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The American Cyclopaedia Vol13 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol13

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Abbe Combalot Theodore - Abiel Abbot Livermore
Abbe Combalot Theodore Abbe Combalot Theodore, a French priest and author, born at Chatenay (Isere), Aug. 21, 1798, died in Paris, March 15, 1873. He studied philosophy and theology, was ordained pri...
-Abraham Bloemaert - Abraham Hayward
Abraham Bloemaert Abraham Bloemaert, a Dutch painter, born at Gorkum about 1504, died in Utrecht in 1047. He was the son of an architect, studied under Dutch and French masters, and painted for the c...
-Abraham Jacobi - Acislo Antonio Palomino De Castro Y Valasco
Abraham Jacobi Abraham Jacobi, an American physician, born at Hartum, Westphalia, May 6, 1830. He graduated at the university of Bonn in 1851, and was a political prisoner for nearly two years, after...
-Adalbert (Pol Bogislawski - Adam Black
Adalbert (Pol Bogislawski Adalbert (Pol Bogislawski. Wojciech), a Polish actor and dramatist, born at Glinna, near Posen, in 1752, died in Warsaw, July 23, 1829. He went upon the stage in Warsaw in 1...
-Adam Johann Von Krusenstern - Adam Weishaipt
Adam Johann Von Krusenstern Adam Johann Von Krusenstern, a Russian navigator, born at Haggud, Esthonia, Nov. 19, 1770, died in Esthonia, Aug. 24, 1846. From 1793 to 1799 he was in the English service...
-Adamo Tadolini - Adolf Erik Nordenskjold
Adamo Tadolini Adamo Tadolini, an Italian sculptor, born in Bologna in 1789. He studied in the academy of Bologna, and settled in Rome. In 1812 he received for his Dying Ajax the grand prize inst...
-Adolf Friedrkli Erdmann Menzel - Adolph Schreyer
Adolf Friedrkli Erdmann Menzel Adolf Friedrkli Erdmann Menzel, a German painter, born in Breslau, Dec. s, 1815. He assisted his father as a lithographer, illustrated Kugler's popular history of Frede...
-Adolph Schrodter - Adolphus Egerton Ryerson
Adolph Schrodter Adolph Schrodter, a German painter, born in Schwedt, Prussia, June 28,1805. He studied copperplate engraving in Berlin seven years, and subsequently resided as a painter at Düssel-do...
-Adricn Auzout - Aemllius Papiniams
Adricn Auzout Adricn Auzout, a French mathematician and astronomer, born in Rouen, died in Rome about 1693. In conjunction with Picard, he applied the telescope to the mural quadrant. He invented and...
-Agnes Bernauer - Aime Millet
Agnes Bernauer Agnes Bernauer, the beautiful daughter of a bath-keeper of Augsburg, drowned Oct. 12, 1435. Albert, son of Ernest, duke of Bavaria, fell in love with her at a tournament, married her, ...
-Ala Ed-Din Atha Melik - Albert Jacquemart
Ala Ed-Din Atha Melik Ala ed-Din Atha Melik, a Persian historian and statesman, born in Khorasan about 1227, died at Bagdad in 1282. He enjoyed the favor of the Mongol princes of Persia, and was for ...
-Albert Knapp - Albert Palffy
Albert Knapp Albert Knapp, a German poet, born in Tubingen, July 25, 1798, died in Stuttgart, June 18, 1864. After becoming pastor at Stuttgart, he applied himself to poetry, especially to the compos...
-Albert Wolff - Albrecht Friedrich Weber
Albert Wolff Albert Wolff, a German sculptor, born in Neu-Strelitz, Nov. 14, 1814. He studied in Berlin and in Italy. He assisted his teacher Rauch in various works, and after his death completed his...
-Albrecht Pfister - Alessandro Torlonia
Albrecht Pfister Albrecht Pfister, a German printer of the 15th century, born about 1420, died about 1470. He was a card painter in Bamberg, but about 1455 began to print with movable types. The type...
-Alexander Andreyevitch Baranoff - Alexander Boreyko Chodzko
Alexander Andreyevitch Baranoff Alexander Andreyevitch Baranoff, governor of the Russian possessions in North America, born in 1746, died at sea, near the island of Java, April 28, 1819. Early in lif...
-Alexander Dreyschock - Alexander Hodgdon Stevens
Alexander Dreyschock Alexander Dreyschock, a German composer, born at Zack, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1818, died in Venice in April, 1869. He studied four years under the direction of Tomascheck, and in 1838...
-Alexander Johnston - Alexander Mcdougall
Alexander Johnston Alexander Johnston, a Scottish painter, born in Edinburgh in 181.6. He early became known chiefly in Scotch genre painting and smaller pictures. His more elaborate work, Lord and ...
-Alexander Mcjnro - Alexander Young
Alexander Mcjnro Alexander Mcjnro, an English sculptor, died young in Cannes, France, Jan. 1, 1871. He executed the colossal statue of James Watt at Birmingham, the statue of Queen Mary now in Westmi...
-Alexandre Auguste Guilmeth - Alexandre Etienne Choron
Alexandre Auguste Guilmeth Alexandre Auguste Guilmeth, a French archaeologist, born at Brionne, Lure. Dec. 2, 1807. He was educated at the college of Bernay, and has been successively master of studi...
-Alexandre Gabriel Decamps - Alexandre Joseph Oliva
Alexandre Gabriel Decamps Alexandre Gabriel Decamps, a French painter, born in Paris, March 3, 1803, died at Fontaine-bleau, Aug. 22, 1860. In early life he visited Turkey, and afterward executed a g...
-Alexandre Laemlein - Alexei Petrovitch Sumarokoff
Alexandre Laemlein Alexandre Laemlein, a French painter, born at Hohenfeld, Bavaria, Dec. 9, 1813. He went to Paris in his 10th year, to live with his uncle Alexandre Laemlein, the author of a cyclop...
-Alexis Body Art - Alexis Paccard
Alexis Body Art Alexis Body Art, a Swiss astronomer, born near Mont Blanc, June 27, 1767, died June 7, 1843. He went to Paris in 1785, attended the free lectures at the college de France, was attache...
-Alexis Paulin Paris - Alfred Billings Street
Alexis Paulin Paris Alexis Paulin Paris, a French author, born at Avenay, department of Marne, March 25,1800. He early went to Paris, translated Byron's works and Moore's memoirs (15 vols., 1827-'32)...
-Alfred Emilien De Meiwerkerke - Alfred Mezieres
Alfred Emilien De Meiwerkerke Alfred Emilien De Meiwerkerke, count, a French sculptor, born in Paris, April 16, 1811. He belongs to a noble family of Dutch origin, and studied the fine arts in the gr...
-Alfred Moore - Alonso Cano
Alfred Moore Alfred Moore, an American jurist, great-grandson of Sir Nathaniel Moore, governor of Carolina in 1705, born in Brunswick co., N. C, May 21, 1755, died at Belfont, N. C, Oct. 15, 1810. At...
-Alonso Fernando De Ayellaneda - Aloys Sprenger
Alonso Fernando De Ayellaneda Alonso Fernando De Ayellaneda, the real or assumed name of the author of the spurious Segunda parte del ingenioso Hidalgo D. Quixote (Tarragona, 1614; French translation...
-Aloys Von Negrelli - Amadens Gottfried Adolf Muloter
Aloys Von Negrelli Aloys Von Negrelli, an Austrian engineer, born at Primiero, Tyrol, Jan. 23, 1799, died in Vienna, Oct. 1, 1858. From 1832 to 1840 he was employed in Switzerland, and constructed th...
-Ambrogio Calepino - Amelia Blandford Edwards
Ambrogio Calepino Ambrogio Calepino, an Italian lexicographer, born at Bergamo, June 6, 1435, died Nov. 30, 1511. He was of noble birth, and at the age of 16 became an Augustinian monk. He devoted hi...
-American Indian Languages - And Sardonyx Sard
American Indian Languages See Ameri-can Indians, Languages of the. Amos Sutton Amos Sutton, an English missionary, born at Sevenoaks, Kent, in 1798, died in Cuttack, India, Aug. 17, 1854. He was ...
-And Ursa Minor Ursa Major - Andre Francois Miot
And Ursa Minor Ursa Major See Bear, Great and Lesser. Anders Gustaf Dahlbom Anders Gustaf Dahlbom, a Swedish entomologist, born in East Gothland, March 3, 1806, died May 3, 1859. He graduated at ...
-Andrea Di Cione - Andrew Archibald Paton
Andrea Di Cione Andrea Di Cione. See Orcagna. Andrea Di Luigi Andrea Di Luigi, called also L'Ingegno and Andrea di Assisi, an Italian painter, born in Assisi about the middle of the 15th century,...
-Andrew Baxter - Andrew Kippis
Andrew Baxter Andrew Baxter, a Scottish metaphysician and philosopher, born at Aberdeen in 1686 or 1687, died at Wittingham in 1750. He was a teacher of private pupils, gentlemen of rank, with whom h...
-Andrew Pickens Butler - Angioliiia Bosio
Andrew Pickens Butler Andrew Pickens Butler, an American senator, born in Edgefield district, S. C, Nov. 17, 1796, died near Edgefield Court House, S. C, May 25, 1857. He graduated at South Carolina ...
-Angnst Hermann Niemeyer - Angnste Poitevin
Angnst Hermann Niemeyer Angnst Hermann Niemeyer, a German author, born in Halle, Sept. 11, 1754, died in Magdeburg, July 7, 1828. He acquired distinction as a theologian and pedagogue, and in 1808 be...
-Angnste Simon Jean Chrysostome Poirson - Ann Sophia Winterbotham (Stephens)
Angnste Simon Jean Chrysostome Poirson Angnste Simon Jean Chrysostome Poirson, a French historian, born in Paris, Aug. 20, 1795, died in July, 1871. The college of Charlemagne acquired great importan...
-Anna Cora Mowatt Ritchie - Anne Du Bourg
Anna Cora Mowatt Ritchie See Mowatt. Anna De Mendoza Eboli Anna De Mendoza Eboli, princess of, a Spanish lady of the 16th century, daughter of a viceroy of Peru. At an early age she was introduce...
-Anne Moncnre Seemullee (Crane) - Anselme Payen
Anne Moncnre Seemullee (Crane) Anne Moncnre Seemullee (Crane), an American novelist, born in Baltimore, Jan. 7, 1838, died in Stuttgart, Germany, Dec. 10, 1872. Her first novel, Emily Chester (Bost...
-Anson Greene Phelps - Anthony Babington
Anson Greene Phelps Anson Greene Phelps, an American merchant, born in Simsbury, Conn., in March, 1781, died in New York, Nov. 30, 1853. He learned the trade of a saddler, and established himself in ...
-Anthony Benezet - Antoine Auguste Ernest Hebert
Anthony Benezet Anthony Benezet, an American philanthropist, born at St. Quentin, France, Jan. 31,1713, died in Philadelphia, May 5, 1784. His father's family, who were Protestants, removed in 1715 t...
-Antoine Augustin Renouard - Antoine Etex
Antoine Augustin Renouard Antoine Augustin Renouard, a French bibliographer, born in Paris, Sept. 21, 1765, died at St. Valery, Dec. 15, 1853. He was originally a manufacturer of gases, but in 1797 b...
-Antoine Francois Van Der Meulen - Antoine Joseph Jobert
Antoine Francois Van Der Meulen Antoine Francois Van Der Meulen, a French artist, born in Brussels in 1634, died in Paris, Oct. 15, 1690. He was in early youth a pupil of Peter Snayers, a painter of ...
-Antoine Joseph Le Fevre De La Barre - Anton Bauer
Antoine Joseph Le Fevre De La Barre Antoine Joseph Le Fevre De La Barre, a French naval officer, died May 4, 1688. He was appointed governor of Guiana in 1663, and retook Cayenne from the Dutch. In 1...
-Anton Friedrich Busching - Antoni Malczewski
Anton Friedrich Busching Anton Friedrich Busching, a German geographer, born at Stadthagen, in Schaumburg-Lippe, Sept. 27, 1724, died in Berlin, May 28, 1793. His first geographical work, a descripti...
-Antoni Waterloo - Antonio Cesari
Antoni Waterloo Antoni Waterloo, a Dutch engraver, born about 1600, died near Utrecht in 1662. He was early admitted to the corporation of painters in Utrecht. Several of his landscapes of Dutch scen...
-Antonio De Herrera Y Tordesillas - Antonio Joze
Antonio De Herrera Y Tordesillas Antonio De Herrera Y Tordesillas, a Spanish historian, born at Cuellar, in the province of Segovia, about 1549, died in Madrid, March 29, 1625. He early went to Italy...
-Antonio Lolli - Antonio Tamburini
Antonio Lolli Antonio Lolli, an Italian violinist, born in Bergamo about 1728, died in Sicily in 1802. Little is known of his youth, and he seems to have acquired his art without the assistance of te...
-Antonio Vallisnieri - Arabella Goddard
Antonio Vallisnieri Antonio Vallisnieri, an Italian naturalist, born at Tresilico, Modena, May 3,1661, died in Padua, Jan. 18, 1730. He studied medicine at Bologna, and about 1688 began practice in R...
-Archibald Campbell - Armand Trousseau
Archibald Campbell See Argyll, Duke of. Archibald Campbell Tait Archibald Campbell Tait, an English clergyman, born in Edinburgh, Dec. 22, 1811. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh and...
-Arnaud Berquin - Arthur Cayley
Arnaud Berquin Arnaud Berquin. a French author, born in Bordeaux in 1749, died in Paris, Dec. 21,1791. His idyls and ballads, and especially Genevieve de Brabant, became very popular, and still more ...
-Arthur Johnston - Ascough Askew
Arthur Johnston Arthur Johnston, a Scottish physician, born at Caskieben, near Aberdeen, in 1587, died in Oxford in 1641. After studying at the university of Aberdeen, he went to Padua, where he comp...
-Ash Wednesday - Ashton Oxenden
Ash Wednesday Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, called by the fathers of the church caput jejuni, the beginning of the fast, or dies cine-rum, ash day, in allusion to the custom of sprinkling the...
-Ashton-Inder-Lyne - Asopus
Ashton-Inder-Lyne Ashton-Inder-Lyne, a manufacturing town and parish of Lancashire, England, on the Tame, 6 m. E. S. E. of Manchester; pop. in 1871, 32,030. The extensive factories for cotton spinnin...
-Aspen - Asser, Or Asserius Menevcnsis
Aspen See Poplar. Aspern And Essling Aspern And Essling, two villages lying about a league apart, on the N. side of the Danube, a short distance below Vienna, which were the principal strategic p...
-Assiay - Asti
Assiay Assiay. See Asuay. Assisi Assisi (anc. Asisium), a town of Italy, in the province and 13 m. E. S. E. of Perugia, picturesquely situated on the declivity of a steep hill; pop. about 6,200. ...
-Astolphus, Or Astnlphus - Asuay, Or Azuny
Astolphus, Or Astnlphus Astolphus, Or Astnlphus, called by the Germans Aistulf, king of the Lombards in northern Italy, succeeded his brother Rachis in 749, and died in 756. After having seized the e...
-Asymptote - Ate
Asymptote Asymptote, a line (straight or curved) tangent to a curve, but having its point of contact with the curve at an infinite distance. If a weight were hung upon a cord, the ends of which were ...
-Atella - Athamas
Atella Atella, an ancient Oscan town of Campania, midway between Naples and Capua, the inhabitants of which were executed, sold as slaves, or expelled by the Romans in 211 B. C , for having been the ...
-Athena - Athole Athol
Athena Athena. See Minerva. Athenaeus Athenaeus, a Greek writer of the early part of the 3d century of the Christian era, born at Naucratis in Egypt. He is chiefly known as the author of the Deip...
-Atiiellig - Atoll
Atiiellig Atiiellig. See Anglo-Saxons. Atitlan, Or Atitan Atitlan, Or Atitan, a lake of Central America, about 20 m. in length and 8 to 10 m. in breadth, situated in the department of Solola, Gua...
-Atrebates, Or Atrebatii - Attala
Atrebates, Or Atrebatii Atrebates, Or Atrebatii, a people of Belgic Gaul, whose name appears in the modern Artois. They joined a confederation against Csesar, and furnished a contingent of 15,000 tro...
-Attar - Attock, Or Atak
Attar Attar or Otto of Roses, a delicious perfume extracted from the petals of the rose. It is a volatile oil, of soft consistency, nearly colorless, and deposits a crystallizable substance partially...
-Attoni Moro - Aubejvas
Attoni Moro Attoni Moro, also called Sir Anthony More, a Flemish painter, born in Utrecht about 1520, died in Antwerp about 1580. He gained considerable reputation as a portrait painter, and in 1552 ...
-Aubervilliers - Auenbrugger Von Auenbrug
Aubervilliers Aubervilliers, a village of France, in the department of the Seine, 1 m. N. of the enceinte of Paris; pop. in 1866, 9,240. E. of it is a fort of the same name, built in 1842. The villag...
-Auerstadt - August Bielowsri
Auerstadt Auerstadt, a village of Thuringia, in the Prussian province of Saxony, 10 m. W. of Naumburg, famous for Davoust's great victory over the Prussian army under the duke of Brunswick on the sam...
-August Blanche - August Heinrich Rudolf Grisebach
August Blanche August Blanche, a Swedish poet, born in 1811, died in Stockholm, Nov. 30, 1868. He began life as a lawyer, and about 1846 devoted himself to literature, producing comedies, dramas, and...
-August Kiss - August Wilhelm
August Kiss August Kiss, a German sculptor, born near Pless, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 11, 1802, died March 24, 1865. He received his early education in Gleiwitz, and at the age of 20 became a pupil of ...
-August Wilhelm Leu - Auguste Francois Chomel
August Wilhelm Leu August Wilhelm Leu, a German painter, born in Munster in 1819. He studied in Dusseldorf, and became distinguished as a landscape painter and as a professor in the Dusseldorf academ...
-Auguste Gaspard Louis Boneher Desnoyers - Augustus Montague Toplady
Auguste Gaspard Louis Boneher Desnoyers Auguste Gaspard Louis Boneher Desnoyers, baron, a French engraver, born in Paris, Dec. 20, 1779, died there, Feb. 15, 1857. At the age of 20 he received a priz...
-Aulas Cornelius Celsis - Aurllac
Aulas Cornelius Celsis Aulas Cornelius Celsis, a Roman author, who lived probably during the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius. He wrote a kind of cyclopaedia, De Artibus, containing a series of treati...
-Aurochs - Australasia
Aurochs Aurochs, the bos bison of Europe, one of the contemporaries of the mammoth (elephas primigenius), an animal of the ox family, once abundant, but now existing only in the forests of Lithuania ...
-Austro-Humarim Monarchy - Autoine Francois Habeneck
Austro-Humarim Monarchy Austro-Humarim Monarchy. See Austria. Autauga Autauga, a central county of Alabama, bounded S. by the Alabama river; area, about 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,623, of whom ...
-Autolycus - Aux Cayes, Or Les Cayes
Autolycus Autolycus. I. In Greek legend, a son of Mercury and Chione, father of Anticlea, and thus maternal grandfather of Ulysses, who spent part of his youth at his residence on Mt. Parnassus. He w...
-Auxerre - Avellino
Auxerre Auxerre, a city of France, capital of the department of Yonne, on the left bank of the river Yonne, 90 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 15,497. Its wines are much esteemed. Its manufactures a...
-Avenzoar - Avigliano
Avenzoar Avenzoar (properly Ibn Zohr), Abu Mer-wan, an Arabian physician, born at Pefiaflor in Spain about 1072, died in 1102. He began the study of medicine at the age of 10 under the direction of h...
-Avola - Axinite
Avola Avola (anc. Abolla), a town of Sicily, on the E. coast, 13 m. S. W. of Syracuse; pop. about 8,000. It was rebuilt after its destruction by the earthquake of 1093. The exquisite honey, so renown...
-Axminster - Ayton, Or Aytonn Sir Robert
Axminster Axminster, a town in the county of Devon, England, on the left bank of the Axe, 24 m. E. by N. of* Exeter; pop. 2,900. It is well known on account of its rich and beautiful carpets, woven i...
-Azariah - Bab-El-Mandeb
Azariah Azariah (Heb. 'Azaryah, or Azaryahu, helped of Jehovah), a very common name among the Hebrews. Uzziah, king of Judah, is also called Azariah. It was the Hebrew name of the friend of Daniel wh...
-Babadagh - Bacolor
Babadagh Babadagh, a fortified town of European Turkey, capital of the Dobrudja, or N. E. Bulgaria, in the eyalet and 96 m. N. E. of the city of Silistria, near Lake Rassein, which is connected with ...
-Bacuarach - Bagil, Or Bughiil
Bacuarach Bacuarach, a town of Rhenish Prussia, 26 m. by railway S. by E. of Coblentz, on the left bank of the Rhine; pop. about 1,800. It is surrounded by an old wall flanked with 12 towers, has a r...
-Bagmdas - Bailliage
Bagmdas Bagmdas. See Mejerda. Bagneres Bagneres, the name of two bathing towns of S. W. France, in the Pyrenees, both known to the Romans, though under what names is uncertain. I. Bagneres-dc-Big...
-Bajazid, Or Bayazid - Balanguni, Or Bangingee
Bajazid, Or Bayazid Bajazid, Or Bayazid, a fortified town of Turkish Armenia, 150 m. E. S. E. of Erze-rum, S. W. of Mount Ararat; pop. variously estimated at from 5,000 to 15,000, mostly Kurds. It li...
-Balaruc - Balduin Mollhausen
Balaruc Balaruc, a French watering place, in the department of Herault, 15 m. S. W. of Montpellier; pop. 600. The springs were known to the Romans, who formed aqueducts and built a temple here. They ...
-Baldwin Counts Of Flanders - Balkhash Balkash
Baldwin Counts Of Flanders Baldwin (Fr. Baudouin or Balduin), the name of several counts of Flanders. - Baldwin I., Burnamed Iron-Arm, was a son-in-law of Charles the Bald, king of France, and died i...
-Ballard - Balmoral
Ballard Ballard, a W. county of Kentucky, separated from Missouri by the Mississippi river, and from Illinois by the Ohio; area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,576, of whom 1,477 were colored. It has a...
-Balsam Of Tolu - Balthasar Denner
Balsam Of Tolu See Balsams. Balta Balta (formerly Jozefogrod), a town of Russia, capital of a circle of the same name, in the government of Podolia, on the Kodyma, a tributary of the southern Bug...
-Bamboccio - Banbury
Bamboccio Bamboccio (little child, or simpleton), the Italian nickname of Pieter van Laer or Laar, a Dutch painter, so called either from his funny appearance (according to some accounts he was a cri...
-Banda Oriental - Banffshire, Or Banff
Banda Oriental Banda Oriental. See Uruguay. Bandera Bandera, a S. W. county of Texas, watered by the Rio Medina; area, 938 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 649, of whom 18 were colored. Stock raising is the...
-Bang, Or Banj - Banquo
Bang, Or Banj Bang, Or Banj, a narcotic made of the leaf of a kind of hemp (cannabis Indica), used by the orientals as a means of intoxication. It is generally chewed. It is also sometimes given with...
-Banshee, Or Benshee - Baptist Wriotheslcy Noel
Banshee, Or Benshee Banshee, Or Benshee, in popular superstition, an invisible being, supposed to announce by mournful presence and voice the approaching death of some members of certain ancient hous...
-Bar-Sir-Seine - Barada
Bar-Sir-Seine Bar-Sir-Seine, a town of France, department of Aube, on the Seine, 16 m. S. S. E. of Troyes; pop. in 1866, 2,770. It was a large place in the middle ages, but it was several times ruine...
-Baranya - Barbel
Baranya Baranya, a county of S. W. Hungary, bounded by the Danube, which there forms Margitta island, and the Drave, which separates it from Slavonia; area, about 1,965sq.m.; pop. in 1870, 283,506, o...
-Barby - Bardesanes, Or Bar-Deisan
Barby Barby, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, 15m. S. E. of Magdeburg; pop. in 1871, 5,212. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the manufacture ...
-Bardings - Barewell
Bardings Bardings, horse armor of the middle ages. See Aemoe, vol. i., p. 734. Bardstown, Or Bairdstown Bardstown, Or Bairdstown, a post town and the capital of Nelson county, Ky., situated on an...
-Barge - Barlow, Or Barlowe, William
Barge Barge, an old town of Piedmont, at the foot of the Monbracco, about 30 m. S. W. of Turin; pop. about 7,000. It has a college, a good trade, manufactories of firearms, and slate quarries. It suf...
-Barmen - Barnstaple
Barmen Barmen, an industrial town in Rhenish Prussia, closely adjoining Elberfeld, and 24 m. N. N. E. of Cologne. It is situated in the valley of the W'upper, and stretches along the Bergisch-Markisc...
-Barnwell - Baroness Huls-Hoff Annette Elisabeth Droste
Barnwell Barnwell, a S. W. county of South Carolina, bounded on the N. E. by the Edisto river, and separated from Georgia on the S. W. by the Savannah; area, 1,550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 85,724, of wh...
-Baroness Nairne - Barr, Or Barra
Baroness Nairne See Olipiiant, Carolina. Baroness Vigier Sophie Cruvelli Baroness Vigier Sophie Cruvelli, a German vocalist, born in Bielefeld, Prussia, Aug. 29, 1824. Her family name was Cruwell...
-Barra Or Barray (Islands) - Barrier Reefs
Barra Or Barray (Islands) Barra Or Barray (Islands), a group of about 20 islands, forming a parish of the same name, on the W. coast of Scotland, belonging to the chain known as the Outer Hebrides. T...
-Barron - Barthelemy D Herbelot
Barron Barron, a N. W. county of Wisconsin, watered by Hay and Vermilion rivers; pop. in 1870, 538. The chief productions in 1870 were 1,665 bushels of wheat, 10,130 of oats, 1,850 of potatoes, and 4...
-Bartholomaus Kopitar - Bartolommeo Borghesi
Bartholomaus Kopitar Bartholomaus Kopitar, a Slavic philologist, born at Repnje, Carniola, Aug. 23, 1780, died in Vienna, Aug. 11, 1844. He studied at Laybach, and became a private tutor. In 1807 he ...
-Barton - Basaniteor Touchstone Lidian Stone
Barton Barton. I. A S. W. county of Missouri, on the Kansas border, watered by affluents of the Grand or Neosho and of the Osage river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,087, of whom 19 were colored....
-Basarjik - Bass Strait
Basarjik Basarjik. (Turkish, market town), the name of several places in European Turkey, the most important of which are the two following. I. Also called Iladji-Oglo-Basari, in eastern Bulgaria, 2...
-Bass, Or Basswood - Basses-Alpes
Bass, Or Basswood Bass, Or Basswood. See Linden. Bassantin, Or Bassantonn, James Bassantin, Or Bassantonn, James, a Scotch astronomer and mathematician, born about 1504, died in 1568. He was a so...
-Basses-Pyreaees - Bastia
Basses-Pyreaees Basses-Pyreaees, a department of France, bounded S. by the Pyrenees and W. by the bay of Biscay; area, 2,945 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 476,700. It was formed from Beam, Navarre, and a par...
-Bastion - Bataytan Republic
Bastion Bastion. See Fortification. Bastrop Bastrop, a S. central county of Texas, intersected by the Colorado river; area, 1,001 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,290, of whom 5,233 were colored. It is w...
-Batchian, Or Batjan - Batteusea
Batchian, Or Batjan Batchian, Or Batjan, one of the northern group of the Molucca or Spice Islands, in lat. 0 35' S., lon. 127 35' E., between the islands of Gilolo and Tawali, separated fr...
-Battle - Baumannshohle
Battle Battle, a market town of Sussex, England, 56 m. by rail S. E. of London, and 7 m. from Hastings, named from the battle of Hastings, between William the Conqueror and King Harold II., which was...
-Bautzen - Bay City
Bautzen Bautzen (Lusatian, Budissin), a town of Saxony, capital of Upper Lusatia, on the Spree, 31 m. E. N. E. of Dresden; pop. in 1871, 13,165. It has a cathedral, owned in common by the Catholics a...
-Bayamo - Bayou Sara
Bayamo Bayamo, an inland town of Cuba, in the Eastern department, capital of a district of the same name, situated in a plain on a tributary of the river Cauto, 96 m. S. E. of Puerto Principe; pop. p...
-Bazeilles - Beagle
Bazeilles Bazeilles, a village of France, in the department of Ardennes, at the confluence of the Chiers and the Givonne, half a mile from the Meuse, and 2 m. S. of Sedan; pop. in I860, 2,048. It had...
-Beaice - Beas, Or Beypasha (Anc
Beaice Beaice, a S. E. county of the province of Quebec, Canada, bordering on Maine; area, 1,150 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 27,253. Its greatest length is about 45 m., and its greatest width about 30 m. I...
-Beatification - Beauharnois
Beatification Beatification, in the Roman Catholic church, an act of the pope whereby a deceased person is declared blessed previous to being canonized as a saint. The person must have bad a reputati...
-Beaujjlais - Beaver Islands
Beaujjlais Beaujjlais, a subdivision of the ancient province of Lyonnais, France, forming now the northern part of the department of the Rhone, and a small part of that of the Loire. After having for...
-Bebeerine, Or Bebeeria - Becse
Bebeerine, Or Bebeeria Bebeerine, Or Bebeeria, an alkaloid, having the formula C38H22NO6, obtained from the be-beern bark or bark of nectandra Rodiei This tree belongs to the family laiiraccce, and i...
-Becskerek - Befana
Becskerek Becskerek. I. Great (Hung. Nagy-Becsle-rek), a town of S. Hungary, capital of the county of Torontal, on the Bega, 47 m. S. W. of Temesvar; pop. in 1870, 19,666. It has a Roman Catholic and...
-Beflis, Or Bitlis - Beguiles
Beflis, Or Bitlis Beflis, Or Bitlis, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in Kurdistan, about 10 m. S. W. of Lake Van and 60 m. W. of the city of Van; pop. about 10,000, of whom one third are Armenians and Kurd...
-Behar - Behring Strait
Behar Behar, the western portion of the territory under the rule of the lieutenant governor of Bengal, comprising the commissionerships of Patna and Bhaugulpore, bounded W. by the Northwest Provinces...
-Beilby Porteus - Bel, Or Bil
Beilby Porteus Beilby Porteus, an English prelate, born in York, May 8, 1731, died in London, May 14, 1808. He was a sizar of Christ's college, Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship. He first bec...
-Bel-Merodach - Belgium
Bel-Merodach Bel-Merodach. See Merodach. Belbeys Belbeis Belbeys Belbeis, or Bclbes, a town of Lower Egypt, capital of a district of the same name, 28 m. N. N. E. of Cairo; pop. about 5,500. Abou...
-Belgorod, Or Bielgorod (Russ - Belle Isle
Belgorod, Or Bielgorod (Russ Belgorod, Or Bielgorod (Russ., white city), a town of Great Russia, on the Donetz, in the government and 80 m. S. of the city of Kursk; pop. in 1867, 15,200. The town was...
-Belle-Isle-En-Mer - Bellows Falls
Belle-Isle-En-Mer Belle-Isle-En-Mer, an island in the bay of Biscay on the W. coast of France, a little N. W. of the mouth of the Loire, department of Morbihan, and 8 m. S. of Quiberon point; pop. ab...
-Belper - Ben
Belper Belper (formerly Beaupoire), a town of Derbyshire, England, on the Derwent and the Midland railway, 7 m. N. of Derby; pop. in 1871, 11,156. It is well built, and one of the most flourishing to...
-Ben Lomond - Benedict Of Aniane
Ben Lomond Ben Lomond, a mountain of Scotland, in the N. W. of Stirlingshire, on the E. side of Loch Lomond. It forms the S. extremity of the Grampians or central Scottish highlands, rises to a heigh...
-Benevexte - Benjamin Bussey
Benevexte Benevexte, a seaport town of Brazil, in the province of Espiritu Santo, at the mouth of a river of the same name, forming a good harbor, 47 m. S. of Victoria; pop. of the town and its distr...
-Benjamin Bussey Thatcher - Benjamin Hale
Benjamin Bussey Thatcher Benjamin Bussey Thatcher, an American author, born in Warren, Me., Oct. 8, 1809, died in Boston, July 14, 1848. He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1826, and studied law, but ...
-Benjamin Jowett - Benjamin Ward Richardson
Benjamin Jowett Benjamin Jowett, an English clergyman and critic, born at Camberwell in 1817. He was educated at St. Paul's school, elected scholar of Balliol college, Oxford, in 1835, and fellow thr...
-Benjamin Waterhouse - Benkablo
Benjamin Waterhouse Benjamin Waterhouse, an American physician, born in Newport, R. I., March 4, 1754, died in Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 2, 1846. He studied in London, Edinburgh, and Leyden, where he to...
-Bent - Berdiaksk
Bent Bent, a S. E. county of Colorado, bordering on Kansas; area, about 2,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 592. The Arkansas river forms the greater part of its S. boundary, and one of its branches, the Big...
-Bereg - Bergen
Bereg Bereg, a county of N. E. Hungary, bounded N. E. by the Carpathians and S. W. by the Theiss; area, 1,439 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 139,223, over half of whom are Ruthenians, 5,000 Jews, 2,800 German...
-Bergerac - Bermejo, Or Vermeio
Bergerac Bergerac, a town of France, in the department of Dordognc, on the right bank of the river Dordogne, 25 m. S. S. W. of Perigueux; pop. in 1866, 12,116. It is ill built, but finely situated, a...
-Bermondsey - Bernard Bluet Darberes
Bermondsey Bermondsey, a suburban parish of London, on the Surrey side of the Thames, situated between Southwark and Rotherhithe, and forming part of the former borough; pop. in 1871, 80,413, an incr...
-Bernard Cornells Koekkoek - Bernardino Rebolledo
Bernard Cornells Koekkoek Bernard Cornells Koekkoek, a Dutch landscape painter, born in Middelburg, Oct. 11, 1803, died in Cleves, April 5, 1862. He was the son of the celebrated marine painter Johan...
-Bernardo Buil - Bernay
Bernardo Buil Bernardo Buil, a Spanish Benedictine, the first missionary to the new world, born in Catalonia, died in 1520 as abbot of the convent of Cuxa. In 1493 he was appointed by the pope his vi...
-Bernbirg - Bernliard Von Neher
Bernbirg Bernbirg, a towm of Anhalt, Germany, capital of a district of its name, and formerly of the duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg, on both sides of the Saale, 15 m. above its confluence with the Elbe, 20...
-Berserkers - Bertiiold Of Ratisbon
Berserkers Berserkers (Norse, her, bare, and serkr, coat of mail), giants and warriors of Scandinavian mythology, and especially the descendants of Stoerkodder, a hero of immense size and great valor...
-Beruhard Severin Ingemann - Bethune
Beruhard Severin Ingemann Beruhard Severin Ingemann, a Danish poet, born at Torkildstrup, on the island of Falster, May 28, 1789, died in Copenhagen, Feb. 24, 1862. He was the son of a clergyman, and...
-Betiiphage - Beverly
Betiiphage Betiiphage (Heb., place of unripe figs), a place of Scriptural interest which has passed away, leaving no trace behind. It must have been situated somewhere on the E. slope of the range of...
-Bexar - Bhooj
Bexar Bexar, a S. W. county of Texas, bounded E. by the Cibolo river and watered by the San Antonio and Medina; area, 1,450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,043, of whom 2,303 were colored. The surface is un...
-Bhopaul, Or Bopal - Bianchini Francesco
Bhopaul, Or Bopal Bhopaul, Or Bopal. I. A native state of Malwah, Hindostan, between lat. 22 32' and 23 46' N, and lon. 76 25' and 78 50' E., traversed partly by the Vindhya mount...
-Biarritz - Bielev
Biarritz Biarritz, a bathing place of France, in the department of Basses-Pyrenees, on the bay of Biscay, 5 m. W. S. W. of Bayonne; pop. in 1866, 3,652. The air here is more bracing than at Pau. The ...
-Bielgorod - Bies-Bosch
Bielgorod Bielgorod. See Belgorod. Bielitz Bielitz, a town of Austrian Silesia, on the N. W. declivity of the Carpathian mountains, and on the river Biala, opposite the Galician town of Biala, an...
-Big Black River - Bihar
Big Black River Big Black River, a river which rises in Choctaw county, Miss., and after a S. W. course of about 200 m. enters the Mississippi through two mouths, one of which is in Warren county, an...
-Bijawur, Or Bejour - Bilin
Bijawur, Or Bejour Bijawur, Or Bejour, a state of Bundelcund, Hindostan, between lat. 24 22' and 25 N. and lon. 78 58' and 79 50' E.; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. about 90,000. Th...
-Bilious Fever - Bimim
Bilious Fever Bilious Fever, a term heretofore applied to cases of intermittent and remittent fever. Its use was based on the conjecture that the disease involved, as an essential pathological condit...
-Binary Arithmetic - Biobio
Binary Arithmetic Binary Arithmetic. See Arithmetic. Bindrabund Bindrabund, a town of Hindostan, in the British district of Muttra, Northwestern Provinces, on the W. bank of the Jumna, about 35 m...
-Biology - Birkenfeld
Biology Biology (Gr. o life, and ooc doctrine), the study of the conditions and phenomena of life and living beings. This term was introduced by Lamarck and Treviranus i...
-Birket-El-Keroon - Bischweiler, Or Bischwiller
Birket-El-Keroon Birket-El-Keroon (Arab., lake of the horn), a lake in Fayoom, central Egypt, so named from its shape, or perhaps from the shape of the projecting spouts of a castle which stands on i...
-Bishop Stortford - Bitsch
Bishop Stortford Bishop Stortford, a town of Hertfordshire, England, 32 m. by rail N. E. of London; pop. about 6,000. It derives the first part of its name from having been since the Saxon era the pr...
-Bitterfield - Black Flux
Bitterfield Bitterfield, a town of Prussian Saxony, in the district of Merseburg, at the junction of the Mulde with the Lober, 17 m. by railway N. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 5,043. It is pleasantly si...
-Black Hills - Black Warrior
Black Hills Black Hills, a range of mountains in S. W. Dakota and N. E. Wyoming, lying near the parallel of 44 N. latitude and between lon. 103 and 105 W., about 100 m. long and 60 m. ...
-Blackberry - Blackwater
Blackberry Blackberry. See Bramble. Blackburn Blackburn a town, parish, and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 22 m. N.N. W. of Manchester; pop. in 1871,76,337. It stands in the midst ...
-Blackwell's Island - Blanco
Blackwell's Island Blackwell's Island, the site of several of the charitable and penal institutions of the city of New York. It lies in the East river, Opposite the city from 60th to 84th street, is ...
-Bland - Bllefields, Or Blewfields
Bland Bland, a S. W. county of Virginia, bordering on West Virginia; area, 330 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,000, of whom 217 were colored. The surface is mountainous. The chief productions in 1870 were 16...
-Block Island - Blue Mdnday
Block Island Block Island, an island in the Atlantic ocean, midway between Montauk Point, at the E. extremity of Long Island, and Point Judith, Rhode Island, 8 m. long and from 2 to 5 m. wide. It bel...
-Blue Ridge - Boca Tigris, Or The Bogne
Blue Ridge Blue Ridge, the most eastern of the principal ridges of the Appalachian chain of mountains. It is the continuation S. of the Potomac of the same great ridge which in Pennsylvania and Maryl...
-Boccage, Or Bocagc, Manocl Maria Barbosa Do - Bocksberger, Or Bocksperger, Hans Or Hiero-Nymiis
Boccage, Or Bocagc, Manocl Maria Barbosa Do Boccage, Or Bocagc, Manocl Maria Barbosa Do, a Portuguese poet of French descent, born at Setubal, Sept. 17, 1766, died in 1805 or 1806. He was expelled fr...
-Bodichon - Boglipoor, Or Bhaugniporc
Bodichon Bodichon. I. Eugene, a French physician, horn at Nantes about 1810. He received his diploma in Paris in 1835, and has since practised his profession in Algiers, and published several works, ...
-Bogodukhov - Bois-Le-Duc
Bogodukhov Bogodukhov, a fortified town of Russia, in the government and 30 m. W. N. W. of the city of Kharkov; pop. in 1867,10,069. The chief industry of the town is leather dressing and boot making...
-Boisard - Boknhedi
Boisard Boisard. I. Joan Jaeqnes .Francois Marie, a French fabulist, born at Caen in 1743, died there in 1831. Be was secretary to the count de Prove nee, afterward Louis XVIII. Losing his pension at...
-Bolas - Bolkhov
Bolas Bolas, a missile weapon in common use among the Indians on the great South American plains, and especially among the gauchos of the Argentine Republic, chiefly used for capturing animals. It co...
-Bollinger - Bolton, Or Bolton-Lc-Moors
Bollinger Bollinger, a S. E. county of Missouri, drained by affluents of Little river; area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,162, of whom 46 were colored. The St. Louis and Iron Mountain railroad passes ...
-Bomarsund - Bonny River
Bomarsund Bomarsund, a narrow channel between the island of Aland and Vardo, at the entrance of the gulf of Bothnia. This channel was formerly commanded by the strong Russian fortifications on the S....
-Bonnycastle. I. John - Bonzes
Bonnycastle. I. John Bonnycastle. I. John, an English mathematician, born at White Church, Buckinghamshire, died at Woolwich, May 15, 1821. He was for more than 40 years one of the mathematical maste...
-Boodroom - Boothbay
Boodroom See Halicarnassus. Book Of The Revelation See Apocalypse. Books Of The Prophets Books Of The Prophets, a division of the Old Testament. The rabbis divided the books of the Hebrew can...
-Boothia Felix - Boracite, Or Borazite
Boothia Felix Boothia Felix, a peninsula forming the most northerly part of the .North American continent, between lat. 69 and 75 N., and Ion. 92 and 97 W. It is connected with th...
-Borbeck - Borecole
Borbeck Borbeck, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the Ruhr, 4 m. N. W. of Essen; pop. in 1871,16,857. It has a castle, and is the seat of a flourishing iron industry; in the vicinity are several coal mi...
-Borgerhout - Borna
Borgerhout Borgerhout, a town of Belgium, in the province and 3 m. E. of Antwerp; pop. in 1866, 10,787. It is well built, and has bleaching and dyeing works, and manufactures of woollen goods and tob...
-Bornholm - Borsod
Bornholm Bornholm, an island in the Baltic, belonging to Denmark, 23 m. S. E. of Sandhammar point, Sweden, and 90 m. E. of Seeland; area, 225 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 31,894. It is about 23 m. long by 1...
-Borysthenes - Boston
Borysthenes See Dnieper. Bosa Bosa, a town of the island of Sardinia, in the province of Cagliari, situated at the mouth of the river Termo; pop. 6,300. It is the seat of a Catholic bishop, has a...
-Bostra - Botoshan, Or Botnsliani
Bostra See Bozrah. Bosworth, Or Market Bosworth Bosworth, Or Market Bosworth, a town and parish of Leicestershire, England, 12 m. W. of Leicester; pop. of the parish about 2,500. The town has a f...
-Botteher, Or Bottiger Bottger, Johann Frie-Drich - Boufarik
Botteher, Or Bottiger Bottger, Johann Frie-Drich Botteher, Or Bottiger Bottger, Johann Frie-Drich, a Saxon alchemist, born at Schleiz, Feb. 4, 1682, died in Dresden, March 13, 1719. His pretended dis...
-Boulder - Bovines, Or Bonvines
Boulder Boulder, a N. county of Colorado, bounded W. by the Medicine Bow mountains; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,939. It is watered by affluents of the South fork of the Platte river. The chief ...
-Bovino - Boyd
Bovino Bovino (anc. Bovinum or Vibinum), a fortified town of Italy, in the province of Capitanata, 18 m. S. S. W. of Foggia; pop. about 6,000. It is memorable for a defeat of the imperialists by the ...
-Boyne - Brackett. I. Edwin E
Boyne Boyne, a river of Ireland, which rises near Carberry in the barony of that name, county of Kildare. It is formed by the confluence of several small streams, and after leaving the bog of Allen h...
-Bradford Kinney Peirce - Braine-Lalleud
Bradford Kinney Peirce Bradford Kinney Peirce, an American clergyman, born in Royalton, Vt., Feb. 3, 1819. He graduated at Wesley an university in 1841, was received into the New England Methodist Ep...
-Braine-Le-Comte - Branch
Braine-Le-Comte Braine-Le-Comte, a town of Belgium, province of Hainaut, on the Senne, 13 m. N. 1ST. E. of Mons; pop. in 1869, 6,464. It contains a fine chateau, and the handsome church of St. Gery, ...
-Branchiopoda - Brat
Branchiopoda Branchiopoda (Gr. gills, and a foot), an order of the section entomostraca of the Crustacea, the animals of which are small, mostly inhabit stagnant fresh water, and are provided wi...
-Braunsberg - Breathitt
Braunsberg Braunsberg, a town of Prussia, in the district and 34 m. S. W. of Konigsberg, on the Passarge, near the Frische Haff; pop. in 1871, 10,471. It was formerly the seat of the bishops of Ermel...
-Brechin - Brecon, Or Aber-Hondcy Brecknock
Brechin Brechin, a royal burgh and parish of Forfarshire, Scotland, on the S. Esk, 8 m. from its junction with the sea at Montrose, and 23 m. N. N. E. of Dundee; pop. in 1871, 7,933. It is the seat ...
-Bredewardine, Or Bredwardine Bradwardin, Thomas - Breguet. I. Abraham Lonis
Bredewardine, Or Bredwardine Bradwardin, Thomas Bredewardine, Or Bredwardine Bradwardin, Thomas, an English scholar and theologian, called the profound doctor, died Aug. 26, 1349. He was a proctor ...
-Breisgau, Or Brisgan - Brentford
Breisgau, Or Brisgan Breisgau, Or Brisgan, an old division of Germany, in the S. W. of Swabia. For a long time it was under the authority of the counts of Breisach, and subsequently under the dukes o...
-Brest Litovsri - Briareus
Brest Litovsri Brest Litovsri (Pol. Brzesc Litewaki), a fortified town of Russia, in the government and 110 m. S. of Grodno, on the right bank of the river Bug; pop. in 1867, 22,793, of whom one half...
-Bridgend - Brieg
Bridgend Bridgend, a market town of Glamorganshire, Wales, 17 m. W. by N. of Cardiff, 190 m. from London by rail; pop. about 3,000. It is beautifully situated in a fertile district on the Ogmore, whi...
-Brienne, Or Briennc-Le-Chatcan - Brignoles
Brienne, Or Briennc-Le-Chatcan Brienne, Or Briennc-Le-Chatcan, a town of France, in the department of Aube, 14 m. N. W. of Bar-sur-Aube; pop. in 1866, 2,078. It takes its name from a magnificent chat...
-Brihuega - Bristol Channel
Brihuega Brihuega, a town of New Castile, Spain, in the province and 19 m. N. E. of the city of Guadalajara, on the Tajuna; pop. about 4,500. It was the scene of a decisive victory gained by the Fren...
-Brit - Broad River
Brit Brit (clupea minima, Peck), a small species of herring, varying in length from one to four inches, found at some seasons of the year in immense numbers on the coast of New England; it serves as ...
-Brocade - Brogue, Or Brogan
Brocade Brocade (Span, brocado, embroidered), a fabric resembling embroidered stuff, formerly much in vogue for rich dresses. It was originally made entirely of threads of gold or of silver, or of th...
-Broissa - Bronchi
Broissa See Brusa. Bromberg Bromberg (Pol. Bydgoszcz), a city of Prussia, capital of an administrative district of the same name in the province of Posen, on the river Brahe, 6 m. from its conflu...
-Bronte - Broome
Bronte Bronte, a town of Sicily, in the province of Catania, near the western base of Mt. Etna, 22 m. N. N. W. of Catania; pop. about 12,000. It has a number of churches, convents, a seminary, manufa...
-Brown Spar - Bruhns
Brown Spar Brown Spar, a name given to dolomite, the magnesian carbonate of lime, when this is of a brown or reddish-brown color, from a small percentage of oxide of iron or oxide of manganese. Cryst...
-Brumath, Or Brumpt - Brux
Brumath, Or Brumpt Brumath, Or Brumpt(anc. Brocomagus), a town of Germany, in Alsace, on the river Zorn, 10 m. N. of Strasburg; pop. in 1871, 5,G01. Here are a number of tumuli, supposed to be the re...
-Bryan - Bua
Bryan Bryan, an E. county of Georgia, bordering on the Atlantic; area, 472 sq. m; pop. in 1870, 5,252, of whom 3,605 were colored. The Ogee-che river touches its N. E. boundary, and the Cannouchee fl...
-Buage - Buchu
Buage Buage, a plant discovered in the Zambesi region by Dr. Livingstone. The genus is unknown, but the excellent fibre, much resembling flax, found in the stem, renders this plant of great importanc...
-Buckau - Bucyrus
Buckau Buckau, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, on the Elbe, closely adjoining Magdeburg; pop. in 1871, 9,696. It has several flourishing manufactories, embracing the machine wo...
-Buczacz - Buff Leather
Buczacz Buczacz, a town of Austria, in eastern Gali-cia, 83 m. S. E. of Lemberg; pop. in 1869, 8,173. It has a gymnasium, which is conducted by the Basilian monks. On Oct. 18, 1672, a peace was concl...
-Bug - Bultistan, Or Little Thibet Bulti
Bug See Hemiptera. Bug. I A river of western Russia, rises in Galicia, flows N. and N. W., forming for a considerable distance the E. boundary of the Russian kingdom of Poland, then enters Poland...
-Buncombe - Burano
Buncombe Buncombe, a S. W. county of North Carolina, near the Tennessee border; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,412, of whom 2,303 were colored. It is occupied in great part by mountains and valle...
-Burbage, Or Burbadge, Richard - Burg. I
Burbage, Or Burbadge, Richard Burbage, Or Burbadge, Richard, an English actor, died in London, March 13, 1619. He was the son of the actor James Burbage, who was the first to receive in 1574 a royal ...
-Burgdorf - Burnett
Burgdorf Burgdorf (Fr. Berthoud), a town of Switzerland, on the Emmen, in the canton and 11m. N. E. of Bern; pop. in 1870, 5,078. It was formerly the capital of Little Burgundy, the castle being then...
-Burrampooter - Bushrod Washington
Burrampooter See Brahmapootra. Burrhus, Or Bnrrus, Afranins Burrhus, Or Bnrrus, Afranins, a Roman commander, died A. D. 62. He acquired great popularity, and Claudius, at the suggestion of Agripp...
-Bute - Button Gwinnett
Bute Bute, an island of Scotland, in the frith of Clyde, separated from the district of Cowall in Argyleshire by a narrow channel called the Kyles of Bute, 16 m. long and 3 to 5 m. wide; area, 60 sq....
-Buttonwood - Buzzard's Bay
Buttonwood See Plane Tree. Butyric Acid Butyric Acid, a volatile fatty acid discovered by Chevreul among the products of the decomposition of butter. Its formula is now written C4H802. Butyric ac...
-Bytown - Cabell
Bytown See Ottawa. C. M. Lepee C. M. L'Epee, abbe de. See Epee. Ca Ira Ca Ira, a revolutionary song popular in France during the reign of terror. Originally the music was a favorite air of Ma...
-Cabinda - Caddo
Cabinda Cabinda, a seaport town of Lower Guinea, in the territory of Loango, on the Atlantic, in lat. 5 30' S., 50 m. N. of the mouth of the Congo; pop. about 16,000. On account of the fertility...
-Caddoes, Or Cadodaqnios - Caf, Or Kaf
Caddoes, Or Cadodaqnios Caddoes, Or Cadodaqnios, a tribe of Indians on one of the branches of the Red river. They were first visited in 1687 by Jontel and the other survivors of La Salle's fated Texa...
-Caffristan - Cains Licinins Macer Calvus
Caffristan See Kafiristan. Cagayan See Luzon. Cagayan Sooloo Cagayan Sooloo, an island of the Malay archipelago, in the sea of Mindoro, intersected by lat. 7 N. and Ion. 118 36' E.;...
-Cains Lucilius - Cainss Valerius Flaccu
Cains Lucilius Cains Lucilius, a Latin poet, born in Suessa, a city of the Aurunci, in 148 B. C, die'd in Naples in 103. He served at a very early age under the younger Scipio in Spain, and is said t...
-Cajatambo - Calahorra
Cajatambo Cajatambo, an inland town of Peru, capital of a province of the same name in the department of Junin, 140 m. N. N. E. of Lima; pop. about 3,200. It is situated in the midst of a fertile pla...
-Calamander Wood - Calatafimi
Calamander Wood Calamander Wood, a hard and beautiful wood imported from Ceylon. It is taken from the heart of the diospyros hirsuta, a species of the genus of trees which produces ebony. It has a gr...
-Calatagirone - Calenture
Calatagirone See Caltagirone. Calatayud Calatayud, a town of Aragon, Spain, in the province and 45 m. S. W. of Saragossa, on the Jalon, near its junction with the Jiloca; pop. in 1867, 9,823. It ...
-Calippis, Or Caliippns - Calliope
Calippis, Or Caliippns Calippis, Or Caliippns, a Greek astronomer, born at Cyzicus in the early part of the 4th century B. O. He is said to have been a pupil of Plato, and associated with Aristotle i...
-Callirrhoe - Callistratus
Callirrhoe Callirrhoe, a fountain near Athens. In the time of the Pisistratidoe it received the name Enneacrunus (the nine springs), because its waters were there distributed by nine pipes. It still ...
-Callmachus. I - Caltagirone, Or Calatagirone
Callmachus. I A Greek architect and statuary, supposed to have lived before 396 B. C, and said to have invented the Corinthian column. II. An Alexandrian grammarian and poet, born at Cyrene in Africa...
-Calumet - Calvin Pease
Calumet Calumet, an E. county of Wisconsin, along the E. shore of Winnebago lake; area, 360 sq. m. pop. in 1870, 12,335. The surface is mountainous, a high ridge running across the county nearly para...
-Calw, Or Rahv - Camaldules, Or Camaldolensians
Calw, Or Rahv Calw, Or Rahv, a town of Wiirtemberg, situated 21 m. W. S. W. of Stuttgart; pop. in 1871, 5,582. It lies in a deep and well wooded valley on both banks of the Nagold, which is crossed h...
-Camarina - Camelopardalus
Camarina Camarina, an ancient town on the S. coast of Sicily, near the marsh or lake of the same name, founded by a colony from Syracuse about 600 B. C. It was an exposed position in the Syracusan, C...
-Camenz, Or Kamenz - Campi. I. Ginlio
Camenz, Or Kamenz Camenz, Or Kamenz, a town of Saxony, on the Black Elster, 22 m. N. E. of Dresden; pop. in 1871, 6,406. It is the birthplace of Lessing, and contains a hospital dedicated to his memo...
-Campli - Canandaigua
Campli Campli, a town of Italy, in the province of Teramo, 80 m. N. E. of Rome; pop. about 7,000. It contains a cathedral, an abbey, and three collegiate churches. Campo Santo See Cemetery. Ca...
-Canary Grass - Cannelton
Canary Grass Canary Grass (phalaris Canariensis), an annual grass native to the Canary islands, cultivated for its seeds, with which tame birds, especially canaries, are fed. It is raised on the isle...
-Cannonsburg - Cantagallo
Cannonsburg Cannonsburg, a post borough of Washington co., Penn., 18 m. S. W. of Pittsburgh; pop. in 1870, 641. It is the seat of Washington and Jefferson college, a Presbyterian institution, which i...
-Cantium - Cape Ann
Cantium Cantium, in ancient geography, the district in Britain which nearly corresponded to the present county of Kent. The inhabitants (Cantii) were spoken of by Caesar as being the most civilized o...
-Cape B0ry, Or Ras Adder - Cape Coast Castle
Cape B0ry, Or Ras Adder Cape B0ry, Or Ras Adder(anc. Hermceum Pro-montorium), a headland on the N. coast of Africa, at the N. E. extremity of Tunis, projecting into the Mediterranean in lat. 37 ...
-Cape Comorin - Cape Fear River
Cape Comorin Cape Comorin, the southern extremity of Hindostan, in the state of Travancore, lat. 8 5' N., Ion. 77 30' E., forming a circular, low, sandy point, which is not discernible abov...
-Cape Fimsterre - Cape Hatteras
Cape Fimsterre Cape Fimsterre (Lat. Finis Terra), a lofty headland, the most W. point of Spain, in the province of Corufia, extending from a small peninsula S. W. into the Atlantic in lat. 42 54...
-Cape Haytien, Or Haitien - Cape Lookout
Cape Haytien, Or Haitien Cape Haytien, Or Haitien(formerly Cape Francais and Cape Henry), a seaport town on the N. coast of Hayti. Before the Haytian revolution broke out it was a handsome city, and ...
-Cape Matapan - Cape Ortegal
Cape Matapan Cape Matapan (anc. Promontorium Tcena-rium), a promontory of Greece, forming the southern extremity of continental Europe, extending into the Mediterranean in lat. 36 23' N., Ion. 2...
-Cape Palmas - Cape San Roque
Cape Palmas Cape Palmas, a headland of W. Africa, at the S. extremity of Liberia; lat. 4 22' N., Ion. 7 44' W. It is surmounted by a lighthouse. In this portion of Liberia was founded in 18...
-Cape Spartivento - Capias
Cape Spartivento Cape Spartivento (anc. Herculis Promon-lorivm), a promontory of southern Italy, forming the S. E. extremity of Calabria Ultra, extending into the Mediterranean in lat. 37 57' N....
-Capillary Action - Capricorn
Capillary Action Capillary Action (Lat. capillus, a hair), a manifestation of the force of adhesion shown by the movement of a fluid uppn a solid surface placed partly within the fluid. It is called ...
-Caractacus - Caravellas
Caractacus Caractacus, king of the Silures, an ancient British people who inhabited Wales, died about A. D. 54. He resisted the Romans for nine years. Ostorius, sent by the emperor Claudius, at lengt...
-Carbazotic Acid - Cardinal Virtues
Carbazotic Acid See Picrio Acid. Carbondale Carbondale, a city of Luzerne co., Penn., on the Delaware and Hudson railroad, at the head of Lackawanna valley, and near the source of the Lackawanna ...
-Cardross - Carica
Cardross Cardross, a town of Dumbartonshire, Scotland, on the Clyde, 4 m. N. W. of Dumbarton; pop. about 8,000. It has bleacheries and cotton manufactories, and is celebrated for its Castle hill, the...
-Carignano, Or Carignan - Carlino
Carignano, Or Carignan Carignano, Or Carignan, a town of Italy, on the Po, in the province and 10 m. S. of Turin; pop. about 8,000. It is noted for its manufactures of silk twist and confectionery. I...
-Carlo Cignani - Carlo Ottavio Castiglione
Carlo Cignani Carlo Cignani, an Italian painter, born in Bologna in 1628, died at Forli, Sept, 6, 1719. He was a pupil of Albano, and passed a number of years at Rome, Florence, and Parma, studying t...
-Carlo Pedrotti - Carlstadt
Carlo Pedrotti Carlo Pedrotti, an Italian composer, born in Verona in 1816. He spent several years in Holland, returning to Italy in 1844. His best known opera, Tutti in maschera, was first performed...
-Carlton - Carmel
Carlton Carlton, aN.E. county of Minnesota, bordering on Wisconsin; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 286. Its N. E. corner is intersected by the St. Louis river, and it is watered by Kettle rive...
-Carnarvonshire - Caroline Chesebro
Carnarvonshire Carnarvonshire, a county of Wales, forming the N. W. extremity of the mainland, bordering on Cardigan and Carnarvon bays and Menai strait; area, 579 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 95,694. A lar...
-Caroline Lee Hentz - Caroline May
Caroline Lee Hentz Caroline Lee Hentz, an American authoress, born at Lancaster, Mass., in 1800, died at Mariana, Fla., Feb. 11, 1856. She was the daughter of Gen. John Whiting, and married in 1825 M...
-Carolus Willielnms Opzoomer - Carpino
Carolus Willielnms Opzoomer Carolus Willielnms Opzoomer, a Dutch philosopher, born in Rotterdam, Sept. 20, 1821. He studied at Leyden, where he wrote a Letter to Da Costa, and Examination of the ...
-Carrageen, Or Irish Moss - Carter Braxton
Carrageen, Or Irish Moss Carrageen, Or Irish Moss, a marine plant (chondrus crispus), which grows upon the rocks of the coasts of Europe, particularly of Ireland, and is said to be a native of the Un...
-Carteret - Caryatides
Carteret Carteret, an E. county of North Carolina, bordering on the Atlantic and Pamlico sound; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,010, of whom 2,725 were colored. Several long, narrow islands, on one...
-Casa Santa - Cascade Range
Casa Santa Casa Santa. See Loreto. Casacalenda Casacalenda, a town of S. Italy, in the province and 18 m. N. E. of Campobasso; pop. about 6,000. It contains several churches, one of which is note...
-Cascarilla - Cassel
Cascarilla Cascarilla (Span, cascara, bark), a medicinal bark, obtained from croton Elevtlicria, a small tree or shrub which grows wild in the West Indies and Bahama islands, especially on the island...
-Cassis - Cassiterides, Or The Tin Islands Of The Greek And Roman Writers
Cassis Cassis, in conchology, the name of a genus of univalve shells, including the species known as helmets. (See Helmet Shell.) Cassia Cassia, the bark of the cinnamomum cassia, an inferior qua...
-Cassock - Castellon De La Plana
Cassock Cassock, a close garment resembling a long froekeoat, made of cloth or silk with a single upright collar, worn under the surplice by clergymen of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. In ...
-Castelsarrasin - Castlebar
Castelsarrasin Castelsarrasin, a town of France, in the department of Tarn-et-Garonne, 35 m. N. W. of Toulouse; pop. in 1866, 6,838. It has factories of hats, woollen goods, linen, and hosiery, and a...
-Castlemain - Castres
Castlemain Castlemain, a town of Australia, in the colony of Victoria, situated at the junction of Barker's and Forest creeks, 65 m. N. W. of Melbourne; pop. in 1871, 7,308. In the early days of gold...
-Castri - Catalysis
Castri Castri. See Delphi. Castro Del Rio Castro Del Rio, a town of Spain, on the Guadajoz, in the province and 16 m. S. E. of Cordova; pop. about 9,000. The ancient part of the town is surrounde...
-Catamount - Catawba, Or Great Catawba
Catamount Catamount. See Couguar. Cataplasm Cataplasm (Gr. kaaa, to spread over, to plaster), a poultice or soft substance applied externally to some pa...
-Cateau - Catnip, Or Catmint
Cateau Cateau, Le, or Cateau Cambresis, a town of France, in the department of Le Nord, on the river Selle, 17 m. S. of Valenciennes; pop. in 1800, 9,974. It is well built, has salt works, manufactor...
-Catoosa - Cauterets
Catoosa Catoosa, a N. W. county of Georgia, bordering on Tennessee, and watered by affluents of the Tennessee river; area, 175 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,409, of whom 616 were colored. It is traversed b...
-Cava - Caviana
Cava Cava, a city of Italy, in the province of Salerno, 26 m. S. E. of Naples; pop. in 1872, 19,480. It is the seat of a bishop, suffragan to the pope, and has a cathedral, several other churches, an...
-Caviare - Caylus, Or Cajlux
Caviare Caviare, a kind of food prepared from the roes of large fish, especially the sturgeon. It is chiefly made in Russia, which country monopolizes this branch of commerce. From Astrakhan alone 30...
-Cayman - Cazorla
Cayman Cayman. See Alligator. Caymans #1 Caymans, three small islands of the British West Indies, in the Caribbean sea, forming a dependency of Jamaica. They are low islands of coral formation, and...
-Cebes - Cehejin
Cebes Cebes, a Greek philosopher, lived in the 5th century B. C. at Thebes in Bcootia. He was a disciple of Socrates, and is introduced by Plato as one of the interlocutors in his Phaedo. He was th...
-Cekeis - Celeste Venard Chabrillan
Cekeis Cekeis, the name given to several species of cactus. The largest and most remarkable is the cereus giganteus, called by the Mexicans saguaro, found chiefly in New Mexico and Texas, between lat...
-Celestins - Celsus
Celestins Celestins. See Celestine V. Celestin Naxteuil Celestin Naxteuil, a French artist, born in Rome in 1813, died in Paris in 1873. He studied under Langlois and Ingres, and exhibited his fi...
-Cementation - Centairy
Cementation Cementation, a chemical process chiefly employed in the manufacture of steel and of porcelain glass. To convert wrought iron into steel, the bars are selected with care, broken into conve...
-Centarus, Or The Centaur - Cerberus
Centarus, Or The Centaur Centarus, Or The Centaur, a southern constellation, only a small part of which rises in our latitude. Two stars of the first magnitude are catalogued in the portion which doe...
-Cerdonians - Certaldo
Cerdonians Cerdonians, ancient heretics, whose belief, half philosophical, half religious, was a confused mixture of Christian dogmas with oriental dualism and Gnostic ideas. Their founder, Cerdo, wa...
-Certiorari - Cesar De Bellecour Laugier
Certiorari Certiorari (Lat. eertvs fieri, to be made more certain, to be certified), a writ used for the purpose of removing the record in a par-' ticular case, whether civil or criminal, from an inf...
-Cesar De Bus - Cettigne, Or Cetigne (Slavic, Tzetinie; Ger
Cesar De Bus Cesar De Bus, a French priest, born at Ca-vaillon, Feb. 3, 1544, died in Avignon, April 15, 1607. In youth he led a gay life in the camp and at court, but took orders in 1574, and in 159...
-Cezimbra - Chaetodon
Cezimbra Cezimbra, a seaport of Portugal, province of Estremadura, on the Atlantic, 20 m. S. of Lisbon; pop. about 5,000. There are considerable fisheries here. Under its walls Alfonso Henriquez in 1...
-Chalcidiafts, - Chalcondyles, Or Chalcocondyles
Chalcidiafts, Chalcidiafts, a family of snake-like lizards, whose scales are rectangular as in ordinary reptiles, and arranged in regular transverse rows; they lead on the one hand to the skinks, and...
-Chalice - Chambertin
Chalice Chalice (Lat. calix, a cup), the vessel containing the consecrated wine in the sacrament of the eucharist. In honor of its sacred purpose, it has usually been made of as costly a substance as...
-Chambly - Champlain
Chambly Chambly, a S. W. county of the province of Quebec, Canada, bordering on the right bank of the river St. Lawrence, opposite the island of Montreal; area, 189 1/2 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 10,4i>...
-Chandernagore - Chantibun, Or Chan-Ta-Bon
Chandernagore Chandernagore, a French colony in India, on the lloogly, 17m. N. of Calcutta; pop. about 29,000, of whom a few hundred are Europeans and the rest Hindoos. The settlement includes, besid...
-Chapala - Charbar
Chapala Chapala, a lake in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, bordering upon Guanajuato on the north and Michoacan on the east and southeast. It lies between lat. 20 15' and 20 45' N., and lon. ...
-Charenton-Le-Pont - Charisticaries
Charenton-Le-Pont Charenton-Le-Pont, a town of France, in the department of Seine, on the right bank of the Marne, near its confluence with the Seine, 5 m. S. E. of the centre of Paris; pop. in 1866,...
-Charite - Charles Alphonse Dufresnoy
Charite Charite, La, a town of France, in the department of Nievre, situated on the Southern railway and on the right bank of the Loire, over which there are two bridges, 12 m. N. N. W. of Nevers; po...
-Charles Angustin De Coulomb - Charles Bossut
Charles Angustin De Coulomb Charles Angustin De Coulomb, a French philosopher, born at Angouleme in June, 1736, died in Paris, Aug. 23, 1806. He began life as a military engineer, serving three years...
-Charles C Ingham - Charles Colle
Charles C Ingham Charles C Ingham, an American painter, born in Dublin in 1797, died in New York, Dec. 10, 1863. He studied at the academy of Dublin, and obtained a prize for his Death of Cleopatra....
-Charles Cotin - Charles Drelincourt
Charles Cotin Charles Cotin, a French abbe, born in Paris in 1604, died there in 1682. He became the butt of the satire of Boileau, consequent upon his advice to him to adopt a different style of wri...
-Charles Du Fresne - Charles Etienne Jordan
Charles Du Fresne Charles Du Fresne. See Du Cange. Charles Earl Of. See Montague Halifax Charles Earl Of. See Montague Halifax. Charles Edmund Henri De Coussemaker Charles Edmund Henri De Cou...
-Charles Felix Marie Texier - Charles Francois Maximilicn Marie
Charles Felix Marie Texier Charles Felix Marie Texier, a French archaeologist, born in Versailles, Aug. 29, 1802. He studied architecture at the school of fine arts in Paris, was employed for ten yea...
-Charles Frederick Briggs - Charles Jean Marie Lucas
Charles Frederick Briggs Charles Frederick Briggs, an American author and journalist, born on the island of Nantucket about 1810. Early in life he removed to the city of New York, where he edited sev...
-Charles Jean Melehior De Vogue - Charles Louis Hanssens
Charles Jean Melehior De Vogue Charles Jean Melehior De Vogue, count, a French archaeologist, born about 1825. He early explored the East, and published Lcs églises de la Terre-Sainte (1859), Le temp...
-Charles Louis Muller - Charles Melehior Artns Bonchamp
Charles Louis Muller Charles Louis Muller, popularly known as Müller de Paris, a French painter, born in Paris, Dec. 22, 1815. He studied under Co-gniet and Gros, and in the school of fine arts, and ...
-Charles Mills - Charles Pelage Lenoir
Charles Mills Charles Mills, an English historian, born at Greenwich, July 29, 1788, died in London, Oct. 19, 1825. He studied law, but abandoned it for literary pursuits. His principal works are: H...
-Charles Pierre Chapsal - Charles Riviere Dufresny
Charles Pierre Chapsal Charles Pierre Chapsal, a French grammarian, born in Paris in 1787, died near Joinville-le-Pont, department of the Seine, in 1858. His principal work, jointly with Francois Jos...
-Charles Robert Cockerell - Charles Simeon
Charles Robert Cockerell Charles Robert Cockerell, an English architect, born in London, April 27, 1788, died in 1863. In 1811-12 he excavated, with Baron Haller and others, the ruins of the temple o...
-Charles Swain - Charles Timothy Brooks
Charles Swain Charles Swain, an English poet, born in Manchester in 1803, died near there, Sept. 22, 1874. He learned the business of dyeing, but at the age of 30 became an engraver. In 1828 he publi...
-Charles Torre - Charles Viner
Charles Torre Charles Torre, an English lawyer, brother of Philip Yorke, second earl of Hardwicke, born Dec. 30, 1722, died Jan. 20, 1770. He was called to the bar in 1747, and represented Reigate in...
-Charles W March - Charles Wolfe
Charles W March Charles W March, an American author, born in Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 15, 1815, died in Alexandria, Egypt, Jan. 24, 1804. He graduated at Harvard college in 1837, studied law, practise...
-Charles XIV. John (Of Sweden) - Charlotte Lennox
Charles XIV. John (Of Sweden) Charles XIV. John. See Bernadotte. Charles's Wain Charles's Wain, a name given to the constellation Ursa Major, or the Great Bear, often called also the Dipper. The ...
-Charlottesville - Chartularies
Charlottesville Charlottesville, a town of Virginia, capital of Albemarle co., on Moore's creek, 2 m. above its entrance into Rivanna river, and 65 m. N. W. of Richmond; pop. in 1870, 2,838, of whom ...
-Chase - Chateauroux
Chase Chase, an E. central county of Kansas, watered by the Neosho river and its affluents: area, 757 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,975. The Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe railroad traverses it. The chief ...
-Chatellerailt - Chatre
Chatellerailt Chatellerailt, a town of France, in the department of Vienne, on the right bank of the Vienne, and on the railway from Paris to Bordeaux, 18 m. N. N. E. of Poitiers; pop. in I860, 14,27...
-Chattahoochee - Chaudiere
Chattahoochee Chattahoochee, a river of Georgia, which rises near the N. E. corner of the state, flows S. W. to West Point, thence nearly S., forming the boundary between the lower half of that state...
-Chaufeurs, Or Garrot-Tenrs - Chauvinism
Chaufeurs, Or Garrot-Tenrs Chaufeurs, Or Garrot-Tenrs, a class of brigands during the reign of terror in France. Their headquarters were first in the forest of Orgeres, near the city of Chartres, and...
-Chaves - Chedotel
Chaves Chaves (anc. Aqum Flaviae), a town of Portugal, in the province of Tras-os-Montes, 35 m. W. S. W. of Braganza; pop. about 7,000. The fortifications which once defended it are now in ruins. It ...
-Cheduba - Chenab Chenaub
Cheduba Cheduba, an island in the bay of Bengal, belonging to the district of Ramree; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. about 6,000. It was first occupied by the English in 1824. The channel between it an...
-Chenango River - Chiaramonte
Chenango River Chenango River rises in Oneida co., N. Y., flows S. S. W. through Madison and Chenango cos., and empties into the Susquehanna in Broome co., near the Pennsylvania border. Its whole len...
-Chiari - Chicoitimi
Chiari Chiari, a town of N. Italy, in the province and 15 m. W. of Brescia, near the left bank of the Oglio; pop. about 10,000. It has a handsome collegiate church and a public library, and considera...
-Chicory - Chilo, Or Chilon
Chicory Chicory. See Chiccory. Chicot Chicot, a S. E. county of Arkansas, bordering on Louisiana, and bounded E. by the Mississippi river; area, 820 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,214, of whom 5,393 wer...
-Chiltern Hundreds - Chimera
Chiltern Hundreds Chiltern Hundreds, a small hilly district extending through part of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, England, to which a nominal office is attached in the gift of the crown, the per...
-Chimseyans - Chinchaycocha
Chimseyans Chimseyans, a nation of Indians on the northwest coast of America, extending from Milbank sound to Observatory inlet (lat. 53 to 55 N.), and including the Sebassas, Neece-lowes, ...
-Chind, Or Chand - Chinooks
Chind, Or Chand Chind, Or Chand, a Hindoo poet, of the Rajpoot tribe, who flourished in the 12th century. He wrote a poem, said to contain 100,000 stanzas, in which he alludes to or treats of almost...
-Chios - Chiusi
Chios Chios. See Scio. Chippenham Chippenham, a municipal and parliamentary borough of Wiltshire, England, on the left bank of the Avon, crossed here by a bridge of 22 arches, 12 m. N. E. of Bath...
-Chivasso, Or Chivas (Anc - Choin
Chivasso, Or Chivas (Anc Chivasso, Or Chivas (Anc. Clavisium), a city of Italy, situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Po, on the railway from Turin to Ticino, in the province and 14 m. ...
-Cholet, Or Chollet - Chrism
Cholet, Or Chollet Cholet, Or Chollet, a town of France, department of Maine-et-Loire, on the Maine, 30 m. S. S. W. of Angers; pop. in 1866, 13,360. It is largely engaged in manufactures, having esta...
-Christ - Christian August Friedrieh Peters
Christ Christ (Gr. anointed), a title applied in the New Testament to Jesus, and derived from the ancient practice of consecration by anointing to the regal, prophetic, and sacerdotal offices. The...
-Christian Ernst Bentzel-Sternau - Christian Friedrich Schonbein
Christian Ernst Bentzel-Sternau Christian Ernst Bentzel-Sternau, count, a German author and statesman, born at Mentz, April 9, 1767, died in Switzerland, Aug. 13, 1850. He entered public life in 1791...
-Christian Friedrich Schwarz - Christian Morgenstern
Christian Friedrich Schwarz Christian Friedrich Schwarz, a German missionary, born at Sonnenburg in Brandenburg in October, 1726, died in Tanjore, Hindostan, Feb. 13, 1798. He studied Tamil to aid Sc...
-Christian Von Palmer - Christoph Daniel Ebeling
Christian Von Palmer Christian Von Palmer, a German theologian, born at Winnenden, near Stuttgart, Jan. 27, 1811. He completed his studies in Tubingen, became professor in 1852, and in 1853 was ennob...
-Christoph Gottfried Bardili - Christopher Gore
Christoph Gottfried Bardili Christoph Gottfried Bardili, a German metaphysical writer, born at Blaubeuren, in Wiirtem-berg, May 28, 1761, died in Stuttgart in 1808. He is principally known by his wor...
-Christopher North - Chrysolite
Christopher North See Wilsox, Jonx. Christopher Smart Christopher Smart, an English author, born at Shipborne, Kent, April 11, 1722, died in the king's bench prison, London, May 18, 1770. He was ...
-Chuapa - Chunar, Or Chunargurh
Chuapa Chuapa, a river of Chili, forming the boundary between the provinces of Coquimbo and Aconcagua. It rises on the W. slope of the Andes, near the volcano of Chuapa, and foils into the Pacific, i...
-Chupra - Chyme
Chupra Chupra, a town of Bengal, capital of the district of Sarun, British India, situated at the junction of the Ganges and the Gogari, 32 m. 1ST. W. of Patna, and 330 m. N. W. of Calcutta; pop. abo...
-Cibao - Cienfuegos
Cibao Cibao, a mountain range nearly in the central part of Hayti, extending about 90 m. N. W. and S. E. The highest summits, forming the culminating peaks of the island, are more than 7,000 ft, high...
-Cieza - Cineas
Cieza Cieza, a town of Spain, on the Segura, in the province and 24 m. N. W. of Murcia; pop. about 8,000. It has a workhouse, a public granary, and manufactures of coarse linen. Ciiamplaix Ciiamp...
-Cinnamon Stone - Circleyille
Cinnamon Stone Cinnamon Stone, a variety of garnet of a cinnamon brown shade. It is found at numerous localities in the metamorphic rocks in this and other countries. That brought from Ceylon is used...
-Circuits - Cisleithania, Or Cisteithan Austria
Circuits Circuits (Lat. circvitus, from circumire, to go around), the periodical progress of the several judges of the superior courts of the common law in England and Wales through the several count...
-Cispadane Republic - Citta Vecchia, Or Citta Notabile
Cispadane Republic Cispadane Republic, a republican state organized in Italy by Bonaparte after the battle of Lodi, in 1796. It consisted of Modena, Reg-gio, Ferrara, and Bologna, being separated fro...
-Civita Castellana - Clande Francois Xavier Millot
Civita Castellana Civita Castellana, a fortified town of Italy, in the province and 25 m. N. of Rome, upon an elevated plateau, nearly surrounded by ravines; pop. about 3,500. The Maggiore and the Tr...
-Clanwilliam - Claude Bcffier
Clanwilliam Clanwilliam, a N. W. district of Cape Colony, S. Africa, partly traversed by the Rog-geveld and other mountains, and by the Olifant river and its tributaries; area, 24,100 sq. m.; pop. in...
-Claude Bernard Adrieii Chenot - Claude Dablon
Claude Bernard Adrieii Chenot Claude Bernard Adrieii Chenot, a French engineer, born at Bar-sur-Aube in 1803, died in 1855. He entered the mining school in Paris in 1820, after which he was attached ...
-Claude Francois Chauveau-Lagarde - Claude Pierre Goujet
Claude Francois Chauveau-Lagarde Claude Francois Chauveau-Lagarde, a French advocate, born at Chartres about 1760, died in Paris in February, 1841. He acted as advocate for Miranda, Brissot, Charlott...
-Claudia Quinta - Claus Harms
Claudia Quinta Claudia Quinta, a Roman matron of legen-darv fame. Beincr accused of incontinency, she heard the soothsayers declare that only a virtuous woman could move the vessel conveying the imag...
-Clausenburg - Clear Creek
Clausenburg Clausenburg. See Klausenburg. Clavichord, Or Clarkhord Clavichord, Or Clarkhord, an oblong keyed instrument, now out of use, of the nature of a spinet. The strings, being partially en...
-Clearing House - Clemens Von Zdimermann
Clearing House Clearing House. See Bank, vol. ii., p. 282. Cleaveland Cleaveland, a S. W. county of North Caro-lina, bordering on' South Carolina, intersected by the First Broad river; area, abou...
-Clement Jannequin - Cleobilus
Clement Jannequin Clement Jannequin, a French musician of the 16th century, popularly known as Clemens non Papa. The dates of his birth and death are uncertain; he lived in the reign of Francis I. Hi...
-Cleobis And Biton - Cliarles Dndley Warner
Cleobis And Biton Cleobis And Biton. See Biton and Cleobis. Cleombrotus I Cleombrotus I., a king of Sparta of the Agid line, son of Pausanias, succeeded his brother Agesipolis I., 380 B. C. In 37...
-Climbing Perch - Clitiieroe,
Climbing Perch Climbing Perch. See Anabas Scandens. Clinch Clinch, a S. E. county of Georgia, bordering on Florida, bounded S. W. by the Suwanoo-chee river, which also intersects it, and W. by th...
-Clitomachus - Clotilde De Surville
Clitomachus Clitomachus, or, in the language of his native country, Hasdrubal, a Carthaginian who went to Athens in the 40th year of his age, and, after studying under Carneades, became the head of t...
-Clotilde Gerard Juillerat - Cnidls, Or Gnidus The Chief City Of The Dorian Hexapolis In Caria
Clotilde Gerard Juillerat Clotilde Gerard Juillerat, a French painter, born in Lyons about 1810. She studied under Delaroche, and exhibited her first works in 1833. In 1840 she married the poet and d...
-Cnossis, Or Gnossns (More Anciently Cnosus Or Gnosns - Coban
Cnossis, Or Gnossns (More Anciently Cnosus Or Gnosns Cnossis, Or Gnossns (More Anciently Cnosus Or Gnosns, now Mahro Teikho), the capital of Crete in the time of Minos, built on the Caera-tus, a shor...
-Cobb - Cochimi
Cobb Cobb, a 1ST. W. county of Georgia, bounded S. E. by the Chattahoochee, and drained by several creeks; area, 529 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,814, of whom 3,217 were colored. The surface is hilly, an...
-Cochituate Lake - Cocoanit Oil, Or Cocoanut Butter
Cochituate Lake Cochituate Lake, a small sheet of water in the towns of Wayland, Framingham, and Natick, Middlesex co., Mass., 17 m. W. by S. of Boston, which is supplied from it with water. It cover...
-Cocoon - Codrus
Cocoon Cocoon, an oblong ball or case, in which the silkworm involves itself, formed from the very fine filaments from which silk thread is made. The term is also applied to the envelope of other lar...
-Coelus - Cohosh
Coelus See Uranus. Coffey, A S. E. County Of Kansas A S. E. County Of Kansas Coffey, intersected by the Neosho river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,201. The Missouri, Kansas, and Texas railro...
-Coif - Coins Of The German Empire
Coif Coif, a head dress. In the middle ages a defensive covering for the head was called by this name, but it was applied more particularly to the covering for the shaven crown of the priests, and to...
-Coins Of The United States - Colberg, Or Kolberg
Coins Of The United States Double Eagle-$20 (Gold). Half Eagle-$5 (Gold). Quarter Eagle-$2.50 (Gold). Eagle-$10 (Gold). Quarter Dollar-25 cents (Silver). Half Dollar-50 cents (...
-Colbert, A N. W. County Of Alabama - Coleraine
Colbert, A N. W. County Of Alabama A N. W. County Of Alabama Colbert, recently formed from a portion of Franklin county, bounded N. by the Tennessee river, and W. by Mississippi; pop. in 1870, 12,537...
-Colijmbium - Collin
Colijmbium Colijmbium, a metal extracted from the mineral columbite, found in Connecticut. It was first discovered by Mr. Hatchett in 1801, and afterward by a Swedish chemist, who gave it the name of...
-Collingwood - Colorado, A River Of Texas
Collingwood Collingwood, a town of Simcoe co., Ontario, Canada, on the S. shore of Georgian bay, 72 m. N. W. of Toronto; pop. in 1871, 2,829. It derives its importance from being the northern terminu...
-Colorado, A S. E. County Of Texas - Colquitt
Colorado, A S. E. County Of Texas A S. E. County Of Texas - Colorado, comprising one of the best cotton-growing portions of the state; area, 905 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,326, of whom 3,701 were colore...
-Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara) - Comacchio
Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara) Coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara), an herb growing wild in Europe and North America; found in this country in the northern and middle states. Though the whole plant is used,...
-Comal - Comeaut
Comal Comal, a S. W. central county of Texas, bounded S. W. by the Cibolo river, and intersected by the Guadalupe; area, 575 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,283, of whom 377 were colored. The surface is roll...
-Comedy - Comnems
Comedy See Drama. Comer See Peech. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale) Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale), a plant of the order borraginacece, a native of Europe, but raised in our gardens. It was for...
-Compitalia, Or Ludi Compitalitii - Comtat-Venaissin
Compitalia, Or Ludi Compitalitii Compitalia, Or Ludi Compitalitii, a festival among the ancient Romans, instituted in honor of the lares compitales, or the deities who presided over the places where ...
-Comus - Conductivity Fob Heat
Comus Comus, in the later. Greek mythology, the god of festive mirth. He is represented as a winged youth,. intoxicated and languid after feasting, his head sunk on his breast, his legs crossed, his ...
-Conductivity For Electricity - Congaree
Conductivity For Electricity (Matthiessen). Silver......= 1000 Copper.....774 Gold.......552 Zinc........274 Iron........144 Tin.........115 Load.......78 Mercury___16.3 Conecuh, A S. Coun...
-Congleton - Congregation Of Saint-Maur
Congleton Congleton, a market town and borough of Cheshire, England, 22 m. S. of Manchester; pop. in 1871, 11,344. It is situated in a deep valley on the river Dane. The principal street, a mile in l...
-Congregation Of St Maur - Conspiracy
Congregation Of St Maur See Saint-Maur. Coniiop Thirlwall Coniiop Thirlwall, an English historian, born at Stepney, Middlesex, Feb. 11, 1797, died July 27, 1875. He was educated at Cambridge, was...
-Conspiracy Of The Pazzi - Constantine
Conspiracy Of The Pazzi See Medici, vol. xi., p. 343. Constance Aubert Constance Aubert. See Abrantes. Constant In Petrovitch Kaufmann Constant In Petrovitch Kaufmann, a Russian general, born...
-Constituent Assembly - Conventicle
Constituent Assembly See Constitutional Convention. Contagion Contagion (Lat. contagio, from con, together, and tangere, to touch), primarily, the propagation of disease by contact. It is scarcel...
-Conversano - Copiah
Conversano Conversano, a town of S. Italy, in the province and 18 m. S. E. of the city of Bari; pop. about 10,000. It is the seat of a bishop, and contains a castle, a fine cathedral, a Benedictine n...
-Coppermine River - Corban
Coppermine River Coppermine River, in British America, rises in Lake Providence, about lat. 65 N., lon. 112 W., flows a little W. of N. to just beyond the Arctic circle, when it bends abrup...
-Corbeil - Coriander
Corbeil Corbeil, a town of France, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, on both banks of the Seine at its confluence with the Essonne, 17 m. S. by E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 5,541. It contains many fl...
-Corigliano - Cornelis De Bruyn
Corigliano Corigliano, a town of S. Italy, in the province and 26 m. N. E. of the city of Cosenza, situated near the mouth of a river of the same name; pop. about 13,000. It is poorly built, and the ...
-Cornelius Nepos - Cornells Van Bynkershoek
Cornelius Nepos See Nepos. Cornelius Nepos #1 Cornelius Nepos, a Roman author, probably a native of Verona or its vicinity, died in the reign of Augustus. Nearly all his works have perished. He wro...
-Corning - Coronach
Corning Corning, a post village and township of' Steuben co., N. Y., on the New York and Erie, the Corning and Blossburg, and the Buffalo, Corning, and New York railroads, and on the Chemung river, 1...
-Corporal - Corundum
Corporal Corporal (Ital. caporale, from Lat. caput, a head), the lowest officer in a company of infantry, between a private and a sergeant. He does duty in the ranks as a private, but has charge of a...
-Coryell - Cossipore
Coryell Coryell, a central county of Texas, watered by Leon river and several of its tributaries; area, 960 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,124, of whom 279 were colored. It has a rolling or hilly surface, w...
-Costanzo Varoli - Cottonwood
Costanzo Varoli Costanzo Varoli, an Italian anatomist, born in Bologna about 1543, died in Rome in 1575. He studied medicine at Bologna, and acquired considerable distinction as a teacher of anatomy ...
-Cotys, Or Cotytto - Count Of Sicily Roger I
Cotys, Or Cotytto Cotys, Or Cotytto, a Thracian female divinity, whose festival (the Cotyttia) resembled that of the Phrygian Cybele. It was held at night, and celebrated on hills with licentious rev...
-Counterpoint - Courcelles
Counterpoint See Harmony. Countess Dash Countess Dash, the pseudonyme of a French authoress, born in Paris about 1805, died there, Sept. 9, 1872. She was a daughter of M. de Courteras, and marrie...
-Cousin-Montauban - Coweta, A 1st. W. County Of Georgia
Cousin-Montauban See Palikao, Count de. Coustou Coustou, the name of three French sculptors. I. Nicolas, born in 1658, died in 1733. His works were exceedingly numerous, and furnished material fo...
-Cowhage, Or Cow-Itch - Crab Stones, Or Crabs Eyes (Lapilli Cancro-Rum)
Cowhage, Or Cow-Itch Cowhage, Or Cow-Itch (mucuna pruriens; called also dolichos, stizo-lobium, and negretia pruriens), a perennial climbing leguminous plant, which grows in the West Indies and other...
-Craig - Craterus
Craig Craig, a S. W. county of Virginia, named from Craig's creek, by the sources of which it is drained; area, about 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,942, of whom 230 were colored. The surface is mountai...
-Craven - Crefeld
Craven Craven, a S. E. county of North Carolina; area estimated at 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,516, of whom 12,116 were colored. It borders on Pamlico sound, and is intersected by the Neuse river,...
-Crema - Creuznach
Crema Crema, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province and 22 m. N. W. of the city of Cremona, on the Serio, and on the railway from Cremona to Bergamo; pop. about 8,000. It is well built and fortif...
-Crewe - Crispus Attucks
Crewe Crewe, a town of Cheshire, England, 20 m. S. E. of Chester; pop. about 18,000. A few years ago it was an insignificant village, having in 1841 a population of 396; but it is now an important ra...
-Crissa - Crito
Crissa Crissa, an ancient town of Phocis, called the divine by Homer. It occupied a beautiful situation at the foot of Mount Parnassus, with lofty mountain heights towering above it, and with the b...
-Critolaus - Crown Point
Critolaus Critolaus, an Achaean, who incited his countrymen to insurrection against the Romans. He commanded the Achaean army at the battle of Scarphea, 146 B. C, and when overthrown by Metellus, he ...
-Croyland, Or Crowland - Csanad. I. A County Of Hungary
Croyland, Or Crowland Croyland, Or Crowland, a town of Lincolnshire, England, at the confluence of the Welland with two smaller streams, 8 m. N. of Peterborough; pop. in 1871, 2,413. It is a place of...
-Csongrad. I. A County Of Hungary - Cudbear
Csongrad. I. A County Of Hungary Csongrad. I. A County Of Hungary, in the circle beyond the Theiss, intersected by that river and bounded S. E. by the Maros; area, 1,280 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 207,585...
-Cuddalore - Cullera
Cuddalore Cuddalore, a town of Hindostan, in the Carnatic, on the Coromandel coast, and on the right bank of the estuary of the Punnair, 100 m. S. S. W. of Madras and 17 m. S. S. W. of Pondicherry; p...
-Cullodeff House - Cumberland Mountains
Cullodeff House Cullodeff House, a family seat in Inverness-shire, Scotland, on Drummossie moor, 4 m. E. N. E. of Inverness, which gave its name to the battle that ended the career of the pretender i...
-Cumberland River - Curate
Cumberland River Cumberland River, a stream which rises in the Cumberland mountains near the S. E. boundary of Kentucky, flows W. and S. W., and enters Tennessee between Jackson and Overton counties....
-Cures - Curl Peter Thunberg
Cures Cures, in ancient geography, a town of the Sabines, 25 m. N. E. of Rome, and 3 m. from the left bank of the Tiber. In the time of Romulus, according to tradition, the people of Cures were unite...
-Curling - Curve, Or Curved Line
Curling Curling, a favorite Scottish game, played on the ice with large spherical stones, flattened so that their length shall be equal to twice their thickness. They are carefully selected, so that ...
-Curzola - Cyclamen
Curzola Curzola, an island of Dalmatia, Austria, in the Adriatic, S. of Lesina, and separated from the mainland by a narrow strait; pop. 11,100. The capital, Curzola, has a Catholic high school; pop....
-Cyclone - Cynoscephalae
Cyclone Cyclone, a storm of wind moving in immense whirls, and at the same time sweeping onward over the surface. Cyclones are usually 200 to 300 m. in diameter, sometimes more than 1,000 m. Their ce...
-Cynuria - Cyrus Buckland
Cynuria Cynuria, in ancient times, a district of the Peloponnesus, on the gulf of Argolis, inhabited by a rude tribe of Ionians. They were a plundering race, and when attacked would retire to their m...
-Cythera - D. D Browne Edward Harold
Cythera See Cerigo. Cyzicus Cyzicus, one of the oldest and most powerful of the' Greek cities of Asia, situated on a small island in the Propontis, near the Mysian shore, said to have been founde...
-D. D Buchanan Claudius - D. D Caldwell Joseph
D. D Buchanan Claudius D. D Buchanan Claudius, an English missionary, born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, March 12, 1766, died in Hertfordshire, England, Feb. 9, 1815. He was educated at Cambridge, and...
-D. D Candlish Robert Smith - D. D Copleston Edward
D. D Candlish Robert Smith D. D Candlish Robert Smith,, a Scottish clergyman, born in Edinburgh, March 23, 1807. He was educated at Glasgow, was private tutor at Eton, and in 1829 became minister of ...
-D. D Cosin John - D. D Crooks George Richard
D. D Cosin John D. D Cosin John, an English prelate, born in Norwich, Nov. 30, 1594, died Jan. 15, 1672. He was educated at Cambridge, where he became fellow of Gonville and Caius college; was librar...
-D. D Cutler Timothy - Dahlonega (Indian Tau-Lau-Ne-Ca Yellow Money)
D. D Cutler Timothy D. D Cutler Timothy, president of Yale college, born at Charlestown, Mass., in 1684, died in Boston, Mass., Aug. 17, 1765. He graduated at Harvard college in 1701, and after a min...
-Dairy - Dalton
Dairy See Butter, Cattle, and Cheese. Daitholomeu Dias Daitholomeu Dias, a Portuguese navigator, born about the middle of the 15th century, lost at sea, May 20, 1500, while on his way from Brazil...
-Damascics - Dambool, Or Dambolo
Damascics Damascics, a Greek philosopher, born probably at Damascus, about A. D. 480. He studied for a time at Alexandria, and then went to Athens, where he was first a student and then a teacher of ...
-Damocles - Daniclc Bartoli
Damocles Damocles, one of the courtiers of Dionysius the Elder, tyrant of Syracuse. As related by Cicero, Damocles had extolled the happiness of Dionysius in being a rich and powerful king, and the l...
-Danicle Da Volterra - Daniel Corrie
Danicle Da Volterra Danicle Da Volterra, an Italian painter, whose real name was Ricciarelli, born in Volterra in 1509, died in Rome about 1566. He studied under Sodoma in Volterra, Baldassarc Peruzz...
-Daniel De Remi Courcelles - Daniel Hoffmann
Daniel De Remi Courcelles Daniel De Remi Courcelles, seigneur de, a French governor of Canada, 1666-72. He led an expedition on snow shoes against the Mohawks in 1666, and aided Tracy in their reduct...
-Daniel Macafee - Danvers
Daniel Macafee Daniel Macafee, an Irish clergyman, born at Bushmills, county Antrim, in 1792, died in London, Jan. 11, 1873. His parents designed him for the ministry of the Reformed Presby-terian ch...
-Darbyites - Darke
Darbyites See Plymouth Brethren. Dardania. I A district in the S. W. part of ancient Moesia, now included in Servia and Prisrend. It was inhabited by a fierce and barbarous race, almost continual...
-Darlaston - David Bushnell
Darlaston Darlaston, a town and parish of Staffordshire, England, 4 m. S. E. of Wolverhampton; pop. of the parish in 1871, 12,841. It has extensive mines of coal and iron, and manufactures of various...
-David Colbreth Broderick - David Hale
David Colbreth Broderick David Colbreth Broderick, an American politician, born in Washington, D. C, in December, 1818, killed in San Francisco, Sept. 21, 1859. In early life he worked as a stone mas...
-David Hoffman - David Martin
David Hoffman David Hoffman, an American lawyer, born in Baltimore, Dec. 25,1784, died in New York, Nov. 11, 1854. From 1817 to 1836 he was professor of law in the university of Maryland. Having resi...
-David Millard - David Wooster
David Millard David Millard, an American clergyman, born in Ballston, N. Y., Nov. 24, 1794, died in Jackson, Mich., Aug. 3,1873. He was brought up a farmer, but became a teacher when 17 years old. In...
-Davidson College - Dax
Davidson College Davidson College, a post village of Mecklenburg co., N. 0., and the seat of Davidson college, an institution founded in 1837 by the Presbyterians. In 1872 it had 7 instructors, 105 s...
-Dc Barry - Decimal
Dc Barry See Barry. De Bay See Baius. De Candolle See Candolle. De Gerando See Gerando. De La Valliere Mlle See La Valli£re. Dean Forest Dean Forest, a royal forest of Gloucester,...
-Decimus Cselius Balbinus - Decize
Decimus Cselius Balbinus Decimus Cselius Balbinus, a Roman emperor, slain in A. D. 238. He was a senator, and twice consul, and was elected emperor by the senate in conjunction with Maximus, in oppos...
-Decker, Or Dekker, Thomas - Deer Grass (Rhexia Virginica Linn)
Decker, Or Dekker, Thomas Decker, Or Dekker, Thomas, an English dramatic author, of the reign of James I., supposed to have died about 1638. He quarrelled with Ben Jonson, who, representing himself a...
-Deer Lodge - Delagoa Bay
Deer Lodge Deer Lodge, a N. W. county of Montana territory, bounded N. by British America; area, 15,300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,367, of whom 776 were Chinese. It is watered by tributaries of the Miss...
-Delaware Bay - Delphin Classics
Delaware Bay Delaware Bay, an arm of the sea, separating the states of New Jersey and Delaware, and communicating with the Atlantic between Cape May (lat. 38 56' N. and lon. 74 58'W). and C...
-Delta. I. A N. E. County Of Texas - Demmit
Delta. I. A N. E. County Of Texas Delta. I. A N. E. County Of Texas, formed since the census of 1870 from portions of Fannin, Hopkins, and Hunt counties, lying between the N. and S. forks of Sulphur ...
-Demos, Or Deme (Gr - Denarius, A Roman Silver Coin
Demos, Or Deme (Gr Demos, Or Deme (Gr. people), the name applied to the 100, in later times 174, smaller districts into which Attica, including Athens, was divided, and 10 of which formed a phyle. ...
-Dendrobium - Denton
Dendrobium Dendrobium, a genus of epiphytes or parasitical plants, found chiefly in the damp tropical parts of Asia, and belonging to an order remarkable for the grotesqueness as well as beauty of it...
-Dera Ghazee Euan, - Desha,
Dera Ghazee Euan, Dera Ghazee Euan, a large town of the Punjaub, British India, 4 m. from the right bank of the Indus, and 40 m. W. by S. of Mool-tan; pop. about 25,000, half Hindoos and half Mohamme...
-Desna, - Deux Sevres
Desna, Desna, a river of Russia, which rises in the government of Smolensk, flows through those of Orel and Tchernigov, and falls into the Dnieper a few miles above Kiev. It is a fine stream, aboundi...
-Dev - Devise,
Dev See Demonology. Deventer, Deventer, a fortified city of Holland, in the province of Overyssel, on the right bank of the Yssel, 8 m. N. of Zutphen; pop. in 1868, 18,-218. It has narrow streets...
-Devizes, - Diagoras Of Melos
Devizes, Devizes, a parliamentary borough and market town of Wiltshire, England, on the Great Western railway and on the Kennet canal, 82 m. S. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 6,840. It contains two hand...
-Diaries Dexter Cleveland - Dickson,
Diaries Dexter Cleveland Diaries Dexter Cleveland, an American author, born at Salem, Mass., Dec. 3, 1802, died in Philadelphia, Aug. 18, 18G9. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1827, and was prof...
-Dictys Of Crete - Diego Enriquez Do Castillo
Dictys Of Crete Dictys Of Crete, the reputed author of a history of the Trojan war. The MS., written in Phoenician characters, but in the Greek language, is said to have been found in the author's to...
-Diego Saavedra Y Faxardo - Dill,
Diego Saavedra Y Faxardo See Faxardo. Diest, Diest, a town and fortress of Belgium, in the province of South Brabant, situated on the Demer, and on the railway from Antwerp to Liege, 32 m. N. E. ...
-Dillingen, - Dinant,
Dillingen, Dillingen, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Swabia, on the Danube, 22 m. N. W. of Augsburg; pop. about 5,500. The university, founded in 1549, and from 1564 to 1773 under the management...
-Dinapore, - Dionigi Carli
Dinapore, Dinapore, a town of Bengal, India, on the S. bank of the Ganges, 10 m. N. W. of Patna and 300 N. W. of Calcutta; pop. about 16,000. It is an important military station, noted for its handso...
-Dionysus - Dirschau,
Dionysus See Bacchus. Dionysus Exiguus Dionysus Exiguus (the Little, so named from his small stature), a Roman monk of the 6th century. He was a native of Scythia, but became abbot of a monastery...
-Discophorae - Diu, A Portuguese Island And Town Of India
Discophorae See Jelly Fish. Dispensation, Dispensation, the act by which an exception is made to the rigor of the law in favor of some person. To make a dispensation is an attribute of sovereign ...
-Dividing Engine - Dobberan, Or Doberan
Dividing Engine See Graduation. Dixon, Dixon, a N. E. county of Nebraska, separated from Dakota on the N. E. by the Missouri river, and watered by several streams; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,...
-Dobeln, - Dog Days
Dobeln, Dobeln, a town of Saxony, on the Mulde and on the railway from Chemnitz to Riesa, 36 m. S. E. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 10,078. It has a high school, two churches, a hospital, and manufactori...
-Dog Grass - Domat, Or Daumat Jean
Dog Grass See Couch Grass. Doimitras Marsus Doimitras Marsus, a Roman poet of the Augustan age, of whose life there are no particulars; but he survived Tibullus, who died in 18 B. 0. He is freque...
-Domenico Cirillo - Domingo De Betanqos
Domenico Cirillo Domenico Cirillo, an Italian republican and naturalist, born in 1734, died on the scaffold at Naples in 1799. He officiated in early life as professor of botany, afterward accompanie...
-Domingo Fernandez Navarrete - Don
Domingo Fernandez Navarrete Domingo Fernandez Navarrete, a Spanish missionary, born at Penafiel in 1610, died in Santo Domingo in December, 1689. He joined the Dominican order, and in 1647 was sent t...
-Don Benito - Donnybrook, Or St. Mary's Of Donnybrook
Don Benito Don Benito, a town of Estremadura, Spain, near the left bank of the Guadiana, in the province and 57 m. E. of the city of Badajoz; pop. about 15,000. The town is well built, with wide and ...
-Dooly, - Dorchester
Dooly, Dooly, a S. W. county of Georgia, with a level surface, watered by many small creeks, oounded W. by Flint river; area, 530 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,790, of whom 4,855 were colored. Pine forests...
-Dorking, - Dortmund
Dorking, Dorking, a market town and parish of Surrey, England, situated in a beautiful valley on the left bank of the Mole, 20 m. S. S. W. of London; pop. about 4,000. It is noted for its romantic sc...
-Dositheans - Dour
Dositheans Dositheans, an ancient sect of the Samaritans, so called from their founder Dositheus, who was a companion of Simon Magns, and flourished in the 1st century A. D. According to one account,...
-Dove - Downpatrick
Dove See Pigeon. Dove #1 Dove, a river of England, rising on Axe Edge hill, near Buxton, in the N. W. part of Derbyshire, flowing S. and S. E. for about 40 m., and emptying into the Trent a short d...
-Doxology - Dragon's Blood
Doxology Doxology (Gr. glory, and to ascribe), in general, an ascription celebrating the grandeur and majesty of God. In the Ro-man Catholic church it is applied particularly to the angelic hymn ...
-Draguignan - Drew
Draguignan Draguignan, a town of France, capital of the department of Var, 41 m. N. E. of Toulon; pop. in 1869, 9,819. It lies in a fertile valley, surrounded by high hills covered with rich vineyard...
-Drift - Dry Tortugas
Drift See Diluvium. Drill Drill, in mechanics. See Boeing. Drill #1 Drill, in zoology. See Baboon. Driven Driven, a town of Tyrol, capital of a circle of the same name, 39 m. S. by E. of In...
-Dryads - Dubois
Dryads Dryads (Gr. an oak,) wood nymphs in the Greek and Roman mythology. They are generally considered the same as the hamadryads, and, being attached to particular trees, their life was limited b...
-Dubosary - Dukinfield, Or Duckinfield
Dubosary Dubosary, a town of southern Russia, in the government of Kherson, on the Dniester, 85 m. N. W. of Odessa; pop. in 1867, 5,547. It has two churches and a synagogue. Its trade is largely in t...
-Dulcamara - Dumbartonshire
Dulcamara Dulcamara, the name under which the dried young branches of solanum dulcamara (bittersweet or woody nightshade) are used in medicine. Its virtues, which are supposed to depend partly at lea...
-Dumdum - Dunaburg, Or Dvinaburg
Dumdum Dumdum, a town and military station of Bengal, British India, 6 m. E. N. E. of Calcutta. It is the headquarters of the Bengal artillery, and the seat of a training school for young officers an...
-Dunbar - Dunedin
Dunbar Dunbar, a seaport town of Haddingtonshire, Scotland, at the mouth of the frith of Forth, 27 m. E. by N. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 3,320. It has manufactories of soap, iron, steam engines, sa...
-Dunfermline - Dunn
Dunfermline Dunfermline, a market town and parliamentary burgh of Fifeshire, Scotland, 13 m. N.W. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 14,958. The houses on its principal streets are generally well built, and...
-Dunnottar - Duram, Or Durao, Joze De Santa Rita
Dunnottar Dunnottar, a parish of Kincardineshire, Scotland, on the shore of the North sea, noted for its castle, S. of Stonehaven, now in ruins, which stands on the summit of a perpendicular cliff, ...
-Duren - Duumvirs
Duren Duren, a town of Rhenish Prussia, on the river Roer, 18 m. E. of Aix-la-Chapelle; pop. in 1871, 12,850. It has an asylum for the blind, and considerable manufactures of cloth, carpets, steel an...
-Duxbury - Dyrrhachium
Duxbury Duxbury, a town of Plymouth co., Massachusetts, on the N. shore of Plymouth harbor, at the terminus of the Duxbury and Cohasset extension of the South Shore railroad, 27 m. S. S. E. of Boston...
-Dysart, Or Desart - Early
Dysart, Or Desart Dysart, Or Desart, a parliamentary borough and seaport town of Fifeshire, Scotland, 12 m. N. N. E. of Edinburgh, on the N. side of the frith of Forth ; pop. in 1871, 8,920. The town...
-Earthenware - East Feliciana
Earthenware See Pottery. Easdale, Or Eisdale Easdale, Or Eisdale, an island on the W. coast of Argyleshire, Scotland, in the frith of Lorn, nearly adjoining the island of Seil, about 1/2 m. long ...
-East Liverpool - Ebenezer
East Liverpool East Liverpool, a village of Columbiana co., Ohio, on the right bank of the Ohio river, and on the Cleveland and Pittsburgh railroad, about 35 m. N. W. of Pittsburgh; pop. in 1870, 2,1...
-Ebenezer Porter - Echols
Ebenezer Porter Ebenezer Porter, an American clergyman, born in Cornwall, Conn., Oct. 5, 1772, died in Andover, Mass., April 8, 1834. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1792, studied divinity at Be...
-Ecija - Edgecombe
Ecija Ecija (anc. Astigi), a city of Andalusia, Spain, on the Genii, in the province and 47 m. E. N. E. of the city of Seville; pop. about 30,000. There are several fine residences in the city, a pre...
-Edgefield - Edmnnd Borlace
Edgefield Edgefield, a W. county of South Carolina, separated from Georgia by the Savannah river, and bounded N. by the Saluda; area, 1,540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 42,486, of whom 25,417 were colored. ...
-Edmond Combes - Edmondson
Edmond Combes Edmond Combes, a French traveller, born June 8, 1812, died in 1872. He was vice consul at Scala Nova, Asia Minor, and at Rabat, Morocco; explored the coasts of the Red sea, a portion of...
-Edmunds - Edmund Hoyle
Edmunds Edmunds, a S. E. central county of Dakota, recently formed, and not included in the census of 1870; area, about 900 sq. m. The E. portion is drained by branches of the Dakota or James river. ...
-Edmund I - Ednard Bendemam
Edmund I Edmund I,a king of the Anglo-Saxons, son of Edward the Elder, and successor of Athel-stan, born about 922, ascended the throne Oct. 27, 941, and died May 26, 946. Immediately after his acces...
-Ednard Karl Emanuel Jachmann - Ednard Poppig
Ednard Karl Emanuel Jachmann Ednard Karl Emanuel Jachmann, a German naval officer, born in Dantzic, March 2,1822. He rose from the most inferior station to be one of the directors in 1857-'9 of the n...
-Edonard Claparede - Edred
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-Eduard Booking - Edward Augustus Rent
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-Edward Bancroft - Edward Cocker
Edward Bancroft Edward Bancroft, an English naturalist and physician, died in 1821. He resided long in America, where he was intimately associated with Franklin and Priestley. He wrote an Essay on t...
-Edward Dodwell - Edward Greswell
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-Edward Harwood - Edward Hopkins
Edward Harwood Edward Harwood, an English author, born in Lancashire in 1729, died in London, Jan. 14, 1794. He was educated for the ministry, and in 1765 took charge of a small Unitarian society in ...
-Edward Hyde - Edward Meyrich Goulburn
Edward Hyde See Clarendon. Edward Laurence Godkin Edward Laurence Godkin, an American journalist, born at Moyne, county Wicklow, Ireland, Oct. 2, 1831. He was educated at Queen's college, Belfast...
-Edward Moore - Edward T Taylor
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-Edward Trollope - Edward William Lane
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-Edwin Croswell - Edwin Percy Whipple
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-Eeckhout, Or Eckhout, Gerbrant Van Den - Eider
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-Eifaula - Einsiedeln, Or Einsiedlen
Eifaula Eifaula, a city of Barbour co., Alabama, on the right bank of the Chattahoochee river, at the terminus of the Montgomery and Eu-faula railroad, and a branch of the Southwestern railroad of Ge...
-Eisenberg - Ekhmin, Or Akhmin
Eisenberg Eisenberg, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Saxe-Altenburg, on an affluent of the Elster, 40 m. S. W. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, I 5,261. It has a Protestant lyceum, an observatory, and ma...
-Ekron - Elastic Curve
Ekron Ekron, the most northern of the five Philistine cities, assigned in Joshua's distribution of territory to Judah. The ark was taken to Ekron after its capture by the Philistines. Beelzebub was c...
-Elbert - Electra
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-Electrical Eel - Eli
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-Elias - Elijah Parish
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-Eliot Bartholomew George Warbirton - Elixir
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-Eliza Oneill - Elizabeth Ogihy Benger
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-Elizabeth Rowe - Elliott
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-Elliott Cressojy - Elocution
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-Elohim - Ember Days
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-Emblements - Emil Rodiger
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-Emil Wolff - Emile Montegut
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-Emilia Schmidt Flygare Carlen - Emiskillen
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-Emma Catharine Embury - Emmannele D Astorga
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-Emmanuel Louis Henri De Launay - Endymion
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-Engene Louis Lequesne - Enrico Tamberlik
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-Ensinal - Epanomeria
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-Ephah - Ephraim Blaine
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-Ephraim Chambers - Epimenides
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-Epinal - Epsom
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-Equinox - Ererardus Bogardus
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-Eretria - Erneste Capocci Di Belmonte
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-Ernesto Camillo Sivori - Ernst Friedricli Zwirner
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-Ernst Hermann Joseph Von Munch - Ernst Von Bibra
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-Erostratus, Or Herostratus - Erust August Hagen
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-Erymanthus - Eschwege
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-Eschweiler - Essen
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-Essences - Estelle Anna Blanche Robinson (Lewis)
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-Estepa - Estrays, Or Strays
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-Estreat - Etawah
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-Etechemins - Etherege, Or Etheridge, Sir George
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-Ethics - Etienne Jnles Marey
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-Etienne Jodelle - Eudoxia
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-Eudoxus Of Cyzicus - Eupen
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-Eupolis - Eurotas
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-Eurydice. I. In Greek Mythology - Evagrius, A Syrian Church Historian
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-Evangelista Torricelli - Evection
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-Evening Primrose - F. H. Von Kittlitz
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-Fabins Pictor - Fanny Janauschek
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-Fanny Persiani - Felicien Cesar David
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-Felix Edouard Guerin-Mexeville - Felix Ziem
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-Ferdinand Bol - Ferdinand Eckstein
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-Ferdinand Georg Waldmuller - Ferdinando Paer
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-Ferencz Kolcsey - Fernando De Herrera
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-Fernando Fernandez De Cordova - Finn Jonsson
Fernando Fernandez De Cordova Fernando Fernandez De Cordova, a Spanish general, born in Madrid in 1792. He entered the military service in 1810, and was rapidly promoted during the war with Napoleon....
-Flavins Julius Constans - Ford Madox Brown
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-Fordyce Barker - Frances Beauharnais
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-Frances Brooke - Francesco Borromini
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-Francesco Coghetti - Francesco Primaticcio
Francesco Coghetti Francesco Coghetti, an Italian painter, born in Bergamo, Oct. 4, 1804. He studied in that city under Diotti, and in Rome under Camuc-cini, and executed various fine altarpieces for...
-Francesco Vanni - Francis Grose
Francesco Vanni Francesco Vanni, an Italian painter, born in Siena about 1565, died there, Oct. 25,1609. He brought himself into general notice by a picture of St. Peter rebuking Simon Magus, for whi...
-Francis Lacombe - Francis Rawdon Chesney
Francis Lacombe Francis Lacombe, a French author, born in Toulouse in 1817, died at Arcachon, Sept. 5, 1867. He was in 1848 politico-economical editor of the Assemblee nationale, and fought a duel wi...
-Francis Scott Key - Francisco De Barreto
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-Francisco De Xerez - Francisco Saverio Clavigero
Francisco De Xerez Francisco De Xerez, a Spanish historian, who accompanied Pizarro in his conquest of Peru as secretary. At his command he wrote a detailed account of the expedition, addressed to Ch...
-Francisco Suarez - Francois Barthelemy
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-Francois Barthelemy Michel Edonard Cibot - Francois Chabot
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-Francois De Bonnivard - Francois Edonard Picot
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-Francois Emile Lansac - Francois Joseph Nayez
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-Francois Jules Pictet - Francois Marie Daudin
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-Francois Nicolas Vincent Campenon - Francois Poupart
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-Francois Quesnay - Franeisque Bouillier
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-Franfoise Bertant De Motteyille - Franz Dingelstedt
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-Franz Grillparzer - Franz Karl Van Der Velde
Franz Grillparzer Franz Grillparzer, a German dramatist, born in Vienna, Jan. 15, 1791, died there, Jan. 20, 1872. He was from 1813 to 1850 director of the archives of the ministry of finance, and in...
-Franz Ludwig Karl Friedrich Passow - Franz Von Holtzendorff
Franz Ludwig Karl Friedrich Passow Franz Ludwig Karl Friedrich Passow, a German philologist, born in Ludwigslust, Sept. 20, 1786, died in Breslau, March 11, 1833. He studied theology and philology at...
-Franz Von Kobell - Franz Xaver Yon Baader
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-Frauz Eduard Todleben - Frederick Beasley
Frauz Eduard Todleben Frauz Eduard Todleben, a Russian military engineer, born in Mitau, Courland, May 20, 1818. He was educated at the school of engineers in St. Petersburg, and after being employed...
-Frederick Locker - Frederick Percival Leverett
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-Frederick Pursh - Frederick William Evans
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-Frederick William Shelton - Freeborn Garretson Hibbard
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-Frey Antonio De La Calancha - Friedrich Adolf Wilhelm Diesterweg
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-Friedrich Anton Mesmer - Friedrich Christoph Schlosser
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-Friedrich Gustav Klemm - Friedrich Julius Otto
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-Friedrich Karl Von Savigny - Friedrich Mohs
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-Friedrich Munch - Friedrich Rudolf Ludwig Canitz
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-Friedrich Spangenberg - Friedrich Wilhelm Buxhowdm
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-Friedrich Wilhelm Carove - Friedrieh Christian Diez
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-Friedrieh Konrad Hornemann - Friedrleh Von Matth1sson
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-Fritz Reuter - Gabriel Masse
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-Gabriel Metzu - Gallus Jakob Baumgartner
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-Galvanic See Galvanism Battery - Gasparo Tagliacozi, Or Ta-Gliacozzio (Taliacotius)
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-Gavin Hamilton - Georg Friedrich Wilibald Ferdinand Von Colln
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-Georg Heinrich Gortz - Georg Moritz Ebers
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-Georg Phillips - Georg Waitz
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-Georgc Gabriel Stores - George Basevi
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-George Bexson - George Browne
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-George Cabot - George Cattermole
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-George Chalmers - George Cnrtis Blaikman
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-George Crabb - George Dcnison Prentice
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-George Demetrius Bibesco - George Edwards
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-George Eliot - George Frederick Watts
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-George G Cookman - George Henry Harlow
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-George Heriot - George Hughes Hepworth
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-George Jamesone - George Mcintosh Troup
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-George Michael Moser - George Onslow
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-George Payn Quackenbos - George Rapall Noyes
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-George Rieliards Minot - George Ross
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-George Sale - George Ticrnor
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-George Tomline - George Whitfield Samson
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-George Wingrove Cooke - Georgt Henry Boker
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-Gerard De Lairesse - Gerard Troost
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-Gerard Yan Swieten - Geronimo Zurita
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-Gertrndis Gomes De Avellaneda - Giambattista Ramusio
Gertrndis Gomes De Avellaneda Gertrndis Gomes De Avellaneda, a Spanish poetess and novelist, born at Puerto Principe, Cuba, in 1816, died in Seville in June, 1864. Her father was a Spanish naval offi...
-Giambattista Salvi - Gideon Ouseley
Giambattista Salvi See Sassoferrato. Giatusos Giatusos , a tribe of Indians, living on the banks and head waters of the Rio Frio, which flows into Lake Nicaragua at its S. extremity. The country ...
-Gil Vicente - Gilles De Laval Retz
Gil Vicente Gil Vicente, a Portuguese dramatist, born about 1470, died in 1557 (according to some, about 1540). He belonged to the nobility, and studied law at Lisbon. His first work was a monologue ...
-Ginscppc Tartini - Giovanni Antonio Amadeo De Plana
Ginscppc Tartini Ginscppc Tartini, an Italian violinist, born at Pirano, Istria, in 1692, died in Padua in 1770. He gave up law and theology, acquired unrivalled proficiency as a violinist, eloped wi...
-Giovanni Antonio Razzi - Giovanni Battista Casti
Giovanni Antonio Razzi Giovanni Antonio Razzi, called IL Sodoma, an Italian painter, born in Vercelli, Piedmont, about 1479, died in Siena, Feb. 14, 1554. He formed his style on that of Leonardo da V...
-Giovanni Battista Corniani - Giovanni Battista Niccolini
Giovanni Battista Corniani Giovanni Battista Corniani, count, an Italian author, born at Orzi Nuovi in 1742, died in Brescia in 1813. He was president of the academy of Brescia, held high judicial of...
-Giovanni Battista Piranesi - Giovanni Benedetto Castiglioxe
Giovanni Battista Piranesi Giovanni Battista Piranesi, an Italian engraver, born Oct. 4, 1720, died in Rome, Nov. 9, 1778. He completed his studies in Rome, where he resided for many years. He has be...
-Giovanni Bettino Cignaroli - Giovanni De Janua Balbi Or Jannensis
Giovanni Bettino Cignaroli Giovanni Bettino Cignaroli, an Italian painter, born near Verona in 1706, died in 1772. His best works are in the cathedrals of Pisa, Bergamo, Mantua, and in the churches o...
-Giovanni Di Piano Carpini - Giovanni Maria Lancisi
Giovanni Di Piano Carpini Giovanni Di Piano Carpini, an Italian Franciscan monk and traveller, born about 1220. In 1246 he was sent with a company of several other Franciscans on a mission to the gre...
-Giovanni Maria Mazzuchelli - Giovanni Paolo Magini
Giovanni Maria Mazzuchelli Giovanni Maria Mazzuchelli, count, an Italian jurist, antiquary, and biographer, born in Brescia, Oct. 28, 1707, died there, Nov. 19, 1765. He was educated at Bologna, and ...
-Giovanni Prati - Girolamo Crescentiffl
Giovanni Prati Giovanni Prati, an Italian poet, born at Da-scirido, near Trent, Jan. 27,1805. He received his diploma as an advocate in Padua, but devoted himself to poetry. In 1862 he became a membe...
-Girolamo Miziaxo - Giulio Cesare Cordara
Girolamo Miziaxo Girolamo Miziaxo, an Italian artist, born at Acquafredda, near Brescia, in 1528, died in Rome in 1590 or 1592. He established himself in Rome about the middle of the century, and bec...
-Giulio Romano - Giuseppe Cesare
Giulio Romano See Giulio Romano. Giuseppe Cades Giuseppe Cades, an Italian painter, born at Rome in 1750, died there in 1800. He acquired such skill in copying the works of the old masters that h...
-Giuseppe Cesari - Giuseppe Marco Maria Felice Blangini
Giuseppe Cesari Giuseppe Cesari, or Giuseppino, better known as cavaliero d'Arpino, an Italian painter, supposed to have been born in a Neapolitan castle of the latter name about 1500, died in Rome a...
-Giuseppe Micali - Giuseppe Saverio Poli
Giuseppe Micali Giuseppe Micali, an Italian archaeologist, born in Leghorn about 1776, died in Florence, March 28, 1844. He travelled extensively, and devoted himself to archaeological studies. His I...
-Glaichau - Glengarry
Glaichau Glaichau , a town of Saxony, in the circle of Zwickau, 15 m. W. of Chemnitz; pop. in 1871, 22,036. It contains an old and extensive castle and several churches. Next to Chemnitz it is the mo...
-Glllkstadt - Gloversville
Glllkstadt Glllkstadt , a town of Prussia, in the province of Schleswig-Holstein, on the right bank of the Elbe, 27 m. N. W. of Altona; pop. in 1871, 5,073. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in com...
-Glukhov - Gnesen
Glukhov Glukhov , a town of Russia, in the government and 108 m. E. by N. of the city of Tcher-nigov, on the Yesmana; pop. in 1807, 10,747. It has eight churches and several schools, and was formerly...
-Gnillaome Victor Emile Augier - Goby
Gnillaome Victor Emile Augier Gnillaome Victor Emile Augier, a French playwright, born in Valence, Sept. 17, 1820. He produced his first play, La cigue, in 1844. His comedy Gabrielle (1849) placed h...
-Goderich - Goldberg
Goderich Goderich , a town, port of entry, and the capital of Huron co., Ontario, Canada, on the E. shore of Lake Huron, at the mouth of the Maitland river, and at the terminus of the Buffalo and God...
-Golding Bird - Gomer
Golding Bird Golding Bird, an English physician and author, born in Norfolk in 1815, died at Tun-bridge Wells in October, 1854. He early received a prize from the apothecaries' company for his profic...
-Gomez Eannes De Azurara - Goniatites
Gomez Eannes De Azurara Gomez Eannes De Azurara, a Portuguese historian, born at Azurara, died in the latter part of the loth century. Although he was early made a monk and admitted into the order of...
-Gonsalvo De Cordova - Goodhue
Gonsalvo De Cordova See Gonsalvo de Cordova. Gonzales Gonzales , a S. county of Texas, intersected by the Guadalupe river; area, 1,026 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,951, of whom 3,670 were colored. It ...
-Goodwin Sands - Goppingen
Goodwin Sands Goodwin Sands , dangerous sand banks off the E. coast of Kent, England, separated from the mainland by the roadstead called the Downs, which has an average width of about 5 1/2 m. The b...
-Gordian Knot - Gorgona
Gordian Knot Gordian Knot ,.See Gordius. Gordon Gordon , a N. W. county of Georgia, watered by the Oostenaula river and several other streams; area, 830 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,268, of whom 1,530...
-Goritz - Goshen
Goritz Goritz ,.See Gorz. Gorlitz Gorlitz , a town of Prussian Silesia, situated on an eminence which overhangs the left bank of the Neisse, and on the Dresden and Breslau railway, 53 m. E. of Dr...
-Goslar - Gottfried Bidloo
Goslar Goslar , a town of Hanover, Prussia, 2G m. S. E. of Hildesheim, on the Gose, at the base of the Rammelsberg; pop. in 1871, 8,923. Its most important public edifices are the town house, which w...
-Gottfried Mind - Governor's Island
Gottfried Mind Gottfried Mind, a Swiss painter, better known under the name of Berner Friedli, born in Bern in 1768, died there, Nov. 7, 1814. He was educated in the charity school of Pesta-lozzi, de...
-Goya - Graevius
Goya Goya , a city of the Argentine Republic, in the province and 100 m. S. of the city of Cor-rientes, on a small river of the same name, near its junction with the Parana; pop. in 1869, 10,907, of ...
-Grafenberg - Grainger
Grafenberg Grafenberg ,.See Priessnitz. Gragnano Gragnano , a town of S. Italy, in the province of Naples, at the foot of Monte Pendolo, 19 m. S. E. of Naples; pop. about 10,000. It is the seat o...
-Gram River - Gran Grane, Or Quade (Arabic
Gram River Gram River , one of the constituents of the Colorado of the West, rises in the Rocky moun-tains in Colorado territory, 5 or 6 m. W. of Long's peak, in about lat. 40 17' N., Ion. 105&d...
-Grand - Grand River
Grand Grand , the N. W. county of Colorado. See Summit. Grand Duke Of Russia Yaroslav See Russia, vol. xiv., p. 489. Grand Forks Grand Forks , a N. E. county of Dakota territory, recently for...
-Grand Traverse - Gratiot
Grand Traverse Grand Traverse , a N. W. county of the S. peninsula of Michigan, bounded N. E. by Grand Traverse bay; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,443. It is drained by Grand Traverse river...
-Graubunden, Or Granbudten - Gravina
Graubunden, Or Granbudten See Grisons. Graves Graves , a S. W. county of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, and drained by Mayfield creek and Obion river; area, 515 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,398, o...
-Great Barrington - Great Malvern
Great Barrington Great Barrington , a town of Berkshire co., Massachusetts, on the Housatonic river and railroad, 40 m. \V. of Springfield; pop. in 1870, 4,320. It is pleasantly situated, watered by ...
-Great Marlow - Greenbrier
Great Marlow Great Marlow , a town of Buckinghamshire, England, on the Thames, 11 m. N. E. of Reading; pop. in 1871, 6,010. It has a fine church, manufactories of paper and lace, and a considerable t...
-Greenbush - Greenwood
Greenbush Greenbush , a town of Rensselaer co., New I York, on the E. bank of the Hudson, opposite Albany, with which it is connected by two bridges; pop. in 1870, 6,202. It is the S. terminus of the...
-Greer - Greiz
Greer Greer , the N. W. county of Texas, as claimed by the state authorities, lying between the forks of Red river; area, 3,480 sq. m.; still unsettled. There is considerable good land, but little ti...
-Grenville Mellen - Grimes
Grenville Mellen Grenville Mellen, an American poet, born in Biddeford, Me., June 19, 1799, died in New York, Sept. 5,1841. He graduated at Harvard college in 1818, studied law in Portland, and remov...
-Grimma - Griquas, Or Baastaards
Grimma Grimma , a town of Saxony, on the Mulde, 14 m. S. E. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 6,536. It is pleasantly situated and contains several churches, an ancient town hall, and a royal palace which is...
-Grisseh, Or Grisseo - Grosswardein
Grisseh, Or Grisseo Grisseh, Or Grisseo a town of Java, 12 m. N. W. of the city of Surabaya, on the strait of Madura; pop. not stated, though believed to be numerous, and mainly consisting of Javanes...
-Ground Hog - Gualeyguay
Ground Hog Ground Hog ,.See Woodchuck. Ground Nut Ground Nut ,.See Peanut. Ground Pine Ground Pine ,.See Mares Tail. Ground Squirrel Ground Squirrel ,.See Chipmunk. Groveton Groveton ...
-Gualeyguaychu - Guanare
Gualeyguaychu Gualeyguaychu , a city of the Argentine Republic, on the right bank of the Gualey-guaychu river, in the province of Entre-Rios, 120 m. N. of Buenos Ayres; pop. about 25,000 (in 1849, 7,...
-Guancabelica - Guben
Guancabelica Guancabelica ,.See Huancavelica. Guano Guano , a town of Ecuador, in the province of Chimborazo, about 100 m. S. W, of Quito; pop. about 9,000. It contains many fine houses, a handso...
-Guebwiller - Guido Cavalcakti
Guebwiller See Gebweiler. Guelderlaxd See Gelderland. Guelph Guelph, a town and inland port of entry, capital of Wellington co., Ontario, Canada, 45 m. W. S. W. of Toronto; pop. in 1871, 6,87...
-Guienne - Guillaume Lejean
Guienne Guienne , an ancient province in S. W. France, a part of the old kingdom of Aquitaine, bounded N. by Saintonge, Angoumois, Limousin, and Auvergne, E. by Languedoc, S. by Languedoc and Gascony...
-Guinand - Guitar
Guinand Guinand , a Swiss optician, born in the canton of Neufehatel about 1745, died in 1825. He was the son of a house carpenter, and constructed a telescope in imitation of one of great value in t...
-Gujerat - Gulf Of Guinea
Gujerat Gujerat ,.See Guzerat. Gulf Of (Fr Lyons Gulf Of (Fr Lyons. golfe du Lion; anc. Gal-licus Sinus, also Mare Gallicum), a gulf of the Mediterranean, on the S. E. coast of France, between a ...
-Gulf Of Nicoya - Gun
Gulf Of Nicoya Gulf Of Nicoya, a bay of Costa Rica on the Pacific ocean, formed by the peninsula of Ni-coya, the S. point of which, Cape Blanco, is in lat. 9 37' K, Ion. 85 7' W. Its mouth,...
-Gunduk - Gustaf Horn
Gunduk Gunduk , a river of Hindostan, which rises N. of the Himalaya mountains, and flows through that chain in a S. E. direction to Hajeepoor, where it falls into the Ganges, in lat. 25 39' N.,...
-Gustav Heinrieh Gans Zu Putlitz - Gustav Kuhne
Gustav Heinrieh Gans Zu Putlitz Gustav Heinrieh Gans Zu Putlitz, a German poet, born at Retzien, Prussia, March 20, 1821. He studied in Magdeburg, Berlin, and Heidelberg, and was employed in the civi...
-Gustav Lndwig Theodor Marezoll - Gustave Hippolyte Roger
Gustav Lndwig Theodor Marezoll Gustav Lndwig Theodor Marezoll, a German jurist, born in Gottingen. Feb. 13,1794, died in Leipsic, Feb. 25, 1873. He was a son of Johann Gottlob Marezoll (1761-1828 ), ...
-Gustave Wippers - Guysborough
Gustave Wippers Gustave Wippers, a Flemish painter, born in Antwerp in 1803, died in Paris, Dec. 6, 1874. He studied in Antwerp and in Paris, and adopted the style of the romantic school. His Devot...
-Gwinnett - Haarlem Meer, Or Lake Of Haarlem
Gwinnett Gwinnett , a N. county of Georgia, bounded N. W. by the Chattahoochee river, and drained by head streams of the Appalachee, Yellow, and Ulcofauhachee; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,431,...
-Habakkuk - Hadersleben
Habakkuk Habakkuk , one of the twelve minor prophets, of whose birth or death we know with certainty neither the time nor the place. His prophecy is variously dated by different scholars from about G...
-Hadji - Haggai
Hadji Hadji , an Arabic word signifying pilgrim, had) being the term used by Mohammedans for the sacred pilgrimage to Mecca. A certain part of the ceremony which takes place at Mecca on the arrival o...
-Hainal - Halbkiggan
Hainal Hainal , a town of Prussia, in the province of Silesia, on the Deichsel, and on the railway from Frankfort-on-the-Oder to Breslau, 11 m. W. N. W. of Liegnitz; pop. about 4,500. It has manufact...
-Haldimand - Halts
Haldimand Haldimand , a S. county of Ontario, Canada, bordering on Lake Erie near its E. end; area, 475 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 24,851, of whom 7,792 were of English, 6,991 of Irish, 4,708 of German, a...
-Haltes-Alpes - Hamlet, Or Amleth
Haltes-Alpes Haltes-Alpes , (Upper Alps), a S. E. department of France, in Dauphiny, bordering on Italy and the departments of Savoie, Isere, Drome, and Basses-Alpes; area, 2,158 sq. m.; pop. in 1872...
-Hamlin - Hampstead
Hamlin Hamlin , an E. county of Dakota, recently formed and not included in the census of 1870; area, 720 sq. m. It is intersected by the Big Sioux river, and contains several lakes. The surface is m...
-Hand - Hannah F. Sawyer (Lee)
Hand Hand , a S. E. county of Dakota, recently formed, and not contained in the census of 1870; area, about 1,000 sq. m. It is watered by affluents of the Missouri and of the Dakota or James river. T...
-Hannah Flagg Gould - Hans Joachim Von Ziethen
Hannah Flagg Gould Hannah Flagg Gould, an American poetess, born at Lancaster, Mass., in 1789, died at Newburyport, Sept. 5, 1865. She was a frequent contributor to periodical literature, and publish...
-Hans Peder Holst - Haralson
Hans Peder Holst Hans Peder Holst, a Danish poet, born in Copenhagen in 1811. He received a superior education, and became in 1836 professor of Danish and of logic at the military academy of Copenhag...
-Harburg - Harlan
Harburg Harburg , a town of Prussia, in the province of Hanover, on the Elbe, 6 m. S. of Hamburg; pop. in 1871, 16,506. It has glass works, sugar refineries, and manufactories of tobacco, sail cloth,...
-Harlem - Harpsichord
Harlem Harlem ,.See Haarlem. Harlingen Harlingen , a fortified seaport town of the Netherlands, in the province of Friesland, on the North sea, 1G m. W. by S. of Leeuwarden, with which it is conn...
-Harriet Elizabeth Prescott (Spofford) - Hartwick
Harriet Elizabeth Prescott (Spofford) Harriet Elizabeth Prescott (Spofford), an American authoress, born in Calais, Me!, April 3, 1835. She was educated at Newburyport, Mass., and in 1805 married Ric...
-Harvey - Hasenclever
Harvey Harvey , a S. central county of Kansas, recently formed, and not included in the census of 1870, intersected by the Little Arkansas river, and watered by affluents of Whitewater creek; area, a...
-Hashish - Hautboy
Hashish Hashish ,.See Hemp. Haskell Haskell , a N. W. county of Texas, watered by the head streams of the Brazos river; area, 1,275 sq.m.; still unsettled. It consists mostly of high prairie land...
-Haute Loire - Haverstraw
Haute Loire See Haute-Loire. Haute Marne See Haitte-Marne. Haute Saone See Haute-SaÔne. Haute Savoie See Haute-Savoie. Haute Vieme See Haute-Vienne. Haute-Vienne Haute-Vienne , (U...
-Havre De Grace - Hays
Havre De Grace Havre De Grace , a town of Harford CO., Maryland, on the W. bank of the Susquehanna river, near its mouth in Chesapeake bay, 35 m. N. E. of Baltimore; pop. in 1870, 2,281, of whom 441 ...
-Hazardville - Hcinrieh Bruhl
Hazardville Hazardville , Conn. See Enfiei.d. Hazebrouck Hazebrouck , a town of France, in the department of Le Nord, 24 m. W. N. W. of Lille, at the junction of the Calais and Dunkirk railways; ...
-Hciurich Burkel - Hector
Hciurich Burkel Hciurich Burkel, a German painter, born at Pirmasens, Bavaria, Sept. 9, 1802, died June 10, 1869. He studied in Munich and Rome, ' and among his works are many pictures of common life...
-Hector Boyce - Heidenheim
Hector Boyce See Boethius. Hector Macneil Hector Macneil, a Scottish poet, born at Rosebank, on the Esk, Oct. 22, 1746, died in Edinburgh, March 15, 1818. He served a mercantile apprenticeship in...
-Heights - Heinrich August Wrisberg
Heights Heights , Measurement of. See Barometrical Measurement. Heilbronn Heilbronn , a fortified town of Wurtemberg, on the right bank of the Neckar, 20 m. N. of Stuttgart, with which city it is...
-Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paelus - Heinrich Gottlieb Tzschirner
Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paelus Heinrich Eberhard Gottlob Paelus, a German theologian, born at Leonberg, Wurtemberg, Sept. 1,1761, died in Heidelberg, Aug. 10,1851. He studied the oriental languages...
-Heinrich Gustav Hotho - Heinrich Lang
Heinrich Gustav Hotho Heinrich Gustav Hotho, a German author, born in Berlin, May 22, 1802, died there, Dec. 25, 1873. He studied in Berlin, and was one of the most distinguished pupils of Hegel. In ...
-Heinrich Moritz Chalybals - Heinrich Schafer
Heinrich Moritz Chalybals Heinrich Moritz Chalybals, a German philosopher, born at PfafFroda, Saxony, July 3, 1790, died in Dresden, Sept. 22, 1862. He studied philology and philosophy, received the ...
-Heinrich Spiess - Heinrich W1jttke
Heinrich Spiess Heinrich Spiess, a German painter, born in Munich, May 10, 1832, died there, Aug. 8, 1875. He was the son of an engraver, completed his studies under Kaulbach, whom he assisted in his...
-Heinrieb Brum - Heliodorus
Heinrieb Brum Heinrieb Brum, a German arch geologist, born at Worlitz, Anhalt, Jan. 23, 1822. He graduated in Rome in 1843 and after extensive explorations in Italy he succeeded Emil Braun in 1856 as...
-Heliogabalus - Hellen
Heliogabalus Heliogabalus ,.See Elagabalus. Heliometer Heliometer , (Gr. the sun, and measure), an instrument to measure the diameter of the sun, or other small arc in the heavens. Several...
-Hellespont - Helmund, Or Helmend
Hellespont Hellespont , ((Gr. sea of Helle), in ancient geography, the narrow strait (now the Dardanelles) connecting the AEgean sea with the Propontis (sea of Marmora), and separating the Thracia...
-Helos - Hematine
Helos Helos , a town of ancient Greece, in the territory of Laconia, situated in a fertile plain near the Eurotas and the sea. Its foundation was ascribed to Helms, the youngest of the sons of Perseu...
-Hematite - Hendricks
Hematite Hematite ,.See Iron ores. Hemigale Hemigale , a mammal of the family vircrri-doe, coming near the ichneumons, so named from its weasel-like body. The grayish brown fur is marked on the b...
-Hendrik Bary - Henri Boulainvilliers
Hendrik Bary Hendrik Bary, a Dutch engraver of the 17th century. His productions are remarkable for neatness of execution, though inferior to those of Cornelius Vischer. Among them are excellent engr...
-Henri De Beairepaire-Rohan - Henri Lecoq
Henri De Beairepaire-Rohan Henri De Beairepaire-Rohan, a Brazilian traveller, of French origin, born in Picardy about 1818. He explored Paraguay in 1845-'6, visited Bonpland at Borja, and published D...
-Henri Legrand Du Saulle - Henri Viecxtemps
Henri Legrand Du Saulle Henri Legrand Du Saulle, a French physician, born in Dijon in 1830. He was one of the writers of the Gazette des Hopitaux (1854-'61), and of other medical journals, and became...
-Henri Wieniawski - Henrik Hertz
Henri Wieniawski Henri Wieniawski, a Polish violinist, born in Lublin, July 10, 1835. His mother was a sister of the composer Eduard Wolff, who carried him at the age of eight to Paris. He was admitt...
-Henrik Nikolai Clausen - Henry Baker
Henrik Nikolai Clausen Henrik Nikolai Clausen, a Danish theologian and statesman, born at Maribo, April 22, 1703. He was the son of a celebrated preacher, and spent some time in Berlin, where Schleie...
-Henry Bell - Henry Charles Fitzroy Somerset Beaufort
Henry Bell Henry Bell, a Scottish inventor, born at Tor-phichen, near Linlithgow, April 7, 1767, died March 14, 1830. A millwright by trade, he went to London when his apprenticeship expired, and whi...
-Henry Davis - Henry Fyues Clinton
Henry Davis Henry Davis, an American clergyman, born at East Hampton, N. Y., Sept. 15, 1770, died at Clinton, March 7, 1852. He graduated at Yale college in 1796, became tutor successively at William...
-Henry George Liddell - Henry John Todd
Henry George Liddell Henry George Liddell, an English scholar, born about 1811. He graduated at Christchurch college, Oxford, in 1833, took holy orders, and after holding various posts in that colleg...
-Henry Kirke Brown - Henry Lloyd
Henry Kirke Brown Henry Kirke Brown, an American sculptor, born at Leyden, Mass., in 1814. His first attempt at art was made at the age of 12, in the portrait of an old man. At 18 he went to Boston t...
-Henry Martyn - Henry Murger
Henry Martyn Henry Martyn, an English missionary, born in Truro in 1781, died in Tokat. Asia Minor, Oct. 16, 1812. He was educated at St. John's college,' Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship in...
-Henry Neele - Henry Reed
Henry Neele Henry Neele, an English author, born in London, Jan. 29, 1798, committed suicide in a fit of insanity, Feb. 7, 1828. He was the son of an engraver in the Strand, and in early life was art...
-Henry Rogers - Henry Vaughan
Henry Rogers Henry Rogers, an English author, born about 1810. He studied at Highbury college, and for some years was pastor of an Independent church. In 1839 he became professor of the English langu...
-Henry Wharton - Hercules Club
Henry Wharton Henry Wharton, an English clergyman, born in Worstead, Norfolk, Nov. 9, 1664, died in Newton, Cambridgeshire, March 5, 1695. He graduated at Caius college, Cambridge, in 1684, and in 16...
-Hercynia Silva - Hermann Adalbert Daniel
Hercynia Silva Hercynia Silva , the ancient name of a forest of Germany, covering a mountain range whose position and extent are very differently described by various writers. It probably comprised t...
-Hermann Busembaum - Hermann Olshaisen
Hermann Busembaum Hermann Busembaum, a German theologian, born at Nottelen, Westphalia, in 1600, died in Miinster, Jan. 31, 1668. He was rector of the Jesuit college at Miinster, and in his Medulla T...
-Hermann Samuel Reimarus - Hernici
Hermann Samuel Reimarus Hermann Samuel Reimarus, a German scholar, born in Hamburg, Dec. 22, 1694, died there, March 1, 1768. He was educated at Jena and at Wittenberg, made a journey through Belgium...
-Hernosand - Heruli, Or Eruli
Hernosand Hernosand ,.See Wester Norrland. Hero Hero ,.See Heron. Hero #1 Hero , in Greek mythology, a priestess of Venus at Sestos, beloved by Leander, a native of Abydos. Leander used to swim...
-Herve - Hevelius
Herve Herve , a French composer, whose real name is Florimond Ronger, born at Houdain, near Arras, in 1825. His Don Quichotte (1847) was the first opera bouffe introduced on the French stage, and sub...
-Heyniann Steinthal - Hierapolis
Heyniann Steinthal Heyniann Steinthal, a German philologist, born of Jewish parents at Grobzig, Anhalt, May 16, 1823. He studied in Berlin, and became a lecturer there on language and mythology. In 1...
-Hieronymo Osorio - Highgate
Hieronymo Osorio Hieronymo Osorio, a Portuguese author, born in Lisbon in 150G, died in Tavira, Aug. 20, 1580. He studied at Salamanca, Paris, and Bologna, and became archdeacon of Evora, and subsequ...
-Hilaire Etienne Octave Rouille Boissy - Hill
Hilaire Etienne Octave Rouille Boissy Hilaire Etienne Octave Rouille Boissy, marquis de, a French politician, born in Paris, March 4, 1798, died there, Sept. 26, 1866. He was a member of an ancient a...
-Hill Of Howth - Hingham
Hill Of Howth Hill Of Howth, a peninsula of Ireland, county Dublin, forming the N. boundary of Dublin bay. It is a rocky and picturesque elevation, rising to the height of 563 ft., 3 . long and 2 m. ...
-Hinsdale - Hipponax
Hinsdale Hinsdale , a S. W. county of Colorado, formed in 1874 from portions of Conejos, Lake, and Saguache cos.; area, about 1,400 sq. m. It contains gold mines. Capital, San Juan City. Hiogo, Or...
-Hiram - Histiaea, Or Oreus
Hiram Hiram , a township of Portage CO., Ohio, 33 m. S.E. of Cleveland; pop. in 1879, 1,234. It is situated on the range of hills dividing the waters that flow N. to Lake Erie from those flowing S. t...
-Hit - Hobby
Hit Hit , (anc. Is), a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the vilayet and 70 m. W. N. W. of the city of Bagdad, on the W. bank of the Euphrates; pop. about 2,000. It is situated on a hillside, and the street...
-Hochelaga - Hocking, Or Hockhocking
Hochelaga Hochelaga , a county of Quebec, Canada, occupying the E. portion of Montreal island; area, 76 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 25,640, of whom [ 20,224 were of French origin or descent. The surface is...
-Hodeida, Or El-Hudaidah - Hogshead
Hodeida, Or El-Hudaidah Hodeida, Or El-Hudaidah a seaport of Arabia, in Yemen, situated on the Red sea, about 100 m. N. N W. of Mocha. It is a well built town, having a number of mosques and a good m...
-Hogue - Hollidaysburg
Hogue Hogue , La. See Cape La Hague. Hohenzollern Hohenzollern , a territory of S. W. Germany, since March 12, 1850, an administrative division of Prussia, but which previous to that date formed ...
-Holothurians - Honesdale
Holothurians Holothurians ,.See Sea Cucumber. Holston Holston , a river formed by the junction at Kingsport, Tenn., of the N. and S. forks, which rise in the Alleghany mountain in S. W. Virginia....
-Honey Ant - Hont
Honey Ant Honey Ant , a name given to several species of ants, of Mexico and Texas, the major workers of which secrete a saccharine fluid or kind of honey, which is used for the nourishment of the yo...
-Hooping Cough - Horatins Cocles
Hooping Cough Hooping Cough ,.See Whooping Cough. Hoorn Hoorn , a town of the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, on a bay of the Zuyder Zee, 21 m. N. N. E. of Amsterdam; pop. in 1868,...
-Horeb - Horizon
Horeb Horeb ,.See Sinai. Horehound Horehound , (Ang. Sax. hora, hoary, and hune, honey, a name originally applied to some related honey-bearing plant), the marrubium vulgare (Linn.), a plant of t...
-Horned Pout - Hortense Catherine Schneider
Horned Pout Horned Pout ,.See Catfish. Hornellsville Hornellsville , a town and village of Steuben co., New York, at the junction of Canaca-dea creek with the Canisteo river, and at the intersect...
-Hortus Siccus - House Of Braganca
Hortus Siccus See Herbarium. Hosanna Hosanna (Heb. hoshi'ah na, Save, we pray), in Jewish antiquity, a form of acclamation on joyous and triumphal occasions. At the feast of tabernacles it was cu...
-House Of Commons - Huamanga
House Of Commons See Parliament. House Of Lancaster See Exgland, vol. vi., pp. 609-'11. House Of Lords See Parliament. Howard Staunton Howard Staunton, an English author, born in 1810, di...
-Huanta - Huerfano
Huanta Huanta, a town of Peru, in the department of Ayacucho, 205 m. S. E. of Lima; pop. about 5,000. It is in a very picturesque and fertile region, is well built of stone, and has a large trade in ...
-Hughs - Hugh Stowell Brown
Hughs Hughs, a S. county of Dakota, bounded S. W. by the Missouri, recently formed and not included in the census of 1870; area, about 800 sq. m. It is intersected by East Medicine Knoll river, and w...
-Hugh Williamson - Humphrey Marshall
Hugh Williamson Hugh Williamson, an American physician, born in West Nottingham, Pa., Dec. 5, 1735, died in New York, May 22, 1819. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania in 1757, was profess...
-Humphry Repton - Hurdwar
Humphry Repton Humphry Repton, an English landscape gardener, born in Bury St. Edmund's, May 2, 1752, died in Essex, March 24, 1818. Having failed in mercantile business, he adopted the profession of...
-Hush - Hyacinthus
Hush Hush, a town of Roumania, in Moldavia, near the Pruth, 36 m. S. E. of Jassy; pop. about 13,000. It is the seat of a Greek bishop, and has a normal school. Here, on July 25, 1711, the peace was c...
-Hyades - Hydrates
Hyades Hyades, in Greek mythology, nymphs variously described as being from two to seven in number, and bearing 18 names. According to some authorities, Jupiter placed them among the stars in honor o...
-Hydraulics - Hylaeosaurus
Hydraulics See Hydromechanics. Hydrodynamics See Hydromechanics. Hydrofluoric Acid See Fluorine. Hydrostatics See Hydromechanics. Hydruntum See Otranto. Hyeres Hyeres, a town of F...
-Hymen - Hypophosphites, The Salts Formed By Hypophosphorous Acid With Lime
Hymen Hymen, in Greek mythology, the god of marriage. According to some, he was a son of Apollo and one of the muses; but according to others, he was originally a mortal, who, having rescued some Att...
-Hypothecation - Ibarra
Hypothecation Hypothecation (Gr. under, and a chest), a word which, in the Roman civil law, from which it is taken, signifies more nearly what we understand by mortgage than by pledge, for which ...
-Iberus - Ibycus
Iberus See Ebro. Iberville Iberville, a S. parish of Louisiana, bounded W. by Atchafalaya bayou and S. E. by the Mississippi; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,347, of whom 8,675 were colored. I...
-Ica - Ides
Ica Ica, an inland town of Peru, capital of a district of the same name, in the department and 170 m. S. S. E. of the city of Lima; pop. about 7,000. It is situated in a sandy plain, and the heat is ...
-Idocrase - Ignacio Yriarte
Idocrase Idocrase (Gr. to resemble, and a mixture), a mineral species of the garnet section of the silicates, resembling other species in its crystalline forms. It occurs variously colored, as b...
-Ignatius Bean - Illnissa, Or Minissa Iliniza, Pyramids Of
Ignatius Bean See Strychnia. Ignaz Friedrieh Castelli Ignaz Friedrieh Castelli, a German dramatist, born in Vienna, May 6, 1781, died near Lilienfeld, Feb. 5, 1862. He was educated for the law, b...
-Ilopango - Inachus
Ilopango Ilopango (a lake of Central America, in the republic and 6 m. S. E. of the city of San Salvador. It is about 14 m. long by 6 broad, and is clearly of volcanic origin. On all sides it is surr...
-Incas - Infusoria
Incas See Peru, and QuichUa. Incense See Frankincense. Incest Incest (carnal commerce between a man and woman who are related to each other in any of the degrees within which marriage is proh...
-Ingbert, Or Sanct-Ingbert - Innocenzio Da Imola
Ingbert, Or Sanct-Ingbert Ingbert, Or Sanct-Ingbert, a town of Germany, in Rhenish Bavaria, near the Prussian border, on the Roorbach, 10 m. W. of Zwei-brucken; pop. in 1871, 8,433. It is renowned fo...
-Ino - Insterburg
Ino Ino, in Greek mythology, a daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia. By command of Juno, Athamas, king of Orchomenus, had married Nephele, by whom he was father of Phrixus and Helle; but he was also secre...
-Integral Calculus - Ippolit Fedoroviteh Bogdanovitch
Integral Calculus See Calculus. Intermittent Fever See Fevers. Ionies Ionies, a small tribe of Indians in the United States, belonging to the family of the Cad-does or Cadodaquios. They regar...
-Ippolito Caffi - Irak-Ajemi
Ippolito Caffi Ippolito Caffi, an Italian painter, born in Belluno in 1814. He studied in Venice and Rome, visited the East, and in 1848 barely escaped being shot by the Austrian authorities on accou...
-Iran - Isaac
Iran See Persia. Ircs See Aueochs. Iriarte See Yriarte. Irish Moss See Carrageen. Irish Sea Irish Sea, that part of the Atlantic ocean which lies between Scotland on the north, Englan...
-Isaac Bickerstaff - Isaac II
Isaac Bickerstaff Isaac Bickerstaff, a British dramatist, born in Ireland about 1735, supposed to have died on the continent late in the 18th or early in the 19th century. After having been one of th...
-Isaac Johnson - Isaac Ray
Isaac Johnson Isaac Johnson, one of the original colonizers of Massachusetts, born in Clipsham, Rutlandshire, England, died in Boston, Sept. 30, 1630. He arrived at Salem with his wife, June 12, 1630...
-Isaac Todhunter - Isabella Of England
Isaac Todhunter Isaac Todhunter, an English mathematician, born in Rye in 1820. He graduated at Cambridge in 1848, and became mathematical lecturer at St. John's college. He has published a series of...
-Isabella Of Valois - Islam
Isabella Of Valois See Elizabeth of Valois. Isabella Of Valois #1 See Elizabeth of Valois. Ischl, Or Ischil Ischl, Or Ischil, a fashionable watering place in Upper Austria, on the river Traun, ...
-Island - Isometric Projection
Island Island, a 1ST. W. county of Washington territory, bounded S. and S. W. by Admiralty inlet, and W. by Rosario strait; area, 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 626. It comprises Hat, Cama-no, and Whitby ...
-Isopods - Itacolumite
Isopods Isopods, a group of 14-footed crustaceans, so called because their thoracic feet, the three anterior in one series and the four posterior in another, are nearly equal; the branchiae are six p...
-Itasca - Ivrea
Itasca Itasca, a N. county of Minnesota, bounded N. by Rainy lake and Rainy Lake river, separating it from British America, and drained by several tributaries of that stream, and by the Mississippi; ...
-Ivry-La-Bataille - Izard
Ivry-La-Bataille Ivry-La-Bataille, a village of France, in the department of Eure and on the river Eure, about 40 m. W. of Paris; pop. about 1,200. It contains the ruins of an ancient castle and reno...
-Iztaccihuatl - Jacob Jordaens
Iztaccihuatl Iztaccihuatl, a volcano of Mexico, 15,705 ft. above the sea, not far from that of Popocatepetl, near the city of Puebla. It is sometimes called the Sierra Nevada, its top being almost al...
-Jacob Rodriguez Pereira - Jacobus Sylvius
Jacob Rodriguez Pereira Jacob Rodriguez Pereira, a Spanish instructor of deaf mutes, of Jewish family, born at Berlanga, Estremadura, April 11, 1715, died in Paris, Sept. 15, 1780. He opened a school...
-Jacobus Van Der Does - Jacques Anionic Dulaure
Jacobus Van Der Does Jacobus Van Der Does, the elder, a Dutch painter, born in Amsterdam, March 4, 1623, died there, Nov. 17, 1673. After visiting Paris, he spent several years in Rome, where he was ...
-Jacques Barrelier - Jacques Brut As
Jacques Barrelier Jacques Barrelier, a French botanist, born in Paris in 1606, died Sept. 17, 1673. He renounced the medical profession to enter the Dominican order. In 1646 he was selected as assist...
-Jacques Cazotte - Jacques Francois Dicquemare
Jacques Cazotte Jacques Cazotte, a French writer, born at Dijon in 1720, guillotined in Paris, Sept. 25, 1702. He became first known by a prose poem, Olivier, somewhat in the style of Ariosto's poems...
-Jacques Georges De Chauffepie - Jacques Saurin
Jacques Georges De Chauffepie Jacques Georges De Chauffepie, a Protestant divine of Holland, of French origin, born in Leeuwarden, Nov. 9, 1702, died in Amsterdam, July 3, 1786. He is principally kno...
-Jacques Sirmond - Jaeob Brown
Jacques Sirmond Jacques Sirmond, a French scholar, born in Riom in October, 1559, died in Paris, Oct. 7, 1651. He was a Jesuit, and in 1590 became secretary to the general of the order, Claudio Acqua...
-Jaeqnes Charles Dupont - Jakob Brucker
Jaeqnes Charles Dupont Jaeqnes Charles Dupont, a French politician, known as Dupont de l'Eure, born in Neubourg, Normandy, Feb. 27, 1767, died in Paris, March 3, 1855. First an attorney at the parlia...
-Jakob Cats - Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz
Jakob Cats Jakob Cats, a Dutch statesman and poet, born at Brouwershaven in Zealand, Nov. 10, 1577, died at Zorgvliet, near the Hague, Sept. 12, 1660. He studied law at Leyden, Orleans, and Paris, an...
-Jakob Noggerath - James Atkins Meigs
Jakob Noggerath Jakob Noggerath, a German geologist, born in Bonn, Oct. 10, 1788. In 1814 he became professor of mineralogy and geology in the university, of Bonn. His chief works are: Das Gebirge in...
-James Barbour - James Bowling Mozley
James Barbour James Barbour, an American statesman, born in Orange county, Va., June 10, 1775, died June 8, 1842. While very young he served as a deputy sheriff, and at the age of 19 was admitted to ...
-James Bradley - James Butler
James Bradley James Bradley, an English astronomer, born at Sherborne, Gloucestershire, in March, 1692, died at Chalford, July 13, 1762. He was educated at Oxford and took orders, but devoted himself...
-James City - James Cowles Prichard
James City James City, a S. E. county of Virginia, bounded N. E. by York river, S. by James river, and W. by the Chickahominy; area, 184 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,425, of whom 2,440 were colored. It ha...
-James Currie - James Elphinston
James Currie James Currie, a Scottish physician, born at Kirkpatrick-Fleming, Dumfriesshire, May 31, 1756, died at Sidmouth, Devonshire, Aug. 31, 1805. In early life he went to Virginia, but returned...
-James Gordon Brooks - James Hentborne Todd
James Gordon Brooks James Gordon Brooks, an American poet, born at Claverack, N. Y., Sept. 3, 1801, died in Albany, Feb. 20,1841. He graduated at Union college in 1819, studied law, and removed in 18...
-James Hervey - James Lawrence Orr
James Hervey James Hervey, an English author, born at Hardingstone, near Northampton, Feb. 20, 1713, died Dec. 25, 1758. He graduated at Oxford, took orders, and at the age of 22 was appointed curate...
-James Lick - James Macknight
James Lick James Lick, an American philanthropist, born at Fredericksburg, Lebanon co., Pa., Aug. 25, 1790. He was engaged in commercial pursuits in South America from 1821 to 1847, when he went to C...
-James Madison - James Merrick
James Madison James Madison, an American bishop, second cousin of President Madison, born in Rockingham co., Va., Aug. 27, 1749, died March 6, 1812. He graduated at William and Mary college in 1772, ...
-James Milnor - James Naylor
James Milnor James Milnor, an American clergyman, born in Philadelphia, June 20, 1773, died in New York, April 8, 1844. After spending a brief period at the university of Pennsylvania, he besran the ...
-James Orchard Halliwell - James Richardson
James Orchard Halliwell James Orchard Halliwell, an English archaeologist, born at Chelsea, June 21, 1820. He has edited and published more than 60 pamphlets relating to early English literature, esp...
-James Smith - James Tod
James Smith James Smith, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Ireland about 1719, died in York, Pa., July 11, 1806. He came to America with his father's' family in 1729, studied law i...
-James Walker - Jan Boncza Skrzynecki
James Walker James Walker, an American clergyman, president of Harvard college, born in Burlington, Mass., then a part of Woburn, Aug. 16, 1794, died in Cambridge, Dec. 23, 1874. He graduated at Harv...
-Jan Frans Van Dael - Jan Laski
Jan Frans Van Dael Jan Frans Van Dael, a Belgian painter, born in Antwerp in 1764, died in Paris in 1840. He began with architecture, was afterward employed in decorating French palaces, and acquired...
-Jan Lefraneq Van Berkley - Jan Stephan Van Calcar
Jan Lefraneq Van Berkley Jan Lefraneq Van Berkley, a Dutch naturalist and poet, born Jan. 23, 1729, died in Leyden in March, 1812. He was the author of various works upon the natural sciences, of whi...
-Jan Tan Der Heyden - Jane Shore
Jan Tan Der Heyden Jan Tan Der Heyden, a Dutch painter, born at Gorkum about 1637, died in Amsterdam in 1712. His best works represent the most picturesque views and public buildings of Amsterdam and...
-Janos Bacsanyi - Japura, Or Caqueta
Janos Bacsanyi Janos Bacsanyi, a Hungarian poet, born at Tapolcza, in the county of Zala, May 11, 1763, died in Linz, Upper Austria, May 12, 1845. His first work was A magyaroh vitezsege (The Valor ...
-Japygia - Jauja
Japygia See Apulia. Jarnac Jarnac, a town of France, in the department and on the river Charente, 16 m. W. by N. of Angouleme; pop. in 1866, 4,243. It has a small port and an active trade in grai...
-Jayadeva - Jean Antoine Dubois
Jayadeva Jayadeva, a Hindoo poet, born at Kenduli, a town of doubtful position, but according to tradition near the Ganges, about the middle of the 12th century. The only poem of his extant is entitl...
-Jean Antoine Theodore Gudin - Jean Baptistc Gaspard Dansse De Villois0n
Jean Antoine Theodore Gudin Jean Antoine Theodore Gudin, a French painter, born in Paris, Aug. 15, 1802. He was a pupil of Girodet-Trioson, and from the outset of his career devoted himself mainly to...
-Jean Baptiste Apollinaire Lebas - Jean Baptiste Ciceron Lesueur
Jean Baptiste Apollinaire Lebas Jean Baptiste Apollinaire Lebas, a French engineer, born Aug. 13, 1797, died in 1873. In 1836 he removed the great obelisk of Luxor from Egypt to the Place de la Conco...
-Jean Baptiste Clery - Jean Baptiste Dumas
Jean Baptiste Clery Jean Baptiste Clery, celebrated for his devotion to Louis XVI., and as the faithful valet of the dauphin Louis XVII., born at Jardy, near Versailles, in 1759, died at Hietzing, ne...
-Jean Baptiste Francois Provost - Jean Baptiste Lechevalier
Jean Baptiste Francois Provost Jean Baptiste Francois Provost, a French actor, born Jan. 29, 1798, died Dec. 24, 1865. He studied at the conservatory in Paris, and became professor of elocution in 18...
-Jean Baptiste Lucien Baudens - Jean Baptiste Regnault
Jean Baptiste Lucien Baudens Jean Baptiste Lucien Baudens, a French military surgeon, born at Aire, Pas-de-Calais, April 3, 1804, died in Paris, Dec. 3, 1857. He founded a hospital in Algiers, in whi...
-Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin - Jean Bardin
Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin Jean Baptiste Simeon Chardin, a French painter, born in Paris about 1699, died Dec. 0, 1779. The son of a workman, and without teachers, he yet reached eminence, and beca...
-Jean Baudrais - Jean Benoit Desiree Cochet
Jean Baudrais Jean Baudrais, a French author, born at Tours, Aug. 14, 1749, died May 4, 1832. He began his literary life at Paris by writing Vol-legreaae mllageoiae, in honor of the dauphin's marriag...
-Jean Caturze - Jean Claude
Jean Caturze Jean Caturze, a French heretic, born at Li-moux, died at the stake at Toulouse in June, 1532. He was a popular professor of law and other sciences, and was driven in 1531 from his native...
-Jean Cottereau - Jean Denis Attiret
Jean Cottereau See Chouans. Jean Cousin Jean Cousin, a French painter, born at Soucy, near Sens, about 1500, died about 1589. His paintings on glass, many of which exist in churches and palaces, ...
-Jean Denis Barbie Du Bocage - Jean Francois Bareille
Jean Denis Barbie Du Bocage Jean Denis Barbie Du Bocage, a French geographer, born in Paris, April 28, 1760, died Dec. 28, 1825. He was a pupil of D'An-ville. He classified the documents brought by C...
-Jean Francois De Saint-Lambert - Jean Francois Le Sieur
Jean Francois De Saint-Lambert Jean Francois De Saint-Lambert, a French poet, born in Nancy, Dec. 26, 1716, died in Paris, Feb. 9, 1803. He was connected with the court of King Stanislas, where he me...
-Jean Francois Millet - Jean Frederic Oberlin
Jean Francois Millet Jean Francois Millet, a French painter, born about 1815, died Jan. 18, 1875. He studied under Delaroche, and was distinguished for his genre pictures and landscapes, which repres...
-Jean Frederic Osterwald - Jean Jacqnes Nicolas Balechof
Jean Frederic Osterwald Jean Frederic Osterwald, a Swiss clergyman, born in Neufchatel, Nov. 25, 10(33, died there, April 14, 1747. He was pastor of the Reformed church in Neufchatel, and published A...
-Jean Jacques De Boissieu - Jean Jacques Olier De Verneiil
Jean Jacques De Boissieu Jean Jacques de Boissieu, a French engraver, born in Lyons, Nov. 29, 1736, died there, March 1,1810. He first devoted himself to painting; but his health having suffered by t...
-Jean Joseph Francois Poujoulat - Jean Lonis Theodore Bachelet
Jean Joseph Francois Poujoulat Jean Joseph Francois Poujoulat, a French author, born at La Fare, Bouches-du-Rh6ne, Jan. 26,1808. He was educated at the college of Aix, went to Paris in 1826, and assi...
-Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier - Jean Louis Pons
Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, a French painter, born in Lyons about 1813. He studied his art in Paris under Leon Cogniet, exhibited in 1836 his Little Messenger, and so...
-Jean Marie Constant Duhamel - Jean Nicolas Corvisart - Desma-Rets
Jean Marie Constant Duhamel Jean Marie Constant Duhamel, a French mathematician, born in St. Malo in 1797, died in Paris in May, 1872. He was a graduate of the polytechnic school, and a teacher there...
-Jean Nicolas Laugier - Jean Philippe Rameau
Jean Nicolas Laugier Jean Nicolas Laugier, a French engraver, born in Toulon in 1785, died near Paris in 1805. He studied under Girodet in Paris, and in the school of fine arts. His engravings of Del...
-Jean Pierre Abel Remusat - Jean Pierre Marie Jazet
Jean Pierre Abel Remusat Jean Pierre Abel Remusat, a French orientalist, born in Paris, Sept. 5, 1788, died of cholera, June 4, 1832. While a laborious student of medicine he taught himself Chinese a...
-Jean Pierre Niceron - Jelalabad
Jean Pierre Niceron Jean Pierre Niceron, a French author, bora in Paris, March 11, 1G85, died July 8, 1738. He was a member of the order of Barnabites and a relative of Jean Francois Nicéron, the wri...
-Jemima Wilkinson - Jephthah
Jemima Wilkinson Jemima Wilkinson, an American fanatic, born in Cumberland, R. I., in 1753, died at Jerusalem, Yates co., N. Y., July 1, 1819. She was educated as a Quaker. At the age of 20, after a ...
-Jeremiah B. Jeter - Jeremiah S. Black
Jeremiah B. Jeter Jeremiah B. Jeter, an American clergyman, born in Bedford co., Va., July 18, 1802. He entered the Baptist ministry in his native county in 1822, and removed in 1827 to the Norther...
-Jeremias De Decker, Or Dekker - Jesper Swedberg
Jeremias De Decker, Or Dekker Decker, Or Dekker, Jeremias De, a Dutch poet, born at Dort about 1610, died in Amsterdam in November, 1666. He wrote a paraphrase of the Lamentations of Jeremiah, transl...
-Jessamine - Jessulmeer
Jessamine See Jasmine. Jessamine #1 Jessamine, a central county of Kentucky, bounded S. by Kentucky river; area, 160 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,638, of whom 3,439 were colored. It has a somewhat diver...
-Jesuits Bark - Jnan Sebastian Del Cano
Jesuits Bark See Cinchona. Jet Jet, a variety of lignite, resembling cannel coal, but harder, of deeper black, and of more brilliant lustre. It is found in detached pieces in tertiary clays along...
-Jnste Daniel Olivier - Joachim Raff
Jnste Daniel Olivier Jnste Daniel Olivier, a Swiss poet, born at Eysins, Vaud, Oct, 18, 1807. He studied at Lausanne, where he gained a prize in 1825 for his poem Marcos Botzaris. He was professor of...
-Joachim Von Sandrart - Joao De Barros
Joachim Von Sandrart Joachim Von Sandrart, a German painter, born in Frankfort, May 12, 1606, died in Nuremberg, Oct. 14, 1688. He was a pupil of Gerhard Honthorst, and was employed by the emperor Fe...
-Joao Manoel Pereira Da Silva - Joel Hawes
Joao Manoel Pereira Da Silva Joao Manoel Pereira Da Silva, a Brazilian historian, born in Rio de Janeiro in 1818. He studied in Paris, and became an advocate, distinguished for his eloquence in defen...
-Johaiin Bayer - Johan Wilhclm Zetterstedt
Johaiin Bayer Johaiin Bayer, a German astronomer, born in Bavaria about 1572, died in Augsburg about 1660. He was a Protestant preacher, so distinguished for ability that he was called Os Protestanti...
-Johann Adam Bernhard Von Bartsch - Johann Centurius Hoffmannsegg
Johann Adam Bernhard Von Bartsch Johann Adam Bernhard von Bartsch, a German engraver, born in Vienna, Aug. 17, 1757, died there, Aug. 21, 1821. He rose to the highest eminence in his art, and became ...
-Johann Christdph Pepusch - Johann Christian Wiihelm August
Johann Christdph Pepusch Johann Christdph Pepusch, a German composer, born in Berlin in 1667, died in London, July 20, 1752. For several years he was harpsichord teacher at the court of Brandenburg, ...
-Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts-Muths - Johann David Michaelis
Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts-Muths Johann Christoph Friedrich Guts-Muths, founder of the German system of gymnastics (Turn-wesen), born in Quedlinburg, Aug. 9,1759, died at Schnepfenthal, May 21, ...
-Johann David Passavant - Johann Friedrieh Christoph Kortum
Johann David Passavant Johann David Passavant, a German art historian, born in Frankfort in 1787, died there, Aug. 12, 1861. He studied art in Paris and Rome, and became inspector of the Stadel museu...
-Johann Friedrieh Wilhelm Jerusalem - Johann Gottlob Immaiinel Breitkopf
Johann Friedrieh Wilhelm Jerusalem Johann Friedrieh Wilhelm Jerusalem, a German theologian, born in Osnabriick, Nov. 22, 1709, died Sept. 2,1789. He was appointed in 1740 preacher to Duke Charles of ...
-Johann Gottlob Schneider - Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein
Johann Gottlob Schneider Johann Gottlob Schneider, a German philologist, born at Collmen, Saxony, Jan. 18, 1750, died in Breslau, Jan. 12, 1822. He studied at Leipsic, and in 1774 assisted Brunk in e...
-Johann Jahn - Johann Jakob Griesbach
Johann Jahn Johann Jahn, a German orientalist, born at Taswitz, Moravia, June 18, 1750, died in Vienna, Aug. 16, 1816. From his youth he was devoted to the study of the eastern languages. Having remo...
-Johann Jakob Reiske - Johann Karl Wilhelm Zail
Johann Jakob Reiske Johann Jakob Reiske, a German philologist, born at Zörbig, near Leipsic, Dec. 25, 1716, died in Leipsic, Aug. 14, 1774. He was educated at the university of Leipsic, where he acqu...
-Johann Konrad Peyer - Johann Nikolaus Von Dreyse
Johann Konrad Peyer Johann Konrad Peyer, a Swiss anatomist, born in Schaffhausen, Dec. 26,1653, died there, Feb. 29,1712. He graduated as M. D. at Basel in 1681, practised medicine there, and became ...
-Johann Peter Eckermann - Johann Rudolf Glauber
Johann Peter Eckermann Johann Peter Eckermann, a German author, born at Winsen, Hanover, in 1792, died in Weimar, Dec. 3, 1854. He assisted Goethe in his last edition of his complete works, and was n...
-Johann Rudolf Wyss - Johann Tobias Mayer
Johann Rudolf Wyss Johann Rudolf Wyss, a Swiss author, born in Bern, March 13, 1781, died there, March 30, 1830. He was educated at German universities, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy in ...
-Johann Von Staupitz - Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner
Johann Von Staupitz Johann Von Staupitz, a German theologian, born in Meissen, died in Salzburg, Dec. 28, 1524. He was an Augustinian monk, obtained from the pope in 1501 general privileges for the n...
-Johanna Island - Johannes Schilling
Johanna Island Johanna Island, called also Anzooan, or Hinzuan, the most frequented of the Comoro islands, in Mozambique channel, E. coast of Africa; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. said to be about 20,...
-Johannes Secundus - Johatm Bechstein
Johannes Secundus Johannes Secundus, a Dutch poet, whose true name was Jan Everard, born at the Hague, Nov. 14, 1511, died in Utrecht, Sept. 24, 1536. He gained while young the degree of LL. D., and ...
-Johaun Gottlieb Heineccius - John B. Gough
Johaun Gottlieb Heineccius Johaun Gottlieb Heineccius, a German jurist, born in Eisenberg, Saxony, Sept. 11, 1081, died in Halle, Aug. 31,1741. He was educated at Leipsic and at Halle, where he becam...
-John Bachman - John Baptist Cramer
John Bachman John Bachman, an American naturalist and clergyman, born in Dutchess county, N. Y., Feb. 4, 1790. In 1815 he became pastor of the Lutheran church in Charleston, S. C. He was a collaborat...
-John Bascom - John Blair
John Bascom John Bascom, an American scholar and author, born at Genoa, N. Y., May 1, 1827. He is a graduate of Williams college and of An-dover theological seminary, and has been since 1855 professo...
-John Blair Linn - John Bramhall
John Blair Linn John Blair Linn, an American poet, born at Shippensburg, Pa., March 14, 1777, died in Philadelphia, Aug. 30, 1804. He graduated at Columbia college in 1795, and began to study law in ...
-John Brown - John Byrom
John Brown John Brown, a Scottish Biblical critic, born in Perthshire about 1722, died at Haddington, June 19, 1787. While tending sheep on a farm he learned to read, and soon mastered the Latin, Gre...
-John Cadwalader - John Catron
John Cadwalader John Cadwalader, an American soldier, born in Philadelphia in 1743, died Feb. 10, 1786. He was a member of the Pennsylvania convention in 1775; and at the commencement of the war was ...
-John Churchill - John Constable
John Churchill John Churchill. See Marlborough, Duke of. John Clayton John Clayton, an American botanist, born at Fulham, England, about 1090, died in Virginia, Dec. 15,1773. When about 20 years ...
-John Cordy Jeaffreson - John Dixwell
John Cordy Jeaffreson John Cordy Jeaffreson, an English author, born at Framlingham, Suffolk, in January, 1831. He studied medicine for a while, afterward entered Pembroke college, Oxford, where he g...
-John Doly Burke - John Dyer
John Doly Burke John Doly Burke, an American historian, born in Ireland, killed in a duel caused by a political quarrel, April 11, 1808, near Campbell's bridge, Va. He was educated at Trinity college...
-John E. Hodgson - John Emile Lemoinne
John E. Hodgson John E. Hodgson, an English painter, born in London in 1811. He is the son of a merchant at St. Petersburg, passed the early part of his life in his father's counting house, and subse...
-John Fanning Watson - John Frederick Cammerhoff
John Fanning Watson John Fanning Watson, an American author, born at Batsto, Burlington co., N. J., June 13, 1779, died in Germantown, Pa., Dec. 23,1860. He was successively a bookseller in Philadelp...
-John Frederick Herring - John Greaves
John Frederick Herring John Frederick Herring, an English painter, born in Surrey in 1795, died Sept. 22, 1805. His father was a London tradesman, an American by birth, and he himself was a stage coa...
-John Greiner - John Hadley
John Greiner John Greiner, an American journalist, born in Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1810, died in Toledo, O., May 13, 1871. He early became prominent in Ohio as a whig politician, and in the president...
-John Hanning Speke - John Hay
John Hanning Speke John Hanning Speke, an English traveller, born in Somersetshire, May 4, 1827, died near Bath, Sept. 15, 18G4. He served as a captain in the British army in the Punjaub under Lord G...
-John Haynes - John Heywood
John Haynes John Haynes, governor of Massaehusetts, and afterward of Connecticut, born in Essex, England, died in 1654. He came with Hooker's company to Boston in 1033, and soon after was chosen assi...
-John Hiram Lathrop - John Howard Hinton
John Hiram Lathrop John Hiram Lathrop, an American educator, born at Sherburne, Chenango co., N. Y., Jan. 22, 1799, died at Columbia, Mo., Aug. 2, 1866. He graduated at Yale college in 1819, and was ...
-John Hubbard Chirch - John James Garth Wilkinson
John Hubbard Chirch John Hubbard Chirch, D. D., an American clergyman, born at Rutland, Mass., March 17, 1772, died at Pelham, N. II., June 13, 1840. He graduated at Harvard college in 1797, and was ...
-John Jones - John Keill
John Jones John Jones, a Welsh clergyman, born in Carmarthenshire, died in London, Jan. 10, 1827. He completed his education at the Unitarian college of Hackney, and in 1792 was appointed classical a...
-John Kenyon - John Latham
John Kenyon John Kenyon, an English poet, born in the island of Jamaica about 1783, died at Cowes, in the isle of Wight, Dec. 3, 1856. His father was a wealthy planter, and he graduated at Peterhouse...
-John Leeds Bozman - John Lorimer Worden
John Leeds Bozman John Leeds Bozman, an American historian and jurist, born at Oxford, Talbot co., Md., Aug. 25, 1757, died there, April 23, 1823. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania in 17...
-John Lucas - John Manners Granby
John Lucas John Lucas, an English painter, born in London, July 4, 1807, died there, April 30, 1874. He was originally an engraver in mezzotint, but in 1829 became a portrait painter. Among his works...
-John Marston - John Mill
John Marston John Marston, an English poet, born about 1570, died about 1634. He was educated at Corpus Christi college, Oxford, and entered the Middle Temple, London, where he was chosen lecturer in...
-John Milledge - John Morley
John Milledge John Milledge, an American soldier and statesman, born in Savannah, Ga., in 1757, died at the Sandhills, near Augusta, Feb. 9, 1818. He was one of the party which captured Gov. Wright (...
-John Morton - John Norton
John Morton John Morton, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, born in Ridley, Chester (now Delaware) co., Pa., in 1724, died in April, 1777. He was for many years a surveyor. In 175...









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