-Anionic Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave
Anionic Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave, a French revolutionist, born at Grenoble, Oct. 22, 1761, guillotined at Paris, Nov. 29, 1793. He was educated for the law, ...
-Anjruste Edonard Mariette
Anjruste Edonard Mariette a French Eirvp-tologist, born in Boulogne, Feb. 11, 1821. He was educated at the college of Boulogne, in which he was subsequently a ...
-Ann Lee
Ann Lee, the founder of the sect of Shakers in America, born in Manchester, England, Feb. 29,1736, died in Watervliet, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1784. Her parents were ...
-Ann Radcliffe
Ann Radcliffe, an English novelist, born in London, July 9, 1764, died there, Feb. 7, 1823. Her maiden name was Ward. At the age of 22 she married Mr. William ...
-Anna Cora Mowatt (Ritchie)
Anna Cora Mowatt (Ritchie) an American authoress and actress, born in Bordeaux, France (where her father, Samuel C. Ogden, a merchant of New York, was then ...
-Anna Eliza Kempe (Bray)
Anna Eliza Kempe (Bray), an English authoress, born in Surrey about 1800. She married in 1818 Mr. Charles Stothard, an artist and antiquary, whom she ...
-Anna Elizabeth Dickinson
Anna Elizabeth Dickinson, an American lecturer and author, born in Philadelphia, Oct. 28, 1842. She was the youngest of five children, whose father died when ...
-Anna Jameson
Anna Jameson, a British authoress, born in Dublin, May 19, 1797, died in London, March 17, 1860. Her father, Mr. Murphy, was painter in ordinary to the ...
-Anna Laetitia Barbauld
Anna Laetitia Barbauld, an English writer, born at Kibworth-IIarcourt, Leicestershire, June 20, 1743, died at Stoke-Newington, near London, March 9, 1825. She ...
-Anne Bradstreet
Anne Bradstreet, an American poetess, born in Northampton, England, about 1612, died Sept. 16, 1672. She was the daughter of Gov. Thomas Dudley, and in 1628 ...
-Anne Caldwell (Marsh)
Anne Caldwell (Marsh), an English authoress, born at Lindley Wood, Staffordshire, near the close of the last century, died there in October. 1874. About the ...
-Anne De Pisseleu Etampes
Anne De Pisseleu Etampes, duchess d', a mistress of Francis I. of France, born about 1508, died about 1576. Her father, Guillaume de Pisseleu, was a country ...
-Anne Francoise Hippolyte Bontet Mars
Anne Francoise Hippolyte Bontet Mars, a French actress, born in Paris, Feb. 9, 1779, died March 20, 1847. She was the natural daughter of Jacques Monvel, one ...
-Anne Genevieve De Bourbon Longueville
Anne Genevieve De Bourbon Longueville, duchess de, a French politician, born Aug. 29, 1619, died April 15, 1679. Her father, Henri II., prince of Conde, was ...
-Anne Grant
Anne Grant, better known as Mrs. Grant of Laggan, a Scottish authoress, born in Glasgow, Feb. 21, 1755, died in Edinburgh, Nov. 7, 1838. Her father, Duncan ...
-Anne Hilarion De Cotentin Tourville
Anne Hilarion De Cotentin Tourville, count de, a French admiral, born Nov. 24, 1642, died in Paris, May 28, 1701. After brilliant exploits against the pirates ...
-Anne Hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson, founder of a party of An-tinomians in New England, born at Alford, Lincolnshire, England, in 1591, died near New Amsterdam (now New York) in ...
-Anne Jean Marie Rene Savary
Anne Jean Marie Rene Savary, duke of Rovi-go, a French soldier, born at Marcq, near Vou-ziers, April 26, 1774, died in Paris, June 2, 1833. He entered the army ...
-Anne Lonise Germaine Necker De Stael-Holstein
Anne Lonise Germaine Necker De Stael-Holstein, baroness, a French authoress, born in Paris, April 22, 1766, died there, July 14, 1817. She was the only child ...
-Anne Marie Louise Dorleans Montpensier
Anne Marie Louise D'Orleans Montpensier, duchess of, known as Mademoiselle, a French princess, born in Paris, May 29, 1627, died there, March 5, 1693. She was ...
-Anne Robert Jacques Turgot
Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, baron de l'Aulne, a French statesman, born in Paris, May 10, 1727, died there, March 20, 1781. He was educated for the church, and ...
-Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame, an American diplomatist, born in New Berlin, Chenango co., N. Y., Nov. 14, 1820, died in St. Petersburg, Russia, Feb. 23, 1870. His father, ...
-Anson Jones
Anson Jones, president of the republic of Texas, born in Great Barrington, Mass., Jan. 20, 1798, died by his own hand in Houston, Texas, Jan. 7,1858. He ...
-Anthelme Richerand
Anthelme Richerand, baron, a French physiologist, born in Belley, Feb. 4, 1779, died in Paris, Jan. 25, 1840. He graduated at the Paris school of medicine in ...
-Anthony Collins
Anthony Collins, an English philosophical and skeptical writer, born at Heston, Middlesex, June 21, 1676, died in London, Dec. 13, 1729. He was educated at ...
-Anthony Wayne
Anthony Wayne, an American soldier, born in Chester co., Pa., Jan. 1,1745, died at Presque Isle (Erie), Dec. 14, 1796. His grandfather, a native of England who ...
-Antoinc Jean Letronne
Antoinc Jean Letronne, a French archaeologist, born in Paris, Jan. 25, 1787, died there, Dec. 14, 1848. From the age of 14 he supported his mother and aided ...
-Antoine Baume
Antoine Baume, a French apothecary and chemist, born at Senlis, Feb. 26, 1728, died Oct. 15, 1804. He was the son of an innkeeper, and received an imperfect ...
-Antoine Chrysostome Quatremere De Quincy
Antoine Chrysostome Quatremere De Quincy, a French archaeologist, born in Paris, Oct. 28, 1755, died Dec. 28, 1849. In 1785 a paper Sur l'architecture é ...
-Antoine Clot
Antoine Clot, popularly known as Clot Bey, a French physician, born near Marseilles in April, 1795, died there in 1808. He studied at Montpellier, became a ...
-Antoine Court De Gebelin
Antoine Court De Gebelin, a French author, born in Nimes in 1725, died in Paris, May 10, 1784. He was the son of Antoine Court, and early in life officiated ...
-Antoine Duprat
Antoine Duprat, a French cardinal and statesman, born at Issoire, Jan. 17, 1463, died July 8, 1535. He was successively bailiff of Montferrand, government ...
-Antoine Eugene Alfred Chanzy
Antoine Eugene Alfred Chanzy, a French soldier, born at Nouart, Ardennes, March 18, 1823. He enlisted in his 16th year as a cabin boy on a man-of-war. The next ...
-Antoine Francois Prevost Dexiles
Antoine Francois Prevost D'Exiles, popularly known as Abbe Prevost, a French author, born at Hesdin, near Montreuil, April 1, 1697, died near Chantilly, Nov.
-Antoine Jean Gros
Antoine Jean Gros, baron, a French painter, born in Paris, March 16, 1771, died about June 25, 1835, He was educated in the school of David. Bonaparte on the ...
-Antoine Joseph Santerre
Antoine Joseph Santerre, a French revolutionist, born in Paris, March 16, 1752, died there, Feb. 6, 1809. He inherited from his father a large brewery in the ...
-Antoine Joseph Wiertz
Antoine Joseph Wiertz, a Belgian painter, born in Dinant, Feb. 22, 1806, died in Brussels, June 18, 1865. He was born of poor parents, and received no early ...
-Antoine Lanreut Lavoisier
Antoine Lanreut Lavoisier, a French chemist, born in Paris in August, 1743, died on the scaffold, May 8, 1794. He was the son of a rich merchant, studied at ...
-Antoine Lonls Bakye
Antoine Lonls Bakye, a French sculptor, born in Paris, Sept. 24, 1795. He perfected his studies under Bosio and Gros, and acquired reputation in 1831 by his ...
-Antoine Louis Leon De Saint-Just
Antoine Louis Leon De Saint-Just, a French revolutionist, born at Decize, near Nevers, in 1767 or 1768, guillotined in Paris, July 28, 1794. He early imbibed a ...
-Antoine Marie Chamans La Valette
Antoine Marie Chamans La Valette, count de, a French officer, born in Paris in 1769, died there, Feb. 15, 1830. At the breaking out of the revolution he became ...
-Antoine Rivarol
Antoine Rivarol, a French author, born at Bagnols, Languedoc, June 26, 1753, died in Berlin, April 13, 1801. After preparing himself for the church he became a ...
-Antoinette Bourignon
Antoinette Bourignon, a Flemish fanatic, born in Lille, Jan. 13, 1616, died at Franeker, Oct. 30, 1680. She was so ugly that at her birth it was proposed to ...
-Antoinette Deshoulieres
Antoinette Deshoulieres(du Ligier de la Garde), a French authoress, born in Paris about 1634, died there, Feb. 17, 1694. She was the daughter of a maitre d' ...
-Anton Alexander Auersperg
Anton Alexander Auersperg, count (popularly known as Anastasius Grun, his nom de plume), a German poet, born at Laybach, April 11, 1806. He belongs to an ...
-Anton Gunther
Anton Gunther, a German philosopher, born in Lindenau, Bohemia, about 1785, died in Vienna, Feb. 24, 1863. He studied at the university of Prague, and, after ...
-Anton Rafael Mengs
Anton Rafael Mengs, a German painter, born at Aussig, Bohemia, March 12, 1728, died in Rome, June 29, 1779. His father, a miniature painter, took him when a ...
-Anton Rubinstein
Anton Rubinstein, a Russian musician, born in a frontier village of Bessarabia, Nov. 30, 1830. He is of Jewish descent, but was brought up by his father in the ...
-Anton Von Prokesch-Ostev
Anton Von Prokesch-Ostev, baron, a German author, born in Gratz, Dec. 10, 1795. In early life he served in the army, taught mathematics, and was secretary to ...
-Antonin Nompar De Canmont Lauzun
Antonin Nompar De Canmont Lauzun, duke de, a French courtier, born about 1633, died Nov. 19, 1723. A poor nobleman from Gascony, he made his fortune at the ...
-Antonio Allegri Da Correggio
Antonio Allegri Da Correggio, an Italian painter, born at Correggio, near Modena, in 1494, died there, March 5, 1534. His father Pellegrino Allegri, a ...
-Antonio Bernardo Da Costa-Cabral
Antonio Bernardo Da Costa-Cabral, duke of Thomar, a Portuguese statesman, born at For-nos de Algodres, in the province of Beira, May 9,1803. He was educated at ...
-Antonio Bottesini
Antonio Bottesini, an Italian composer and contrabassist, born at Crema, Dec. 24, 1823. He was taught the double bass in Milan by Luigi Rossi, according to the ...
-Antonio Canova
Antonio Canova, an Italian sculptor, born at Possagno, Nov. 1,1757, died in Venice, Oct. 13, 1822. He sprang from an ancient family, who for generations had ...
-Antonio De Capmany Y Montpalau
Antonio De Capmany Y Montpalau, a Spanish writer, born in Barcelona, Nov. 24, 1742, died in Cadiz, Nov. 14, 1813. He served in the wars with Portugal in 1762, ...
-Antonio De Ulloa
Antonio De Ulloa, a Spanish naval officer, born in Seville, Jan. 12, 1716, died in the Isla de Leon, near Cadiz, July 3, 1795. He was educated for the navy, ...
-Antonio Emriquez Gomez
Antonio Emriquez Gomez, whose real name was Enriquez de Paz, a Spanish dramatist, born in Segovia early in the 17th century. He was the son of a converted ...
-Antonio Escobar Y Mendoza
Antonio Escobar Y Mendoza, a Spanish casuist, born in Valladolid in 1589, died July 4, 1669. He was a Jesuit, distinguished for eloquence, and preached daily, ...
-Antonio Jose De Sucre
Antonio Jose De Sucre, a South American soldier, born in Cumana, Venezuela, in 1793, assassinated near Pasto, Ecuador, in June, 1830. He joined the ...
-Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna
Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna, a Mexican general, born in Jalapa, Feb. 21, 1798. He began his military career in 1821, against the royalists, and after some ...
-Antonio Magliabecchi
Antonio Magliabecchi, an Italian scholar, born in Florence in 1033, died there in 1714. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith in his native city, but ultimately ...
-Antonio Pacchiom
Antonio Pacchiom, an Italian anatomist, born in Reggio about 1665, died in Rome in 1726. He was associated at an early period with Malpighi in the practice of ...
-Antonio Perez
Antonio Perez, a Spanish statesman, born at Monreal de Ariza, Aragon, about 1539, died in Paris, Nov. 3, 1611. He was a natural son of Gonzalo Perez, minister ...
-Antonio Rosmini Serbati
Antonio Rosmini Serbati, an Italian philosopher, born in Roveredo, March 24, 1797, died at Stresa, July 1, 1855. He took priest's orders at the age of 24, and ...
-Antpine Marie Philippe Lonis Dorleans Montpensier
Antpine Marie Philippe Lonis D'Orleans Montpensier, duke de, a French prince, youngest son of Louis Philippe, born at Neuilly, July 31, 1824. He was educated ...
-Aphara Behn
Aphara Behn, or Aphra, an English dramatist and novelist, born in Canterbury about 1640, died in London, April 16, 1689. She was very young when she sailed ...
-Appendix
THE following tables are compiled from advance sheets of vol. iii. of the Canadian census of 1871. now (May, 1875) passing through the press, which were ...
-Appius Claudius Caecus
Appius Claudius Caecus, a Roman censor, son of Claudius Appius Crassus or Crassinus, who was named dictator 337 B. C, but resigned the office because the ...
-Appius Claudius Chassis
Appius Claudius Chassis, a Roman decemvir from 451 to 449 B. C. He belonged to the Claudii of Sabine origin, a patrician family noted for its sanguinary ...
-Appletons Library Of The British Poets
Appletons' Library of the British Poets. Among- the longer and most celebrated poems included in this work, many of which commonly till an ordinary volume, and ...
-Arabella Or Arbella Stuart
Arabella Or Arbella Stuart, often called the lady Arabella, the only child of Charles Stuart, earl of Lennox, brother of Darnley and uncle of James L, born ...
-Archibald Cary
Archibald Cary, an American patriot, born in Virginia about 1730, died there in September, 1786. His family was descended from Henry Lord Hunsdon, and at the ...
-Archibald Constable
Archibald Constable, a Scottish publisher, born in Fifeshire, Feb. 24, 1774, died July 21, 1827. After serving an apprenticeship to a bookseller, he opened a ...
-Armand Augustin Lonis De Caulalycourt
Armand Augustin Lonis De Caulalycourt, duke of Vicenza, a French general and diplomatist, born at Caulaincourt, near Saint-Quentin, in 1773, died in Paris, Feb.
-Armand Barbes
Armand Barbes, a French revolutionist, born at Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe, Sept. 18, 1809, died at the Hague, June 26, 1870. He went to southern France as an ...
-Armand Gaston Camus
Armand Gaston Camus, a French revolutionist, born in Paris, April 2,1740, died Nov. 2, 1804. He studied law, and was chosen by the French clergy as their ...
-Armand Jean Duplessis Richelieu
Armand Jean Duplessis Richelieu, cardinal and duke de, a French statesman, born in Paris, Sept. 5, 1585, died there, Dec. 4, 1642. He was first destined to the ...
-Armand Jean Le Bouthillier De Rance
Armand Jean Le Bouthillier De Rance, reformer of the monastery of La Trappe, born in Paris, Jan. 9, 1626, died Oct. 27, 1700. He was a godson of Cardinal ...
-Armand Louis De Delondarce De La Hontan
Armand Louis De Delondarce De La Hontan, baron de la Hontan et Herleche, a French traveller, born near Mont de Marsan, Gascony, about 1667, died in Hanover in ...
-Armand Taffin Rouarie
Armand Taffin Rouarie, marquis de la, a French soldier, born near Rennes in 1756, died near Lamballe, Jan. 30, 1793. He entered the army young, was dismissed ...
-Armiuins Vambery
Armiuins Vambery, a Hungarian traveller, of Jewish parentage, born at Szerdahely, county of Presburg, in 1832. He was intended for a tailor, but studied at ...
-Arnand De Cervolle, Or Cenolc
Cervolle, Or Cenolc, Arnand De, a French freebooter, born in Perigord about 1300, died in 1300. He was called l'archipretre because he held a benefice of that ...
-Arnold Henry Guyot
Arnold Henry Guyot, an American geographer, born near Neufchatel, Switzerland, Sept. 28, 1807. He studied at Neufchatel, Stuttgart, and Carlsruhe, where he ...
-Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren
Arnold Hermann Ludwig Heeren, a German historian, born at Arbergen, near Bremen, Oct. 25, 1760, died in Gottingen, March 7, 1842. He studied at Bremen and at ...
-Arnold Ruge
Arnold Ruge, a German author, born at Bergen, island of Rügen, Sept. 13, 1803. He was imprisoned for five years as a member of a political students' ...
-Arnold Tom Melchthal
Arnold Tom Melchthal, a Swiss patriot, born in Unterwalden in the latter part of- the 13th century. His real name was Arnold von der Ualden, but he assumed the ...
-Artemas Bowers Muzzey
Artemas Bowers Muzzey, an American clergyman, born in Lexington, Mass., Sept. 21, 1802. He graduated at Harvard college in 1824, and at the Cambridge divinity ...
-Artemas Ward
Artemas Ward, an American general, born in Shrewsbury, Mass., Nov. 27, 1727, died there, Oct. 28, 1800. He graduated at Harvard college in 1748, and was ...
-Arthur Collier
Arthur Collier, an English clergyman, born at Langford Steeple, Wiltshire, in 1680, died in 1732. He was rector of Langford, a living which had belonged ...
-Arthur Hugh Clough
Arthur Hugh Clough, an English author, born in Liverpool, Jan. 1, 1819, died in Florence, Italy, Nov. 13, 1801. He was educated at Rugby school, and at Balliol ...
-Arthur Murphy
Arthur Murphy, a British dramatist, born at Clooniquin, county Roscommon, Ireland, Dec. 27, 1727, died in London, June 18, 1805. He was educated at the Roman ...
-Arthur Pcurhyn Stanley
Arthur Pcurhyn Stanley, an English clergyman, born in Alderley, Cheshire, Dec. 13, 1815. His father was Dr. Edward Stanley (1779-1849), rector of Alderley for ...
-Arthur S Sullivan
Arthur S Sullivan, an English composer, born in London in 1844. He was instructed by his father, a music teacher, and sang for three years when a boy at the ...
-Arthur Saint Clair
Arthur Saint Clair, an American general, born in Thurso, Scotland, in 1734, died near Greensburg, Pa., Aug. 31, 1818. He was a grandson of the earl of Roslyn, ...
-Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer, a German philosopher, born in Dantzic, Feb. 22, 1788, died in Frankfort, Sept. 21, 1860. His father was a banker, and left him a fortune; ...
-Arthur Wellesley Wellington
Arthur Wellesley Wellington, duke of, a British soldier, born at Dangan castle, county Meath, or in Dublin, on or shortly before May 1, 1769, died at Walmer ...
-Arthur Young
Arthur Young, an English writer on agriculture, born at Bradfield, Suffolk, Sept. 7, 1741, died there, April 12, 1820. He abandoned mercantile business for ...
-Artificial Globe
Artificial Globe, a hollow sphere, on the surface of which is delineated a map of the earth or heavens, with the various circles to which points are referred ...
-Artificial Mineral Waters
Artificial Mineral Waters, imitations of mineral spring waters, made by dissolving the salts which constitute the basis of the natural mineral waters in ...
-Ass
Ass (equus asinus), the humblest member of the horse family, known to be of eastern origin. He is first mentioned in Genesis, in the history of Abraham, who, ...
-Asa Gray
Asa Gray, an American botanist, born in Paris, Oneida co., N. Y., Nov. 18, 1810. He graduated at the Fairfield medical college in 1831, but abandoned the ...
-Asa Mahan
Asa Mahan, an American clergyman, born in Vernon, N. Y., in 1799. He graduated at Hamilton college in 1824, and at Andover theological seminary in 1827, and ...
-Asahel Clark Kendrick
Asahel Clark Kendrick, an American author, born in Poultney, Vt., Dec. 7, 1809. He went when about 13 years of age to Hamilton, N. Y., and in 1831 graduated at ...
-Ashbel Green
Ashbel Green, an American clergyman, born at Hanover, N. J., July 6, 1762, died in Philadelphia, May 19, 1848. He graduated at the college of New Jersey in ...
-Ashes
Ashes, the solid remains after the burning of combustible substances. When a vegetable or animal substance is burned with free access of air, part of it is ...
-Asher Brown Durand
Asher Brown Durand, an American painter and engraver, born at Jefferson, Morris co., N. J., Aug. 21, 1796. His art education commenced in the shop of his ...
-Ashtoretii
Ashtoretii. (plur. Ashtaroth; called by the Babylonians Mylitta, by the Assyrians Ishtar, and by the Greeks Astarte, and nearly identical with the Egyptian ...
-Asia
Asia, the largest of the recognized continental divisions of the globe. The name, which was originally used in a much more limited sense than at present, comes ...
-Asia Minor
Asia Minor, a peninsula at the western extremity of Asia, forming a large part of Asiatic Turkey, between lat. 36 and 42 N. and lon. 26 and 41 E., and bounded ...
-Asmns Jakob Carstens
Asmns Jakob Carstens, a German painter, born at Sanct Jfirgen, near Schleswig, May 10, 1754, died May 26, 1708. He was a miller's son, and had a youthful ...
-Asmoneans, Or Hasmoneans
Asmoneans, Or Hasmoneans (Heb. 'Hashmo-naim), the name of a Jewish priestly family which, under its founder Mattathias, the great-grandson of Asmonaeus, and ...
-Asp
Asp, a name given to more than one species of the venomous serpents. By naturalists it is confined to the vipera aspis (Schl.), which is a native of the ...
-Asparagus
Asparagus, a genus of perennial plants, of the natural order liliaceae and the suborder asparagem, and differing only in the fruit from the asphodeleae. The ...
-Aspasia
Aspasia, a Milesian woman who fixed her residence at Athens about the middle of the 5th century B. C. By her great eloquence, political and literary ability, ...
-Asphaltum, Or Asphalt (Gr
Asphaltum, Or Asphalt (Gr. , a mixture of different hydrocarbons, some of which contain oxygen, by the majority of chemists and geologists supposed to be of ...
-Asphodel
Asphodel (asphodelus), a genus of ornamental perennial plants belonging to the natural order liliacece, and to the sub-order asphodelece. They are all natives ...
-Asphyxia
Asphyxia (Gr. from a privative and , pulse), literally, a temporary or a final suspension of the motion of the heart, and the pulsation of the arteries. The ...
-Asplvwall, Or Colon
Asplvwall, Or Colon, a city and seaport of the United States of Colombia, the Atlantic terminus of the Panama railway, situated on the island of Manzanilla in ...
-Assam
Assam, a province at the N. E. extremity of British India, presidency of Bengal, between lat. 25 50' and 28 20' N., lon. 90 40' and 97 30' E., bounded N. by ...
-Assassins
Assassins (Arab. Hashashin, hashish smokers), a secret political society in Persia, Syria, and Arabia, in the middle ages, a branch of the Ismaelians, so ...
-Assault
Assault, any wilful and unlawful attempt or offer, with force or violence, to do a corporal hurt to another. In New York it has been added to a definition of ...
-Assaying
Assaying (old Fr. asaier, mod. Fr. essayer, to try), the chemical examination of an ore, a metal, or an alloy, to determine the proportions of its ingredients.
-Assemani
Assemani. I. Joseph Simon, a Syrian orientalist, born at Tripoli (Tarablus) in 1687, died in Rome, Jan. 14, 1768. After spending many years in the study of ...
-Assiento
Assiento (Sp. asiento, treaty), a term used to designate the treaties made by Spain with foreign countries for the supply of negro slaves to her South American ...
-Assignats
Assignats, the paper currency of the French revolution, first issued in the spring of 1790, to be redeemed by the sale of the confiscated property of the ...
-Assignment
Assignment, in law, the making over or transferring of any species of property. It also signifies the deed or instrument by which the transfer is operated. The ...
-Assing
Assing. I. Rosa Maria, a German poetess, sister of Varnhagen von Ense, born in Diissel-dorf, May 28, 1783, died Jan. 22, 1840. The outbreak of the French ...
-Assiniboins
Assiniboins, a tribe of Indians of the Dakota family, in Montana territory, United States, and in Manitoba and the region round about in British America. They ...
-Assize
Assize, a term of the common law, having reference to several distinct subjects. Its most general uses are to designate an ordinance for regulating the sale of ...
-Asslmbow
Asslmbow, a river of British North America, rising in lat. 51 40' N. and about lon. 105 E., and joining the Red river of the North at Fort Garry, Manitoba, in ...
-Assumption
Assumption, a festival of the Roman Catholic church, instituted to commemorate the ascent of the Virgin Mary into heaven. From a very early period it has been ...
-Assyria
Assyria (Gr. 'A ia; Heb. Ashshur), an ancient country in Asia, lying upon both banks of the Tigris, the seat of one of the great monarchies of antiquity, and ...
-Aster
Aster (Gr. a np, a star), a genus of plants of the great family of compositae, so widespread as to induce Lindley to give its name to the whole family, ...
-Asteroids
Asteroids, a ring of small planets travelling between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. It had long been noticed that no empirical law of planetary distances ...
-Asthma
Asthma (Gr. a ua, from a , to blow), a diseas3 characterized by an extreme difficulty of respiration, which is worse at certain seasons of the year and ...
-Astirias
Astirias, a former province of N. W. Spain, bordering on the bay of Biscay, bearing the title of principality, and still commonly known by its ancient name, ...
-Astor Library
Astor Library, an institution founded under the will of John Jacob Astor, who bequeathed $400,000 for the establishment of a public library in the city of New ...
-Astrabad, Or Asterabad
Astrabad, Or Asterabad. I. A northern province of Persia, lying along the S. coast of a large bay of the same name, which forms the S. E. extremity of the ...
-Astrakhan, Or Astrachan
Astrakhan, Or Astrachan. I. A government of S. E. Russia, on the N. W. shore of the Caspian sea; area, 85,010 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 573,954, including 134,000 ...
-Astriffgekts
Astriffgekts (Lat. astruu/cre, to bind), agents which have the power to contract the animal tissues, diminish the amount of their fluids, and increase their ...
-Astrology
Astrology (Gr. star or constellation, and discourse), a system of rules for discovering future events by studying the positions of the heavenly bodies, which ...
-Astronomy
Astronomy (Gr. a star, and law), the science which deals with the movements, distribution, and physical characteristics of the heavenly bodies. That astronomy ...
-Asylum
Asylum (Gr. ), formerly, a place of refuge, from which persons who lied to it could not be taken without sacrilege. The Jewish cities of refuge established by ...
-Atacama
Atacama. I. A S. W. department of Bolivia, bounded by Peru, the Bolivian department of Potosi, the Argentine Confederation, Chili, and the Pacific ocean; area, ...
-Atahuallpa, Or Atabalipa
Atahuallpa, Or Atabalipa, inca of Peru at the time of the invasion of the Spaniards, died Aug. 29, 1533. He was the son of Huayna Capac. The laws of Peru ...
-Atalanta
Atalanta, a mythical personage, a native of Arcadia, or according to a less generally adopted legend, which gives her story with some variations, of Boeotia.
-Atchison
Atchison. I. A county forming the N. W. extremity of Missouri, lying along the left bank of the Missouri river, bounded E. by the Nodaway and drained by the ...
-Atha Ben Harem, Or Alhakem Ibn Atta
Atha Ben Harem, or Alhakem ibn Atta, sur-named Mokanna (the veiled), a Moslem impostor, born at Merv, Khorasan, killed about 780. He was by trade a fuller. He ...
-Athabascas
Athabascas, a family of American Indians, comprising two large divisions: one bordering on the Esquimaux in the northwest, and extending from Hudson bay to the ...
-Athabasca, Or Athapcscow
Athabasca, Or Athapcscow. I. A lake of British North America, in lat. 59 N., and between lon. 106 and 112 W., about midway between the Rocky mountains and ...
-Athanasian Creed
Athanasian Creed, a symbol chiefly composed of precise theological definitions of the doctrines of the Trinity and incarnation. The first notices of it are ...
-Athanasios Christopilos
Athanasios Christopilos,a modern Greek poet, born at Castoria in Macedonia in May, 1772, died in Wallachia, Jan. 29, 1847. His father, a Greek priest, removed ...
-Athanasius Kircher
Athanasius Kircher, a German scholar, born near Fulda, Hesse-Cassel, May 2, 1602, died in Rome, Nov. 28, 1680. He was educated at the university of Wiirzburg, ...
-Athelstan
Athelstan, the first who called himself king of the English, born about 895, died at Gloucester, Oct. 25, 941. He was a grandson of Alfred the Great, and ...
-Athens
Athens (Gr. 'A nva ), anciently the principal city of Attica, and now the capital of the kingdom of Greece, situated in lat. 37 56' N., lon. 23 44' E., about 4 ...
-Athens (2)
Athens, a S. E. county of Ohio, on the Ohio river; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 23,768. It has railroad communication with Marietta, Columbus, and ...
-Atlas
Atlas, in Greek mythology, son of Japetus and Clymene, and brother of Epimetheus and Prometheus. Defeated with the other Titans by Jupiter, he was condemned to ...
-Atlanta
Atlanta, a city, capital of Georgia, and also of Fulton county, and next to Savannah the largest and most important city in the state, 101 m. N. W. of Macon ...
-Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean, that branch of the general ocean which separates the continents of Europe and Africa from America. Its oldest name among the ancients was ...
-Atmosphere
Atmosphere (Gr. vapor, and sphere), or Air, the gaseous envelope of a celestial body or of the earth. At present we know that the sun and planets possess ...
-Atmospheric Engine
Atmospheric Engine. Under this name was formerly understood an engine operated by the simultaneous pressure of cold air on a small piston and hot air on a ...
-Atomic Theory
Atomic Theory, the doctrine that matter consists of ultimate particles or atoms incapable of division. This idea was first maintained speculatively in ...
-Atrato
Atrato, a river of Colombia, South America, rises near lat. 5 20' N. and lon. 76 50' W., and flows nearly due N. for about 250 m. to the gulf of Darien. The ...
-Atrophy
Atrophy (Gr. hunger, from a privative and nourishment), in medicine, the wasting away of any organ or portion of the body from want of nutrition in the part, ...
-Atropia, Or Atropine (Gr
Atropia, Or Atropine (Gr. one of the Fates), a vegetable alkaloid of highly poisonous properties, extracted from the atropa belladonna, or deadly nightshade.
-Attachment
Attachment (Fr. attacker, to seize), in law, the seizure of the person or property. The writ of attachment is of two kinds: 1. Against the person, in the ...
-Attainder
Attainder (Fr. teindre, Lat. tingere, to stain), in old English law, the extinction of civil rights, and the forfeiture of estate which followed, when a person ...
-Attaixs
Attaixs. I. A general of Philip of Mace-don, and uncle of Cleopatra, whom Philip married, killed about 336 B. C. At the wedding festivities of his niece, he ...
-Attaman
Attaman, the title of the supreme chief of the Cossacks, now retained only by those of the Don. The attaman was elected by the people in a general public ...
-Attia
Attia (Gr. probably a corruption of from shore or coast), one of the political divisions of ancient Greece, occupying a triangular peninsula, bounded N. by ...
-Attila
Attila (Magyar, Etele; Ger. Etzel), king of the Huns, died in 453 or 454. About 434, with Bleda, his brother, he succeeded Roas, his uncle, in the leadership ...
-Attorney General
Attorney General, a law officer of state. In England he is the counsel to the crown. He may be required by either of the houses of parliament to institute ...
-Atuos
Atuos (mod. Gr. Hagion Oras, holy mountain; Turk. Aineros), the easternmost of the three peninsulas projecting from ancient Chal-cidice, in the N. W. part of ...
-Auburn
Auburn, a city and the county seat of Cayuga county, N. Y., 174 m. by rail W. of Albany, and 2 m. N. of Owasco lake, the outlet of which intersects the town; ...
-Auchmuty
Auchmuty. I. Robert, an American lawyer, born probably in England, died in Boston in April, 1750. He was of Scotch descent, settled at Boston early in the 18th ...
-Auckland
Auckland. I. A province of New Zealand, occupying the north and centre of North island; area, about 30,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, i 62,335, besides 16,000 ...
-Auckland Islands
Auckland Islands, a group lying between lat. 50 24' and 51 4' S., and lon. 163 46' and 164 3' E., 180 m. S. of New Zealand, and 900 m. S. E. of Tasmania. They ...
-Auction
Auction (Lat. auctio, the act of increasing), a public sale, whereat persons openly compete, the property being sold to him who will give the most for it. In ...
-Aude
Aude, a maritime department of France, in Languedoc, bounded by the Mediterranean and the departments of Pyrenees-Orientales, Ariege, Haute-Garonne, Tarn, and ...
-Audran
Audran, the name of a celebrated family of French engravers, all descending from Louis Audran, an officer of the wolf-hunt under Henry IV., whose son Claude, ...
-Augsburg
Augsburg, a city of Bavaria, situated between the rivers Wertach and Lech, at their confluence, 33 m. N. W. of Munich; pop. in 1871, 51,284. It is one of the ...
-Augsburg Confession
Augsburg Confession, the first Protestant confession of faith, and the basis of the present faith in Protestant Germany. Charles V., soon after his accession ...
-Augurs
Augurs, diviners among the Romans. The practice of divination flourished in Chaldea and Egypt; from the latter country it passed to Greece, whence the Romans ...
-August
August, the 8th month of the year, derived from the Roman calendar. The Romans called it originally Sextilis, or the 6th month of their year, which began with ...
-August Friedrich Pott
August Friedrich Pott, a German philologist, born at Nettelrede, near Hanover, Nov. 14, 1802. He studied in Hanover and at the university of Gottingen, and was ...
-August Gneisenau
August Gneisenau , count, a Prussian general, born at Schilda, Oct. 28, 1760, died in Posen, Aug. 24, 1831. He served in the Austrian army, and in that of the ...
-August Gottlieb Spangenberg
August Gottlieb Spangenberg, first bishop of the Moravian church in America, born at Klettenberg, Prussia, July 15, 1704, died at Berthelsdorf, Saxony, Sept.
-August Hahn
August Hahn, a German theologian, born near Eisleben, March 27, 1792, died in Breslau, May 13, 1863. He was educated at Eisleben, Leipsic, and Wittenberg, in ...
-August Petermann
August Petermann, a German geographer, born at Bleicherode, near Nordhausen, in Prussian Saxony, April 18, 1822. He studied in the academy established at ...
-August Wilhelm Iffland
August Wilhelm Iffland, a German dramatist, born in Hanover, April 19, 1759, died in Berlin, Sept. 22, 1814. At the age of 18 he made his debut upon the stage ...
-August Wilhelm. A German Chemist Hofmann
August Wilhelm. A German Chemist Hofmann, born in Giessen, April 8, 1818. He is the son of an architect, and studied chemistry under Liebig, whose assistant he ...
-Augusta
Augusta, a N. W. county of Virginia, bordering on West Virginia and the Blue Ridge; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 28,763, of whom 6,737 were colored. It was ...
-Auguste Alexandre Ducrot
Auguste Alexandre Ducrot, a French general, born in Nevers in 1817. After receiving his education at St. Cyr, he served for many years in Algeria, and ...
-Auguste Ernest Paul Laugier
Auguste Ernest Paul Laugier, a French astronomer, born in Paris in 1812, died there, April 5, 1872. He was a son of the chemist Andre Laugier (1770-1832), and ...
-Auguste Frederie Louis Viesse De Marmont
Auguste Frederie Louis Viesse De Marmont, duke of Ragusa, a marshal of France, born in Cha-tillon-sur-Seine, July 20, 1774, died in Venice, Feb. 28, 1852. He ...
-Auguste Henri Marie Pieot Dampierre
Auguste Henri Marie Pieot Dampierre, marquis de, a French soldier, born in Paris, Aug. 19, 1756, died in battle near the forest of Vioogne, May 8,1793. He ...
-Augustenburg
Augustenburg, a village on the formerly Danish and now German island of Alsen; pop. about 500. It grew up round the palace of the same name, built in 1651 by ...
-Augustin Daniel Belliard
Augustin Daniel Belliard, count, a French soldier, born at Fontenay-le-Comte, Poitou. March 25,1769, died in Brussels, Jan. 28, 1832. He entered the army with ...
-Augustin Louis Cauchy
Augustin Louis Cauchy, a French mathematician, born in Paris, Aug. 21, 1789, died May 23, 1857. Admitted in 1805 to the polytechnic school, he distinguished ...
-Augustin Pyramus De Candolle
Candolle. I. Augustin Pyramus De, a Swiss botanist, born in Geneva, Feb. 4, 1778, died there, Sept. 9,1841. Up to the age of 16 poetry and literature were his ...
-Augustin, Or Austin, Saint
Augustin, Or Austin, Saint, archbishop of Canterbury, sometimes called the apostle of the English, born probably in the first half of the 6th century, died at ...
-Augustine
Augustine (Aueelius Augustinus), Saint, a doctor of the Latin church, born at Tagaste, a small town of Numidia in Africa, not far from Carthage, Nov. 13, 354, ...
-Augustus Addison Gould
Augustus Addison Gould, an American naturalist, born in New Ipswich, N. 11., April 23 1805, died in Boston, Sept. 15, 1866. His father's family name was Duron, ...
-Augustus Allen Hayes
Augustus Allen Hayes, an American chemist, born in Windsor, Vt., Feb. 28, 1806. He graduated at the military academy in Norwich, Vt., in 1823, and then began ...
-Augustus Charles Thompson
Augustus Charles Thompson, an American clergyman, born in Goshen, Conn., April 30, 1812. He was educated at Yale college, at the theological seminary at East ...
-Augustus Coins Julius Caesar Octavianus
Augustus, Coins Julius Caesar Octavianus (named at his birth simply Caius Octavius), first emperor of Rome, born at Velitrae, Sept. 23, 63 B. C, died at Nola, ...
-Augustus De Morgan
Augustus De Morgan, an English mathematician, born on the island of Madura, East Indies, in 1806, died in London, March 18, 1871. His father was an officer in ...
-Augustus Frederick
Augustus Frederick, prince of Great Britain and Ireland, duke of Sussex, the 6th son of George III. of England, born in Buckingham palace, Jan. 27, 1773, died ...
-Augustus I
Augustus I. (as king, II.) Frederick, sur-named the Strong, elector of Saxony and king of Poland, second son of the elector John George III., born in Dresden, ...
-Auk
Auk, the name of certain sea birds of the family alcadce, including the subgenera alca, fratercula, mergulus, and phaleris. The true auks (alca) are strictly ...
-Aulaf, Or Anlaf
Aulaf, Or Anlaf, a name borne by several Northumbrian kings of Danish origin, about the second half of the 10th century. I. A Northumbrian petty king and a ...
-Aulas Hirtius
Aulas Hirtius, a Roman statesman, born about 90 B. C, fell in battle near Mutina (Mo-dena) in 43. He was a friend of Julius Caesar, under whom he served as ...
-Aulic Council
Aulic Council (Lat. aula, a court or hall; Ger. Reichshofrath), a tribunal under the old German empire, standing at its first institution next in authority to ...
-Aulus Vitellius
Aulus Vitellius, a Roman emperor, born about A. D. 15, killed in Rome in 69. He became consul in 48, was subsequently proconsul of Africa, and afterward legate ...
-Aumale
Aumale (formerly Albemarle), a town of France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, 40 m. N. E. of Rouen; pop. in 1866, 2,929. In 1592 a battle was fought ...
-Aurelian
Aurelian (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus), a Roman emperor, born in Pannonia, or according to some authorities on the southern confines of Dacia, in the early part ...
-Aurelius Clemens Prudentius
Aurelius Clemens Prudentius, a Latin poet, born in Spain in A. D. 348, died early in the 5th century. He was a lawyer, became a civil and criminal judge, and ...
-Aurelle
Aurelle (or D'Aurelle) DE Paladdes, a French soldier, born in 1803. He distinguished himself in the Crimean war. Before the outbreak of the war with Germany in ...
-Auricular Confession
Auricular Confession, in the Greek and Roman Catholic churches, the acknowledgment of sins to an authorized priest, made with the view of obtaining absolution.
-Aurora
Aurora (in Greek, Eos), the goddess of the morning, was the daughter of Hyperion and Thia, the wife of Astrseus, and the mother of the winds. She carried off ...
-Aurora Borealis
Aurora Borealis (more correctly Aurora Polaris, since the phenomenon is not confined to northern latitudes), called also Northern Streamers and Northern Lights, ...
-Aurungabad
Aurungabad, a city of N. W. Hindostan, in the native state of Hyderabad or the territory of the Nizam, on the Doodna, a small tributary of the Godavery, 175 m.
-Aurungzebe, Or Autrnngzeb
Aurungzebe, Or Autrnngzeb, the last great emperor of the Mogul dynasty in India, born Oct. 22, 1618, died at Ahmednuggur, Feb. 21, 1707. He was appointed by ...
-Auscultation
Auscultation (Lat. auscultare, to listen), a branch of medical art by which the states and motions of internal organs are discerned through the sounds which ...
-Austen Henry Layard
Austen Henry Layard, an English archa3olo-gist, born in Paris, during the temporary residence of his parents in that city, March 8, 1817. He is descended from ...
-Austerlitz
Austerlitz, a town of Moravia, in the circle and 12 m. E. of Brunn on the Littawa river; pop. about 2,400. It owes its celebrity to the battle won here by ...
-Austin
Austin, a S. E. county of Texas, intersected by Brazos river; area, 1,024 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,087, of whom 6,574 were colored. The Texas Central railroad ...
-Australia
Australia, formerly called New Holland, an island, classed as a continent by most geographers, lying S. E. of Asia and the Sunda islands, between the Indian ...
-Austrasia
Austrasia (old Ger. Oesterrych, i. e., Oestreich), the eastern kingdom of the Franks of the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, under the Merovingians, comprising in ...
-Austria
Austria (Ger. Oestreich or Oesterreich, eastern empire), officially designated since 1868 as the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, an empire of southern central ...
-Austrian Silesia (Ger. Sdilesien)
Austrian Silesia (Ger. Sdilesien), a duchy comprising that part of Silesia which remained to the house of Austria after the peace of 1763, bounded by Prussian ...
-Automaton
Automaton (Gr. , self, and to move), a self-moving machine, or one which contains within itself the moving power. This description would make the term ...
-Autonins Heinsius
Autonins Heinsius, grand pensionary of Holland, born in 1641, died at the Hague, Aug. 13, 1720. He was an intimate friend and confidential agent of Prince ...
-Autoplasty
Autoplasty (Gr. self, and to shape or form), a surgical operation by which the nose or other superficial portion of the body, being destroyed by accident or by ...
-Auun
Auun (anc. Bibracte, afterward Augustodunum), a town of France, in Burgundy, department of Sa6ne-et-Loire, on the Arroux, 50 m. N. N. W. of Macon; pop. in 1866, ...
-Auvergne
Auvergne, an old province of France, now forming the departments of Cantal, Puy-de-Dome, and part of Haute-Loire. ' It is divided into two parts, very ...
-Ava
Ava (Burmese, Ang-wa, a fish pond, so called because the original town was built around one), formerly the capital of the Burman empire, styled in the official ...
-Avalanche
Avalanche (Fr. avalanche or analange), a mass of snow precipitated from mountain sides to the lower levels. Avalanches are common in the Alps and Apennines, ...
-Avars
Avars, a tribe of Turanian origin, who first appear in European history about the middle of the 6th century, when the bulk of them left their abodes between ...
-Avatar
Avatar, a Sanskrit word, signifying a descending, usually applied in a religious sense, and in reference to the incarnation of the Hindoo deities. Whence the ...
-Aventirine
Aventirine, a variety of quartz, and also one of feldspar. The peculiarity in each, for which the name is given, is the play of reflected or refracted light ...
-Average
Average. I. General (sometimes called gross or extraordinary), in mercantile.law, the contribution made by all the parties concerned in a sea adventure to make ...
-Averno
Averno (anc. At emus), a lake in Italy, about 8 m. W. of Naples, and near the ruins of ancient Cumae. It lies in the crater of an extinct volcano, and, though ...
-Averroes, Or Averrhoes (A Corruption Of Ibn Roshd)
Averroes, Or Averrhoes (A Corruption Of Ibn Roshd), an Arabian philosopher, born in Cordova about 1120, died in Morocco, Dec. 12,1198. Educated by eminent ...
-Avignon
Avignon (anc. Avenio), a town of S. E. France, in Provence, department of Vaucluse, 365 m. S. S. E. of Paris, situated on the Rbone, which is here crossed by ...
-Avocet, Or Avoset (Recurvirostra)
Avocet, Or Avoset (Recurvirostra), a bird of the order of the grallatores. There is but one European and one American species, which are very closely connected, ...
-Avoirdupois
Avoirdupois (Fr. avoir du poids, to have weight; or, possibly, as it was formerly spelled averdupois, from the old Fr. verb arerer, to verify), a standard of ...
-Axayacatl
Axayacatl, a Mexican emperor, died about 1477. He was the father of Montezuma II., and reigned 14 years. He was already famous as a warrior when he became ...
-Axe
Axe, an instrument for cutting down trees and chopping wood, usually formed of iron and steel, with a handle or helve, of suitable size and length for wielding ...
-Axle
Axle, a piece of timber or a bar of iron which supports the body of a car, carriage, or wagon, and is itself supported on two wheels, in the hubs or naves of ...
-Axolotl
Axolotl, the Mexican name of an amphibious reptile, described by naturalists as siredon. This tadpole-formed reptile has the vertebras biconcave, and the body ...
-Axum, Or Axoom (Anc
Axum, Or Axoom (Anc. Auxume), a city of Abyssinia, in the province of Tigre, formerly capital of a kingdom, in lat. 14 5' 1ST., Ion. 38 27' E., 12 m. W. of ...
-Ayacucho
Ayacucho. I. An interior central department of Peru, lying mainly on the eastern slope of the Andes, watered by the rivers Mantaro (which partly bounds it N), ...
-Aye-Aye
Aye-Aye, a curious animal discovered by Sonnerat in Madagascar, constituting the genus cheiromys of Sonnini. The common name seems to have been derived either ...
-Ayicema
Ayicema (a corruption of Ibn Sina), an Arabian physician and philosopher, born in a village of Bokhara in 980, died in 1036 or 1037. He was educated at Bokhara, ...
-Ayila
Ayila. I. A province of Spain, forming the S. W. part of Old Castile, and bordering on New Castile and Estremadura; area, 2,981 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 176,769.
-Aymaras
Aymaras, the name of the earliest known inhabitants of the Alpine valleys of S. E. Peru and N. W. Bolivia, whose descendants, save a few in the Peruvian ...
-Ayr
Ayr, the county town of Ayrshire, Scotland, on the frith of Clyde, near the mouth of the river Ayr, 30 m. S. W. of Glasgow; pop. in 1871, 17,851. The town is ...
-Ayrshire
Ayrshire, a county in the S. W. of Scotland, bounded W. by the frith of Clyde, and landward by the counties of Renfrew, Lanark, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, and ...
-Ayuntamiento
Ayuntamiento, the name of village and town councils in Spain. During the wars between the Moors and Christian Spaniards it was the policy of the sovereigns to ...
-Azalea
Azalea (Gr. arid), a genus of plants belonging to the natural order ericaceae, and to the sub-order rhodorem, named in allusion to the dry places in which many ...
-Azerbijan, Or Azerbaijan
Azerbijan, Or Azerbaijan, a N. W. province of Persia, bounded N. and N. E. by the Russian dominions, E. by the Persian province of Ghilan , S. by Irak-Ajemi ...
-Azores, Or Western Islands
Azores, Or Western Islands, a group of islands belonging to Portugal in the N. Atlantic, between lat. 36 55' and 39 44' N, and lon. 25 10' and 31 16' W., about ...
-Azov, Or Azof, Sea Of (Anc
Azov, Or Azof, Sea Of (Anc. Palus Maeotis), an inland sea of southern Russia, lying between lat. 45 20' and 47 20' N, and lon. 35 and 39 E. The Turks call it ...
-Aztecs
Aztecs, properly the name of one only of the various tribes or nations who at the time of the conquest in the 16th century occupied the plateau of Anahuac or ...
-Azymites
Azymites (Gr. a, not, and . leaven), a polemical term, applied to the western church by the eastern or Greek branch. About 1025 a controversy sprung up as to ...
-B The
B The second letter in all languages whose alphabets have a Phoenician origin, as Hebrew, Greek, Latin, English, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Russian.
-Baal
Baal, a Semitic word signifying owner, lord, or master, and in the highest sense denoting the deity. The Hebrews never used it as a designation of their deity, ...
-Baalbek
Baalbek (in Phoenician, Baal of the valley, but rendered by the Greeks Heliopolis, city of the sun), an ancient city of Syria, in lat. 34 1' N., lon. 36 11' E., ...
-Babel
Babel, the Hebrew name for Babylon and the Babylonian empire. In the language of the Chaldeans it was probably Bab-Il, the gate of (the highest) God; but the ...
-Babeuf, Or Babwaf, Francois Noel
Babeuf, Or Babwaf, Francois Noel, a French revolutionist, born in St. Quentin in 1764, executed at Vend6me, May 27, 1797. He began life as a surveyor's ...
-Babex-Baden
Babex-Baden, a German watering place, in the grand duchy of Baden, situated on the Oos, at the foot of the Black Forest, 18 m. S. S. W. of Carlsruhe; permanent ...
-Babism
Babism, the doctrines of a Mohammedan sect which originated in Persia about 1843. Its founder appears to have been Mirza Ali Mohammed, a native of Shiraz, who, ...
-Baboon
Baboon, a division of the monkeys of the old world, belonging to the genus cynocephalus of Cuvier. This genus is characterized by the position of the nostrils ...
-Babylon
Babylon (Gr. Heb. Babel), an ancient city in what is now Turkey in Asia, in lat. 32 39' N., Ion. 44 30' E., lying on both banks of the Euphrates, or rather, ...
-Babylonia
Babylonia, a name applied to the southern part of Mesopotamia in the wider sense, of which Babylon became the capital. Babel, the corresponding Hebrew name, is ...
-Babylonish Captivity
Babylonish Captivity, the period during which the Jewish people who had been carried away from their country to Babylonia, with their descendants or any part ...
-Babyroussa, Or Babirnsa
Babyroussa, Or Babirnsa, an animal of the swine family, peculiar to some of the Malay islands. It is about 3 1/2 ft. long and 2 1/2 ft. high; the legs being ...
-Baccara, Or Baccarat
Baccara, Or Baccarat, a French game of cards, said to have been first introduced into France from Italy at the time of the wars of Charles VIII. Any number of ...
-Bacchanalia, Or Dionysia
Bacchanalia, Or Dionysia, the festivals of the Greek god Bacchus or Dionysus. The most important were held in Attica and Athens, and were four in number. 1.
-Bacchantes
Bacchantes, in early antiquity, those women who took part in the secret festivities in honor of Bacchus; subsequently, when males were also admitted, the term ...
-Bacchus
Bacchus, in classical mythology, the god of wine, known among the Greeks as Dionysus, and often called by the Romans Liber. He was the son of Jupiter and ...
-Baceio Bandinelli
Baceio Bandinelli, an Italian sculptor, born in Florence in 1487, died there in 1559. He was the son of an eminent goldsmith, studied sculpture and painting, ...
-Bach
Bach, the name of a celebrated musical family in Germany. In no department of science, art, or literature has any single family ever achieved such distinction, ...
-Backgammon
Backgammon, a game, believed to be of English origin, played with dice and 30 pieces called men, upon a board or table peculiarly divided and marked. Chaucer, ...
-Bacs, Or Bacska
Bacs, Or Bacska, a county in southern Hungary, surrounded on three sides by the Danube land Theiss; area, 3,972 sq. m.; pop. in 1870. 3576,149. The county is ...
-Bacterium
Bacterium, a minute and exceedingly low vegetable form or monad, liable to appear in any fluid or solid substance containing vitalized matters. It is a mere ...
-Bactria, Or Bactriana
Bactria, Or Bactriana, an ancient country of Asia, bounded S. and S. E. by the Paropami-sus (Hindoo Koosh) and N. by the Oxus, and corresponding to the modern ...
-Bad Air), Or Marsh Miasm Malaria (Ital. Mala Aria
Bad Air), Or Marsh Miasm Malaria (Ital. Mala Aria (Gr. , to infect), an emanation which produces in mankind intermitting and remitting diseases. This poison is ...
-Badajoz
Badajoz. I. A province of Spain, in Estre-madura, bordering on Portugal; area, 8,6871 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 430,049. It has a diver-; sified surface, broken by ...
-Badakhshan
Badakhshan, a mountainous country of Central Asia, subject to the Uzbeck chief of Koondooz, situated between lat. 36 and 38 N., and lon. 69 and 73 E., bounded ...
-Baden
Baden, a grand duchy of Germany, situated between lat. 47 30' and 49 50' N., and lon. 7 30' and 9 50' E., bounded N. by Hesse-Darmstadt and Bavaria, E. by ...
-Baden Powell
Baden Powell, an English author, born in London in 1796, died there, June 11, 1860. He graduated at Oxford in 1817, and from 1827 till his death was Savilian ...
-Badges
Badges (meles, Cuv.), a carnivorous plantigrade quadruped of the order mammalia, originally classified with the bears, raccoons, and coatis by Linnaeus, but ...
-Baffin
Baffin (or Bylot) BAY, an extensive gulf or inland sea on the N. E. coast of North America, communicating with the Atlantic by Davis strait, and with the ...
-Bagaudie, Or Bagaudi
Bagaudie, Or Bagaudi, a body of Gallic peasants who revolted against the oppression of the Romans about A. D. 270, headed by one Victo-ria, called by the ...
-Bagdad
Bagdad, a city of Asiatic Turkey, situated on both sides of the river Tigris, here about 700 feet wide, in lat. 33 20' N., lon. 44 25' E.; population estimated ...
-Baghirmi
Baghirmi, a kingdom of central Africa, S. E. of Lake Tchad, between the Bornoo and Wadai countries, bounded W. by the Shari river and its affluents; greatest ...
-Bagpipe
Bagpipe, a wind instrument of great antiquity, which seems to have been a favorite with many nations of Europe in the dawn of musical taste, but is so ...
-Bagratides, Or Bagradites
Bagratides, Or Bagradites, a royal family of Armenia and Georgia, whose founder was Ba-grat or Bagrad, according to tradition the descendants of a Jewish exile ...
-Bahamas
Bahamas, a chain of islands belonging to Great Britain, extending N. W. and S. E. between the N. coast of Santo Domingo and the E. coast of Florida, and lying ...
-Bahia
Bahia (Port, and Span., bay). I. A province of Brazil, bounded E. by the Atlantic, N. W. and N. by Pernambuco and Sergipe, W. by Goyaz, and S. by Minas Geraes ...
-Bahrein
Bahrein (or Aval) Islands, a group consisting of one large island and several smaller ones in the Persian gulf, in a bay on the E. coast of Arabia, between lat.
-Baikal
Baikal (Russ. Svyatoe More, holy sea), a lake in the S. W. part of eastern Siberia, on the boundary of the government of Irkutsk and of ' the new province of ...
-Bail
Bail (law Fr., bailler, to deliver), in law, the delivery of a person out of the hands of the sheriff or other officer after arrest into the custody of one or ...
-Bailiff
Bailiff (Fr. bailli, Lat. balivus), a person to whom some authority or charge is committed. The term as used by the Normans designated the chief magistrates of ...
-Bailment
Bailment (Fr. lailler, to deliver), in law, the delivery of a thing upon some trust, express or implied, usually the redelivery of the thing itself or its ...
-Bairam
Bairam, a Persian term designating the two principal holidays of Islam, which are celebrated with great festivities, especially the little Bairam (Turk.
-Baireuth, Or Bayreuth
Baireuth, Or Bayreuth, a city of Bavaria, capital of the circle of Upper Franconia, on the left bank of the Red Main, about 50 m. by railway N. N. E. of ...
-Baius, Or De Bay, Michael
Baius, Or De Bay, Michael, a Flemish theologian, born at Melin in Hainault in 1513, died Sept. 16, 1589. He was educated at the university of Louvain, in which ...
-Bajazid Bajazet
Bajazid Bajazet, or Bayazid. I. An Ottoman sultan, born in 1347, died in 1403. He succeeded his father Amurath I., who was killed at the hour of victory in the ...
-Baker
Baker, the name of counties in four of the United States. I. A central county of Alabama, bounded E. by the Coosa river, and watered by affluents of that ...
-Balaam
Balaam (Heb. Bil'am), a soothsayer and diviner of Pethor, on the river (Euphrates), whom Balak, king of Moab, alarmed at the discomfiture of his neighbors the ...
-Balaklava
Balaklava, a small seaport town of Russia, in the government of Taurida, on the S. W. coast of the Crimea and a small bay of the Black sea, about 8 m. S. S. E.
-Balance
Balance, an instrument intended to measure different amounts or masses of matter by the determination of their weight, using as standards of comparison certain ...
-Balbus
Balbus. I. Lucius Cornelius (Major), a Roman consul, born in Gades (Cadiz) in the 1st century B. C. He served in the Sertorian war, after which Roman ...
-The Bald Charles II (Of France)
The Bald Charles II., the fourth king of the Carlovingian dynasty, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 823, died in a village at the foot of Mont Cenis in October, ...
-Baldassare Castiglione
Baldassare Castiglione, an Italian statesman and author, born at Casatico, near Mantua, Dec. 6, 1478, died at Toledo, Spain, Feb. 2, 1529. His career commenced ...
-Baldur, Or Balder
Baldur, Or Balder, in northern mythology, the son of Odin and Frigga, and the most beautiful and beloved of the gods of Odin's race. He was the husband of ...
-Baldwin
Baldwin. I. A central county of Georgia, bounded N. by Little river, and intersected by the Oconee; area, 257 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,618, of whom 6,774 were ...
-Baldwin Emperors Of Constantinople
Baldwin, the name of two emperors of Constantinople. - Baldwin I. (the ninth Flemish count of that name), born in Valenciennes in 1171, died in 1205 or 1206.
-Baldwin, The Kings Of Jerusalem
Baldwin, the name of five kings of Jerusalem. - Baldwin I., born in 1058, died in 1118. He was a descendant of the fifth count of Flanders, and joined his ...
-Bale
Bale (now Baja), an ancient seaport town and watering place of Italy, about 10 m. W. of Naples, on the bay of Baiaa, between the Lncrine lake and Cape Misenum, ...
-Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands, a group of islands in the Mediterranean, the principal of which are Majorca, Minorca, and the penal settlement of Cabrera, forming a province ...
-Balfour Stewart
Balfour Stewart, a.British physicist, born in Edinburgh, Nov. 1, 1828. He studied in the universities of St. Andrews and Edinburgh, and in 1852 engaged in ...
-Balkan Mountains
Balkan Mountains, an extensive range bounding the great plains of Bulgaria S. of the lower Danube. The true Balkan, or ancient Haemus, commences on the Black ...
-Balkh
Balkh. I. A country of central Asia, the main part of ancient Bactria, situated between lat. 35 and 37 N, and lon. 63 and 69 E., bounded N. by the Oxus, E. by ...
-Ball
Ball or Little Java, an island of the Malay archipelago, the westernmost of the Little Sunda islands, situated between Java and Lombok, 70 m. long by 35 m.
-Ball Hughes
Ball Hughes, an American sculptor, born in London, England, Jan. 19, 1804, died in Boston, Mass., March 5, 1868. When only 12 years old he made out of wax ...
-Ballantyjvf
Ballantyjvf. I. James, a Scottish printer, born at Kelso in 1772, died in Edinburgh, Jan. 17,1833. He was a schoolfellow of Walter Scott at Kelso grammar ...
-Ballarat
Ballarat, a city of Victoria, New South Wales, next to Melbourne and Sydney the largest town of Australia, situated at an elevation of 1,437 ft. above the sea, ...
-Ballet
Ballet (Gr. It. ballare, to dance), a dramatic representation composed of dancing and pantomime with music. Many passages in the Greek writers show that the ...
-Balliol, Or Baliol. I. John
Balliol, or Baliol. I. John, king of Scotland, born about 1259, died in Normandy in 1814 He was a descendant of the eldest daughter of the earl of Huntingdon, ...
-Ballista
Ballista, a military engine of the Romans, used in the siege and defence of fortified places. Neither from the description of authors nor from any carved or ...
-Balloi
Balloi. I. Hosea, an American clergyman, born at Richmond, N. II., April 30, 1771, died in Boston, June 7, 1852. He was the son of a Baptist clergyman, who was ...
-Ballot
Ballot (Gr. to throw), originally a little ball cast into a box as a mode of deciding anything; now more usually applied to suffrage by written or printed ...
-Balm Of Gilead
Balm Of Gilead, a plant of the genus amy-ris, the balsamodendron Gileadense of De Can-dolle. Its leaves yield when bruised a strong aromatic scent. From this ...
-Balsam
Balsam, in botany, a class of plants forming the genus impatiens, of the natural order ge-raniacem. It has 135 species, most of which are natives of the East ...
-Balsams (2)
Balsams. By the French chemists this word is applied only to those resinous vegetable juices which contain benzoic acid; and of these there are but six, namely, ...
-Baltard
Baltard. I. Louis Pierre, a French architect and engraver, born in Paris, July 9, 1765, died Jan. 22, 1846. He was architect of the Pantheon and of the Paris ...
-Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea (anc. Pelagus Scythicum or Mare Suevicum; Ger. Ostsee, eastern sea), an inland sea of N. Europe, nearly enclosed by Sweden, Russia, Germany, and ...
-Baltimore
Baltimore, a northern county of Maryland, bounded N. by Pennsylvania and S. by the Patapsco; area, 718 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 330,741, of whom 47,921 were ...
-Baltimore (2)
Baltimore, a city of Baltimore county, Md., ranking fifth in the United States for size and population, situated in lat. 39 17' K, lon. 76 37' W., on an arm of ...
-Baltimore Bird, Or Baltimore Oriole
Baltimore Bird, Or Baltimore Oriole (Yphan-Tes Baltimore, Vieill.), a bird belonging to the family of sturnidae (starlings), and peculiar to the American ...
-Balzac
Balzac. I. Honore de, a French novelist, born at Tours. May 16,1799, died in Paris, Aug. 20, 1850. On leaving school he was placed in a notary's office. He ...
-Bambabra
Bambabra, a district in the N. W. central part of Africa, between lat. 10 and 15 N. and lon. 6 and 9 W. The eastern part is a nearly level plain, subject to ...
-Bamberg
Bamberg, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Upper Franconia, on the Ludwig's canal and the river Regnitz, about 4 m. above its confluence with the Main, 33 m.
-Bamboo
Bamboo (bambusa arundinacea), a genus of arborescent grasses found in x\sia, and in the West Indies, but more extensively used in China than any other country.
-Bamockbirn
Bamockbirn, a village of Stirlingshire, Scotland, about 3 m. S. E. of Stirling castle; pop. about 2,700. The large brook (burn) which flows through the town ...
-Bampton Lectures
Bampton Lectures, a series of lectures or sermons preached before the university of Oxford since 1780, according to the will and endowment of the Rev. John ...
-Bamyan Bamian
Bamyan Bamian, or Baumian, a valley, pass, and ancient town of Afghanistan, about 60 m. W. N. W. of Cabool. The valley lies between the Hindoo Ivoosh and the ...
-Ban
Ban (Hun. ban, a corruption of the Slavic pan, lord), the title of the governor of Croatia and Slavonia; formerly also of the governors of various other ...
-Banana
Banana (musa), the most important of tropical fruits, now common in the tropics of both hemispheres. When the cutting or shoot is planted (and it requires deep ...
-Banat
Banat (Hun. Bansag, a district governed by a ban), a part of S. Hungary, comprising the counties of Torontal, Temes, and Krasso, and, in a wider sense, the ...
-Banca
Banca, an island of the Malay archipelago, between lat. 1 30' and 3 8' S., and lon. 105 9' and 106 51' E., bounded N. and E. by the China sea, S. by the Java ...
-Banda Islands
Banda Islands, a cluster of ten small islands belonging to Holland, in the Molucca group of the Eastern archipelago, in the Banda sea, about 50 m. S. of Ceram, ...
-Bandicoot
Bandicoot (perameles), a marsupial animal of small size, inhabiting the stony regions of the interior of S. E. Australia. Its appearance is somewhat rat-like, ...
-Bangkok
Bangkok, the capital of the kingdom of Siam, situated on the river Menam, about 20 m. from its mouth, in lat. 13 58' N., lon. 100 34' E.; pop. about 500,000, ...
-Bangor
Bangor, a city, seat of justice of Penobscot county, Maine, and a port of entry, on the W. bank of the Penobscot river, at its junction with the Kenduskeag, ...
-Banian, Or Banyan (Ficus Religiosa Or Indica)
Banian, Or Banyan (Ficus Religiosa Or Indica), a fig tree of the East Indies, remarkable for its manner of growth and longevity. The fruit is red and not much ...
-Banim
Banim. I. John, an Irish novelist, born in Kilkenny, April 3, 1798, died near Kilkenny, Aug. L, 1842. In his youth he went to Dublin and afterward to London to ...
-Banjermassin, Or Banjarmassin
Banjermassin, Or Banjarmassin. I. A large state of S. E. Borneo, governed by a sultan subordinate to the Dutch government; pop. vaguely estimated at about 300, ...
-Bank
Bank, in trade and business, a place of deposit for money.- In nearly all languages the words for bank and banker are derived from those meaning table, bench, ...
-Bankrupt
Bankrupt (low Lat. bancus, a bench, and ruptus, broken), an insolvent debtor. In its more ordinary acceptation, bankruptcy expresses inability to pay one's ...
-Banksia
Banksia, a name given to several distinct genera of plants in honor of Sir Joseph Banks. The one to which the name properly applies belongs to the family of ...
-Bannastre Tarleton
Bannastre Tarleton, an English soldier, born in Liverpool, Aug. 21, 1754, died Jan. 23, 1833. He was a lieutenant colonel in Cornwallis's army, and raised in ...
-Banneret
Banneret, a feudal title of military dignity, now extinct, ranking between the baron and the knight. The banneret was the lowest of the feudal dignitaries. He ...
-Banns Of Matrimony
Banns Of Matrimony, a public proclamation of the intention of the parties named to enter into the state of matrimony, being a notice to any one to make ...
-Bantam
Bantam. I. A Dutch province forming the western end of the island of Java, separated from Sumatra by the strait of Sunda; area, 3,081 sq. m.; pop. in 1857, 577, ...
-Bantry Bay
Bantry Bay, an inlet of the Atlantic on the S. W. coast of Ireland, county Cork, about 24 m. long from S. W. to N. E. and from 3 to 5 m. wide. Near the ...
-Baobab
Baobab (Adansonia digitata), a tree of enormous size, of the natural order bombacece, found in Africa, and especially in Senegal, though it has been met with ...
-Baptism
Baptism (Gr. . from frequentative of to dip), the application of water as the sign of reception of a person into the visible Christian church. As to the mode, ...
-Baptists
Baptists, a denomination of evangelical Christians, who differ from others in respect to the proper age and mode of administering baptism. In the view of the ...
-Baptistery
Baptistery (Gr. , originally, a bathing place or swimming bath; later, and in ecclesiastical usage, a place set apart for performing the rite of baptism. At ...
-Bar
Bar. See Bar-le-Duc, Bae-sue-Aube, and Bae-sue-Seine. Bar #1 Bar, a town of S. W. Russia, government of Podolia, on the Rov, 53 m. N. E. of Kame-netz; pop. in ...
-Bar-Cokheba, Or Bar-Cochebas
Bar-Cokheba, Or Bar-Cochebas, the leader of a Jewish insurrection during the reign of Hadrian, killed A. D. 135 or 136. His real name is believed by some ...
-Bar-Le-Duc, Or Bar-Snr-Ornain
Bar-Le-Duc, Or Bar-Snr-Ornain, the capital of the department of Meuse, France, and in the middle ages of the duchy of Bar, on the Bar-le-Duc. Ornain, 125 m. E.
-Baragiey Dhilliers
Baragiey D'Hilliers. I. Lonis, a French general, born in Paris, Aug. 13, 1764, died in Berlin in December, 1812. At the beginning of the French revolution he ...
-Baratier
Baratier. Johann Philipp, a precocious German scholar, born at Schwabach, near Nuremberg, Jan. 19, 1721, died in Halle Oct. 5, 1740. He was the son of a ...
-Barbadoes, Or Barbados
Barbadoes, Or Barbados, a British island of the West Indies, the most easterly of the Caribbean group, in lat. 13 10' N., lon. 59 32' W. It is of an oval form, ...
-Barbarossa
Barbarossa, the name given to two renegade Greek corsairs, and supposed to be a corruption of Baba-rais, father captain. I. Aradj, Horush, or Horuk, born at ...
-Barberry
Barberry (berberis), a genus of plants of the natural order berberidacem, whose characteristics are: 6 roundish sepals, with bract-lets outside; 6 obovate ...
-Barberini
Barberini, an Italian family of Tuscany, who settled in Florence in the 11th century, and acquired wealth by trade in the 16th, and historical importance early ...
-Barbier
Barbier. I. Antoine Alexandre, a French bibliographer, born at Coulommiers, Jan. 11, 1765, died in Paris in December, 1825. He studied at the college of Meaux ...
-Barboir
Barboir, the name of counties in three of the United States. I. A N. E. county of West Virginia; area, 330 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,312, of whom 386 were ...
-Barbou
Barbou, a family of French printers, distinguished for the perfection of their work. Beginning with Jean Barbou, who printed at Lyons in 1539, they succeeded ...
-Barca
Barca, a country of Africa, bounded N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Egypt, W. by the gulf of Sidra or Great Syrtis, S. by the Libyan desert. It lies between lat.
-Barcelona
Barcelona. I. A province of Spain, in Catalonia, bordering on the Mediterranean; area, 2,983 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 749,143. It is less mountainous and better ...
-Barclay, Or Barday-Allardice, Robert
Barclay, Or Barday-Allardice, Robert, com-monly known as Captain Barclay, a British pedestrian and a captain in the British army. born Aug. 25, 1779, died May ...
-Bard
Bard (Cymric, bardh; Gaelic, oard), a professional poet, who made his livelihood by singing the amours and battles of gods, the deeds of heroes, the glory and ...
-Bareges
Bareges, a French watering place in the department of Hautes-Pyrenees, 25 m. S. of Tarbes, situate in the Bastan valley, 4,000 feet above the sea, between two ...
-Bargain And Sale
Bargain And Sale, a contract in relation to real estate, which has introduced a form of conveyance now generally used in England and this country. By the ...
-Bari
Bari (anc. Barium), a seaport of Italy, on a small peninsula of the Adriatic, capital of the province of Terra di Bari, 140 m. E. of Naples; pop. in 1872, 50, ...
-Bari, Or Baris
Bari, Or Baris, a negro tribe of Gondokoro and other places on the White Nile, savage in character and excessively brutal in appearance. Sir Samuel Baker says ...
-Barilla
Barilla (Span, barrilla), or Soda Ash, a crude carbonate of soda, procured by the incineration of the salsola soda, salicornia, and other plants which are ...
-Barinas, Or Varinas
Barinas, Or Varinas. I. An inland state of Venezuela, bounded N. W. by a chain of the Andes, which separates it from Merida and Trujillo; area, 24,000 sq. m.; ...
-Baring
Baring, the name of a mercantile family of London. John Baring came from Bremen, and settled in Exeter in the first part of the 18th century. He had four sons, ...
-Barium
Barium, one of the metallic elements. The mineral known as heavy spar was first mentioned in 1602 by an Italian cobbler of Bologna, Vincenzio Cascariolo, who ...
-Bark
Bark, the outer covering of trees and plants. It is found in its complete form only in the exogenous and gymnospernious classes, in which it consists of three ...
-Barley
Barley (hordeum), a grain more widely distributed and generally used than any other, and from the most remote tunes an important article of the food of man.
-Barmecides
Barmecides (descendants of Barmek), a powerful family of Khorasan, attached to the Abbasside caliphs. One of them, Khaled ben Barmek, was tutor of Haroun al- ...
-Barnabites, Or Regular Clerks Of St. Paul
Barnabites, Or Regular Clerks Of St. Paul, a religious order, so called from the church of St. Barnabas in Milan, which was granted them in 1545. The order ...
-Barnacle
Barnacle, a name commonly given both to the pedunculated and sessile cirripeds. By the older naturalists they were classed with the testaceous mollusca, the ...
-Barnas Sears
Barnas Sears, an American clergyman, born in Sandisfield, Mass., Nov. 19, 1802. He graduated at Brown university in 1825, studied theology at Newton, Mass., ...
-Barnaul
Barnaul, the chief town in the mining district of the Altai mountains in Siberia, lat. 53 20' N., lon. 84 E., on the river Barnaulka, a small branch of the Obi, ...
-Barnstable
Barnstable. I. A S. E. county of Massachusetts, consisting of the peninsula of Cape Cod and several small islands, joining Plymouth county on the N.W., bounded ...
-Baroda
Baroda. I. A district in the province of Guzerat, British India, forming the territory of a native prince called the Guicowar, and lying between lat. 21 and 23 ...
-Barometer
Barometer (Gr. weight, and a measure), an instrument used for determining the pressure of the atmosphere. . The doctrine of a plenum in natural philosophy, and ...
-Barometrical Measurement
Barometrical Measurement. By the perfection now attained in the construction of barometers, and the skill applied to their use by the best observers, ...
-Baron
Baron (Gallic her, Gothic, vair, mediaeval Latin bavo, early Spanish varon, a man), in the middle ages, the possessor of an estate, who might have feudal ...
-Baron Brougham And Vaux Brougham Henry
Baron Brougham And Vaux Brougham Henry, lord chancellor of England, born in Edinburgh, Sept. 19, 1779, died in Cannes, France, May 9,1868. He was descended ...
-Baron Cobham Oldcastle Sir John
Baron Cobham Oldcastle Sir John, an English reformer, born in the reign of Edward III., executed Dec. 14, 1417. He acquired the title of baron through his wife, ...
-Baron Dalling And Bulwer Bulwer Henry Lytton Earle
Baron Dalling And Bulwer Bulwer Henry Lytton Earle, an English diplomatist and author, brother of Lord Lytton, born in 1804, died in Naples, May 23, 1872. He ...
-Baron Herbert Of Cher-Bury Edward Herbert
Baron Herbert Of Cher-Bury Edward Herbert, an English philosopher, born at Montgomery, Wales, in 1581, died in London, Aug. 20, 1648. He was married at 15, ...
-Baron Hervey Of Ickworth John Hervey
Baron Hervey Of Ickworth John Hervey, an English politician, born Oct. 15, 1696, died Aug. 5, 1743. He was the eldest son of John Hervey, first earl of Bristol ...
-Baron Knyphausen
Baron Knyphausen, a German soldier, born in Alsace about 1725, died in Berlin in June, 1789. His father commanded a regiment under the duke of Marlborough, and ...
-Baron Lansdowne George Granville
Baron Lansdowne George Granville, an English author and statesman, born in 1GC7, died Jan. 30, 1735. He entered Trinity college, Cambridge, at the age of 10, ...
-Baron Loughborough And Earl Of Rosslyn Wedderburn Alexander
Baron Loughborough And Earl Of Rosslyn Wedderburn Alexander, a British jurist, born in Edinburgh, Feb. 13, 1733, died in Berkshire, Jan. 3, 1805. He was ...
-Baron Lytton Bulwer-Lttton. I. Edward George Earle Lytton
Baron Lytton Bulwer-Lttton. I. Edward George Earle Lytton, an English novelist, born in May, 1805, died in London, Jan. 18, 1873. He was the youngest son of ...
-Baron Melcombe George Bubb Dodixgton
Baron Melcombe George Bubb Dodixgton, an English politician, born in Dorsetshire in 1691, died July 28, 1762. He was educated at Oxford, and in 1715 was chosen ...
-Baron Much-Belulinghausen Eligius Franz Joseph Von
Baron Much-Belulinghausen Eligius Franz Joseph Von, a German dramatist, known by bis pseudonyme of Friedrich Halm, born in Cracow, April 2, 1800, died in ...
-Baron Stow
Baron Stow, an American clergyman, born in Croydon, N. H., June 16, 1801, died in Boston, Dec. 27, 1869. He graduated at Columbian college, D. C, in 1825, and ...
-Baroness Nairne Oliphaat Carolina
Baroness Nairne Oliphaat Carolina, a Scottish poetess, born in the mansion of Gask, Perthshire, July 16, 1766, died there, Oct. 26, 1845. Because of her great ...
-Baroness Staal Marguerite Jeaunc Cordier De Lannay De
Baroness Staal Marguerite Jeaunc Cordier De Lannay De, a French writer, born in Paris about 1090, died at Gennevilliers, near Paris, June 16, 1750. She was a ...
-Baronhs, Or Raronio, Cesare
Baronhs, Or Raronio, Cesare, an Italian historian, born at Sora in 1538, died in Rome in 1007. He went to Rome in 1557, and became one of the first disciples ...
-Barotse
Barotse, a valley in the interior of S. Africa, inhabited by a tribe of the same name, lying between lat. 15 20' and 10 30' S. and lon. 23 and 24 E. It is ...
-Barqi Isimeto
Barqi Isimeto. I. A N. W. state of Venezuela, touching the Caribbean sea on the N. E.; area, 9,350 sq. m.; pop. about 314,000. The surface consists of fertile ...
-Barrackpoor
Barrackpoor, a town and military cantonment of Bengal, on the E. bank of the Iloogly, about 10 m. N. N. E. of Calcutta. It is a favorite retreat for the ...
-Barratry
Barratry (It. oarrateria, fraud), in maritime law, fraudulent conduct by the master of a vessel, or by the mariners, to the injury of the owner of the ship or ...
-Barrel
Barrel, a hollow vessel made of staves, set on end, arranged around a circle, and bound together with hoops. By each stave being made wider in the middle and ...
-Barrington
Barrington. I. John Shue-Barrington, viscount, an English lawyer and author, born in 1678, died Dec. 14, 1734. In early life he received by will the estate of ...
-Barrot
Barrot. I. Camille Hyacinthe Odilon, popularly known as Odilon Barrot, a French advocate and statesman, born at Villefort, department of Lozere, in July, 1791.
-Barrow
Barrow, the name given to ancient artificial mounds, constructed for purposes which it is sometimes impossible to discover, but which generally appear to have ...
-Barrow-In-Furness
Barrow-In-Furness, a municipal borough, manufacturing town, and seaport of Lancashire, England, on the S. W. shore of the peninsula of Lower Furness, opposite ...
-Barry
Barry. I. A S.W. county of Missouri, bordering on Atkansas, and drained by King's river, Flat creek, and White river of Arkansas; area, 703 sq. m.; pop. in ...
-Barry Edward Omeara
Barry Edward O'Meara, an Irish surgeon, born about 1780, died in London, June 3, 1836. He entered the army at an early age, and served several years in Sicily, ...
-Barsuma, Or Barsnmas
Barsuma, Or Barsnmas. I. A Nestorian bishop of the 5th century, died about 489. Having been expelled from the school of Edessa, he took refuge in Persia, ...
-Bart, Or Baert, Jean
Bart, Or Baert, Jean, a French naval officer, born at Dunkirk, Oct. 20, 1651, died there, April 27, 1702. He was the son of a fisherman, and early took to the ...
-Bart, Or Bakoo
Bart, Or Bakoo. I. Formerly an independent khanate, now a government of Russia, in Transcaucasia, bordering on the Caspian sea, and comprising the territory of ...
-Barthelemy Catherine Joubert
Barthelemy Catherine Joubert, a French general, born at Pont-de-Vaux, in Bresse, April 14, 1769, fell at the battle of Novi, Aug. 15, 1799. He enlisted in the ...
-Barthelemy Prosper Enfantin
Barthelemy Prosper Enfantin, generally known under the name of Pere Enfantin, one of the founders of St. Simonism, born in Paris, Feb. 8, 1796, died there, ...
-Barthez, Or Barthes. I. Paul Joseph
Barthez, or Barthes. I. Paul Joseph, a French physician, born at Montpellier, Dec. 11, 1734, died Oct. 15, 1806. He early acquired renown as an army physician, ...
-Barthold Georg Niebuhr
Barthold Georg Niebuhr, a German historian, son of Karstens Niebuhr, born in Copenhagen, Aug. 27, 1776, died in Bonn, Jan. 2, 1831. He was two years old when ...
-Bartholin
Bartholin. I. Kaspar, a Danish physician and savant, born at Malmo, Sweden, Feb. 12,1585, died in Copenhagen, July 13,1629. He taught medicine in Basel, ...
-Bartholomew
Bartholomew, a southeastern county of Indiana, drained by Flat Rock creek and Driftwood fork of White river; area, 375 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,133. The ...
-Bartholomew Gosnold
Bartholomew Gosnold, an English voyager, died in Virginia, Aug. 22, 1G07. He joined Raleigh in his attempt to colonize Virginia, and after the failure of that ...
-Bartolome De Carranza
Bartolome De Carranza, a Spanish prelate, born at Miranda in 1503, died in Rome, May 2, 1576. He early gained distinction as professor of theology at ...
-Bartolome De Las Casas
Bartolome De Las Casas, the apostle to the American Indians, born in Seville, Spain, in 1474, died in Madrid in July, 1566. His father accompanied Columbus ...
-Bartolome Esteban Mirillo
Bartolome Esteban Mirillo, a Spanish painter, born in Seville, where he was baptized Jan. 1, 1618, died there, April 3, 1682. At an early age he entered the ...
-Bartolommeo Bergami
Bartolommeo Bergami, courier of Caroline, queen of England, said to have been the son of a village apothecary. Originally a common soldier in the Italian army, ...
-Bartram
Bartram. I. John, an American botanist, born at Marple, Delaware county, Penn., in 1701, died in September, 1777. His grandfather was one of the companions of ...
-Baruch
Baruch (Heb., blessed), the son of Neriah, a friend and amanuensis of the prophet Jeremiali, whose captivity he appears to have shared, and whom he accompanied ...
-Barutchiserai
Barutchiserai (Turkish, palace of gardens), a Tartar town of the Crimea, now included in the Russian government of Taurida, in lat. 44 47' N., lon. 33 54' E., ...
-Bass
Bass (labrax), a family of sea and fresh-water fishes of which there are many well known varieties in American waters. They belong to the division ...
-Basalt
Basalt, the hardest, most compact, and heaviest of the trap rocks, frequently columnar in structure, the columns or prisms having three, five, or more sides, ...
-Base
Base, in chemistry, a term used with several applications, varying according to the view taken of the constitution of compounds. As originally used in the ...
-Base Ball
Base Ball, an athletic game played in the United States, where it has, as a national amusement, a prominence almost equal to that attained by cricket in ...
-Basel
Basel (Fr. Basle or Bode). L A canton of Switzerland, which since 1833 has been divided into two half cantons, called Basel City and Basel Country (Ger.
-Bashan
Bashan, in Biblical geography, the northern portion of trans-Jordanic Palestine, between Damascene Syria on the north and Gilead on the south. It is a high ...
-Bashkirs, Or Bashkurts
Bashkirs, Or Bashkurts, uncivilized tribes of Russia, scattered from the Caspian to the boundary of Siberia, chiefly W. of the Ural mountains, and inhabiting ...
-Basil
Basil, a name applied to various odoriferous labiates, but especially to the genus ocymum. The species of this genus number about 40, and are chiefly ...
-Basil Hall
Basil Hall, a British author, born in Edin-burgh in 1788, died near Gosport, England, Sept. 11, 1844. He entered the navy in 1802, and in 1816 commanded the ...
-Basil I
Basil I., or Basilius, surnamed the Macedonian, emperor of the East, born in the province of Macedon about 825, died March 1, 886. At a very early age he was ...
-Basil Montagu
Basil Montagu, an English lawyer, born in London, April 24, 1770, died in Boulogne, Nov. 27, 1851. He was a natural son of John Montagu, fourth earl of ...
-Basil The Great
Basil The Great, a saint of the Christian church, born at Caesarea in Cappadocia in 328 or 329, died elan. 1, 379. His father and mother were St. Basil the ...
-Basilian Monks, Or Monks Of St
Basilian Monks, Or Monks Of St. Basil, a religious order founded by St. Basil the Great, about the middle of the 4th century. When the saint retired into the ...
-Basilica
Basilica (Gr. from , king), a term first applied in Athens to buildings in which public business was transacted, and afterward in Rome to stately edifices of ...
-Basilicata
Basilicata, a province of S. Italy, situated chiefly E. of the main Apennine ridge, and between it and the gulf of Taranto, occupying the greater part of ...
-Basilides
Basilides, the founder of a Gnostic sect, who taught in Alexandria about the year 120. Some say that he was born in Egypt, others in Syria or Persia. He taught ...
-Basiliscus
Basiliscus, emperor of the East, died in Cappadocia in 477. Though his early exploits against the Scythians had been far from brilliant, He was through the ...
-Basilisk
Basilisk (basiliscus, Laurenti), a genus of saurian reptiles of the family of iguanidce, inhabiting the northern parts of South America, the West Indies, and ...
-Basket
Basket, a vessel made by interweaving twigs or reeds, grasses, leaves, metal or glass wire, whalebone, or any similar material. Baskets differ greatly in their ...
-Basques
Basques, a peculiar race, who from time immemorial have inhabited both slopes of the Pyrenees. They number about 800,000, of whom about 150,000 are in the ...
-Bassano
Bassano, a town of Italy, province of Pia-cenza, on the left bank of the Brenta, 31 m. N. by W. of Padua and 15 N. E. of Vicenza; pop. about 13,000. The fine ...
-Bassano, Or Hassan
Bassano, Or Hassan. I. Francesco da Ponte, the head of a school of painters, called the Bassans, born in 1475, died in Bassano in 1530. He studied in Venice ...
-Bassoraii, Or Basra
Bassoraii, Or Basra, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the eyalet of Bagdad, on the right bank of the Shat-el-Arab, about 70 m. from its mouth in the Persian gulf; ...
-Bast, Or Bass
Bast, Or Bass, the inner bark (endophlaum) of dicotyledonous plants, contiguous to the woody circle. It is the fibrous part of the bark, and consists of a ...
-Bastard
Bastard (old Fr. bastard, of uncertain derivation), a person born without lawful parentage. By the English law a child born after the marriage of its parents, ...
-Bastian
Bastian, H. Char!ton, an English physician and physiologist, born at Truro, April 26, 1837. After a brilliant course of study he was admitted member of the ...
-Bastile
Bastile (Fr. la Bastille), the state prison and citadel of Paris, begun in 1369 by Charles V., enlarged in succeeding reigns, and destroyed by the people in ...
-Bat
Bat, a mammiferous quadruped, whose different genera constitute the order cheiroptera. Its general form is disposed for flight; an expansion of the skin is ...
-Batak
Batak, a remarkable race of the island of Sumatra. They inhabit that portion called Batta or Battas, bounded N. by Acheen and S. by the ancient Malay territory ...
-Batavia
Batavia, a city of Java, capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, in hit. 6 10' 8., lon. 106 50' E., on a swampy plain at the head of a deep bay of ...
-Bath
Bath, a place or vessel for washing the body. Besides the employment of natural streams and bodies of water, the artificial bath has been used from the ...
-Bath (2)
Bath. I. A W. county of Virginia, lying among the Alleghanies and bordering on West Virginia; area, 725 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,795, of whom 889 were colored.
-Bathori, Or Bathory
Bathori, Or Bathory, the name of a noble Transylvanian family, several members of which have played a distinguished part in history. I. Stephen (Istvan), of ...
-Bathurst
Bathurst, a town of New Brunswick, capital of Gloucester county, situated on the most southern point of the bay of Chaleurs, 237 m. N. W. of Halifax; pop.
-Bathybius
Bathybius, the name given by Prof. Huxley to a very low form of the protozoa, found penetrating in every direction the viscid calcareous mud brought up in sea ...
-Baton Rouge
Baton Rouge, a city, capital of the parish of East Baton Rouge, La., and formerly of the state, situated on a bluff on the E. bank of the Mississippi, 129 m.
-Battering Ram
Battering Ram (Lat. aries), the earliest machine for destroying stone walls and the ordinary defences of fortified towns. The primitive form of this instrument ...
-Battery
Battery (law Lat. battere, from Saxon hatti, a club), as defined by Blackstone, the unlawful beating of another. But if beating be here taken in its usual ...
-Batthyanyi
Batthyanyi. I. Kazmer, count, a Hungarian statesman, born June 4, 1807, died in Paris, July 13, 1854. In early life he passed some time in England, and upon ...
-Battle Axe
Battle Axe, an ancient military weapon of offence, unused by the Greeks or Romans, and apparently of oriental or northeastern European origin. The Amazons are ...
-Battle Of Chancellorsyille
Battle Of Chancellorsyille, fought in Spottsylvania county, E. Virginia, May 2-4, 18G3, between the Union army of the Potomac under Gen. Hooker, and the ...
-Battle Of Chickamauga
Battle Of Chickamauga, fought upon Chick-amauga creek, an affluent of the Tennessee river, 12 m. S. W. of Chattanooga, in S. Tennessee, Sept. 19, 20, 1863, ...
-Battle Of Lake Erie
Battle Of Lake Erie, an important naval engagement in the war of 1812 between the United States and Great Britain, fought near the W. extremity of the lake, ...
-Battle Of Lundy's Lane
Battle Of Lundy's Lane, called also that of Bridgewater or Niagara, fought in Canada near the falls of Niagara, between the British and American forces, July ...
-Battle Of Princeton
After the surrender of the Hessians at Trenton, Dec. 26, 1776, Corn-wallis resumed his command of the British in the Jerseys, concentrated his forces at ...
-Battle Of Saratoga
On Sept. 14, 1777, the expedition of Burgoyne crossed the Hudson by a bridge of boats and encamped on the heights and plains of Saratoga, near Fish creek, ...
-Battles Of The Wilderness
Battles Of The Wilderness, a series of engagements in the American civil war, May 526, 1864, between the federal army of the Potomac under Gen. Grant and the ...
-Bauer
Bauer. I. Bruno, a German critic and theologian, born at Eisenberg, Sept. 6, 1809. Educated in Berlin, he became in 1834 a teacher at the university there. He ...
-Baumgarten-Crusius
Baumgarten-Crusius. I. Detlev Karl Wilhelm, a German philologist, born in Dresden, Jan. 24, 1786, died May 12, 1845. He studied theology and classical ...
-Bavaria
Bavaria (Ger. Bayern or Baiern), a kingdom of central Europe, next after Prussia the most important member of the German empire. Capital, Munich. Bavaria ...
-The Bavarian Louis IV
The Bavarian Louis IV, emperor of Germany, born about 1285, died near Furstenfeld, in the neighborhood of Munich, Oct. 11, 1347. He was the son of Louis the ...
-Bawian
Bawian (Malay, bail, hog; Javanese, bavi, hog's abode), an island about 50 m. N. of Java and Madura, in lat. 5 49' S., lon. 112 44' E.; area, 42 sq. m.; pop.
-Bay Of (Lat Bengal
Bay Of (Lat Bengal. Gangeticus Sinus), a gulf of the Indian ocean, embraced between the peninsula of Hindustan on the west and the coast of Lower Siam, ...
-Bay Of (So Called From The Great Heat Of The Weather When It Was First Visited By Jacques Cartier Chaleurs
Bay Of (So Called From The Great Heat Of The Weather When It Was First Visited By Jacques Cartier Chaleurs, the discoverer of Canada), a wide inlet of the gulf ...
-Bay Of Biscay
Bay Of Biscay, an extensive bay of the Atlantic, N. of Spain and W. of France, the opening of which extends from Cape Ortega! to the island of Ushant It is ...
-Bay Of Honduras
Bay Of Honduras, a large triangular body of water, an arm of the Caribbean sea, lying between the republic of Honduras and the peninsula of Yucatan. It is ...
-Bayadeer
Bayadeer (Port, dailadeira, a dancing woman), a professional dancing and singing girl of India. The bayadeers, more commonly called nautchnees, or nautch girls, ...
-Bayard
Bayard. I. James Asheton, an American lawyer and statesman, born in Philadelphia, July 28, 1767, died in Wilmington, Del., Aug. 6, 1815. His ancestor, Nicholas ...
-Bayard Taylor
Bayard Taylor, an American author, born in Kennett Square, Chester co., Pa., Jan. 11, 1825. In 1842 he became an apprentice in a printing office in West ...
-Bayberry, Or Wax Myrtle (Myrica Cerifera, Linn)
Bayberry, Or Wax Myrtle (Myrica Cerifera, Linn.), a low, crooked shrub, 3 to 8 feet high, growing in extensive patches or in thick clusters on every variety of ...
-Bayeux Tapestry
Bayeux Tapestry, a piece of pictorial needlework, supposed to have been done by Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, and the ladies of her court, ...
-Bayonet
Bayonet, a sword-like blade adapted to be affixed to the muzzle of a musket or rifle and used by infantry. It was invented in France (at or near Bayonne, ...
-Bayonne
Bayonne (Basque, baia ona, good bay), a city of S. W. France, department of. Basses-Pyrenees, at the confluence of the Nive with the Adour, 2 1/2 m. from the ...
-Baza
Baza (anc. Batti), a town of Spain, in the province and 51 m. E. N. E. of the city of Granada; pop. about 9,000. It is situated in a high valley near the river ...
-Bcrtel Thorwaldsen
Bcrtel Thorwaldsen, a Danish sculptor, born at sea between Iceland and Denmark, Nov. 19, 1770, died in Copenhagen, March 24, 1844. He was the son of an ...
-Bead
Bead (A. S. head, prayer; Dan. bede, to pray), a small perforated body, usually globular, made of various materials, and used as an ornament or to number ...
-Beaitais
Beaitais (anc. Casaromagw), a city of France, capital of the department of Oise, situated on the Therain, 40 m. N. by W. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 15,307. When ...
-Beaitort
Beaitort. I. An E. county of North Carolina, bordering on Pamlico sound and intersected by Pamlico river, which is navigable by vessels drawing 8 ft. of water; ...
-Beam
Beam (Sax. beam, a tree), in architecture, a piece of timber or iron, long in proportion to its breadth and thickness, used either to support a superincumbent ...
-Bean
Bean, the seed of leguminous plants of three genera, faba, phaseolus, and dolichos, of which the faba vulgaris furnishes the different varieties of the common ...
-Bear
Bear (ursus). The family of bears are classed, says Robert Mudie in his Gleanings from Nature, among those carnivorous animals which are plantigrade, or walk ...
-Beard
Beard, the hair which grows on the chin and lower parts of the human face. That portion which is found on the upper lip is generally distinguished as the ...
-Beatrice Cenci
Beatrice Cenci, a beautiful Roman girl, born about 1583, executed in September, 1599. She was the daughter of Francesco Cenci, who inherited great wealth from ...
-Beaufort
Beaufort. I. A town and port of entry, capital of Carteret county, North Carolina, at the mouth of Newport river, a few miles from the sea, 11 m. N. W. of Cape ...
-Beaumont And Fletcher
Beaumont And Fletcher, two English dramatists and poets, whose names are inseparably connected by the fact that they produced their works jointly, and, without ...
-Beauvau
Beauvau, de, an ancient French family of Anjou. - Rene aided Duke Rene of Anjou in the conquest of Naples, and was mortally wounded at the battle of Benevento ...
-Beaver
Beaver (castor, Cuv.), a fur-bearing amphibious animal, of the rodent or gnawing order (rodentia). The beaver has the head compressed, with an unbroken line of ...
-Bechuana
Bechuana (singular, Mochuana, from chuana, free, and a personal prefix), a people of S. Africa, inhabiting an extensive territory on both sides of the tropic ...
-Beck
Beck. I. Theodoric Ronieyn, an American physician, born in Schenectady, N. Y., Aug. 11, 1791, died in Utica, N. Y., Nov. 19, 1855. He was a graduate of Union ...
-Becker
Becker, a N. W. county of Minnesota; area, 1,400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 308. The Red river of the North has its source in Elbow lake, in the N. E. part of the ...
-Beckford
Beckford. I. William, an English politician, born in the West Indies in 1090, died at Font-hill, Wiltshire, June 21, 1770. He became a member of parliament in ...
-Becquerel
Becquerel. I. Antoine Cesar, a French physicist, born at Chatillon-sur-Loing, March 7, 1788. He was educated at the polytechnic school, served with the army in ...
-Bed And Bedstead
Bed And Bedstead. The articles of furniture devised by the people of different nations to secure comfort in reclining for sleep, naturally vary widely with ...
-Bed Of Justice
Bed Of Justice, a name originally given to the raised seat occupied by the earlier kings of France in their councils with the peers and barons for the decision ...
-Beddoes
Beddoes. I. Thomas, an English physician and author, born at Shiffnal, Shropshire, April 13, 1760, died at Clifton in December, 1808. He was educated at Oxford, ...
-Bede, Or Beda
Bede, Or Beda, called the Venerable Bede, a Saxon ecclesiastic, and the earliest historian of England, born probably at Monkton in Durham in 672, died at Girvy, ...
-Bedell
Bedell. I. Gregory Townsend, D. D., an American clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal church, born on Staten Island, N. Y., Oct. 28, 1793, died in Baltimore, ...
-Bedford
Bedford, the name of counties in three of the United States. I. A S. county of Pennsylvania, on the Maryland border; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 29, ...
-Bedford Level
Bedford Level, a district of England, consisting of an extensive tract of level country bounded N. E. by the German ocean, and on all other sides by highlands ...
-Bedfordshire
Bedfordshire (often abbreviated Beds), a county in the south midland division of England, bounded by the counties of Northampton, Huntingdon, Cambridge, ...
-Bedlam
Bedlam, the popular designation of Bethlehem hospital, a lunatic asylum in London, derived from a priory founded in 1246 by Simon Fitz Mary, sheriff of London.
-Bedouins
Bedouins (Arab. Bedawi, pi. Bedwan, dweller in the desert), the nomadic tribes of Arabia, Irak, and the eastern and southeastern parts of Syria. They live in ...
-Bee
Bee, the name of several genera of honey-making insects, of the order hymenoptera, family anthophila, divided by Latreille into the two sections andrenidce, ...
-Bee-Eater
Bee-Eater, a bird of the genus merops, and family meropidw. There are 26 species described, inhabiting most parts of the old world, and migrating from place to ...
-Bee-Keeping
Bee-Keeping. The apiary should be well sheltered from strong winds, either naturally or by building walls or close, high fences, and should face the south, the ...
-Beech
Beech, a forest tree of the genus fagus of Endlicher's order cupuliferce, Lindley's coryla-cece, Jussieu's quercinece, and of the Linnaean class moncecia ...
-Beecher
Beecher. I. Lyman, D. D., an American clergyman, born in New Haven, Conn., Oct. 12, 1775, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 10, 1863. His ancestor in the fifth ...
-Beer
Beer (Ger. Bier), a fermented liquor made from malted grain, in Europe most commonly from barley, but in this country from wheat as well, and in India from ...
-Beer Sheba
Beer Sheba .(Heb. Beer 8heba', well of swearing or well of seven), an ancient town on the southern border of Palestine, 38 m. S. S. W. of Jerusalem, of which ...
-Beet
Beet, a plant of the genus beta, belonging to the natural order chenopodece, among which it is known by its large succulent roots and a green calyx united half ...
-Beethoven
Beethoven. I. Ludwlg van, a musician, probably a native of Maestricht in Holland, died in Bonn, Dec. 24, 1773. He was a bass singer of considerable reputation ...
-Beetle
Beetle, a very numerous and well known order of insects, constituting the coleoptera. They have usually 4 wings: 2 membranous, the organs of flight, filmy and ...
-Before Breaking Ultimate Tensile Strength In Pounds Per Sq. In. And Elongation In Inches
Note. . The specimens tested were stool liars of different grades made from pure Swedish iron, and each bar was turned to a diameter of one inch for a length ...
-Beghards
Beghards. I. The popular appellation of a body of religious penitents of the third order of St. Francis of the congregation of Zepperen. They were founded at ...
-Behaim, Or Behem, Martin
Behaim, Or Behem, Martin, a German navigator and geographer, born in Nuremberg about 1459, died in Lisbon, July 29, 1506. He went in 1477 to Flanders, where he ...
-Behring, Or Bering, Vitas
Behring, Or Bering, Vitas, a navigator in the Russian service, born at Horsens, Denmark, in 1680, died Dec. 8, 1741. He entered the Russian naval service in ...
-Bejapoor, Or Viziapoor
Bejapoor, Or Viziapoor, a ruined city of Hin-dostan, in the province of Sattara, presidency of Bombay, formerly capital of a province of the same name, in lat.
-Beke
Beke, charles Tilstone, an English geographer and explorer in Africa, born in London, Oct. 10, 1800. He received a commercial education, then studied law, and ...
-Bela
Bela, the name of several Hungarian kings of the lineage of Arpad. - Bela I. reigned from 1061 to 1063. As prince he was twice obliged to escape to Poland, on ...
-Bela Bates Edwards
Bela Bates Edwards, an American author and editor, born in Southampton, Mass., July 4, 1802, died in Georgia, April 20, 1852. He graduated at Amherst college ...
-Belcher
Belcher. I. Jonathan, governor of Massachusetts and New Jersey, born at Cambridge, Mass., in January, 1681, died at Elizabethtown, N. J., Aug. 31, 1757. He ...
-Belem
Belem, a suburb of Lisbon, Portugal, on the Tagus, S. W. of the city. It derives its name from the church of Our Lady of Bethlehem, built here by King Emanuel ...
-Belemnites
Belemnites (Gr. from a dart or arrow), a class of extinct molluscous animals, belonging to the same division as ammonites, termed cephalopods from the organs ...
-Belfast
Belfast, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Waldo county, Maine, situated on a broad bay of the same name, on the W. side of the Penobscot river, ...
-Belfort, Or Befort
Belfort, Or Befort, a fortified town of France, formerly in the department of Haut-Rhin, on the Savoureuse, 75 m. S. S. W. of Strasburg; pop. in 1866, 8,400.
-Belgium (2)
Belgium (Fr. La Belgique), a kingdom of Europe, situated between N. E. France, Holland, Germany, and the North sea, and extending from lat.49 30' to 51 N., and ...
-Belgrade
Belgrade (Serv. Belgrad, white city; anc. Singidunum), the capital of Servia, with a convenient port on the right bank of the Danube, at its junction with the ...
-Belisarius
Belisarius (Slavic Beli-tzar, white prince), a Byzantine general, born at Germania in Illy-ria about 505, died in Constantinople, March 13, 565. While a youth ...
-Bell
Bell (Saxon hellan, to make a hollow sound, to bellow), a hollow metallic vessel, which, by its vibrations when struck, gives forth sounds which vary with its ...
-Belladonna
Belladonna (Ital., literally, beautiful lady), a name given to several different plants, as to the atriplex hortensis, amaryllis belladonna, and the atropa ...
-Bellamont, Or Bellomont, Richard Coote
Bellamont, Or Bellomont, Richard Coote, earl of, royal governor of New York and Massachusetts, born in 1636, died in New York, March 5, 1701. He was the second ...
-Bellary
Bellary. I. A district of Madras, British India, situated between lat. 13 40' and 15 58' N., and lon. 75 44' and 78 19' E.; area, 11,352 sq. m.; pop. about 1, ...
-Bellay
Bellay. I. Gnillannie du, seigneur de Langey, a French soldier and diplomatist, born near Montmirail in 1491, died at St. Symphorien, Jan. 9, 1543. He entered ...
-Belle-Isle
Belle-Isle. I. Charles Louis Angnste Fou-qnet, duke de, a French soldier and statesman, born at Villefranche, in Rouergue, Sept. 22, 1684, died Jan. 26, 1761.
-Bellerophon
Bellerophon, a hero of Grecian mythology, whose real name was Hipponous, was a son of Glaucus, king of Corinth, and Eurymede, and a grandson of Sisyphus. He ...
-Belleville
Belleville, a city and the capital of St. Clair co., Illinois, 85 m. S. of Springfield and 14 m. S. E. of St. Louis; pop. in 1860, 7,520; 1870, 8,146. It is ...
-Bellini
Bellini. I. Jaeopo, an early painter of the Venetian school, born in Venice about 1405, died in 1470. He was a pupil of Gentile da Fabriano, and is said to ...
-Bellinzona
Bellinzona (Ger. Bellenz), a town of Switzerland, capital of a district of the same name, and alternately with Lugano and Locarno the capital of the canton of ...
-Bellows
Bellows, an instrument contrived for propelling air through a pipe, employed for blowing fires, supplying air to ventilate mines, filling the pipes of an organ ...
-Bellows Fish
Bellows Fish (called also trumpet fish and sea snipe), a spiny-rayed fish of the lopho-branchiate or tufted-gilled order, and genus centriscus (Linn.). In this ...
-Belluno
Belluno. I. A province of Venetia, Italy, bounded N. and W. by Tyrol, E. by the province of Udine, and S. by Treviso and Vicenza; area, 1,263 sq. m.; pop. in ...
-Belmont
Belmont, an E. county of Ohio, separated from West Virginia by the Ohio river, several affluents of which drain it; area, 520 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 39,714. The ...
-Beloit
Beloit, a city of Rock county, Wis., situated on both sides of Rock river, at the mouth of Turtle creek, near the southern boundary of the state, 65 m. S. W.
-Beloochistan, Or Beloojistan
Beloochistan, Or Beloojistan, a country of Asia, between lat. 24 50' and 30 20' N. and lon. 57 40' and 69o 18' E., bounded N. by Afghanistan, E. by Sinde, S.
-Belsham
Belsham. I. Thomas, an English Unitarian divine and author, born at Bedford in April, 1750, died at Hampstead, Nov. 11, 1829. He was educated at the dissenters' ...
-Benares
Benares, a city of British India, celebrated as the ecclesiastical capital of the Hindoos, situated on the left bank of the Ganges, 390 m. N. W. of Calcutta, ...
-Bencoolen
Bencoolen (Malay, Bangka Ulu, rolling uplands). I. A Dutch residency on the S. W. coast of Sumatra; area, including the island of Engano, 8,7:56 sq. m.; pop.
-Bender
Bender (Russ. Bendary), a fortified town of Russia, capital of a district in the province of Bessarabia, on the right bank and about 48 m. from the mouth of ...
-Benedetto Marcello
Benedetto Marcello, an Italian composer, born in Venice, July 24, 1686, died in Brescia, July 17, 1730. His father was a Venetian senator, and personally ...
-Benedict
Benedict, surnamed Biscop, a Roman Catholic saint, born in England in 628, died Jan. 12, 690. At the age of 25 he quitted the court of King Oswin, at which he ...
-Benedict, The Popes
Benedict, the name of several popes of the Roman Catholic church. I. Benedict II., elected in 684, died in 685. He was a Roman, remarkable for Scriptural ...
-Benedictines
Benedictines, an order of monks in the Roman Catholic church. The rules drawn up by St. Benedict gradually superseded those of St. Columban and others which ...
-Benefit Of Clergy
Benefit Of Clergy, in English criminal law, the privilegium clericale, exemption of the clergy from penalties imposed by law for certain crimes. This privilege ...
-Benevento
Benevento. I. A province of Italy, traversed by the W. ridges of the Neapolitan Apeninnes and the river Calore; area, 675 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 231,878. The ...
-Bengal
Bengal, a province of British India, often erroneously termed a presidency. It formerly comprised only the level region watered by the Ganges in the lower part ...
-Benghazi
Benghazi (anc. Hesperis, aftenvard Berenice), a town of Barca, Africa (the Cyrenaica of the Greeks), the seat of a bey, on the E. shore of the Greater Syrtis ...
-Benguela
Benguela. I. A country on the W. coast of Africa, the possession of which is claimed by Portugal. (See Angola.) Its limits are not well defined, but it is ...
-Benicia
Benicia, a town, capital of Solano co., California, and formerly of the state, on the strait of Carquinez, which connects San Pablo and Suisun bays, 30 ni. E.
-Benigne Emmannel Clement Miller
Benigne Emmannel Clement Miller, a French philologist, born in Paris in 1812. In 1834 he received an appointment in the manuscript department of the royal ...
-Benin
Benin. I. A kingdom of Africa, on the Guinea coast, bounded N. W. by Yoruba, W. by Egba, E. and S. E. by the Niger and its E. branch, the Bonny. The name was ...
-Benito Pablo Juarez
Benito Pablo Juarez, president of Mexico, born in the village of San Pablo Guetatao, near Tixtlan, in the state of Oajaca, March 21, 1806, died in Mexico, July ...
-Benjaehn Of Tidela
Benjaehn Of Tidela, a Jewish rabbi, noted in history as the first western traveller who penetrated into the remoter regions of the East, born at Tudela in ...
-Benjamin
Benjamin, a Hebrew patriarch, the youngest son of Jacob, full brother of Joseph, these being the only children by Rachel. His mother, dying in childbed, called ...
-Benjamin Apthorp Gould
Benjamin Apthorp Gould, an American astronomer, born in Boston, Sept. 27, 1824. After graduating at Harvard college (1844), he went to Gottingen, where he ...
-Benjamin Church
Benjamin Church, an American soldier in the early Indian wars, born at Duxburv, Mass., in 1639, died at Little Compton, Jan. 17, 1718. He was engaged in ...
-Benjamin Delessert
Benjamin Delessert, a French financier and naturalist, born in Lyons, Feb. 14, 1773, died in Paris, March 1, 1847. He served as a captain of artillery under ...
-Benjamin Disraeli
Benjamin Disraeli, an English author and statesman, eldest son of Isaac Disraeli, born in London, Dec. 21,1805. His mother's maiden name was Basevi. He ...
-Benjamin Fisk Barrett
Benjamin Fisk Barrett, an American clergyman and author, born at Dresden, Maine, June 24, 1808. He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1832, and at the divinity ...
-Benjamin Franklin Butler
Benjamin Franklin Butler, an American lawyer and politician, born at Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1795, died in Paris, France, Nov. 8, 1858. He studied law with ...
-Benjamin Gratz Brown
Benjamin Gratz Brown, an American journalist and statesman, born in Lexington, Ky., May 28,1826. He is a member of a family of Virginian origin, the son of ...
-Benjamin Harrison
Benjamin Harrison, an American statesman, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, born in Berkeley, Va., about 1740, died in April, 1791. He ...
-Benjamin Jonson
Benjamin Jonson, commonly called Bex, an English dramatist, born in Westminster in 1573 or 1574, died Aug. 6,1637. He was the posthumous son of a clergyman, ...
-Benjamin Kennicott
Benjamin Kennicott, an English clergyman, born in Totness, Devonshire, April 4, 1718, died in Oxford, Sept. 18, 1783. He was of humble parentage, and certain ...
-Benjamin L. E Bonneville
Benjamin L. E Bonneville, an American soldier, born in France about 1795. He graduated at West Point in 1815, and in 1820 was employed in the construction of a ...
-Benjamin Lincoln
Benjamin Lincoln, an American general, born in Hingham, Mass., Jan. 24, 1733, died there, May 9, 1810. Until the age of 40 he was a farmer, holding at ...
-Benjamin Lundy
Benjamin Lundy, an American abolitionist, born at Handwich, N. J., Jan. 4, 1789, died at Lowell, 111., Aug. 22, 1839. His parents were members of the society ...
-Benjamin Peirce
Benjamin Peirce, an American mathematician, born in Salem, Mass, April 4, 1809. He graduated at Harvard college in 1829, became tutor in mathematics there in ...
-Benjamin Robert Haydon
Benjamin Robert Haydon, an English painter, born in Plymouth, Jan. 25, 1786, died by his own hand in London, June 22, 1846. Disre-; garding the wishes of his ...
-Benjamin Smith Barton
Benjamin Smith Barton, an American naturalist, born at Lancaster, Penn., Feb. 10, 1766, died in Philadelphia, Dec. 19, 1815. He was a son of the Rev. Thomas ...
-Benjamin Thompson Rumford
Benjamin Thompson Rumford, count, an American natural philosopher, born in Woburn, Mass., March 26, 1753, died at Auteuil, near Paris, Aug. 21, 1814. He was ...
-Benjamin Vautier
Benjamin Vautier, a Swiss painter, born in Geneva in 1830. He studied in Diisseldorf, and became known by admirable genre pictures relating to the domestic ...
-Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins
Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins, an English artist, born in London, Feb. 8, 1807. He graduated at St. Aloysius college, and afterward studied sculpture under W.
-Benjamin Watkins Leigh
Benjamin Watkins Leigh, an American lawyer, born in Chesterfield co., Va., June 18, 1781, died Feb. 2, 1849. He studied at William and Mary college, and when ...
-Benjamin West
Benjamin West, an Anglo-American painter, born of Quaker parents in Springfield, Pa., Oct. 10, 1738, died in London, March 11, 1820. He began to make colored ...
-Benne Benoowe
Benne Benoowe, or Binuc (the mother of waters), a river of central Africa, the main tributary of the Quorra or Niger, formerly known as the Chadda, Tchadda, or ...
-Benningsen
Benningsen. I. Levin August Theophil, count, a Russian general, born in Brunswick, Feb. 10, 1745, where his father served as colonel in the guards, died Oct. 3, ...
-Bennington
Bennington, a S. W. county of Vermont, bordering on New York and Massachusetts; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,325. It is skirted by the Green ...
-Benoit Camille Desmoulins
Benoit Camille Desmoulins, a French revolutionist, born at Guise in Picardy in 1762, guillotined in Paris, April 5, 1794. He studied law in Paris, but never ...
-Benson John Lossing
Benson John Lossing, an American author, born at Beekman, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1813. After receiving a common school education he was apprenticed to a watchmaker in ...
-Bentinck
Bentinck, an English noble family, with extensive connections in Germany and Holland. - William, son of the lord of Diepenheim, in Overyssel, Holland, was page ...
-Bentivoglio
Bentivoglio, the name of an Italian family once sovereign in Bologna, and claiming descent from a natural son of the emperor Frederick II. Giovanni was ...
-Benton
Benton, the name of counties in eight of the United States. I. AW. central county of Mississippi, bordering on Tennessee, bounded S. W. by the Tallahatchee ...
-Benvenuto Celllm
Benvenuto Celllm, an Italian artist, born in Florence in 1500, died there, Feb. 25, 1570. He was intended for the musical profession, to which his father was ...
-Benzine, Or Benzene
Benzine, Or Benzene, a light oil of petroleum. Mitecherlich in 1838 obtained an oil by the distillation of benzoic acid with an excess of caustic lime, to ...
-Benzoic Kid
Benzoic Kid (H, C1H5O2), an acid which is abundant in the balsamiferous plants, and is produced artificially from bitter-almond oil, hippuric acid, and ...
-Benzoin
Benzoin (Malay, kaminian), the gum benjamin of commerce, an odorous resin extracted from the styrax benzoin, a tree which attains a considerable height, and is ...
-Benzole
Benzole, a peculiar product of coal tar, important in the manufacture of aniline colors. (See Benzine.) Its chemical formula isC12 H6 (old), or C6H6 (new). Its ...
-Berar, Or Nagpore
Berar, Or Nagpore, one of the Central Provinces of British India, bounded N. by the Ner-budda territory, E. by the presidency of Madras, and S. and W. by the ...
-Berard
Berard. I. Joseph Frederie, a French physician, born in Montpellier,, Nov. 8, 1789, died there, April 16, 1828. He was educated at Montpellier, and ...
-Berber
Berber (Berber el-Musherrif or el-Me-kheie), a town of Nubia, capital of a district of the same name belonging to Egypt, on the E. bank of the Nile, in lat. 17 ...
-Berberixa
Berberixa, an alkaloid which receives its name from having been found in the oerberis vulgaris or common barberry, but which has been obtained from many other ...
-Berbice
Berbice. I. A river of British Guiana, which rises about lat. 3 30' N. and lon. 57 BO' W., and flows generally N. to New Amsterdam, where it falls into the ...
-Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden. I. A principality of S. E. Bavaria, in the circle of Upper Bavaria, between the valleys of the Salzach and the Saalach, surrounded on all sides ...
-Berditchev
Berditchev (Pol. Berdyczew), a city of Russia, in the government and about 85 m. W. S. W. of Kiev; pop. in 1867, 53,787, mostly Polish Jews. It is the centre ...
-Berengarius
Berengarius (Berenger), an ecclesiastic who played a conspicuous part in the 11th century as an opponent of the doctrine of transub-stantiation, supposed to ...
-Berenger I
Berenger I., king of Italy from 888 to 924. His father was Eberhard, duke of Friuli; his mother a daughter of Louis le Debonnaire of France. Upon the ...
-Berenice
Berenice, the name of several Egyptian and Syrian queens and princesses. I. Daughter of Lagus and Antigone, went to Egypt in the train of Eurydice, second wife ...
-Bereslina, Or Berezina
Bereslina, Or Berezina, a river of Russia, government of Minsk, rises in lat. 55 10' N., lon. 27 50' E., and flows S. E. through a level country, and empties ...
-Bergamo
Bergamo. I. A province of N. Italy, a part of Lombardy, bounded N. by Sondrio, E. by Brescia, S. by Cremona, and W. by Milan and Como; area, 1,027 sq. m.; pop.
-Bergamot
Bergamot, a kind of green-colored citron or small orange, of fine flavor and taste, of round form, the fruit of the citrus margarita (hergcwnia of Risso and De ...
-Bergen I
Bergen I. A province (stiff or diocese) of Norway, comprising most of the W. part of the country, including the mainland and many inhabited and desert islands ...
-Bergen-Op-Zoom, Or Berg-Op-Zoom
Bergen-Op-Zoom, Or Berg-Op-Zoom, a fortified town of the Netherlands, in the province of North Brabant, on the river Zoom, near its entrance into the East ...
-Bergonzi
Bergonzi, the name of a family of Italian stringed instrument makers. I. Carlo, born and died at Cremona. He was a pupil of Stradi-varius, and was actively ...
-Berks
Berks, a S. E. county of Pennsylvania, intersected by Schuylkill river, and drained by Tulpehocken, Maiden, Manatawny, and Little Swatara creeks; area, 920 sq.
-Berkeley
Berkeley, a N. E. county of West Virginia, separated on the N. E. from Maryland by the Potomac, bounded S. E. by a branch of that river, and N. W. by the ...
-Berkshire
Berkshire, a county of Massachusetts, forming the W. extremity of the state, extending across it from Vermont on the N. to Connecticut on the S., and bounded W.
-Berkshire, Or Berks
Berkshire, Or Berks, a county of England, in the midland district, lying in the basin of the Thames; urea, 705 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 196,-445. It is well ...
-Berlix
Berlix, the capital of Prussia and of the German empire, in the province of Brandenburg, in lat. 52 30' N, lon. 13 24' E., on the Spree, an affluent of the ...
-Bermudas, Or Somers Islands
Bermudas, Or Somers Islands, a group of small islands belonging to Great Britain, said to be 365 in number, in the Atlantic ocean, 580 m. S. S. E. of Cape ...
-Bern, Or Berne
Bern, Or Berne. I. A canton of Switzerland, bounded N. W. by France and the German province of Alsace, N. E. and N. by Basel and Solothurn, E. by Aargau, ...
-Bernard
Bernard, .a saint and doctor of the Latin church, born at Fontaines, in Burgundy, in 1091, died in the abbey of Clairvaux, Aug. 20, 1153. His father, Tescelin, ...
-Bernard Bauer
Bernard Bauer, abbe, a French priest, born in Pesth, Hungary, in 1829. He was a member of a wealthy Jewish family, left his studies to enlist in the French ...
-Bernard Forest De Belidor
Bernard Forest De Belidor, a French military engineer and author, born in Catalonia in 1693, died in Paris, Sept. 8, 1761. He was employed by Cassini and La ...
-Bernard Germain Etienne De La Ville Lacepede
Bernard Germain Etienne De La Ville Lacepede, count de, a French naturalist, born in Agen, Dec. 26, 1756, died at his country seat near St. Denis, Oct. 6, 1825.
-Bernard Palissy
Bernard Palissy, a French potter, born at Oapelle-Biron, near Agen, about 1510, died in Paris in 1590. He was first employed, as we learn from himself, in ...
-Bernard Pierre Magnan
Bernard Pierre Magnan, a French marshal, born in Paris, Dec, 7, 1791, died there, May 29, 1865. He studied law, but at the age of 18 enlisted in the army, and ...
-Bernardino Pinturicchlo
Bernardino Pinturicchlo (Bernardino Bet-ti), an Italian painter, born in Perugia in 1454, died in Siena in 1513. He is generally said to have been a pupil of ...
-Bernardo Del Carpio
Bernardo Del Carpio, a Spanish warrior of the 9th century, probably horn in the castle of Carpio, Valencia. He was the offspring of a secret marriage between ...
-Berners, Or Barnes, Lady Juliana
Berners, Or Barnes, Lady Juliana, an English author, born at Rodney Berners, Essex, about 1388, died after 1460. She is said to have been a lady of rank and of ...
-Bernhard Knipperdolling
Bernhard Knipperdolling, a German Anabaptist, born in Munster near the end of the 15th century, executed Jan. 23, 1536. Exiled for several years from his ...
-Bernhiri
Bernhiri, duke of Saxe-Weimar, born in Weimar, Aug. 6, 1604, died in Neuburg on the Rhine, July 8, 1639. He joined Gustavus Adolphus in 1631, and after the ...
-Bernini
Bernini,. Giovanni Lorenzo, an Italian sculptor and architect, horn in Naples in 1598, died in Rome, Nov. 28, 1680. Having been presented by his father at an ...
-Bernoulli, Or Bernouilli
Bernoulli, Or Bernouilli, a celebrated family of mathematicians and savants, originally of Antwerp, driven thence by Alva, settled first in Frankfort, and in ...
-Bernstorff
Bernstorff. I. Johaun Hartwig Ernst, count, a Danish statesman, born in Hanover, May 13, 1712. died in Hamburg, Feb. 19, 1772. He was educated in Germany, ...
-Berosus
Berosus, a priest of Belus at Babylon, who probably lived about 250 B. 0., although some place him 30 and even 70 years earlier, He wrote in Greek a history of ...
-Berrien
Berrien. I. A S. county of Georgia, bounded E. by the Alapaha river, which crosses the N. E. corner, and W. by Little river, and drained also by the ...
-Berry, Or Berri
Berry, Or Berri, a former province of France, nearly in the centre, now forming the departments of Indre and Cher, and small portions of those of Loire-et-Cher ...
-Berryer
Berryer. Antoinr Pierre, n French advocate and statesman, born in Paris, Jan. 4, 1790, died at his country seat near Angerville, Nov. 29, 1868. His ancestors ...
-Berthold Auerbach
Berthold Auerbach, a German author, of Jewish parentage, born at Nordstetten in the Black Forest, Feb. 28,1812. He studied theology and jurisprudence at ...
-Berthold Schwarz
Berthold Schwarz, a German alchemist, whose real name was believed to be Konstan-tin Ancklitzen, born in Freiburg, Breisgau, probably in the beginning of the ...
-Bertrand Barere De Veizac
Bertrand Barere De Veizac, a French revolutionist, born at Tarbes, Sept. 10, 1755, died in January, 1841. He was educated for the law. In 1789 he was elected a ...
-Bertrand Clausel
Bertrand Clausel, count, a French soldier, born at Mirepoix, Dec. 12, 1772, died near Toulouse, April 21, 1842. He was a nephew of the revolutionist Jean ...
-Bertrand De Born
Bertrand De Born, viscount of Hautefort, a French troubadour and warrior, born in the castle of Born, Perigord, in the middle of the 12th century, died about ...
-Bertrand Du Guesclin
Bertrand Du Guesclin, constable of France, born near Rennes, Brittany, about 1314, died near Chateauneuf de Randon, Languedoc, July 13, 1380. He belonged to an ...
-Bertrand Francois Mahe De Labourdonnais, Or Labourdonnaie
Labourdonnais, Or Labourdonnaie, Bertrand Francois Mahe De, a French naval officer, born in St. Malo, Feb. 11, 1699, died about 1755. He entered the service of ...
-Berwick-On-Tweed
Berwick-On-Tweed, an Anglo-Scotch border town and seaport, on the N. bank of the Tweed, near the German ocean, 58 m. by railway E. S. E. of Edinburgh; pop. of ...
-Berwickshire
Berwickshire, a maritime and border county forming the S. E. extremity of Scotland, on the German ocean, separated S. E. by the Tweed from Northumberland, ...
-Beryl
Beryl (Gr. ), a mineral composed of silica 66.8, alumina 19.1, glucina 14.1 = 100. The union of the emerald and beryl in one species, which Pliny says was ...
-Besancon
Besancon (anc. Vesontio), a town of France, capital of the department of Doubs, on both sides of the river Doubs, and on the Rhone and Rhine canals, 198 m. S.
-Bessaraba
Bessaraba, a family that took an active part in the politics of eastern Europe from the 13th century to the early part of the 18th. It gave several waywodes to ...
-Bessarabia
Bessarabia, a S. W. province of European Russia, bounded N. and E. by the Dniester, which separates it from Austrian Galicia, and the Russian governments of ...
-Bestuzheff-Riumin
Bestuzheff-Riumin, a Russian family of English origin, originally named Best. On their settlement in Russia they took the name of Ruma, which was changed by ...
-Betel Nut
Betel Nut, a name inaccurately applied to the nut of the areca palm (areca catechu), because, though sold separately, it is used for chewing in combination ...
-Bethany
Bethany, a village of ancient Palestine, on the E. slope of the mount of Olives, 3 m. from Jernsalem, mentioned in the New Testament as the place where Christ ...
-Bethel
Bethel, a city of ancient Palestine, about 11 m. X. of Jerusalem. It was originally called Luz, and was named Beth-El (house or place of God) by Jacob, who ...
-Bethel Henry Strousberg
Bethel Henry Strousberg, known as doctor, a German adventurer, born of Jewish parents at Neidenburg, East Prussia, Nov. 20, 1823. His original name was Baruch ...
-Bethlehem
Bethlehem (Heb., place of bread; Arab. Beit Lahm, house of flesh), an ancient town of Palestine, belonging to the tribe of Judah, 6 m. S. of Jerusalem. It was ...
-Bethsaida
Bethsaida (Heb., fishing place), the name of two places, as is now generally agreed, of ancient Palestine. One of them is believed to have been situated on the ...
-Beton Beaton
Beton Beaton, Beatonn, or Bethnne, David, a Scottish statesman and ecclesiastic, born in 1494, assassinated at St. Andrews, May 28, 1546. He was educated at St.
-Betrothment
Betrothment, a mutual promise of marriage. Among the ancient Greeks, the father made a selection for his daughter. The young couple kissed each other for the ...
-Better Berlioz
Better Berlioz, a French composer, born at Cote Saint Andre, in the department of Isere, Dec. 11, 1808, died in Paris, March 8, 1869. Hi- father, a physician, ...
-Bettino Ricasoli
Bettino Ricasoli, baron, an Italian statesman, born in Florence, March 9, 1809. He became known in 1847 as an advocate of constitutional liberty, and was ...
-Beust
Beust. Friedrieh Ferdinand von, count, a German statesman, born in Dresden. Jan 13, 1809. He studied political science at Gottingen under Heeren. Sartorius.
-Beverley
Beverley, a municipal and parliamentary borough of England, capital of the E. Riding of Yorkshire, 28 m. E. S. E. of York, and 8 m. N. N. W. of Hull; pop. of ...
-Beyrout, Or Beirut (Anc
Beyrout, Or Beirut (Anc. Berytus), a town nnd the chief seaport of Syria, 55 m. N. W. of Damascus; pop. about 70,000, one third of whom are Moslems, and the ...
-Beza's Codex
Beza's Codex (sometimes called the Codex Cantabrigiensis, from its present place of deposit, the university of Cambridge, England), a very ancient MS. on ...
-Beziers
Beziers (anc. Baeterra or Bceterrce), a town of Languedoc, France, in the department of Herault, at the junction of the Orb with the Languedoc canal or canal ...
-Bhadrinath, Or Bndrinaft
Bhadrinath, Or Bndrinaft, a town of British India, in the district of Gurhwal, Northwestern Provinces, situated on the right bank of the Vishnu-gunga or ...
-Bhamo
Bhamo. Bamo, or Blianmc, a town of Burmah, on the Irrawaddy, 40 m. W. of the Chinese frontier; pop. about 12,000. The permanent inhabitants are chiefly Laos, ...
-Bhartrihari
Bhartrihari, a Hindoo poet of the 1st century B. C, said to have been a brother of King Vikramaditya. According to another tradition, he was the son of a ...
-Bhawalpoor, Or Bahawulpore
Bhawalpoor, Or Bahawulpore. I. A native state of N. W. Hindostan, extending 280 m. along the S. bank of the continuous rivers Ghara (lower Sutlej), Punjnud, ...
-Bheels
Bheels (Sanskrit bhil, separate; i. e., outcasts), a native tribe of Hindostan, chiefly inhabiting Candeish in Bombay, and numbering over 100,000. They are ...
-Bhurtpoor, Or Bhurtpore
Bhurtpoor, Or Bhurtpore. I. A native state Of N. W. Hindostan. bordering on the Northwestern Provinces, between lat. 20 30' and 27 50' N.. and lon. 76 54' and ...
-Bias
Bias. I. Son of Amythaon, and brother of the seer Melampus, who assisted him in procuring the oxen of Iphicles, without which Neleus would not have allowed him ...
-Bianca Capello
Bianca Capello, grand duchess of Tuscany, born in Venice in 1542, died at Poggio, Oct. 19, 1587. In 1563 she eloped with a banker's clerk named Pietro ...
-Bibb
Bibb. L A central county of Georgia, traversed by the Ocmulgee river and several small creeks; area, 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,255, of whom 11,424 were ...
-Bible
Bible (Gr. , books), the name applied by Chrysostom in the 4th century to the books of the Old and New Testaments, which had been called the Scripture. The ...
-Bible Societies
Bible Societies, associations for publishing and circulating the Bible among the people. The Society for Propagating the Gospel in New England bore the expense ...
-Bibliography
Bibliography (Gr. ov, a book, and v to describe), literally, the description of books. Among the Greeks the term ov signified only the writing or transcription ...
-Bibliomania
Bibliomania (Gr. ov, book, and uavia, madness), a term first introduced by Dr. Dib-din to denote a rage for possessing rare and curious books. The bibliomaniac ...
-Bicetre
Bicetre, a village of France, in the department of the Seine, near Sceaux, on the way from Fontainebleau to Paris, celebrated for its hospital; pop. (including ...
-Bickaneer, Or Beykaneer
Bickaneer, Or Beykaneer. I. A native state of N. W. Hindostan, in Rajpootana, between lat. 27 30' and 29 55' N and Ion. 72 30' and 75 40' E.; area, 17,676 sq.
-Bickersteth
Bickersteth. I. Edward, an English clergyman, born at Kirkby Lonsdale, March 19, 1786, died at Watton, Feb. 24, 1850. He was for several years a post office ...
-Bidassoa
Bidassoa, a river of Spain, 45 m. long, the last 12 m. forming the boundary between France and Spain. It rises in Navarre, and falls into the bay of Biscay ...
-Biddeford
Biddeford, a city of York county, Maine, on the Saco river, at the falls, 6 m. from its mouth and opposite the town of Saco, with which it is connected by a ...
-Biddle
Biddle. I. Clement, an American soldier, born in Philadelphia, May 10, 1740, died there, July 14, 1814. He was a member of the society of Friends, a descendant ...
-Bidpay, Or Pilpay
Bidpay, Or Pilpay, the reputed author of a collection of ancient Hindoo fables, which have been spread for 2,000 years throughout the East and the West, and ...
-Biebrich, Or Bieberich
Biebrich, Or Bieberich, a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, 3 m. S. of Wiesbaden; pop. in 1871, including ...
-Bienne
Bienne (Ger. Biel). I. A town of Switzerland, in the canton of Bern, pleasantly situated at the mouth of the valley of the Suze (Ger. Schuss), at the E. foot ...
-Bijanagrr, Or Bisnagur
Bijanagrr, Or Bisnagur, a ruined city of southern India, on both sides of the Tumbud-dra, here 800 yards wide, 30 m. N. W. of Bel-lary. The city stands in a ...
-Bilbao
Bilbao, a city of Spain, capital of the Basque province of Biscay, 45 m. W. of St. Sebastian, on the Nervion, about 9 m. above its entrance into the sea at ...
-Bile
Bile, the green and bitter liquid secreted by the liver. This liquid presents differences in the various classes of animals, although its principal characters ...
-Bill
Bill, the proposed form of a legislative act or statute, while in the course of legislation, and before it becomes a law. In American legislation a joint ...
-Bill IX Equity
Bill IX Equity, the statement of the plaintiff's case in an equity suit. In English law it is addressed to the lord chancellor, and, commencing with the names ...
-Bill Of Lading
Bill Of Lading, a commercial instrument, signed by the master of a ship as the receipt for cargo to be conveyed as freight. This document specifies the goods, ...
-Bill Of Rights
Bill Of Rights, in English constitutional law, properly, the act of parliament 1 William and Mary (sess. 2, c. ii.), by which certain claims contained in the ...
-Billhead
Billhead, the popular name of several species of cottoid fishes, principally of the genera coitus and acanthocottus, inhabiting both fresh and salt water. All ...
-Billiards
Billiards, a game played with ivory balls, propelled by a cue or tapering wooden wand in the hands of the player, upon an oblong level table. The billiard ...
-Billiton
Billiton, an island of the Malay archipelago, separated by the Carimata or Billiton passage from Borneo, and by Caspar strait from Banca. Its highest peak, ...
-Bima
Bima, the principal state of the island of Sumbawa, and seat of a Dutch residency, occu-pying. the E. part of the island. The Dutch fort at the head of the bay ...
-Bingen
Bingen (ane. Vincum or Bingium), a town of Hesse-Darmstadt, opposite Rudesheim, on the left bank of the Rhine, at the mouth of the Bingeu. Nahe, 17 m. W. of ...
-Birch
Birch (betula), a genus of monoecious trees or shrubs, which have as generic features both sterile and fertile flowers in scaly catkins, three of each under ...
-Birds
Birds (aves), a class of vertebrate biped animals, exclusively oviparous, and with very few exceptions covered with a feathered coat, adapted more or less ...
-Bird Lime
Bird Lime, a glutinous, viscid substance, of greenish color and bitterish taste, prepared by boiling the middle bark of the European holly (ilex aquifolium), ...
-Bird Of Paradise
Bird Of Paradise (genus paradisea, Linn.), a name given to a group of moderate-sized, cone-billed birds of the Malay archipelago, noted for the extraordinary ...
-Birkenhead
Birkenhead, a market town and port of Cheshire, England, on the estuary of the Mersey, opposite Liverpool, with which it has constant communication by several ...
-Birket El-Maryoot Mareotisi Arab
Birket El-Maryoot Mareotisi Arab, a lake in Lower Egypt S. E. of Alexandria, whose southern walls it once washed: length nearly 40 m.. breadth 15 m., depth ...
-Birmingham
Birmingham, a manufacturing and market town, municipal and parliamentary borough of Warwickshire, England, 17 m. N. W. of Warwick and 100 m. N. W. of London; ...
-Birmingham (2)
Birmingham, a manufacturing village of Connecticut, in Derby township, New Haven County, on an eminence at the junction of the Bousatonic and Naugatuck rivers, ...
-Biron
Biron. I. Arm and de Gontant, baron, afterward duke de, a French general, born about 1524, killed July 26, 1592. He was educated among the pages of Margaret, ...
-Biruch, Or Benedict Spinoza (Also Written Spinosa)
Biruch, Or Benedict Spinoza (Also Written Spinosa), a Dutch philosopher, born of Jewish parents in Amsterdam, Nov. 24, 1632, died at the Hague, Feb. 21, 1677.
-Biscay
Biscay, one of the Basque provinces of Spain, also called Bilbao, bounded N. by the bay of Biscay, E. by Guipuzcoa, S. by Alava and Burgos, and W. by Santander; ...
-Bischoff
Bischoff. I. Christoph Heinrich Ernst, a German physician, born in Hanover, Sept. 14, 1781, died in Bonn, March 5, 1861. He was physician of the general staff ...
-Bishop
Bishop (Sax. biscop, from Gr. a superintendent), in the Greek, Latin, and Anglican churches, the title given to those who are of the highest order of the ...
-Bismark-Schonhausen
Bismark-Schonhausen. Otto Ednard Leopold, prince, a German statesman, born at the manor of Schonhausen, in the district of Magdeburg, April 1, 1815. His father, ...
-Bismith
Bismith, a metal which shines with such brilliant colors that the name is supposed to be derived from the German Wiesenmatte, or meadow lawn. The original word ...
-Bisntun Behistun
Bisntun Behistun, or BagliMan, a ruined town of Persia, in the province of Irak-Ajemi, in lat. 34 18'N., lon. 47 30' E., 17 m. E. of Kermanshah. It is noted ...
-Bison
Bison, a name given to three species of the ox family. 1. The European or Eur-Asiatic species, bos urus, known as the bonassus, is supposed to be the ancient ...
-Bithoor, Or Bittoor
Bithoor, Or Bittoor, a town of Hindostan, province of Allahabad, on the Ganges, 21 m. N. W. of Cawnpore; pop. about 9,000. As a religious city it enjoys high ...
-Bithynia
Bithynia, an ancient country of Asia Minor, bounded N. by the Euxine, E. by Paphla-gonia, S. by Phrygia and Galatia, and W. by the Propontis and Mysia, and ...
-Bitter
Bitter (Gt. , from , ox or cow, and , coagulum; Lat. butyrum), the fatty, non-azotized portion of milk. It exists in the form of microscopic globules, varying ...
-Bitter Principles
Bitter Principles, substances extracted from plants by digestion in water, alcohol, or ether, and which possess in concentrated form that which gives the ...
-Bittern
Bittern, a fen fowl, of the order grallatores or waders, family ardeidce, which also includes the herons, old genus ardea (Linn.). There are in Europe several ...
-Bitumen
Bitumen, a generic name for a variety of substances found in the earth, or exuding from it upon the surface, in the form of springs. The liquid varieties ...
-Bjornstjerne Bjornson
Bjornstjerne Bjornson, a Norwegian author, born at Kvikne, Osterdalen, Dec. 8, 1832. He is the son of a clergyman, studied at the university of Christiania in ...
-Black Fly
Black Fly, a small dipterous insect, sometimes called gnat, midge, and sand fly, belonging to the genus timulium. The length of the common species (S. molestum) ...
-Black Forest
Black Forest (Ger. Schwarzwald; anc. Silva Marciana, the S. W. branch of the Her-cynian forest), a range of woody mountains in the S. W. part of Germany, ...
-Black Gum
Black Gum, the arbitrary name of a tree without gum, a species of nyssa or tupelo (Ad-anson), which is the only genus of Endlicher's sub-order nyssacece of his ...
-Black Hawk
Black Hawk, an Indian chief of the Sac and Fox tribe, born about 1768, at the principal Sac village on the E. shore of the Mississippi, near the mouth of Rock ...
-Black Hole
Black Hole, a small close dungeon in Fort William, Calcutta, in which on the capture of Calcutta by Surajah Dowlah, June 20, 1750, the British garrison, ...
-Black Mountains
Black Mountains, the culminating group of the Appalachian system (see Appalachian Mountains), named from the dark growth of balsam firs and other evergreens ...
-Black Sea
Black Sea (anc. Pontus Euxinus, the hospitable sea), an inland sea between Asia and Europe, enclosed N. and E. by Russia and S. and W. by Turkey, and connected ...
-Black Snare
Black Snare (coluber constrictor; C. bas-canion, B. and G.), a very common snake, generally distributed over North America. The head is oval and long; the ...
-Blackbird
Blackbird, a N. E. county of Nebraska, separated from Iowa on the E. by the Missouri river, and watered by Blackbird, Middle, and Omaha creeks; pop. in 1870, ...
-Blackcap
Blackcap. I. A bird of the family lusci-nidm, or warblers (sylvia atricapilla, Briss.), a native of Europe, migrating to the north in early spring. The male ...
-Blackcock, Or Black Grouse (Tetrao Tetrix, Linn)
Blackcock, Or Black Grouse (Tetrao Tetrix, Linn.), a highly prized game bird, of the family tetraonidce, very generally spread over the northern parts of ...
-Blackfeet, Or Satsika
Blackfeet, Or Satsika, the most westerly tribe of the Algonquin family of American Indians, with a dialect which differs greatly from others of the family.
-Blackfish
Blackfish, a name improperly given by sea-men to several species of small whales, especially to the round-headed dolphin (globiceph-alus. Less.), (see Dolphin), ...
-Blacking
Blacking, a preparation applied to leather, designed either to preserve or to polish it. Ivory black, vinegar or sour beer, sugar or molasses, and a little ...
-Bladder
Bladder, a musculo-membranous bag, cyst, or pouch, which serves as a reservoir for the urine secreted in the kidneys. It is called vesica urinaria, to ...
-Blair. I. Francis Preston
Blair. I. Francis Preston, an American journalist, born at Abingdon, Washington county, Va., April 12, 1791. He was educated at Transylvania university, ...
-Blaise Pascal
Blaise Pascal, a French author, born in Clermont, Auvergne, June 19, 1623, died in Paris, Aug. 19, 1662. His father was president of the court of aids in his ...
-Blanc I. Jean Joseph Louis
Blanc I. Jean Joseph Louis, a French political and historical writer, born in Madrid, where his father was inspector general of finance un~ der Joseph ...
-Blanche Of Bourbon
Blanche Of Bourbon, queen of Castile, born in France about 1338, died in Spain in 1361. She was the daughter of the duke of Bourbon, and at the age of 15 was ...
-Blanche Of Castile
Blanche Of Castile, queen of France, born about 1187, died Dec. 1, 1252. ' She was the daughter of Alfonso IX., king of Castile, by Eleonora of England, ...
-Blankenburg
Blankenburg. I. A circle in the duchy of Brunswick, Germany; area, 183 sq. m.; pop. about 23,000. The southern part, bordering on the Hartz mountains, is ...
-Blanqui. I. Jerome Adolphe
Blanqui. I. Jerome Adolphe, a French political economist, born in Nice, Nov. 20, 1798, died in Paris, Jan. 28, 1854. His father, Jean Dominique, was a deputy ...
-Blarney
Blarney, a village of Munster, Ireland, 4 m. N. W. of Cork, noted for its castle, built by Cormick McCarty in 1449. This stands on the N. side of a precipitous ...
-Blasphemy
Blasphemy (Gr. , ), in law, has been judicially described (20 Pickering's Reports, 213) as speaking evil of the Deity, with an impious purpose to derogate from ...
-Blasting
Blasting, the process of breaking rocks with explosive compounds. It is employed for breaking stone from quarries for building purposes, for removing rocks ...
-Bleaching
Bleaching, the process of removing colors from fabrics and raw materials and leaving them white. The principal substances to which bleaching is applied are ...
-Bleaching Powder
Bleaching Powder. By the action of chlorine gas upon hydrate of lime, a compound is produced which is known by the common name of chloride of lime. By the ...
-Bleek
Bleek. I. Friedrifh, a German theologian, born at Ahrensbok, Holstein, July 4, 1793, died in Bonn, Feb. 27, 1859. He studied under De Wette, Schleiermacher, ...
-Blende
Blende (Ger. Menden, to deceive), a common ore of zinc, so named because, while often resembling galena, it yielded no lead, and thus deceived the miners.
-Blenheim, Or Blindheim
Blenheim, Or Blindheim, a village of Bavaria, on the Danube, 23 m. N. N. W. of Augsburg. It was the scene of a battle on Aug. 13, 1704, between the English and ...
-Blenny
Blenny, a name given to several spiny-rayed fishes of the goby family, but especially to the genus hlennius (Cuv.). They have the body covered with a thick ...
-Blere
Blere, a town of France, in the department, of Indre-et-Loire, on the left bank of the Cher, 15 m. E. S. E. of Tours; pop. in 1866, 3,561. In the vicinity ...
-The Blind
The Blind, persons who have not the sense od sight. In common use the term also includes persons who possess some power of vision, but not sufficient to enable ...
-Blind Fish
Blind Fish, the common name of several species of fish, of different genera, living in the subterranean waters of the United States and Cuba; but especially of ...
-Blindworm
Blindworm (anguis fragilis, Linn.), a reptile of the order of saurians and family of scin-coids, or lepido-sauri. It is neither a worm, nor is it blind. The ...
-Blister
Blister, a topical application, which, applied to the skin, produces an irritation, and raises the cuticle in the form of a vesicle filled with serous fluid.
-Blockade
Blockade, in international law, the closing of an enemy's port by a besieging force. It has been described by Sir William Scott as a sort of circumvallation ...
-Blois
Blois, a city of France, capital of the department of Loir-et-Cher, on the right bank of the Loire, and on the railway from Paris to Nantes, 100 m. S. W. of ...
-Blondel
Blondel, a French trouvere of the 12th century, born at Nesle, near Peronne, Picardy. He is generally regarded as the minstrel who was the friend, teacher, and ...
-Blood
Blood, in man and the higher animals, the red liquid which circulates in the cavities of the heart, the arteries, the veins, and the capillary vessels. I.
-Blood Money
Blood Money, money paid to the next of kin of a man who met with his death at the hands of another, accidentally or with premeditation. It secured the murderer ...
-Blood Rain
Blood Rain, a shower of grayish and reddish dust mingled with rain, which sometimes falls on vessels off the Atlantic coast of Africa and southern Europe. The ...
-Blood Stains
Blood Stains. Various medico-legal questions are often to be solved concerning the nature of stains resembling those made by blood. The principal of these are: ...
-Bloodhound
Bloodhound (canis familiaris), a hound trained for the pursuit of men, wounded animals, or beasts of prey. The bloodhound is not peculiarly ferocious, as its ...
-Bloodletting, Or Phlebotomy
Bloodletting, Or Phlebotomy (Gr. a vein, and to cut), the act of opening a vein for the purpose of withdrawing blood, as a means of relief in certain cases of ...
-Bloodroot
Bloodroot, the root of the sanguinaria Canadensis, called also red-root. This is an herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the poppy family, growing ...
-Bloomary
Bloomary, a name sometimes given to a kind of furnace for the production of malleable iron from cast or pig iron, and sometimes to a similar furnace for the ...
-Bloomington
Bloomington, a village and the capital of Monroe co.. Indiana, situated on a ridge between the E. and W. forks of White river; pop. in 1870, 1,032. A railroad ...
-Blount
Blount. I. A N. county of Alabama, drained by the upper courses of the Locust and Mulberry forks of Black Warrior river; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, ...
-Blowing Machines
Blowing Machines. Besides the common bellows (see Bellows), a variety of other machines have been devised for the purpose of propelling air in large volume, or ...
-Blowpipe
Blowpipe, in the simplest form, a small metallic tube of tapering shape, its smaller end curved around to form a right angle, and the larger end of convenient ...
-Blue
Blue, one of the seven primary colors. Like the green of the forest and the field, nature appears to have adopted the color for the sea and sky with reference ...
-Blue Laws
Blue Laws, a term sometimes applied to the early enactments of several of the New England states, but more frequently limited to the laws of New Haven colony.
-Blue Mountains
Blue Mountains. I. The central mountain range of the island of Jamaica. It extends E. and W. through the centre of the island, with offsets covering its ...
-Bluebird
Bluebird, a North American bird of the genus sialia, order passcres, tribe denthrostres, and family luscinidce. The best known species, 8. Wilsonii (Swains.), ...
-Bluefish
Bluefish (temnodon saltator, Cuv.), an acanthopterygian fish of the family of scombri-dee, called also the skipjack, and sometimes horse mackerel; both of the ...
-Blueing Of Metals
Blueing Of Metals, the process of giving a color to metallic substances by heat Iron when heated becomes first of alight, then of a darker gold color, and ...
-Blunt
Blunt. I. Edmund March, an American hy-drographer, born at Portsmouth, N. H., June 20,1770, died at Sing Sing, N. Y., Jan. 2, 1862. His American Coast Pilot, ...
-Boa
Boa, a large serpent of the family boidae, order ophidia. This family is known by the following characters: The under part of the body and tail is covered with ...
-Boadicea, Or Boudicea
Boadicea, Or Boudicea, queen of the Iceni, a British tribe inhabiting what are now the counties of Cambridge, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Hertford, died about A. D.
-Boar
Boar (sus aper), the male swine. The domestic hog and the wild boar of Europe, Africa, and Asia are, generally speaking, of the same species, and will breed ...
-Boardman
Boardman. I. George Dana, an American missionary, born in Livermore, Me., Feb. 8, 1801, died in Burmah, Feb. 11, 1831. In 1819 he entered the Waterville ...
-Boatbill
Boatbill (cancroma cochlenria, Linn.), a bird of the order grallae, family ardeidae, so called from the peculiar form and breadth of the bill, which is much ...
-Bobolink, Or Rice Bunting (Emberiza Oryzi-Vora, Linn)
Bobolink, Or Rice Bunting (Emberiza Oryzi-Vora, Linn.; dolichonyx oryzivorus, Swains.), the rice bird or ortolan of Georgia and Carolina, the reed bird of the ...
-Boccanera
Boccanera. I. Simone, a nobleman of Genoa, first doge of that republic, born about 1300, poisoned in 1363. Weary of the quarrels and violence of the great ...
-Bock
Bock. I. Karl August, a German anatomist, born in Magdeburg, March 25, 1782, died in Leipsic, Jan. 30, 1833. He was assistant prosector of Rosenmuller, and ...
-Bodleian Library
Bodleian Library, the public library of the university of Oxford, so called from Sir Thomas Bodley, who restored it toward the close of the 16th century, many ...
-Bodmin
Bodmin, the county town of Cornwall, England, 26 m. W. N. W. of Plymouth; pop. of the municipal and parliamentary borough in 1871, 6,956. The town is built ...
-Boers
Boers (Dutch, boer, a peasant), the Dutch colonists of southern Africa. The first Dutch settlements there were established in the beginning of the 17th century, ...
-Bog
Bog, an Irish word, literally meaning soft, applied in Great Britain to extensive districts of marshy land. In Europe these tracts consist generally of peat, ...
-Bogdan Chmielnicki
Bogdan Chmielnicki, chief of the revolted Cossacks, under the reigns of Ladislas IV. and John Casimir of Poland, born in 1593, died Aug. 25,1657. He was the ...
-Boh
Boh, a Celtic people whose original seat appears to have been in that region now forming the French departments of Haute-Marne and Haute-Saone, but who passed ...
-Boha-Eddin, Or Bohaddin, Abnl-Mohassen Yusuf Ibn Shedad
Boha-Eddin, Or Bohaddin, Abnl-Mohassen Yusuf Ibn Shedad, an Arabian scholar and historian, born in Mosul in 1145, died in Aleppo about 1233. Having attained ...
-Bohemia
Bohemia (Boh. Cechy; Ger. Bohmen), a country of central Europe, now forming a political division of the Austro-IIungarian monarchy between lat. 48 33' and 51 5' ...
-Bohemian Brethren
Bohemian Brethren, a Christian society which originated in the Hussite movements of the 15th century, and rejected the mass, purgatory, transubstantiation, ...
-Bohemian Language And Literature
Bohemian Language And Literature. The word Bohemian is improperly applied to the principal nation of the western Slavs. The true name of the people is Czechs ( ...
-Bohlen
Bohlen. Peter von, a German orientalist, horn at Wuppels, Oldenburg, March 13, 1796 died id Halle, Feb. 6,1840. He was of humble origin and had to struggle ...
-Bohm Boehm
Bohm Boehm, or Bochme, Jakob (often called by English writers Jacob Behmen), a German mystic, horn at Altseidenberg, near Gorlitz, in Silesia,in 1675, died at ...
-Boiardo, Or Bojardo, Mattoo Maria
Boiardo, Or Bojardo, Mattoo Maria, count of Scandiano, an Italian poet, born at Scandiano in 1430 or 1434, died in Reggio in December, 1494. After finishing ...
-Boil
Boil, an inflamed tumor, which begins as a pimple in the skin, and continues to increase until it becomes as large as a walnut, or even larger. It is of a ...
-Boiling Point
Boiling Point, the temperature at which a liquid is converted into vapor with ebullition. It varies with the nature of the liquid and with the degree of ...
-Bokhara
Bokhara. I. A khanate of Independent Turkistan, central Asia, between lat. 36 and 49 X., and lon. (12 30'and 69 30'E.; bounded N. by the desert of Kizil Koom, ...
-Bole
Bole, (Gr. a mass), an argillaceous earthy mineral which occurs in amorphous masses of various colors, as yellow, black, brown, and bright red, all derived ...
-Bolivia
Bolivia, a republic of South America, lying between lat. 12 and 24 S., and Ion. 57 25' and 70 30' W., bounded K and E. by Brazil, from which it is partly ...
-Bolland, Or Bollandns, John
Bolland, Or Bollandns, John, a learned Jesuit, born in Limburg or in Brabant in 1596, died Sept. 12, 1665. In 1607 Heribert Rosweyd, a Jesuit of Antwerp, ...
-Bologna. I
A province of Italy, bordering on Ferrara, Ravenna, Florence, and Modena; area, 1,391 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 439,166. Its S. boundary is formed by the range of ...
-Bolsena
Bolsena, (anc. Volsinii), a town of Italy, on a lake of the same name, in the province and 56 m. N. N. W. of Rome; pop. about 2,100. Volsinii, originally built ...
-Bom
Bom, a city of Rhenish Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine, 15 m. S. S. E. of Cologne; pop. in 1871, 26,020, of whom about 4,300 were Protestants, 500 Jews, ...
-Bombay. I
A province (formerly presidency) and one of the ten great governmental divisions of British India, bordering on the Arabian sea, and lying between lat. 14 and ...
-Bomto
Bomto, a name given to several scombe-roid fishes of the genera thynnus, auxis, and pelamys. The bonito of the tropics, so celebrated for its pursuit of the ...
-Bon Louis Henri Martin
Bon Louis Henri Martin, a French historian, born in St. Quentin, Feb. 20, 1810. He was educated at the college of St. Quentin. Wolf-thurm, a romance, written ...
-Bona
Bona (Fr. Bone; Arabic, Beled el-Anib, town of grapes), a fortified seaport town of Algeria, in the province of Constantine, on the W. coast of the gulf of ...
-Bonacca
Bonacca (formerly called Guanaja), an island in Honduras bay, Caribbean sea, 30 m. N. of Cape Castilla; lat. 16 28' K, Ion. 85 55' W. It is the second in size ...
-Bonald. I. Louis Gabriel Amoroise
Bonald. I. Louis Gabriel Amoroise, viscount de, a French political writer, born at Le Mon-na, near Millau-en-Rouergue, Oct. 2, 1754, died there, Nov. 23, 1840.
-Bonaparte, Or Buonaparte
Bonaparte, Or Buonaparte, the name of the family which has given to modern France its imperial dynasty. Its early origin is obscure. The name occurs in Corsica ...
-Bonaparte, Or Buonaparte. I. Carlo Maria
Bonaparte, Or Buonaparte. I. Carlo Maria, father of Napoleon I., born in Ajaccio, March 29, 1746, died in Montpellier, Feb. 24, 1785. He studied law in Pisa, ...
-Bonaparte. I. Jerome
Bonaparte. I. Jerome, king of Westphalia, youngest brother of Napoleon I., born in Ajaccio, Nov. 15, 1784, died at Villegenis, near Paris, June 24, 1860. He ...
-Bonaparte. I. Louis
Bonaparte. I. Louis, king of Holland, third brother of Napoleon, born in Ajaccio in September, 1778, died in Leghorn, July 25, 1846. Napoleon wished him to ...
-Bonaparte. I. Lucien
Bonaparte. I. Lucien, prince of Canino, second brother of Napoleon, born in Ajaccio, March 21, 1775, died in Viterbo, June 29,1840. He attended with his ...
-Bond
Bond, in law, an instrument in writing and under seal, whereby one person, who is called the obligor, acknowledges himself bound to another, who is called the ...
-Bond. I. William
Bond. I. William (ranch, an American astronomer, born in Portland, Me., Sept. 9, 1789, died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 29,1859. He was brought up by his father ...
-Bondoo
Bondoo, a kingdom of Senegambia in W. Africa, between the Senegal and the upper Gambia. The surface of the country, which is generally flat, save in the ...
-Bone
Bone, the substance which forms the internal skeleton of man and the- vertebrated animals, constituting the framework of support, the levers by which force is ...
-Bone Ash. Bones
Bone Ash. Bones, when calcined in open fire, lose all their organic matters and part of the carbonic acid gas they contain, by which their weight is diminished ...
-Bone Black
Bone Black, a black carbonaceous powder, obtained by grinding the product of bones burned in a close vessel at a red heat. The name ivory black should properly ...
-Bone Caves
In many natural excavations, both in the old and the new world, mostly in the secondary limestone strata, the result of fracture of the earth's crust, of ...
-Bone Dust
Bone Dust, bones crushed and ground to dust for manure. The finer the dust the more rapid is its action; the coarser the particles, the longer is their effect ...
-Boneset, Or Thoronghwort
Boneset, Or Thoronghwort, the herb evpato-rium perfoliatum, an indigenous perennial plant growing in moist places, distinguished by the perfoliate character of ...
-Bonheur. I. Rosalie
Bonheur. I. Rosalie (commonly called Rosa), a French painter, born at Bordeaux, March 22, 1822. Her first instructor in painting was her father, Raymond ...
-Boni
Boni, one of the principal states of the Bughis nation in the S. W. peninsula of Celebes, bounded E. by the gulf of Boni and W. by Macassar; area, 2,850 sq. m.; ...
-Boniface
Boniface, the name of nine popes of the Roman Catholic church. I. Saint, the successor of Pope Zosimus in 418, died in 422. The emperor Honorius supported his ...
-Bonin Islands
Bonin Islands, a group of 70 islands and 19 rocks in the north Pacific, composed of three small clusters, between lat. 26 30' and 27 44' N. and Ion. 142 and ...
-Bonin. I. Eduard Wilhelm Lndwig Von
Bonin. I. Eduard Wilhelm Lndwig Von, a Prussian general, born at Stolpe, March 3, 1793, died in Coblentz, March 13, 1865. He was the son of a general, and ...
-Bonjour
Bonjour, two brothers, natives of Pont d'Ain, in France, who founded a new sect somewhat similar to the Flagellants of the 13th century. They were educated for ...
-Bonnacks Bannacks
Bonnacks Bannacks, or Paunaqnes, a tribe of Indians of the Shoshonee family scattered over several of the territories and states of the Union. They were first ...
-Bonnell Thornton
Bonnell Thornton, an English author, born in London in 1724, died May 9, 1768. He was educated at Oxford, and in conjunction with George Colman the elder began ...
-Bonnet Dowler
Bonnet Dowler, an American physician and physiologist, born in Ohio co., Va., April 16, 1797. He was educated at the university of Maryland, where in 1827 he ...
-Bonomi. I. Giuseppe
Bonomi. I. Giuseppe, an Italian architect, born in Rome in 1739, died in London, March 9,1808. He went in 1767 to London, where he was employed as a draftsman.
-Booby
Booby, the English name for a genus of pe-lecanidce, the dysporus of Illiger, morns of Vieillot, lefou of the French; separated from the true pelicans by ...
-Book
Book, by the law of England, is construed to mean and include every volume, part or division of a volume, pamphlet, sheet of letterpress, sheet of music, map, ...
-Book Binding
Book Binding, the art by which the material parts of a book are connected for convenience in use and protection from injury. Its antiquity is coeval with the ...
-Book Keeping
Book Keeping, the method of exhibiting in a clear and concise manner the state of a man's pecuniary affairs. The system of bookkeeping in general use among men ...
-Book Of Common Prayer
Book Of Common Prayer, the formulary of public worship of churches of the Anglican communion. The early British church appears to have adopted, many years ...
-Book Of Heb. Sepher Hayashar (Jasher)
Book Of Heb. Sepher Hayashar (Jasher), a work cited in Joshua x. 13 and 2 Sam. i. 18, but no longer extant. Its contents are known to us only by two short ...
-Book Of Job
Book Of Job, one of the canonical books of the Old Testament, so called from the name of the patriarch whose history it contains. According to the narrative ...
-Book Of Judges
Book Of Judges, one of the historical books of the Old Testament, narrating the deeds of the thirteen judges of Israel from Othniel to Samson. It is a ...
-Book Of Psalms
Book Of Psalms (in the Septuagint, , hymns sung to the accompaniment of stringed instruments; in Hebrew collections, Tehillim, praise songs), one of the ...
-Book Of Ruth
Book Of Ruth, one of the canonical books of the Old Testament. By many ancient and modern writers it has been regarded as an addition to the book of Judges, ...
-Book Of Wisdom
Book Of Wisdom, one of the so-called apocryphal books of the Old Testament. In the Septuagint the book bears the title Wisdom of Solomon, and many of the early ...
-Books Of Esdras
Books Of Esdras, two apocryphal books of the Old Testament, given as the third and fourth books of Ezra (the second being properly the book of Nehemiah) in ...
-Books Of Kings
Books Of Kings, one of the chief divisions of the historical series of the canonical Scriptures. In their contents, if not entirely in style and arrangement, ...
-Books Of Maccabees
Books Of Maccabees, the collective title of four works belonging to the Old Testament Apocrypha, and containing principally the details of the struggles of the ...
-Books Of Samuel
Books Of Samuel, two canonical book's of the Old Testament, reckoned by the Jews as one book. The present division into two books dates from the edition of the ...
-Boolundshahu, Or Bulnndshnhur. I.R
A British district of Hindostan, in the Northwest Provinces, division of Meerut; area, 1,823 sq. m.; pop. about 800,000, more than three fourths Hindoos. It ...
-Boondee, Or Bnndi. I
A native state of Rajpootana, Hindostan, under British protection, separated from Kotah on the E. by the Ohumbul, and bounded S. by Sindia's territory; area, 2, ...
-Boone
Boone, the name of counties in seven of the United States. I. A S. W. county of W. Virginia, bounded N. E. by Coal river, a tributary of the Kanawha, and ...
-Boonton
Boonton, a town of Morris county, K J., on the Rockaway river, at the terminus of a branch of the Morris and Essex railroad, and on the Morris canal, 40 m. N.
-Boorhanpoor, Or Barhaunpoor
Boorhanpoor, Or Barhaunpoor, a town of British India, formerly capital of Candeish, in the territory of Gwalior, 130 m. S. S. E. of Oo-jein and 210 m. E. of ...
-Bootan, Or Bhutan
Bootan, Or Bhutan, an independent territory of India, between lat. 26 30' and 28 30' N., and Ion. 88 30' and 92 E., on the N. E. frontier of Bengal, among the ...
-Booth. I. Junius Brntus
Booth. I. Junius Brntus, a tragedian, born in London, May 1, 1796, died on the passage from New Orleans to Cincinnati, Dec. 1, 1852. His father was a solicitor, ...
-Bootia
(Gr. Bowria), a division of ancient Greece, hounded N. by Phoeis and Opuntian Locris, E. by the Eubosan sea, S. by Attica and Megaris, and W. by the Corinthian ...
-Borage
Borage (borago) a plant and the typical genus of the order boraginacea. Calyx 5, rarely 4-parted, and persistent; corolla hypo-gynous, monopetal-ous, rotate, 5, ...
-Borax
Borax (Arabic, burak), a salt first mentioned by Geber in the 10th century; its chemical nature was discovered by Geoffroy in 1732. It is largely prepared from ...
-Bordeaux
Bordeaux (anc. Burdigala), a city and seaport of France, capital of the department of Gironde, on the left bank of the river Garonne, 58 m. from its mouth, and ...
-Bore
Bore, the rapid rushing of the tide inland against the current of a river. This phenomenon takes place when a narrow river falls into a gradually widening ...
-Borghese
Borghese, the name of a patrician family of Siena, Tuscany, which came into prominence about the middle of the 15th century. Marco Antonio Borghese settled in ...
-Borgia. I. Cesare
Borgia. I. Cesare, an Italian prelate and soldier, born about 1457, died March 12, 1507. His family was of Spanish origin, but attained considerable prominence ...
-Boric Acid
Boric Acid, a compound of the element boron with oxygen and hydrogen; also called boracic acid. It occurs in nature under the name of sassoline, H3BO3, ...
-Boring
Boring, a name common to two distinct mechanical operations, which bear different appellations in most languages. The one consists in turning the inside ...
-Boris Fedorovitch Godunoff
Boris Fedorovitch Godunoff, a czar of Russia, born in 1552, died in 1605. He was a brother-in-law of the czar Feodor I., whose infirmities of body and mind ...
-Borneo
Borneo, an island of the East Indian or Malay archipelago, situated directly under the equator, which divides it into two nearly equal parts. It is the largest ...
-Bornoo, Or Bornu
Bornoo, Or Bornu(called by the natives Ka-nowra), a country of central Africa, between lat. 9 and 14 N., and Ion. 8 and 15 E., bounded N. by the Great Desert, ...
-Boron
Boron, the characteristic combustible element of the acid contained in borax. In nature it is always met with in combination with oxygen. It is found in small ...
-Borough
The origin of this term is uncertain. By some etymologists it is derived from burgh (Sax.), burgus (Lat.), a walled town, and thence applied to any association ...
-Borromean Islands
Borromean Islands, a group of four small islands in the gulf of Tosa, an arm of Lago Maggiore, in northern Italy. The group takes its name from the Borromeo ...
-Boscan
Boscan (Boscan Almogaver), Jnan, a Spanish poet, born in Barcelona before 1500, died in Perpignan about 1543. A patrician by birth, he was received at the ...
-Bosna-Serai, Or Serayevo
Bosna-Serai, Or Serayevo, a city of European Turkey, capital of the province of Bosnia, at the confluence of the rivers Miliatchka and Bosna, in lat. 43 52' N., ...
-Bosnia
Bosnia (properly Bosna; Turkish, Bosh-maili), the extreme N. W. province or vilayet of European Turkey, lying between lat. 42 30' and 45 15' N. and Ion. 15 40' ...
-Bosporus
Bosporus (Gr. , ox-ford). I. Called by the ancients the Thracian, and by the Turks Istambul Boghazi, the strait joining the Black sea and the sea of Marmora, ...
-Boston (2)
Boston, the capital of the commonwealth of Massachusetts and of Suffolk county, the chief city of New England, and the seventh of the United States in point of ...
-Bots
Bots, the larvae of a species of gadfly, gastero-philus equi. The females deposit their eggs on the sides and legs of horses, where a glutinous fluid attaches ...
-Botany
Botany (Gr. , a plant or vegetable), the division of natural science which treats of plants. The history and bibliography of the science will be treated in ...
-Botany Bay
Botany Bay, a harbor on the E. coast of Australia, county of Cumberland, New South Wales, 5 m. S. of Sydney, the N. head (Cape Banks) being in lat. 34 S., Ion.
-Bothnia
Bothnia, a gulf between Sweden and Russia,-constituting the northern arm of the Baltic sea, extending from lat. 60 to 65 50' N., 400 m. in length, with an ...
-Botocudos
Botocudos (Port, botoque, a barrel bung), the name given by the Portuguese to a tribe of Tupayas Indians of Brazil, from their custom of wearing flat disks of ...
-Botta. I. Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo
Botta. I. Carlo Giuseppe Guglielmo, an Italian historian, born at San Giorgio del Canavese, Piedmont, Nov. 6,1766, died in Paris, Aug. 10, 1837. He was ...
-Botta. I. Vincenzo
Botta. I. Vincenzo, an Italian scholar, born at Cavalier Maggiore, in Piedmont, Nov. 11, 1818. He was professor of philosophy in the royal and national ...
-Bottiger. I. Karl August
Bottiger. I. Karl August, a German archaa-ologist, born at Reichenbach, June 8,1760, died in Dresden, Nov. 17, 1835. He was a teacher, and through Herder's ...
-Bottle
Bottle, a hollow vessel, now generally made of glass or earthen ware, with a narrow neck. In ancient times, especially among the nomadic races, bottles were ...
-Bottomry
Bottomry, in maritime law, a contract by which the owner of a ship, or the master as his agent, hypothecates or binds the ship as security for the repayment of ...
-Botzen
Botzen (Ital. Bolzano), a town of Tyrol, Austria, in the circle of Brixen, beautifully situated at the confluence of the Talfer and Eisack, the latter of which ...
-Bouches-Du-Rhone
Bouches-Du-Rhone, a S. E. department of France, in Provence, on the Mediterranean, comprising the delta of the Rh6ne, bounded N. by the Durance and W. by the ...
-Bougiah
Bougiah (anc. Saldce; Fr. Bougie; Arab. Bujayah), a town of Algeria, capital of the province of Kabylia (created in 1873), beautifully situated in a ...
-Bouillon
Bouillon, a town of Belgian Luxemburg, on the Semoy, 17 m. W. S. W. of Neufchateau; pop. in 1866, 2,765. It has an ancient castle, and was formerly the capital ...
-Bouillon. I. Henri De La Tour Dauvergne
Bouillon. I. Henri De La Tour D'Auvergne, duke de, marshal of France, born Sept. 28, 1555, died March 25, 1623. During the first part of his life he was known ...
-Boullongne. I. Louis
Boullongne. I. Louis, a French painter, born in Picardy about 1609, died in Paris in June, 1674. He studied in Italy, and after settling in Paris about 1640, ...
-Boulogne. I. Boulogne-Sur-Mer
Boulogne. I. Boulogne-Sur-Mer (anc. Ge-soriacum, subsequently Bolonia), a town of France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, situated on the English channel, ...
-Bourbon
Bourbon, a French ducal and royal family, different branches of which have reigned as kings over France, Spain, and Naples, and as sovereign dukes over Parma.
-Bourbon. I. A N. E. County Of Kentucky
Bourbon. I. A N. E. County Of Kentucky, bounded E. by the South Licking river, which also intersects the N. E. part, and drained by Hinkston, Stoner's, and ...
-Bourges
Bourges, a town of France, capital of the department of Cher, and formerly of the province of Berry, at the confluence of the Auron and Yevre, 60 m. S. S. E.
-Bowdoin College
Bowdoin College, the oldest and most prominent literary institution in the state of Maine, situated at Brunswick, on an elevated plain S. of the village, about ...
-Bowdoin. I. James
Bowdoin. I. James, governor of Massachusetts, born in Boston, Aug. 8,1727, died Nov. 6, 1790. He was a descendant of Pierre Baudouin, a French Huguenot who ...
-Bower Bird
Bower Bird, the name of two genera of conirostral birds of the starling family, peculiar to Australia. In the genus ptilonorhyncTius (Kuhl) the bill is ...
-Bowlders, Or Boulders
Bowlders, Or Boulders, loose rounded blocks of stone, named by the French blocs erratiques, found scattered over the surface in high northern and southern ...
-Bowling, Or Bowls
Bowling, Or Bowls, an ancient athletic game, played with balls of different shapes rolled on a flat expanse of turf in the open air. The name is also sometimes ...
-Box
Box (buxus), a shrubby evergreen tree, which affords a very valuable close-grained wood. The Romans cultivated the box tree as an ornamental shrub in their ...
-Boyaca. I
An inland state of the United States of Colombia, divided into the provinces of Pamplona, Casanare, Socorro, and Tunja, and bordering upon Venezuela and the ...
-Boyar, Or Boiar
Boyar, Or Boiar(from ooi, battle), a Slavic title, first especially used by the Bulgarians, Serbs, and Russians, and afterward by the Moldavians and ...
-Boyle
Boyle, a central county of Kentucky, bounded N. E. by Dick's river, a branch of the Kentucky; area, 180 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,515, of whom 3,679 were colored.
-Boyle. I. Richard
Boyle. I. Richard, earl of Cork, an English politician, born at Canterbury, Oct. 3, 1566, died Sept. 15, 1643. He was born a commoner, and became clerk to Sir ...
-Bozrah, Or Bostra
Bozrah, Or Bostra, a ruined city of Syria, in an oasis on the S. E. border of the Hauran, 76 in. S. S. E. of Damascus, in lat. 32 30' N., Ion. 36 24' E. It was ...
-Brabant. I. Duchy Of
Brabant. I. Duchy Of, one of the ancient divisions of the Netherlands, bounded N. by Holland and Gelderland, E. by Limburg and Liege, S. by Namur and Hainaut, ...
-Brachiopoda, Or Brachiopods
Brachiopoda, Or Brachiopods(Gr. arm, and foot), till within a few years universally regarded as one of the classes of mollusca, named by Cuvier from two long, ...
-Brackenridge. I. Hugh Henry
Brackenridge. I. Hugh Henry, an American judge and author, born near Campbelton, Scotland, in 1748, died at Carlisle, Penn., in 1816. In 1771 he graduated at ...
-Bradford
Bradford, a market town and parliamentary borough of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, on an affluent of the Aire, 8 m. W. of Leeds and 29 m. S. W. of ...
-Bradford. I. A N. E. County Of Pennsylvania
Bradford. I. A N. E. County Of Pennsylvania, bordering on New York; area, 1,170 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 53,204. The Elmira and Williamsport and the Lehigh Valley ...
-Bradford. I. William
Bradford. I. William, the first printer in Pennsylvania, born in Leicester, England, in 1658, died in New York, May 23,1752. Being a Quaker, he emigrated in ...
-Bradley. I. A S. County Of Arkansas
Bradley. I. A S. County Of Arkansas, bounded W. by Moro bayou and traversed by Saline river; area, 958 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,646, of whom 2,529 were colored.
-Brahmanism (Also Brahmin Brahman Brahma
Brahmanism (Also Brahmin Brahman Brahma, Brahminism), Brahmana. Of this, the most important body of words in the religious history of India, the starting point ...
-Brahmapootra, Or Burrampooter
Brahmapootra, Or Burrampooter( offspring of Brahma ), one of the largest rivers of India, rises in Thibet at the E. extremity of the Himalaya mountains, ...
-Brain
Brain, a collective term, denoting those parts of the nervous system (excluding the nerves) which are contained in the cranial cavity, viz.: the brain, in its ...
-Brake, Or Break
Brake, Or Break, an instrument for retarding or arresting by friction the motion of wheels. When applied to a hoisting reel, it consists of a flexible band of ...
-Bramante Durbino
Bramante D'Urbino, an Italian architect, whose real name was Donato Lazzari, born at Monte Asdrualdo, near Fumignano, in 1444, died in Rome in 1514. At an ...
-Bramble
Bramble, the wild bush that bears raspberries and blackberries, belonging to the natural order rosacea, and constituting the genus Tubus. The essential ...
-Bran
Bran, the husky covering which separates from grain when it is ground and bolted. Rye and wheat bran contain different proportions of constituents, as is shown ...
-Brandenburg. I
A central province of Prussia, consisting chiefly of the ancient mark of Brandenburg, bounded N. by Mecklenburg and Pomerania, E. by the provinces of Prussia ...
-Brandy
Brandy (Ger. Branntwein, burnt wine), a spirit distilled from wine, the fermented juice of the grape, and in the United States from the fermented juice of ...
-Branecki, Or Branicki, Franciszek Xawery
Branecki, Or Branicki, Franciszek Xawery, a Polish statesman, died in 1819. He was born of an obscure family, most probably of Tartar origin, and served in the ...
-Brantz Mayer
Brantz Mayer, an American author, horn in Baltimore, Sept. 27, 1809. His father was a merchant of German birth, engaged in trade with the East Indies and ...
-Brass
Of all the alloys of one metal with another, none are more useful than those of copper with zinc, forming the different varieties of brass. This alloy appears ...
-Brasidas
Brasidas, a Spartan leader in the Pelopon-nesian war, died in 422 B. C. He is first mentioned in history in connection with the succor of Methone (431 B. C), ...
-Brattleboro
Brattleboro, a post town of Windham co., Vt., on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, about 100 m. S. of Montpelier and 96 m. W. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 4, ...
-Brauwer, Or Bronwer, Adrian
Brauwer, Or Bronwer, Adrian, a Dutch painter, born at Haarlem, or at Oudenarde in East Flanders, in 1608, died in Antwerp in 1640. He first made designs of ...
-Braxton Bragg
Braxton Bragg, an American general in the confederate service, born in Warren county, N. C, about 1815. He graduated at West Point in 1837, was appointed ...
-Brazil
Brazil (Imperio do Brazil), a country of South America, and the only empire in the new world, extending from lat. 4 30' N. to 33 S., and from Ion. 35 to 73 W.
-Brazil Nut
Brazil Nut, the fruit of the Bertholletia ex-celsa, a large tree of the order lecythidacece, found chiefly on the Orinoco. The nuts are of the form of ...
-Brazil Wood
Brazil Wood, the name given to several varieties of red dyewood, brought from South America, Central America, and the West Indies. The genuine Brazil wood, ...
-Brazing
Brazing, the uniting of two pieces of metal, as of brass or copper, or one piece of each, by hard solder. Hard solder is distinguished from soft by being made ...
-Brazos
Brazos, a river which rises in the N. W. part of Texas, in Bexar district, flows first E., then S. S. E. across the state, and falls into the gulf of Mexico, ...
-Breadfruit
Breadfruit, the product of the breadfruit tree (artocarpus incisa), which belongs, like the yack (A. integrifolia), to the order urti-cacece, distinguished in ...
-Breakwater
Breakwater, an obstruction of any kind raised to oppose the action of the waves, and make safe harbors and roadsteads. The outer mole of the harbor of Civita ...
-Bream
Bream (pomotis vulgaris, Cuv.), an acantho-pterygian fish, of the family percidm, of which several species are found in North America, and of which the above, ...
-Breccia
Breccia (Italian), a compound rock composed of angular fragments, which appear to have once existed in other formations. If the fragments, before being ...
-Breda
Breda, a strong town and fortress of the Netherlands, province of North Brabant, at the junction of the rivers Mark and Aa, 24 m. W. S. W. of Bois-le-Duc; pop.
-Bree. I. Mathien Ignace Van
Bree. I. Mathien Ignace Van, a Belgian painter, born in Antwerp, Feb. 22,1773, died there, Dec. 15, 1839. He was a pupil of Schaeken in Antwerp, and of Vincent ...
-Brehon Laws
Brehon Laws, the ancient body of laws under which the Celtic Irish lived for many ages, to which they clung with reverence until the beginning of the 17th ...
-Breisach. I. Alt
Breisach. I. Alt, a town of Germany, in Baden, on the Rhine, 12 m. W. of Freiburg; pop. in 1867, 3,272. It is well fortified, and was formerly a bulwark of ...
-Bremen
Bremen, one of the three free cities of Germany, forming with its territory a state of the empire, situated on the Weser, 30 m. from its mouth, and 57 m. S. W.
-Bremer
Bremer, a N. E. county of Iowa, intersected by the Cedar and Wapsipinicon rivers; area, 430 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,528. The Cedar Falls and Minnesota ...
-Bremerhafen, Or Bremerhaven
Bremerhafen, Or Bremerhaven, a town of Germany, belonging to Bremen, of which it is the port, situated on the estuary of the Weser, at the mouth of the river ...
-Brenta
Brenta (anc. Medoacus Major), a river of northern Italy, rises in a small lake about 8 m. S. E. of Trent in Tyrol, flows E. by N. and then E. by S. to a point ...
-Brescia. I
A province of Italy, in Lom-bardy, bounded N. by Bergamo and Tyrol, E. by Verona and Mantua, S. by Cremona, W. by Lodi and Bergamo; area, 1,784 sq. m.; pop. in ...
-Breslau
Breslau (Polish, Wroclaw), a city of Prussia, capital of an administrative district of the same name in Silesia, at the junction of the Ohlau with the Oder, ...
-Brest
Brest, a fortified town of France, in Brittany, department of Finistere, on a bay of the Atlantic, 310 m. W. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 79,847. It is the chief ...
-Brethren And Clerks Of The Common Life
Brethren And Clerks Of The Common Life (Fratres et Glerici Vitae Communis), a re-' ligious order established in the Netherlands near the close of the 14th ...
-Brethren Of The Christian Schools
Brethren Of The Christian Schools, an order established at Rheims by the abbe de La Salle in 1679, and sanctioned by Benedict XIII. in 1725, six years after ...
-Breughel. I. Pieter
Breughel. I. Pieter, the first of a celebrated family of Dutch and Flemish painters, born near Breda about 1520, died in Brussels about 1580. He studied with ...
-Breviary
Breviary, a book containing the canonical hours or divine office which the Roman Catholic clergy and monastics are obliged to recite every day, and which was ...
-Brewing
Brewing, the manufacture of beer. The process consists in producing a saccharine extract from barley or other grain, adding to this hops for flavoring and ...
-Brian Boru, Or Boroihme
Brian Boru, Or Boroihme( Brian of the tributes ), the most celebrated of native Irish kings, born about 927, slain at Clontarf on Good Friday, 1014. He was the ...
-Briancon
Briancon (anc. Brigantium), a fortified town of France, in Dauphiny, department of Hautes-Alpes, 35 m. N. E. of Gap; pop. in 1866, 3,579. It is at the junction ...
-Bribery
Bribery, at common law, the offering or acceptance of any undue reward to or by any person whose office or ordinary employment relates to the administration of ...
-Brick
Brick a building material made of clay, moulded commonly in rectangular blocks, and baked. The most ancient records make mention of their use. The early ...
-Bridge
Bridge, a structure, with one or more transverse apertures, for passing a river, canal, or valley, and formed of various materials, as timber, stone, or iron.
-Bridgeport
Bridgeport, a city and half shire town of Fairfield co., Conn., situated on Long Island sound, 59 m. N. E. of New York, by the New York and New Haven railroad.
-Bridget Bendish
Bridget Bendish, the granddaughter of Oliver Cromwell of England, and the daughter of Gen. Ireton, born about 1650, died in 1727. In her early years she lived ...
-Bridget, Or Bride, Saint
Bridget, Or Bride, Saint, patroness of Ireland, born at Fochard, county Armagh, about the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century. She withdrew from ...
-Bridget, Or Brigit Brigida, Saint
Bridget, Or Brigit Brigida, Saint, born in Sweden in 1302, died in Rome, July 23, 1373. She is thought to have been the daughter of Birger, prince of the royal ...
-Bridgeton
Bridgeton, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Cumberland co., New Jersey, situated on both sides of Oohansey creek, 20 m. from its entrance into ...
-Bridgewater
Bridgewater (Indian name, Nunlcetest), a township of Plymouth co., Mass., on the Fall River and Bridge water branch railroads, 27 m. S. E. of Boston, and 20 m.
-Bridlington
Bridlington (formerly written Brelling-ton, and usually called Burlington), a parish of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, on the railway from Hull to ...
-Bridport
Bridport, a seaport town and municipal and parliamentary borough of Dorsetshire, England, 127 m. S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 7,666. It is an ancient town, ...
-Brie
Brie (anc. Brigensis pagus or saltus), a former district of France, lying between the Seine and the Marne, and now contained in the departments of Aisne, Seine- ...
-Brief
Brief (Lat. brevis, breve; Fr. href, short). I. A writ issuing out of any court in the name of the king; though more strictly the name of the original writ by ...
-Brier Creek
Brier Creek, a small stream rising in Warren co., Ga., flowing S. E. for about 100 m., and entering the Savannah river a few miles E. of Jacksonborough. After ...
-Brigham Young
Brigham Young, ruler of the Mormons in Utah, born in Whitingham, Vt., June 1, 1801. He was the son of a farmer, received but little education, and learned the ...
-Brighton
Brighton, a town of Middlesex co., Mass., on the Boston and Albany railroad, 4 m. W. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 4,957. It contains the principal cattle market of ...
-Brigittins, Or Order Of Our Saviour
Brigittins, Or Order Of Our Saviour, a branch of the Augustinians, founded about the year 1344 by St. Brigida of Sweden, and.approved by Urban V. in 1370. It ...
-Brindisi
Brindisi (anc. Brundusium or Brundisium), a seaport of Italy, on the N. E. coast of the province of Terra d'Otranto, lying at the head of a deep and sheltered ...
-Brine
Brine, the salt water naturally produced in many parts of the world beneath the surface of the earth, which is more or less saturated with chloride of sodium ...
-Brisbane. I
A N. E. county of the colony of New South Wales, Australia, bordered on the S. by Hunter and Goulbourn rivers, and on the N. by the Liverpool mountains; area, ...
-Bristed. I. John
Bristed. I. John, an Episcopal clergyman and author, born in Dorsetshire, England, in 1778, died at Bristol, R. I., Feb. 23, 1855. He was educated at ...
-Bristol
Bristol, a town, port of entry, and the capital of Bristol co., E. I., 16 m. by rail S. E. of Providence, and 11 m. N. of Newport; pop. in 1870, 5,302. It is ...
-Bristol. I. A S. E. County Of Massachusetts
Bristol. I. A S. E. County Of Massachusetts, bounded S. E. by Buzzard's bay, and W. by Rhode Island, and drained by Taunton and Pawtucket rivers; area, 517 sq.
-Britain, Or Britannia
Britain, Or Britannia, an ancient name of the island of Great Britain. The first name given to the island by the earliest Greek writers whose works have come ...
-Britannicus
Britannicus, son of the emperor Claudius and Messalina, born in A. D. 42, in the second consulship of his father, died in 55. His original name was Claudius ...
-British Burmah (2)
British Burmah, a province of British India, comprising those portions of Burmah which the English crown has acquired by successive conquests, viz.: the states ...
-British Columbia
British Columbia, a province of the Dominion of Canada, on the Pacific coast, between lat. 48 19' and 60 N., and Ion. 113 and 136 W., bounded N. by the 60th ...
-British Empire
British Empire, a vast complex of states in various parts of the world, subject to the crown of England. Its different portions will be treated under their ...
-British Honduras, Or Balize
British Honduras, Or Balize, a British colony occupying the extreme N. E. corner of Central America, and lying between lat. 15 54' and 18 30' N., and Ion. 88 ...
-British Museum
British Museum, a national depository of science, literature, and art, which owes its origin to the will of Sir Hans Sloane, who died in 1753, and bequeathed ...
-Brittany
Brittany (Fr. Bretagne), an ancient province of France, consisting of the large triangular peninsula which, projecting into the Atlantic, forms the western ...
-Brittium
Brittium (in the classics Bruttii, the name of the inhabitants having been used for the country until more modern -times; Gr. B ), an ancient division of ...
-Brockhaus. I. Friedrich Arnold
Brockhaus. I. Friedrich Arnold, founder of the publishing firm of Brockhaus in Leipsic, Germany, born at Dortmund, May 4,1772, died in Leipsic, Aug. 20,1823.
-Brody
Brody, a town of East Galicia, Austria, capital of a district of the same name, 52 m. E. N. E. of Lemberg; pop. in 1869, 18,890, of whom two thirds are Jews, ...
-Broglie, Or Broglia
Broglie, Or Broglia, the name of a family originally from Piedmont, established in France toward the middle of the 17th century. I. Francois Marie, born at ...
-Brohan. I. Augustine Suzanne
Brohan. I. Augustine Suzanne, a French actress, born in Paris, Jan. 29,1807. She was educated at the Paris conservatory, where in 1821 she obtained the first ...
-Broitckere
Broitckere. I. Charles Marie Joseph Ghislain De, a Belgian statesman, born at Bruges in 1796, died April 20, 1860. He was educated at the polytechnic school of ...
-Broken Wind
Broken Wind, a disease of the lungs of the horse, incapacitating him from all violent and rapid exertion. It is immediately recognizable by the manner of ...
-Bromides
Bromides, salts of bromine with various radicals, of which the most important are those found with potassium, sodium, ammonium, lithium, iron, and mercury. The ...
-Bromine
Bromine (Gr. a stench), a chemical element discovered by Balard in 1826 in the bittern or mother liquor of the salt works of Montpellier, France, and so named ...
-Bromme. I. Trangott
Bromme. I. Trangott, a German traveller and bookseller, born at Anger, near Leipsic, in 1802, died Dec. 4, 1865. He settled in the United States in 1820, ...
-Bronchitis
Bronchitis, an inflammatory affection of the mucous membrane* lining the bronchial tubes. As it ordinarily occurs, this disease is limited to the larger ...
-Brongniart. I. Alexandre Theodore
Brongniart. I. Alexandre Theodore, a French architect, born in Paris, Feb. 15, 1739, died there, June 6, 1815. He was the son of an apothecary, and at first ...
-Bronze
Bronze, an alloy consisting of proportions of copper and tin which vary according to the purpose desired, and to which lead, zinc, and silver are sometimes ...
-Bronzing
Bronzing, the process of covering articles of wood, clay, plaster, metals, ivory, etc, with compositions which give to them the appearance of bronze. These ...
-Brook Taylor
Brook Taylor, an English mathematician, born at Edmonton, Aug. 18, 1685, died in or near London, Dec. 29, 1731. In 1701 he entered St. John's college, ...
-Brooke Foss Westcott
Brooke Foss Westcott, an English clergyman, born near Birmingham in January, 1825. He graduated at Cambridge in 1848, took orders in 1851, and became assistant ...
-Brooke. I. Francis J
Brooke. I. Francis J, an American magistrate, born in Virginia, Aug. 27, 1763, died March 3, 1851. He was an officer of the revolution, and an intimate friend ...
-Brooklyn
Brooklyn, capital of Kings county, New York, the third city in the United States in point of population, on the W. end of Long Island, opposite New York city, ...
-Brooks. I. James
Brooks. I. James, an American journalist and politician, born in Portland, Me., Nov. 10, 1810, died in Washington, D. C, April 30,1873. At the age of 11, ...
-Broom
Broom, a genus of plants, consisting of shrubs or small trees, with leaves in threes and yellow or purplish white flowers, belonging to the natural order ...
-Broom Corn
Broom Corn (sorghum saccharatum), a plant which is a native of India, and is cultivated in Europe and America, having a jointed stem like a reed, usually ...
-Brothers Of Charity
Brothers Of Charity, a religious order in the Roman Catholic church, established at Seville by St. John of God in 1540. He hired a house to harbor poor sick ...
-Brown
Brown, the name of counties in seven of the United States. I. A W. central county of Texas, intersected by Pecan bayou, and bounded S. by the Colorado river ...
-Brown Coal
Brown Coal, one of the three great families into which coals are divided by mineralogists, and which are again subdivided into many subordinate varieties. In ...
-Brown University
Brown University (formerly Rhode Island College), a seat of learning in Providence, R. I., founded about the middle of the last century by the Philadelphia ...
-Brownbill Bill
Brownbill Bill, Glaive, Voulge, or Gisarme, all names for nearly the same instrument, which, with some slight modification, was the standing weapon of the ...
-Brownsville. I
A post borough of Fayette co., Penn., on the Monongahela river, where it is crossed by the national road, about 30 m. S. of Pittsburgh; pop. in 1870, 1,749. A ...
-Bruce (2)
Bruce, a noble family of Scotland, three members of which obtained royal dignity. It was descended from Robert de Bruis, a Norman knight, who came to England ...
-Bruges
Bruges (Flemish, Brugge), a city of Belgium, capital of the province of West Flanders, situated about 8 m. from the North sea, with which it is connected by ...
-Brum
Brum (Czech, Brno, a ford), a city of Moravia, Austria, situated on a declivity at the confluence of the Schwarza and the Zwittawa, 70 m. N. of Vienna, and 116 ...
-Brunehaut, Or Brnnehild
Brunehaut, Or Brnnehild, queen of Austra-sia, born in 534, killed in 613. The daughter of Athanagild, king of the Visigoths of Spain, she married about 567 ...
-Brunel. I. Sir Mark Isambard
Brunel. I. Sir Mark Isambard, a civil engineer, born at Hacqueville, near Rouen, France, April 25, 1769, died in London, Dec. 12, 1849. He was the son of a ...
-Brunetto Latini
Brunetto Latini, an Italian scholar and poet, born in Florence about 1230, died there in 1294. He was the son of Bonacorso Latini, and became a leader of the ...
-Brunings. I. Christian
Brunings. I. Christian, a Dutch engineer, born at Neckarau, Germany, Nov. 8, 1736, died in Holland, May 16, 1805. He was collector of river tolls, and became ...
-Brunnow. I. Ernest Georg Von
Brunnow. I. Ernest Georg Von, a German novelist and advocate of homoeopathy, born in Dresden, April 6, 1796, died there, May 4, 1845. He was a lawyer and ...
-Brunswick
Brunswick (Ger. Braunschweig). I. A duchy of N. W. Germany, composed of three large portions, separated from each other chiefly by Prussian territory: 1, the ...
-Brunswick. I
A town and village of Cumberland co., Me., on the right bank of the Androscoggin river, at the head of tide water, 30 m. by railroad N. N. E. of Portland; pop.
-Brunswick. I. A S. E. County Of Virginia
Brunswick. I. A S. E. County Of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, watered by the Nottoway, Roanoke, and Meherrin rivers; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, ...
-Brusa, Or Bronssa
Brusa, Or Bronssa(anc. Prusa or Prusias ad Olympum, from being situated at the foot of the Bithynian Olympus), a city of Asia Minor, capital of the Turkish ...
-Brush
Brush, a common name for a variety of implements, employed for removing dirt, for smoothing and polishing surfaces of objects by rubbing, and for laying on ...
-Brush Turkey
Brush Turkey, a local name given by the colonists of Australia to a family of birds, the peculiar habits of which are in many respects among the most ...
-Brussels
Brussels (Flemish, Brussel; Fr. Bruxelles), the capital of Belgium, and of the province of South Brabant, situated on the river Senne, in lat. 50 51' N., Ion.
-Bryan Edwards
Bryan Edwards, an English historian, born in Westbury, Wiltshire, May 21, 1743, died July 15, 1800. After acquiring a good English education at Bristol, he ...
-Bryozoa, Or Moss Animals
Bryozoa, Or Moss Animals, a name proposed by Ehrenberg for so-called zoophytes having separate openings for the mouth and anus; they had previously been called ...
-Buache. I. Philippe
Buache. I. Philippe, a French geographer, born in Paris, Feb. 7,1700, died Jan. 27,1773. In 1729 he became chief geographer to the king, and in the following ...
-Bubastis, Or Bnbastus
Bubastis, Or Bnbastus, a city of ancient Egypt, capital of the nome Bubastitis in the delta of the Nile, situated on the E. side of the Pelusiac branch, S. W.
-Buccaneers
Buccaneers (Fr. boucanier, one who dries the flesh of animals), a name applied to bands of French and English marine freebooters in the West Indies, who in the ...
-Bucentaur
Bucentaur (Ital. il Bucentoro, of uncertain etymology), the state galley in which the Venetian doge annually, on Ascension day, wedded the Adriatic. It was 100 ...
-Buchanan. I. A S. W. County Of Virginia
Buchanan. I. A S. W. County Of Virginia, bounded N. E. by West Virginia, and separated from Kentucky on the N. W. by the Cumberland mountains; area, 500 sq. m.; ...
-Bucharest, Or Bnkarest
Bucharest, Or Bnkarest(Wallachian, Buhu-resht, the city of pleasure ), the capital of Roumania and of the principality of Wallachia, in lat. 44 25' K, Ion. 26 ...
-Buchner. I. Georg
Buchner. I. Georg, a German poet, born at Goddelau, near Darmstadt, Oct. 17, 1813, died in Zurich, Feb. 19, 1837. He was obliged to leave the university of ...
-Buck
Buck, the male of several wild animals of the deer family, and especially the male of the fallow deer of England, dama vulgaris. The term buck is also applied ...
-Buckingham
Buckingham, a central county of Virginia, bounded 1ST. and N. W. by the James river, and S. by the Appomattox; area, 680 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,371, of whom ...
-Buckingham, Or Buckinghamshire, John Sheffield
Buckingham, Or Buckinghamshire, John Sheffield, duke of, an English statesman and poet, born in 1649, died Feb. 24, 1721. He succeeded his father Edmund ...
-Buckland. I. William D. D
Buckland. I. William D. D, an English geologist, born at Axminster, Devonshire, in 1784, died Aug. 14, 1856. He was educated at Oxford, where in 1813 he was ...
-Buckminster. I. Joseph D. D
Buckminster. I. Joseph D. D, an American clergyman, born at Rutland, Mass., Oct. 14, 1751, died at Readsboro, Vt., June 10, 1812. He graduated at Yale college ...
-Buckthorn
Buckthorn, a plant of the genus rham-nuSj of the order rhamnacece, comprising about 60 species, distinguished by its hermaphrodite or polygamo-dioecious ...
-Buckwheat
Buckwheat (polygonum fagopyrum, Linn.), a species of grain supposed to be a native of Asia, and called ble sarrasin, or Saracen wheat, by the French, after the ...
-Buda
Buda (Ger. Of en), the capital of Hungary, on the right bank of the Danube, in lat. 47 30' N, Ion. 19 3' E., 133 m. E. S. E. of Vienna; pop. in 1870, 53,998, ...
-Buddeus
Buddeus (originally Budde). I. Jotaann Franz, a German theologian, born at Anklam, June 25, 1667, died at Gotha, Nov. 19, 1729. He was a descendant of the ...
-Buddhism And Buddha
Buddhism And Buddha, an Asiatic religion and its founder. Buddha (the learned, wise, intelligent; perf. pass, participle from budh, to know, to understand, to ...
-Budding
Budding, a method of propagating trees and shrubs. The seeds of cultivated fruits, when planted, seldom produce trees bearing fruit true to their kind. Young ...
-Bude
Bude (Buttons), Guillaume, a French scholar, born in Paris in 1467, died Aug. 23, 1540. He studied philosophy, mathematics, and the Greek language, the latter ...
-Buena Vista
Buena Vista, a N. W. county of Iowa; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,585. Storm lake is situated in the S. part, which is also watered by Coon river and ...
-Buenaventura Baez
Buenaventura Baez, president of the Dominican republic, born at Azua, Santo Domingo, early in this century, He inherited a large fortune from his father, a ...
-Buenos Aires. I
One of the four littoral provinces of the Argentine Republic, extending from lat. 33 31' to 41 S., bounded N. by the provinces of Cordoba, Santa Fe, and Entre- ...
-Buffalo
Buffalo, the name of two species of the true oxen, as distinguished from the bisons, to which they bear but a faint resemblance, though they are included with ...
-Buffalo (2)
Buffalo, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Erie county, N. Y., at the E. extremity of Lake Erie, at the head of Niagara river, and at the mouth of ...
-Buffalo. I. A W. County Of Wisconsin
Buffalo. I. A W. County Of Wisconsin, separated on the W. from Minnesota by the Mississippi, and bounded N. W. by Chippewa river, S. E. by Trempeleau Mountain ...









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