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The American Cyclopaedia Vol2 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol2

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Bughis, Or Bugis
Bughis, Or Bugis, a people of the Malay archipelago, whose chief seat is in the S. W. peninsula of Celebes, in the territories of Boni and Waju. The Bughis traders are the chief carriers and factors o...
-Buhl Work
Buhl Work, a process of inlaying by the use of the saw, the name of which is derived from a French workman named Boule, who invented and carried it on during the earlier part of the reign of Louis XIV...
-Buhrstone
Buhrstone, the best material known for constructing millstones. It is a silicious rock found interstratified with the sands, marls, and sandstones of the tertiary formations of the Paris basin, peculi...
-Bukowina
Bukowina, a crownland of Cisleithan Austria, bounded N. and N. W. by Galicia, E. by Russia and Moldavia, S. by Moldavia, and W. by Transylvania and Hungary; area, 4,036 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 513,404, ...
-Bulau, Or Tikns
Bulau, Or Tikns(gymnura Rafflesii, Vig. and Horsf.), an insectivorous mammal of the talpidm or mole family, inhabiting Sumatra and Malacca. In general shape it resembles the American opossum; the muzz...
-Bulgaria
Bulgaria, a province of European Turkey, bounded N. by the Danube, which separates it from Roumania, E. by the Black sea, S. by the Balkan chain, which separates it from Roumelia, S. W. by Prisrend, a...
-Bulgarian Language And Literature
Bulgaria and the adjacent provinces of Macedonia are considered to have been the cradle of the old Slavic languages. The ancient Bulgarian language was the richest of them all, and was the Scriptural ...
-Bulimus
Bulimus, a genus of land snails of the family helicidm, largest and most numerous in the humid regions of northern Brazil. The shell is oblong or turreted, with the longitudinal margins unequal, with ...
-Bull Fight
Bull Fight, a Spanish amusement, originally introduced by the Moors, and adopted in all the cities of the kingdom, each of which has an arena of greater or less magnificence, called the plaza de toros...
-Bull Run
Bull Run, a small stream in N. E. Virginia, which, after a S. E. course of 20 m., falls into the Occoquan, a tributary of the Potomac, about 25 m. from Washington. Upon its banks were fought two impo...
-Bulldog
Bulldog (canis molossus) a variety of dog, of the division ferox, said to be peculiar to the British islands, and distinguished for its ferocity. The bulldog is low in stature, deep-chested, and stron...
-Bullfinch
Bullfinch (pyrrhula rubicilla, Pall.), a bird of the finch family, a native of northern and temperate Europe. The bill is remarkably short and thick, of a black color, and convex in all its outlines; ...
-Bullock. I. A S. E. County Of Georgia
Bullock. I. A S. E. County Of Georgia, lying between the Ogeechee and Cannouchee rivers; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,G10, of whom 1,744 were colored. The climate is healthy; the surface is gener...
-Bulow. I. Friedrich Wilhelm
Bulow. I. Friedrich Wilhelm, baron von, count of Dennewitz, a Prussian soldier, born on the family estate of Falkenberg, in the Alt-mark, Feb. 16, 1755, died in Konigsberg, Feb. 25, 1816. He entered t...
-Bulstrode Whitelocke
Bulstrode Whitelocke, an English statesman, born in London, Aug. 2, 1605, died at Chilton, Wiltshire, Jan. 28, 1676. He was the son of Sir James Whitelocke, judge of the common pleas, was educated at ...
-Bums And Scalds
Burns are produced by heated solids, or by the flames of some combustible substance, solid, liquid, or gaseous; scalds are produced by heated steam or liquid. The worst burns which occur commonly aris...
-Bunge. I. Alexander
Bunge. I. Alexander, a Russian botanist and traveller, born in Kiev, Sept. 24, 1803. He was educated at Dorpat, and, after taking the degree of M. D. in 1825, travelled in Siberia and the eastern part...
-Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill, a round, smooth elevation in Charlestown, Mass., 110 ft. high, commanding the peninsula of Boston. It is connected by a ridge on its southern slope with Breed's hill, about 75 ft. high, t...
-Bunting
Bunting, a name given to several birds of the order passeres, tribe conirostres, family fringillidce, and sub-family emberizinm. It is characterized by an acute conical bill, with a straight or nearly...
-Buonarotti. I. Michel Angelo
Buonarotti. I. Michel Angelo, an Italian painter, sculptor, and architect, born at the castle of Caprese in Tuscany, March 6, 1474, died in Rome, Feb. 17, 1563, cr, according to some authorities, in 1...
-Burbot, Or Eel-Pout
Burbot, Or Eel-Pout, a name given, both in England and the United States, to the fresh-water species of the genus lota, of which the ling is the salt-water representative. The anterior dorsal is small...
-Burglary
Burglary (law Lat. burgi latro, a robber of a burg or enclosure), the crime of breaking and entering in the night time the dwelling house of another, with intent to commit some felony therein. To cons...
-Burgos. I
A province of Spain, in the north and centre of Old Castile; area, 5,650 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 357,840. It is traversed by ranges of the Pyrenees and the Iberian mountains, the principal chain being t...
-Burgoyne. I. John
Burgoyne. I. John, an English general, horn about 1730, died in London, August 4, 1792. He has been commonly represented as a natural son of Lord Bingley, but in Burke's Peerage he is mentioned as t...
-Burgundians, Or Bnrgnndii
Burgundians, Or Bnrgnndii, the name of a primitive German race, a branch of the Goths, whose original territory lay between the Oder and the Vistula, from which they were driven out by the Gepidse. Th...
-Burgundy
Burgundy (Fr. Bourgogne), the name of three kingdoms, of a feudal duchy, and lastly of a French province. I. First Kingdom of. This was founded about 413 by the Burgundians, who gradually extended the...
-Burial
Three principal methods have been employed at different times and in different countries for the disposition of the dead: mummification, incineration, and interment. Mummification was practised by the...
-Buriats
Buriats, the collective name of nomadic Mongolian tribes scattered over the S. part of the province of Irkutsk, Siberia, from the Chinese boundary northward toward the upper Lena region, and westward ...
-Burke. I. A W. County Of North Carolina
Burke. I. A W. County Of North Carolina, intersected by the Catawba river; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,777, of whom 2,314 were colored. It abounds in beautiful mountain scenery, and is traversed...
-Burkhard Christoph Munnich
Burkhard Christoph Munnich, count, a Russian soldier, born in the then Danish duchy of Oldenburg, May 20, 1683, died in St. Petersburg, Oct. 27, 1767. He was the son of a peasant ennobled by Frederick...
-Burleigh, Or Burghley, William Cecil
Burleigh, Or Burghley, William Cecil, lord, an English statesman, born at Bourne, Lincolnshire, Sept. 13, 1520, died Aug. 4, 1598. His father was master of the robes to Henry VIII. He was educated for...
-Burlington
Burlington, a central county of New Jersey, extending entirely across the state, and bounded S. E. by the Atlantic and N. W. by the Delaware river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 53,639. Several stre...
-Burmah, Or The Kingdom Of Ava
Burmah, Or The Kingdom Of Ava, a state in the S. E. of Asia, beyond the Ganges, reaching from lat. 19 25' to 28 15' N., and from Ion. 93 2' to 102 10' E.; area, about 200,000 sq. m...
-Burmann
Burmann, the name of a Dutch family distinguished for learning. I. Francisins, born at Leyden in 1628, died in 1079. The son of a Protestant minister who had been driven from France, he officiated as ...
-Burning Glass And Burning Mirror
Burning Glass And Burning Mirror, instruments to concentrate the sun's heat. The usual burning glass is simply a double convex lens, which brings the rays of solar heat to a focus at nearly the same p...
-Burnley
Burnley, a town of Lancashire, England, on the river Burn, 22 m. N. of Manchester, and 40 m. N. E. of Liverpool; pop. in 1871, 31,608. It is on the Leeds and Liverpool canal, and is connected by railw...
-Burnouf I. Eugene
Burnouf I. Eugene, a French orientalist, born in Paris, Aug. 12, 1801, died there, May 28, 1852. He was the son of a distinguished philologist, Jean Louis Burnouf (1775-1844), inspector and librarian ...
-Burr I. Aaron
Burr I. Aaron, an American clergyman and educator, born in Fairfield, Conn., Jan. 4, 1716, died Sept. 24, 1757. In 1738 he became pastor of the Presbyterian church in Newark, N. J., and in 1748 the se...
-Burrampoor, Or Burhanpur
Burrampoor, Or Burhanpur, a town of British India, presidency of Madras, in the Northern Circars, 10 m. S. W. of Ganjam; pop. estimated at 20,000. Situated a few miles from the W. shore of the bay of ...
-Burschenschaft
Burschenschaft (from Bursche, a youth, a student), an association of German students, originally designed to regulate their social habits and to foster a spirit of nationality. The first organization ...
-Burton-Upon-Trent
Burton-Upon-Trent, a market town of Staffordshire, England, 21 m. E. of Stafford, in a parish of its own name, which lies partly in Staffordshire and partly in Derbyshire; pop. in 1871, 26,358. It is ...
-Bury
Bury, a parish, parliamentary borough, and manufacturing town of Lancashire, England, between the Roche and the Irwell, 8 m. N. of Manchester, with which city it communicates by railway and canal; pop...
-Bury St. Edmunds
Bury St. Edmund's, a parliamentary and municipal borough and market town of England, in the county of Suffolk, on the river Larke, 23 m. N. W. of Ipswich; pop. of the borough in 1871, 14,928. It is we...
-Busbequius, Augerius Gislenius
Busbequius, Augerius Gislenius Augier Ghis-Len De Busbecq, a Flemish scholar and statesman, born at Commines in 1522, died near Rouen, Oct. 28, 1592. He was employed by Ferdinand I. on several importa...
-Bushel
Bushel, an English measure of 8 gallons, divided into 4 pecks, used for dry materials, as grain, fruit, coal, etc. The gallon, which by act of parliament of George IV., c. 74, 7, is defined to ...
-Bushire, Or Abu-Shehr
Bushire, Or Abu-Shehr, a seaport town of Persia, in the province of Fars, on the N. E. coast of the Persian gulf, at the northern extremity of a peninsula, to the north and east of which is the bay. T...
-Bushmen
Bushmen (Dutch, Bosjesmans), a tribe of S. Africa, inhabiting both banks of the Orange river. The desert region occupied by them S. of the river is within the nominal limits of Cape Colony, and is des...
-Bustard
Bustard (otis), a large bird, peculiar to the dry, grassy plains of Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has not been found on the American continent, and only one species in Australia. Bustards were formerly...
-Butcher Bird
Butcher Bird, a name applied to the great shrike, belonging to the order passeres, tribe dentirostres, and family lariidae. The best known genus of the family is lanius (Linn.), characterized by a mod...
-Bute. I. John Stuart
Bute. I. John Stuart, third earl of, a British statesman, born in Scotland in 1713, died in London, March 10, 1792. In his 10th year he succeeded to his father's title and estates. He was educated at ...
-Butler
Butler, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. A W. county of Pennsylvania; area, 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,510. The surface is somewhat uneven, and the soil sandy, but yielding fair c...
-Butte
Butte, a N. county of California, bounded W. by the Sacramento river, S. E. by the Feather river and its middle fork, and watered by Butte creek and the forks of the Feather river; area, 1,458 sq. m.;...
-Butter Tree
Butter Tree (bassia), a genus of the natural order sapotacece, found in India and Africa, the seeds of which yield a sweet buttery substance. The Indian butter, fulwa, ovphul-wara tree (B. butyracea) ...
-Butterfly
Butterfly, the popular name of several families of insects of the order lepidoptera, undergoing a complete metamorphosis, having four wings, and a tongue changed into a suctorial organ; from the last ...
-Butternut, Or White Walnut
Butternut, Or White Walnut(juglans cine-rea, Linn.), a beautiful broad-headed American tree, growing 20 to 30 ft. high, with numerous spreading branches and a smooth ash-colored bark. Its leaves, 12 t...
-Button
Button, an article used for the fastening of clothing and for ornament. Buttons may be divided into two classes, those with shanks or loops for fastening them to garments, and those without. The manuf...
-Buxton
Buxton, a market town and watering place of Derbyshire, England, 30 m. W. N. W. of Derby, and 20 m. S. E. of Manchester; pop. in 1871, 6,229. It has long been famous for its mineral waters. The princi...
-Buxton. I. Sir Thomas Fowell
Buxton. I. Sir Thomas Fowell, a British legislator and philanthropist, born at Castle Hedingham, Essex, April 1, 1786, died at his residence near Aylsham, Norfolk, Feb. 19, 1845. He received his educa...
-Buzzard
Buzzard, the name properly given to the buteonince, a subfamily of the birds of prey of the family falconidm. Their general form is heavy; their flight is vigorous and long continued, but less rapid t...
-Byron. I. George Gordon
Byron. I. George Gordon, lord, an English poet, born in London, Jan. 22, 1788, died at Missolonghi, Greece, April 19,1824. His grandfather, Admiral John Byron, was the younger brother of William, fift...
-Byssus. I
The name given to the long, delicate, shining fibres by which some of the bivalve shells attach themselves to submarine bodies. It is sometimes coarse and strong, as in the common mussel (mytilm eduli...
-Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire, called also the Roman empire of the East, the Eastern empire, the Greek empire, and the Lower empire. On the death of Theodosius the Great, A. D. 395, the division of the great Roman...
-Byzantine Historians
Byzantine Historians, a series of little read but important lower Greek authors, who wrote between the 4th and 15th centuries chiefly on the history of the Byzantine empire. Among the most noteworthy ...
-Byzantium
Byzantium, an ancient Greek city on the shores of the Bosporus, on a part of the site of the modern Constantinople. It was originally settled .by a band of Megarian colonists before the middle of the ...
-C
THE third letter in the English alphabet, C? as it is in the Latin and in those of all the modern European languages. Its form is derived by Scaliger from the Greek kappa (K), by dropping the upright ...
-C. Rawlinson
C. Rawlinson, a young Englishman in the military service of the East India company, had been sent to Persia in 1833. In 1835 he was stationed at Kermanshah, and there commenced the study of the inscri...
-C. Scribonins. I Curio
A Roman general and statesman, son of a celebrated orator of the same name, died in 53 B. C. Be was with the consuls when the seditious tribune L. Apuleius Saturninus was murdered in 100 B. C. In 90 h...
-Cabala
Cabala (properly Kabbalah, from kabbel, to receive), a Hebrew word signifying reception, used to designate certain religious teachings supposed to have been handed down from remote times. Jewish write...
-Cabbage
Cabbage, a plant belonging to the order cruciferce and genus brassica, the order comprehending also the scurvy grass, pepper grass, mustard, cress, radish, and turnip, and the genus including also the...
-Cabbage Palm
Cabbage Palm (areca oleracea), the highest of the American palms, often attaining an elevation of 150 ft., with a trunk not more than 6 in. in diameter. It is found abundantly in the West Indies, and ...
-Cabinet
Cabinet, a term first applied in England to that portion of the privy council supposed to possess more particularly the confidence of the sovereign, and to be consulted by him privately on important m...
-Cabiri
Cabiri (Gr. ), certain divinities anciently worshipped in Egypt, Phoenicia, and Greece. Little is positively known respecting them. In Egypt there appear to have been eight; in Greece three, and per...
-Cable
Cable, a strong rope or chain. The name has of late years been applied also to slender ropes used for telegraphic purposes, very likely on account of their great length. Cables are occasionally used t...
-Cabool, Or Cabul. I
The N E. part of Afghanistan, bounded N. by the Hindoo Koosh and Kafiristan, E. by the Punjaub, S. by Sewis-tan, S. W. by Candahar, and W. by the region of the Hazareh. It is about 250 m. in length fr...
-Cabot. I. John, Or Giovanni Caboto
Cabot. I. John, Or Giovanni Caboto, or, in the Venetian dialect, Zuan Calbot or Zuan Caboto, the discoverer of the continent of North America. His name first occurs in the archives of Venice; on March...
-Cacao
Cacao, a tree of the genus theobroma, belonging to the natural order sterculiacece, the seeds or beans of which furnish the cocoa of commerce. It is called by the Mexicans choco-lat, from which comes ...
-Caceres. I. A W. Province Of Spain
Caceres. I. A W. Province Of Spain, forming the N. part of Estremadura; area, 8,006 sq. m.; pop. in 1867 (estimated), 303,700. The norths ern portion is a picturesque mountain land, rich in water and ...
-Cachexia
Cachexia (Gr. , bad, and condition), a term used in medicine to signify an unnatural and unwholesome condition of the body, not immediately and directly dependent on local disease, but rather on t...
-Cactus
Cactus, a genus of plants, the type of the natural order cactacem, comprising numerous species, all of which are natives of America. The name was originally given by Theophras-tus to a spiny plant of ...
-Cadamosto, Or Ca Da Mosto, Luigi
Cadamosto, Or Ca Da Mosto, Luigi, an Italian navigator, born in Venice in 1432, died about 1480. He took passage for the Netherlands in 1454, but the vessel was forced by contrary winds to put in at C...
-Cadiz. I. A S. Province Of Spain
Cadiz. I. A S. Province Of Spain, being the part of Andalusia bounded N. by Seville, E. by Malaga and the Mediterranean, S. by the straits of Gibraltar and the Atlantic, and W. by the Atlantic and the...
-Cadmium
In 1818 the attention of chemists was called to some samples of zinc that were sold for medicinal purposes; they gave, when in solution, a suspiciously yellow color with sulphuretted hydrogen, and hen...
-Cadmus
Cadmus, a mythical king of Thebes, son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and brother of Eu-ropa, who is said to have introduced into Hellas the 16 simple letters of the Greek alphabet. He left his native ...
-Caecum
Caecum (Lat. ccecus, blind), the rounded or sac-like commencement of the large intestine. The small intestine opens into the large intestine nearly at right angles, and at a distance of 2 1/2 inches f...
-Caen
Caen, a town of Normandy, France, capital of the department of Calvados, upon the river Orne, 10 m. from its mouth, and 120 m. W. N. W. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 41,564. It is on the line of the Paris a...
-Caerleon
Caerleon, a market town of Monmouthshire, England, on the Usk, 3 m. N. E. of Newport; pop. in 1871, 1,268. The parish church (St. Cadoc's) has a tower of the early English style. There is a handsome s...
-Caesarea
Caesarea (now Kaisariyeh). I. An ancient city of Judea, on the Mediterranean, 55 m. N. N. W. of Jerusalem. It was founded by Herod the Great, upon the site of a town called Turris Stratonis. He formed...
-Caesium
Caesium, a metal discovered in 1860-'61 by Bunsen and Kirchhoff by means of spectrum analysis. It so closely resembles potassium in its properties that it had escaped the notice of chemists who pursue...
-Caffa, Or Feodosia Kaffa
Caffa, Or Feodosia Kaffa (Theodosia), a seaport of S. Russia, on the S. E. coast of the Crimea, 60 m. E. by N. of Simferopol; pop. about 10,000, exclusive of the garrison. It is built on a wide, open ...
-Caffarelli
Caffarelli, an Italian vocalist, whose real name was Gaetano Majorano, born at or near Bari in 1703, died in Naples in 1783. He was the son of a poor peasant, and his fine voice early attracting atten...
-Caffeine
Caffeine, the active principle in coffee, first extracted by Runge in 1820. It is a weak alkaloid, identical in chemical composition with theine, the active principle of tea. Being found in all the va...
-Caffraria, Or Kaffraria. I
Also called Ra-firland, a country in the E. part of South Africa, between Cape Colony and Natal, extending N. on the coast from the Great Kei river to the Umzimculu, about 140 m., and inland about 90 ...
-Cagli Ari. I
A province of the kingdom of Italy, forming the S. portion of the island of Sardinia, bounded N. by Sassari and on all other sides by the sea; area, 5,224 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 392,981. It comprises t...
-Cagliari, Or Caliari, Paolo
Cagliari, Or Caliari, Paolo, commonly known as Paul Veronese, an Italian painter of the Venetian school, born in Verona about 1530, died in Venice in 1588. .His father, Gabriele Cagliari, a sculptor, ...
-Cagots
Cagots, a formerly proscribed and outcast race of E. and S. France and N. Spain, whose origin has been ascribed to the Visigoths of Aquitaine, whence the somewhat forced derivation from caos Goths or ...
-Cahors
Cahors, a town of France, capital of the department of Lot, on the right bank of the river Lot, which encloses the town on three sides, 60 m. N. of Toulouse; pop. in 1866, 14,-115. It stands on a rock...
-Caiaphas
Caiaphas (styled by Josephus Joseph who was also Caiaphas), a Jewish high priest from about A. D.27 to 36. He was appointed by the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus in place of Simon son of Camith, a...
-Cains Asinins Pollio
Cains Asinins Pollio, a Roman general, born in 76 B. C., died A. D. 4. He was descended from an obscure family of the Marrucini, and is first spoken of at the age of 22 as the accuser of C. Cato, who ...
-Cains Caesar Augustas Germanieus Caligula
Cains Caesar Augustas Germanieus Caligula, the third emperor of Rome, born at Antium, Aug. 31, A. D. 12, put to death in Rome, Jan. 24, 41. He was the youngest son of Germanieus, the nephew of Tiberiu...
-Cains Cornelias Tacitus
Cains Cornelias Tacitus, a Roman historian, born probably about A. D. 55, died probably after the accession of the emperor Hadrian (117). He was early appointed to a public office under Vespasian, and...
-Cains Flavins Valerius Aurelius Claudius Constantine I
Cains Flavins Valerius Aurelius Claudius Constantine I., surnamed the Great, emperor of Rome, born, according to the best authorities, at Na-issus (now Nissa) in Upper Mcesia, in February, 272, died n...
-Cains Messius Quintns Trajanns Decius
Cains Messius Quintns Trajanns Decius, emperor of Rome from 249 to 251, born at Bubalia in Pannonia, of unknown parentage. He became a Roman general and senator, and when the legions of Mcesia revolte...
-Cains Sollins Modestns Sidonius Apollinaris
Cains Sollins Modestns Sidonius Apollinaris, a Latin author and saint, born probably in Lyons about A. D. 431, died at Clermont in Auvergne, in 482 or 484. He was a diligent student, and early acquire...
-Cains Suetonius Tranquillus
Cains Suetonius Tranquillus, a Roman historian, born about A. D. 72, died probably about 140. He was the son of a military tribune, and the younger Pliny helped him to become magister epistolarum. Fro...
-Cains Valerins Catullus
Cains Valerins Catullus. a Roman poet, born in Verona in 87 B. C, died in or after 47. He belonged to a noble family, and his father was a hospes of Julius Caesar, a tie sacred among the Romans. The s...
-Cairo
Cairo (Arab. Kahireh, the victorious, or Musr el-Kahireh; called by the natives Mmr), the capital of Egypt, the most populous city of Africa, and after Constantinople of the Turkish empire, situated a...
-Caisson
Caisson (Fr. caisse, a case or chest), in architecture, a panel sunk below the surface in soffits or ceilings. In civil engineering, the term is applied, first, to a hollow floating box, usually of ir...
-Caithness
Caithness, the most northern county of Scotland, bounded N. by the Atlantic ocean and Pentland firth, E. and S. E. by the North sea, and W. by Sutherlandshire; area, 712 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 39,989, ...
-Caius
It A Roman general, son of Marcus Agrippa and Julia, the daughter of Augustus Caesar. He was adopted by Augustus, served under Tiberius in Germany, and was sent as proconsul against the Arabians, Arme...
-Caius Cilnius Maecenas
Caius Cilnius Maecenas, a Roman statesman, born between 73 and 63, died in Rome in 8 B. C. Though his family was only of the equestrian order, it was yet of high antiquity. M;ecenas received an excell...
-Caius Jnlins Caesar
Caius Jnlins Caesar, a Roman general and statesman, born, according to authorities long universally credited, July 12, 100 B. C, but, according to the almost unanswerable proof recently advanced by Mo...
-Caius Marius
Caius Marius, a Roman soldier, born near Arpinum in 157 B. C, died in Rome in 80. His origin was humble, and his parents are said to have been clients of the Ilerennii, an eminent plebeian family. Tha...
-Cajamarca
Cajamarca (formerly Caxamarca). I. A N. department of Peru, bounded by the departments of Amazonas, Piura, Loreto, Ancachs, and Libertad; area, about 14,000 sq. m.; pop. 273,-000, including many mesti...
-Cajeput Oil
Cajeput Oil, a volatile oil, distilled from the leaves of a small myrtaceous tree or shrub, found alone in the island of Booro in the Malay archipelago, a species of melaleuca named the cajuputi, thou...
-Cajetan, Or Cajetanus
Cajetan, Or Cajetanus(Ital. Gaetano). I. Benedetto. See Boniface VIII. II. Tommaso de Yio, an Italian cardinal, born at Gaeta, Feb. 20, 14G9, died in Rome, Aug. 9, 1534. He entered the order of Domini...
-Calabar Bean
Calabar Bean, the fruit of physostigma venenosum (Gr. , bellows, and a prick), a climbing plant of the family leguminosm, which grows by the river sides in western Africa. The leaves, which are ...
-Calabash Tree
Calabash Tree (crescentia cujete), a native of the West Indies and the continent of America. It grows to about the height and bulk of an apple tree, with crooked horizontal branches, has wedge-shaped ...
-Calabria
Calabria, the southern-part of Italy, extending from the province of Potenza (Basili-cata) to the strait of Messina, between lat. 37 53' and 40 8' N., and Ion. 15 40' and 17 10' E....
-Caladium
Caladium, a genns of plants of the order aracece or aroidcce. Spathe convolute, straight; spadix with hermaphrodite flowers, rudimentary below and with sterile appendix; anthers many, 1-celled, openin...
-Calais
Calais, a city and one of the capitals of Washington county, Maine, at the head of tide water on the St. Croix river, 15 m. from Pas-samaquoddy bay, opposite St. Stephen, New Brunswick, and 75 m. E. ...
-Calambuco
Calambuco, a valuable timber tree, found only in the northern provinces of the island of Luzon. For ship building it is esteemed superior to live oak or teak. It resembles the latter when dressed, has...
-Calamine
Calamine, a name given to two different ores of zinc, the silicate and the carbonate. The most common ore worked for zinc is the anhydrous carbonate. It occurs crystallized in rhomboidal forms, of vit...
-Calamites
Calamites, extinct species of fossil plants, originally classed by most botanists as crypto-gamous, being regarded as gigantic equiseta. The horsetail of our marshes is a slender herbaceous plant, wit...
-Calamus
Calamus (Gr. ). I. A sort of reed, which the ancients used as a pen for writing on parchment or papyrus. Those which came from Egypt and Onidus were the most esteemed. When the calamus became blunt,...
-Calamy. I. Edmund
Calamy. I. Edmund, an English clergyman, born in London in February, 1600, died there, Oct. 29, 1666. He was educated at Pembroke hall, Cambridge, where he failed to gain a fellowship in consequence o...
-Calatrava La Vieja
Calatrava La Vieja (Old Calatrava), an ancient city of La Mancha, Spain, now in ruins, on the Guadiana, 12 m. N. E. of Ciudad Real. The city was in the middle ages one of the keys of the Sierra Morena...
-Calaveras
Calaveras, a N. central county of California, watered by Mokelumne, Calaveras, and Stanislaus rivers; area, 936 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,895, of whom 1,441 were Chinese. The Sierra Nevada is on the E. ...
-Calcareous Spar, Or Calc Spar
Calcareous Spar, Or Calc Spar, crystallized carbonate of lime, a very common mineral. It is remarkable for the great variety of its crystalline forms derived from its primary obtuse rhomboid, no less ...
-Calcareous Springs. Rain Water
Calcareous Springs. Rain Water, containing carbonic acid gas, and other waters also more highly charged with this gas, have the property of dissolving the carbonate of lime with which they come in con...
-Calcasieu
Calcasieu, a river of Louisiana, not navigable. It rises in Sabine parish, in the western part of the state, flows through Rapides and Calcasieu parishes, and after a southerly course of about 200 m. ...
-Calcium
Calcium (Lat. calx, lime), the metallic basis of lime. It is one of the most abundant and important constituents of the crust of the globe, occurring as limestone, gypsum, fluor spar, and phosphates, ...
-Calculating Machines. Plato
Calculating Machines. Plato, in the 4th century B. C, invented a sliding square to solve the problem of two mean proportionals, and Nicomedes, three centuries afterward, invented his celebrated concho...
-Calculi
Calculi, stone-like concretions which form in different parts of the body, often about some undissolved particle in the fluid, which holds the matter of the concretion in solution, and again as a depo...
-Calculus
Calculus, in mathematics, a mode of calculating. In this broad signification we may speak of common arithmetic and algebra as forms of a calculus. Thus also trigonometry is called the calculus of sine...
-Calcutta
Calcutta (Kali Ghatta, the ghaut or landing place of the goddess Kali, wife of Siva), a city of Hindostan, capital of the province of Bengal, metropolis of British India, and seat of the supreme gover...
-Caldera
Caldera, a seaport town of Chili, in the province of Atacama, 52 m. W. N. W. of Copia-po, in lat. 27 S., Ion. 70 57' W.; pop. between 3,000 and 4,000. The town was built about 1840 to serve ...
-Caldiero
Caldiero, a village of 1ST. Italy, in the. province and 8 m. E. of Verona; pop. about 2,000. Here, and on the neighboring height of Colonna, Napoleon was checked (Nov. 12, 1796) by an Austrian army un...
-Caldwell
Caldwell, the name of five counties in the United States. I. A N. W. county of North Carolina, bounded S. E. by the Catawba river; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,476, of whom 1,380 were colored. A ...
-Caleb Charles Colton
Caleb Charles Colton, an English writer, born in 1780, died by his own hand at Fontaine-bleau, France, April 28, 1832. He graduated at Cambridge in 1801, was chosen fellow of King's college, and in 18...
-Caleb Cushing
Caleb Cushing, an American jurist and statesman, born in Salisbury, Essex co., Mass., Jan. 17, 1800. At the age of 17 he graduated at Harvard college, and for nearly two years subsequent was tutor of ...
-Caleb Sprague Henry
Caleb Sprague Henry, an American author, born in Rutland, Mass., Aug. 2, 1804. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1825, and, after a theological course at Andover and New Haven, settled in 1828 as a...
-Caledonia
Caledonia, the name given by the Romans to that portion of Scotland N. of the Glota and Bodotria, the modern Clyde and Forth, which formed the northern boundary of their province. The Caledonii were o...
-Calendar
Calendar (Lat. calendarium, from calendce, the first day of the Roman month), a method of numbering and arranging days, weeks, months, and years, or a mechanical contrivance for registering that arran...
-Calendering
Calendering (Fr. calandre, from Gr. cylinder), the process of finishing cotton and linen goods by passing the cloth between smooth cylinders, which are made to revolve in contact. The term also ...
-Calf
Calf, the young of a cow, or of the bovine genus of quadrupeds. Whatever breed the calf may spring from, its natural food is milk; coming from the mother in a warm state, it is exactly adapted to the ...
-Calhoun
Calhoun, the name of ten counties in the United States. I. A W. county of West Virginia, intersected by the Little Kanawha river and its W. fork; area, 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,939, of whom 8 were ...
-Calico Printing
The term calico (from Calicut, on the Malabar coast, whence it was first imported) is applied in England to white or unprinted cotton cloth, but.in the United States to cotton cloth upon which colored...
-Calicut
Calicut, a seaport of British India, in the province of Malabar, presidency of Madras, situated on the Indian ocean, 100 m. S. W. of Seringapatam, in lat. 11 15' N., Ion. 75 50' E.; pop. abo...
-California
California, one of the western states of the American Union, situated on the Pacific ocean, between lat. 32 20' and 42 N., and Ion. 114 20' and 124 25' W. It is bounded N. by Orego...
-Caliph
Caliph (Arab. khalif or khalife, successor), the title of the spiritual and temporal successors of Mohammed. The prophet seems to have made no provision for the future administration of the affairs of...
-Calixtus
Calixtus, the name of three popes. I. The first, born in slavery, was bishop of Rome from about 217 to 223, when he is said to have suffered martyrdom. II. Gnido of Burgundy, born near Besancon, died ...
-Calla
Calla, a genus of plants, belonging to the arum family, marked by an open and spreading spathe, with a white upper surface, an oblong spadix entirely covered with flowers, heart-shaped leaves, red ber...
-Callao
Callao, a fortified town of Peru, the principal seaport of the republic, on the river Rimac, in the department and 6 m. W. of Lima, of which city it is the port; lat. 12 6' S., Ion. 77 14' W...
-Callaway. I. A S. W. County Of Kentucky
Callaway. I. A S. W. County Of Kentucky, bordering on Tennessee, on the W. bank of the Tennessee river, here navigable by steamboats; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,410, of whom 812 were colored. L...
-Callcott. I. Sir Augustus Wall
Callcott. I. Sir Augustus Wall, an English landscape painter, born at Kensington in 1779, died there, Nov. 25, 1844. He was elected a member of the royal academy in 1810, when he exhibited his picture...
-Callisen. I. Hendrik
Callisen. I. Hendrik, a Danish surgeon, born at Preetz, Holstein, May 11, 1740, died in Copenhagen, Feb. 5, 1824. He was a surgeon in the navy, and studied abroad at the expense of the Danish governme...
-Callus
Callus, any unnatural hardness in the body, particularly of the skin, as on the hands or feet, from friction or pressure. When these excrescences are of such a size or so situated as to produce pain o...
-Calmar, Or Kalmar. I
A Ian or district of Sweden, province of Gothland, bounded N. W. and N. by Ostergothland, E. by the Baltic and Calmar sound, S. by the Ian of Blekinge, and W. by Kronoberg and Jonkoping; area, 4,480 s...
-Calmucks
Calmucks, a people of the Mongol race, inhabiting parts of the Russian and Chinese empires. They were formerly called Eleutes; the Tartars call them Khalimik, or apostates; and they call themselves De...
-Calomel
Mercury combines with chlorine in two proportions, forming the subchloride or calomel, and the bichloride or corrosive sublimate, the one consisting of one equivalent of chlorine and two of mercury, H...
-Caloric Engine
Caloric Engine, a prime mover driven directly by heat, without the intervention of steam. The first advantage of such engines is evidently the absence of steam boilers and the dangers incident to thei...
-Calorimeter
Calorimeter (Lat. color, heat, and Gr. , measure), an instrument for measuring quantities of heat, without making any assumption as to what heat is. One of the first employed for this purpose was co...
-Caloyers, Or Calogeri
Caloyers, Or Calogeri(Gr , a handsome old man), Greek monks, mostly of the order of St. Basil. Their principal convents are on Mount Athos, and are especially resorted to by young men of good famil...
-Caltanisetta. I
A province of central Sicily, bounded N. by Palermo, E. and S. E. by Catania, S. by the Mediterranean, and S. W. and W. by Girgenti; area, 1,455 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 230,066. It comprises the three d...
-Calvados
Calvados, a department of France, bounded N. by the English channel, E. by the department of Eure, S. by Orne, and W. by La Manche; area, 2,130 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 454,-012. It is formed from a part...
-Calvert. I. George
Calvert. I. George, the first Lord Baltimore, born at Kipling in Yorkshire about 1580, died in London, April 15, 1632. He graduated at Oxford in 1597, when but 17 years old, was sent abroad to travel,...
-Calvin Colton
Calvin Colton, an American clergyman and political writer, born at Longmeadow, Mass., in 1789, died in Savannah, Ga., March 13, 1857. He graduated at Yale college in 1812, studied theology at Andover,...
-Calvin Kingsley
Calvin Kingsley, an American clergyman, born at Annsville, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1812. died in Beyrout, Syria, April 6,1870. He was licensed to preach in 1837. In 1841 he graduated at Alleghany college, Mea...
-Calydon
Calydon, an ancient city of AEtolia, celebrated in the heroic age of Greece. It was founded by AEtolus in the land of the Curetes, and named after his son Calydon. Homer celebrates the fertility of th...
-Cambay. I
A city of British India, province of Guzerat, situated at the head of the gulf of Oambay, at the mouth of the Mahee river, in lat. 22 21' N., Ion. 72 32' E., 75 m. N. N. W. of Surat, and 230...
-Cambodia
Cambodia (Fr. Cambodge), a kingdom of Further India, under the protectorate of France, between lat. 10 and 14 N., and Ion. 103 and 108 E., bounded N. by Siam, N. E. by Anam, S. E. ...
-Cambrai, Or Cambray
Cambrai, Or Cambray, a fortified city of France, department of Le Nord, on the right bank of the Scheldt, at the head of the canal of St. Quentin, 105 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 22,207. It was a...
-Cambridge
Cambridge, a city, and one of the capitals of Middlesex co., Mass., a suburb of Boston, lying W. of that city, and separated from it by the river Charles, which is nearly a mile wide. It embraces four...
-Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire, an E. county of England, bordering on the counties of Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Hertford, Bedford, Huntingdon, and Northampton; area, 893 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 186,363. About t...
-Cambyses
Cambyses, the second Persian king, succeeded his father Cyrus in 529 B. C, and died in 522. He is probably the Ahasuerus mentioned in Ezra iv. 6-22 as prohibiting the Jews from rebuilding their temple...
-Camden
Camden, the name of four counties in the United States. I. A S. W. county of New Jersey, separated from Pennsylvania by the Delaware river; area, 220 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 46,193. The surface is gener...
-Camden. I
A city and'the capital of Camden county, N. J.; pop. in 1870, 20,045. It is built on a plain on the left bank of the Delaware, immediately opposite the city of Philadelphia, with which it is connected...
-Camel
Camel (camehis), a genus of ruminating animals, without horns, forming a connecting link between the ruminants and pachyderms. It was one of the earliest animals domesticated by man, and is mentioned ...
-Camellia
Camellia, a genus of shrubs belonging to the natural order ternstromiacew, and furnishing the domestic drug tea and some of the most beautiful of cultivated flowers. All the species are natives of Chi...
-Camera Lucida
Camera Lucida, an instrument invented by Dr. Wollaston, and constructed on the principle that when a beam of light in passing through a glass prism strikes an interior surface at an incident angle of ...
-Camera Obscura
Camera Obscura, an instrument invented in the middle ages, according to some by Roger Bacon, and to others by Battista Porta, in which the image of illuminated objects formed by a convex lens is recei...
-Camerarius. I. Joachim
Camerarius. I. Joachim, a German scholar, born at Bamberg, April 12, 1500, died in Leip-sic, April 17, 1574. His proper name was Liebhard, which he changed into Camerarius, in honor of the office of c...
-Camerino
Camerino (anc. Camerinum), a town of Italy, capital of a district in the province of Ma-cerata, 40 m. S. W. of Ancona; pop. about 12,000. The finest public buildings are the episcopal palace, the cath...
-Cameron
Cameron, the name of three counties in the United States. I. A N. W. central county of Pennsylvania, intersected by Sinnemahoning creek; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,273. The surface is hilly, an...
-Cameronians
Cameronians, a sect of Scotch Presbyterian dissenters, named after Richard Cameron. James I. had enforced on his Scottish subjects a liturgy which the people abhorred. This exercise of the royal prero...
-Cameroons Mountains
Cameroons Mountains, the loftiest group upon the W. coast of Africa, lying between lat. 3 57' and 4 25' N., and Ion. 9 and 9 30' E., covering an area of about 700 sq. m. They form ...
-Camille Jordan
Camille Jordan, a French statesman, born in Lyons, Jan. 11, 1771, died in Paris, May 19, 1821. He was educated by the Oratorians, opposed the revolutionary government, distinguished himself in the ins...
-Camisards
Camisards (so called from the camisa, a kind of smock frock which they wore), French Protestants of the Cevennes, who rebelled at the beginning of the 18th century; they are also called Cevenols. As e...
-Camlyatzin, Or Cacnmazin
Camlyatzin, Or Cacnmazin, a Mexican king, died in 1521. He was nephew of Montezuma, and reigned over Tezcuco, the principal city of Anahuac. The nobles, priests, and people saw with indignation the hu...
-Camoens
Camoens (Port. Camoes), Luiz de, a Portuguese poet, born in Lisbon in 1524, died there in 1579. His father was a sea captain, and was shipwrecked in 1552 on the coast of Goa. The son commenced his stu...
-Camorra
Camorra (probably from Span, camorra, quarrel), a secret society of Neapolitan malefactors, which flourished especially under the reign of Ferdinand II. (1830-'59), who tolerated them. They were thoro...
-Campagna Di Roma
Campagna Di Roma, the plain surrounding Rome. It nearly coincides with the ancient province of Latium, is bounded N. by the Tiber and Teverone, E. by a branch of the Apennines, S. and S. W. by the Med...
-Campan
Campan, a town of France, in the department of Hautes-Pyrenees, in the valley of the same name, 18 m. S. E. of Tarbes; pop. about 3,700. The valley is bounded by Mont Aigre, traversed by the river Ado...
-Campania
Campania, a division of ancient Italy, lying S. E. of Xatium, from which it was separated by the river Liris, bounded N. and E. by Sam-nium, S. E. by Lucania, and S. and W. by the Tyrrhenian sea. The ...
-Campanile
Campanile (Ital., from cam-pana, a bell), a bell tower, either attached to a church or an independent edifice. The most remarkable specimens are those at Cremona, Florence, Pisa, Bologna, Ravenna, and...
-Campbell
Campbell, the name of four counties in the United States. I. A S. county of Virginia, lying between James river on the N. and Staunton river on the S.; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 28,384, of whom ...
-Campbell Morfit
Campbell Morfit, an American chemist, born in Herculaneum, Mo., in 1820. He studied at Columbian college, Washington, D. C, and subsequently devoted himself to the study of chemistry in the laboratory...
-Campeachy, Or Campeche. I
A state of the Mexican republic, occupying the southern portion of the peninsula of Yucatan; area, 26,090 sq. m.; pop. according to a recent census about 90,000, a large proportion of whom are Indians...
-Camphene
Camphene (a contraction of camphogen, from camphor and Gr. , to produce), a name commonly applied to purified oil of turpentine, but which is also the generic name for the volatile oils or hydrocarb...
-Camphor
Camphor, the name given to different concrete volatile products, commonly obtained by distillation from the chipped wood, roots, and leaves of certain aromatic plants, and condensed by sublimation int...
-Campus
Campus, in Roman antiquity, a common public park, or vacant space near the city for shows, combats, exercises, and similar uses. Ancient Rome possessed eight campi. The term is derived from the ancien...
-Canal
Canal, an artificial watercourse, usually constructed for the passage of boats, although the term is applicable to aqueducts for other purposes, as the first canals of the ancient Egyptians and Assyri...
-Canaletto, Or Canale, Antonio
Canaletto, Or Canale, Antonio. I. An Italian painter, born in Venice, Oct. 18, 1697, died there, Aug. 20, 1768. His father was a scene painter, and educated him to the same profession. He resided for ...
-Cananore, Or Cannra
Cananore, Or Cannra, a seaport town of British India, in the province of Malabar, presidency of Madras, situated on a small bay, in lat. 11 52' N., Ion. 75 26' E., 45 m. N. W. of Calicut; po...
-Canara
Canara, a district of British India, occupying a narrow strip of the W. coast of Hindo-stan, between the summits of the Ghaut mountain range and the Arabian sea, bounded N. by Goa, E. by Bejapoor and ...
-Canaris, Or Kanaris, Constantine
Canaris, Or Kanaris, Constantine, a Greek naval officer and statesman, born in the island of Ipsara about 1790. At the outbreak of the revolution of 1821 he was captain of a merchant vessel. Shortly a...
-Canary Bird
Canary Bird (fringilla Canaria, Swains.), a well known member of the finch family, a native of the Canary islands, but naturalized in Europe and the United States. The native bird differs materially f...
-Canary Islands, Or Canaries
Canary Islands, Or Canaries(Span. Idas Ca-narias), a Spanish colony in the Atlantic ocean, off the N. W. coast of Africa, between lat. 27 and 30 N., and Ion. 13 and 19 W., comprisi...
-Cancer
Cancer (Lat, a crab), the fourth sign in the zodiac, designated by the mark also, a constellation of stars formerly occupying the sign Cancer. The trppic of Cancer is the northern boundary of the to...
-Candahar, Or Kandahar. I
A S. province of Afghanistan, consisting of mountains and arid plains, bounded N. by the territory of the Hezareh, N. E. by Cabool, S. E. by Sewistan, S. by Beloochistan, and W. by Seistan and Herat. ...
-Candia, Or Crete
Candia, Or Crete(anc. Greta). I. An island forming the southern limit of the Grecian archipelago, lying between the Morea on the N. W., Asia Minor on the N. E., and Africa on the S., and constitutin...
-Candle
Candle, a small cylindrical body of tallow, wax, spermaceti, or other fatty substance, formed on a loosely twisted wick, used for a portable light. Although in the English translation of the Bible we ...
-Candlenut
Candlenut (aleurites triloba), a tree of the family euphorbiacem. Flowers showy, in thyrsi; fruit a nut about two inches in diameter. It is 20 to 30 ft. high, wide-spreading, the leaf trilobed or near...
-Candy
Candy, (audi, or Kandy (Cingalese, Mahar Nuwara, great city), a town of Ceylon, capital of a kingdom of the same name till 1815, when it came into possession of the British. It stands on the shore of ...
-Cane Brake
Cane Brake, a term applied to the extensive growths of the arundinaria macrosperma, the most gigantic of the grasses, which occur in the southern portions of the United States, and are to be found cov...
-Cane I. Della Scala
Cane I. Della Scala, surnamed the Great, popularly known as Can Grande or Cangrande (i. e., great dog, a name supposed to be derived from the figures of mastiffs in the armorial bearings of the family...
-Canea, Or Khania
Canea, Or Khania, the principal seaport of the island of Candia or Crete, on the IT. coast of Candia, 30 m. W. N. W. of Retimo and 60 m. W. by N. of Candia; pop. about 10,000, of whom 3,500 are Mohamm...
-Canker
Canker, a form of aphthous ulceration of the mucous membrane of the mouth, most commonly seen in children, and usually connected with derangement of the digestive apparatus. The ulcers are small, circ...
-Canker Worm
Canker Worm, the caterpillar of a nocturnal lepidopterous insect, or moth, of the family geometra, Linn, (or phalcenites, Lat.), of the group hyberniadce, and the genus anisopteryx. In the moths from ...
-Cannes
Cannes; a seaport of France, department of Alpes-Maritimes, on the Mediterranean, 15 m. S. W. of Nice; pop. in 1866, 9,618. The climate is unhealthy in the summer, but in the winter it is a favorite r...
-Canning. I. George
Canning. I. George, a British statesman, born in London, April 11, 1770, died at Chiswick, Aug. 8, 1827. His father, a London barrister of an ancient family, was disinherited upon his marriage with Mi...
-Cannjt
Cannjt, a town of ancient Apulia, in Italy, on the S. bank of the river Aufidus (Ofanto), about 6 m. from its mouth in the Adriatic, and about 8 m. N. E. of the ancient Canusium. Near it, and probably...
-Cannon
Cannon, a heavy implement used to set projectiles in motion by means of the explosion of gunpowder. Its general form is that of a tube closed at one end. The term is applied to all heavy firearms whic...
-Canon
Canon (Gr. a straight rod, hence a measuring rod or rule). Collections of the old Greek authors, as furnishing the rule or standard of excellence, were called models or classics. The Greek word is...
-Canon (2)
Canon, an ecclesiastical dignitary who possesses a prebend, or revenue allotted for the performance of divine service in a cathedral or collegiate church. Canons were originally priests who lived in c...
-Canon Law
Canon Law, the public and general code of laws of the Catholic church. This church claims to be a perfect visible society, containing within herself all that is neces3ary for a complete and independen...
-Canonization
Canonization, the ceremony by which a deceased person, who has previously been beatified (see Beatification), is proclaimed a saint in the Roman and Greek churches. In the Roman church this is done by...
-Canopus, Or Canobus
Canopus, Or Canobus, a city of Egypt, in lat. 31 N., 15 m. N. E. of Alexandria, at the mouth of the W. branch of the Nile, which was thence called the Canobic branch. In the times of the Pharaohs...
-Canosa
Canosa (anc. Canusium), a town of Italy, in the province of Bari, 14 m. S. W. of Barletta; pop. about 10,000. It contains a cathedral of the 6th century, the remains of a triumphal arch near the river...
-Canstatt, Or Cannstadt
Canstatt, Or Cannstadt, a town of Wurtem-berg, on both sides of the Neckar, 2 m. N. E. of Stuttgart; pop. in 1872, 11,804, chiefly Protestants. The old town, on the right bank of the Neckar, is much i...
-Cantabria
Cantabria, a district of ancient-Spain, bordering on the S. coast of the bay of Biscay, and including, according to some of the earlier geographers, what are now the provinces of Oviedo, Santander, Bi...
-Cantacczenus, Or Cantacnzene
Cantacczenus, Or Cantacnzene, the name of a distinguished Grseco-Wallachian family, claiming direct descent from the Byzantine emperor John Cantacuzenus. They have for several centuries occupied a pro...
-Cantal
Cantal, a S. department of France, mostly formed of the S. part of ancient Auvergne, bounded N. by the department of Puy-de-Dome, E. by Haute-Loire and Lozere, S. by Aveyron, and W. by Lot and Correze...
-Cantemir. I. Demetrins
Cantemir. I. Demetrins, hospodar of Moldavia, born Oct. 26, 1673, died Aug. 23, 1723. His father, Constantine, held the same office from 1685 to 1693, and his brother, Antiochus, from 1695 to 1701. De...
-Canterbury
Canterbury, a city of England, county of Kent, on the river Stour, 52 m. E. S. E. of London; pop. in 1871,16,508. The city has no commercial or manufacturing importance, but is one of the markets of t...
-Cantharides
Cantharides (Gr. a beetle), coleopterous insects of several species, made use of in medicine. The most preferred is the can-tharis vesicatoria, procured mostly in the southern parts of Europe, but t...
-Canton
Canton (properly Quang-chow-foo, pearl city of commerce), a city of China, capital of the province of Quang-tung, in lat. 23 7' N., Ion. 113 14' E., about 45 m. from the sea, on the Canton r...
-Canute, Or Knnt
Canute, Or Knnt, the Great, the second king of Denmark of that name, and first Danish king' of England, born in Denmark about 995, died at Shaftesbury in 1035. He was the son of King Sweyn, whom he ac...
-Canvas-Back
Canvas-Back (aythya Vallisneria), a duck of the family fuligulince, or sea ducks, peculiar to North America, and celebrated as the most delicious of all water fowl. The sea and its bays and estuaries ...
-Caoutchouc, Or India Rubber
Caoutchouc, Or India Rubber (called by the South American Indians cahuchu), the inspissated milky juice of a number of trees and plants found in Mexico and Central America, in Brazil, Guiana, Peru, an...
-Cape Blanco
Cape Blanco, a low rocky point on the W. coast of Africa, in lat. 20 47' N., Ion. 17 4' W., extending from the main shore in a S. W. direction for more than 30 m. into the Atlantic, and form...
-Cape Breton
Cape Breton, an island lying between lat. 45 27' and 47 5' N., and Ion. 59 40' and 61 40' W., belonging to the province of Nova Scotia, from which it is separated on the S. W. by t...
-Cape Cod
Cape Cod, the sandy peninsula extending into the Atlantic ocean which forms the S. E. extremity of Massachusetts, and is coextensive with Barnstable county. This tongue of land, commencing at the line...
-Cape Colony, Or Cape Of Good Hope
Cape Colony, Or Cape Of Good Hope, a British possession comprising nearly all of the African continent south of lat. 28 S., and between Ion. 16 30' and 28 30' E. The colony is bounded N...
-Cape Girardeau
Cape Girardeau, a S. E. county of Missouri; area, 875 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,558, of whom 1,64G were colored. It is separated from Illinois on the east by the Mississippi river, and is drained by th...
-Cape May
Cape May, a county at the S. extremity of New Jersey; area, 2.50 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,349. Its E. boundary is formed by the Atlantic ; Delaware bay washes its W. shore, and Tuckahoe creek makes a p...
-Cape Town
Cape Town, the capital of Cape Colony, S. Africa, situated at the bottom of Table bay, and at the foot of Table mountain, lat. 33 56' S., Ion. 18 28' E., about 32 m. N. of the Cape of Good H...
-Cape Verd Islands
Cape Verd Islands, a Portuguese colony situated in the Atlantic ocean, 320 m. W. of Cape Verd, between lat. 14 45' and 17 13' N., and Ion. 22 45' and 25 25' W.; area, about 1,650 ...
-Caper
Caper, the flower bud of a low shrub (cap-paris spinosa), which grows on walls and ruins, or on rocks and accumulations of rubbish, in the south of Europe and the Levant. It is very common in Italy an...
-Capetians
Capetians, the third race of French kings, beginning with Hugh Capet (987). The origin of the Capets is usually traced back to Robert the Strong, a warrior of Saxon descent, who held in fief from Char...
-Capillary Vessels
Capillary Vessels (Lat. capillaris, hairlike), the small vessels intermediate between the arteries and the veins; so called from their minute size, and from the fact that they are all of nearly unvary...
-Capital Punishment
Capital Punishment (Lat. caput, head, the source of life; hence capitalis, anything affecting life, as crimen capitale, capital crime; poena capitalis, capital punishment), in modern law, the punishme...
-Capitol
Capitol (Lat. Capitolinus) and Capitolinc Hill (Mons Capitolinus), the temple of Jupiter Op-timus Maximus in ancient Rome, and the hill on which it stood, and which from it received its name. The latt...
-Capitularies
Capitularies, certain laws enacted under the Frankish kings, and so named from the circumstance of their being divided into capi-tula, or chapters. They were issued by Childe-bert, Clothaire, Carloman...
-Capitulation. I
In war, the act of surrendering to the enemy upon stipulated terms. Among the most remarkable capitulations recorded in history are those which took place during the last ten years: of Vicksburg, July...
-Capo Distria
Capo D'Istria, a town of Istria, Austria, in a district of the same name, 8 m. S. S. E. of Trieste; pop. in 1869, 9,169. It occupies a nearly circular island, which is connected with the mainland by a...
-Capo Distria, Or Capodistiias
Capo D'Istria, Or Capodistiias, a noble family, connected with the early history of the modern Greek kingdom. I. John Anthony, count of Capo d'Istria, born in Corfu about 1780, assassinated at Nauplia...
-Cappadocia
Cappadocia, an ancient division of Asia Minor, in the east of that peninsula, between the Taurus, which separated it from Cilicia, and the Euxine, and the middle Halys and the upper Euphrates. It was ...
-Cappel
Cappel, the name of a French family which produced many jurists and theologians during the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries. I. Guillaume, advocate general of the parliament of Paris, and in 1491 rector...
-Capri
Capri (anc. Caprea), a small and rocky Italian island, in the Mediterranean, S. of the entrance to the bay of Naples; pop. about 5,000. It is celebrated for its fine climate, which makes it a favorite...
-Capsicum
Capsicum, a genus of plants, from four species of which are obtained as many varieties of the so-called cayenne pepper. The name capsicum is also applied to the product itself. The genus is of the sol...
-Capsule
Capsule (Lat. capsula, a small box), a name given by botanists to any kind of dry seed vessel containing many cells and seeds, such as poppy heads, etc. The pods of peas and beans, etc, are called cap...
-Captain
Captain, the rank designating a commander of a company in infantry, or of a squadron or troop in cavalry, or the chief officer of a ship of war. In most continental armies of Europe captains are consi...
-Capua
Capua, a city of Italy, in the province of Caserta, on the river Volturno, 14 m. from its mouth in the Mediterranean, and 15 m. N. of Naples; pop. about 12,000. The city is strongly fortified, the wor...
-Capuchins
Capuchins, a religious congregation belonging to the Franciscan order, instituted by Mat-teo Baschi about 1525. Believing that he was divinely commissioned to revive the old spirit of his order, and l...
-Capybara
Capybara (hydrochcerus capydara), the largest of living rodent animals, confined exclusively to South America. It is more than 3 ft. long, with feet so short that its bulky hoglike body, clothed with ...
-Carabobo. I
A 1ST. W. maritime state of Venezuela, bordering upon Caracas, Barinas, Barquisimeto, and Coro; area about 7,000 sq. m.; pop. 235,000. It is divided into two distinct parts, the highlands and the llan...
-Caracas. I. A N. State Of Venezuela
Caracas. I. A N. State Of Venezuela, bordering on the Caribbean sea, Barcelona, Guayana, Apure, Barinas, and Carabobo; area, 25,461 sq. m., 4,527 of which are uncultivated; pop. about 300,000. The sta...
-Caraccioli. I. Domenico
Caraccioli. I. Domenico, marquis, an Italian statesman, born in Naples in 1715, died in 1780. In 1763 he was ambassador to London, and in 1770 he was sent in the same capacity to France, where he beca...
-Carat
Carat, the name of an imaginary weight by which diamonds are rated; and also a term used for expressing the fineness or purity of gold. The alloy is supposed to be divided into 24 parts called carats,...
-Caravaggio. I. Michel Angelo Amcrighi Da
Caravaggio. I. Michel Angelo Amcrighi Da, an Italian painter, born at Caravaggio in 1569, died near Porto Ercole in 1609. His father was a mason. He himself in his boyhood was a paint grinder for arti...
-Caravm And Caravansary
Caravm And Caravansary, an organized company of travellers or pilgrims in Asia and Africa, and an edifice for their lodging. The word is derived from the Persian carvan, a trader. Caravans are formed ...
-Caraway
Caraway, the fruit or seeds of the carum carui, a small biennial plant of the family um-belliferm, which grows wild in the meadows and pastures of central and northern Europe, and is cultivated in gar...
-Carbolic Acid
Carbolic Acid (synonymes, carbon oil acid, phenol, phenyl hydrate, phenyl oxyhydrate, phenyl alcohol, phenous acid, phenic acid, phenylic acid, phenylous acid, phenylic alcohol, phenolic acid, phenyla...
-Carbon
Carbon (Lat. carbo, coal; symbol, C), one of the most common and important substances in nature, occurring in a great variety of forms in the vegetable, animal, and mineral kingdoms, in the two first ...
-Carbon Disulphide
Carbon Disulphide (synonym es, bisulphide of carbon, sulpho-carbonic acid, sulpho-car-bonic anhydride, sulphur alcohol, carburet of sulphur), a chemical compound of much value in the arts, prepared by...
-Carbon. I
An E. county of Pennsylvania; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 28,144. It is a mountainous district, made up of parallel ridges running in a N. E. and S. W. direction. The largest of these is the...
-Carbonari
Carbonari (Ital. carbonajo, a charcoal burner), a secret political society, which became notorious in Italy and France about 1818, though it had existed for a number of years before. About 1810, when ...
-Carbonates
Carbonates, the combinations of carbonic acid with bases. These are very numerous, notwithstanding that the acid itself is one of the most feeble, and is easily expelled with effervescence by nearly a...
-Carbonic Acid Gas
Carbonic Acid Gas (synonymes, carbon dioxide, carbonic anhydride), a gas discovered in 1757 by Dr. Black, and called by him fixed air. He detected it in limestone and magnesia, from which he found it ...
-Carbonic Oxide, Or Carbon Monoxide
Carbonic Oxide, Or Carbon Monoxide, a gas containing one equivalent less of oxygen than carbon dioxide, being a combination of one equivalent each of carbon and oxygen - hence represented by the symbo...
-Carbuncle
Carbuncle, an unhealthy inflammation of the surface, accompanied by a sloughing of a circumscribed portion of the subcutaneous cellular tissue; of the same nature as a boil, only deeper seated and of ...
-Carburetted Hydrogen
Carburetted Hydrogen, the name of two compounds of carbon and hydrogen, one distinguished as light carburetted hydrogen, and the other as olefiant gas. The former is the fire damp of miners, also call...
-Carcassonne
Carcassonne (anc. Carcaso), a city of Lan-guedoc, France, capital of the department of Aude, 50 m. S. E. of Toulouse, on the river Aude; pop. in 1866, 22,173. The river divides it into two parts, the ...
-Cards
Cards, in cloth manufacture, combs of a peculiar construction, which serve to disengage the fibres of an entangled mass and lay them parallel. Every fibre on the card is doubled up, and they are after...
-Cardamom
Cardamom, a name rather vaguely applied in commerce to the aromatic seeds of various East India plants, of the natural order zingibe-racece. The of Dioscorides and amomi uva of Pliny is probably the...
-Cardenas
Cardenas, a maritime city of Cuba, capital of the civil district of its own name, in the Western department, 103 m. E. of Havana; pop. about 11,000, comprising 7,700 whites, 500 free negroes, and 2,80...
-Cardiff
Cardiff, the county town of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the river Taff, near its entrance into the Severn, 22 m. W. of Bristol; pop. in 1871, 39,675. At the beginning of this century Cardiff was a mere ...
-Cardinal
Cardinal (Lat. cardinalis, principal or chief), originally, any clergyman bearing an official appointment in a principal church. By degrees, however, the title became the exclusive designation of the ...
-Cardinal Bird, Or Cardinal Grosbeak
Cardinal Bird, Or Cardinal Grosbeak, a bird of the finch family (cardinalis Virginianus, Bonap.). It has a very large bill, moderate wings, and a graduated tail longer than the wings; the length is 8 ...
-Cardinal York Stuart Henry Benedict Maria Clement
Cardinal York Stuart Henry Benedict Maria Clement, the last of the Stuart family in the male line, born in Rome in 1725, died at Fras-cati in 1807. He was the son of the pretender James Francis Edward...
-Cardwell. I. Edward
Cardwell. I. Edward, an English clergyman, born at Blackburn, Lancashire, in 1787, died in Oxford, May 23, 1861. He studied at Oxford, in 1809 became fellow of his college, tutor, and lecturer, and in...
-Caria
Caria, an ancient country situated in the S. W. extremity of Asia Minor, separated from Phrygia and Lydia by the Cadmus and Messogis mountains. It was intersected by low mountain chains, running far o...
-Caribs
Caribs, an Indian nation which when Columbus reached the new world occupied Porto Rico, the Lesser Antilles, and a portion of the mainland of South America, in what is now Guiana and Venezuela. The na...
-Caribou
Caribou (rangifer caribou), the American reindeer. Richardson observes that there are two well marked permanent varieties of caribou that inhabit the fur countries: one of them, the woodland caribou a...
-Caries
Caries (Lat. caries, decay), a chronic inflammation of bone, accompanied generally by the formation of matter, which tends to make its way externally. The so-called spongy tissue, of which are compose...
-Carinthia
Carinthia (Ger. Karnthen), a duchy in the Cisleithan half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, bounded N. by Salzburg and Styria, E. by Styria, S. by Carniola and Italy, and W. by Tyrol; area, 4,006 sq. ...
-Carisbrooke
Carisbrooke, an agricultural village, once a thriving market town, of the isle of Wight, England, situated at the foot of a hill, near the. centre of the island, in a parish of its own name, 1 m. S. o...
-Carl Christian Ram
Carl Christian Ram, a Danish archaeologist, born in Brahesborg, island of Fünen, Jan. 16, 1795, died in Copenhagen, Oct. 20, 1864. He was educated at the university of Copenhagen, of which in 1821 he ...
-Carl Ritter
Carl Ritter, a German geographer, born in Quedlinburg, Aug. 7, 1779, died in Berlin, Sept. 28, 1859. He completed his studies at Halle, and in 1798 became tutor in the Beth-mann-Hollweg family at Fran...
-Carl Schurz
Carl Schurz, an American statesman, born at Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia, March 2, 1829. He was educated at the gymnasium of Cologne and the university of Bonn, which he entered in 1846. At the outbr...
-Carlee, Or Karli
Carlee, Or Karli, a village of Hindostan, in the collectorate of Poonah, presidency of Bombay, 40 m. E. of Bombay. It is remarkable for a Buddhist cave temple, hewn from the face of a precipice, about...
-Carletoff. I
An eastern county of Ontario, Canada, bounded N. by the Ottawa river and intersected by the Rideau river; area, 647 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 21,739, of whom 16,-774 were of Irish origin or descent. It is...
-Carli, Or Carli-Rubbi, Giovanni Rinaldo
Carli, Or Carli-Rubbi, Giovanni Rinaldo, count, an Italian economist and antiquary, born at Capo d'Istria, April 11, 1720, died in Milan, Feb. 22, 1795. In 1744 he was appointed by the senate of Venic...
-Carlisle
Carlisle, a borough and the capital of Cumberland co., Penn., on the Cumberland Valley and the South Mountain Iron company's railroads, 18 m. W. by S. of Harrisburg; pop. in 1870, 6,650. It is situate...
-Carlisle. I. Frederick Howard
Carlisle. I. Frederick Howard, fifth earl of, an English statesman, born May 28, 1748, died at Castle Howard, Sept. 4, 1825. In the house of peers he first distinguished himself by his recommendation ...
-Carlo Andrea Pozzo Di Borgo
Carlo Andrea Pozzo Di Borgo, count, a Russian diplomatist of Corsican origin, born at Alata, near Ajaccio, March 8, 1764, died in Paris, Feb. 15,1842. He completed his studies at the university of Pis...
-Carlo Borromeo
Carlo Borromeo, count, a saint and cardinal of the Roman church, born at Arona on Lago Maggiore, Oct. 2, 1538, died in Milan, Nov. 4, 1584. From his earliest childhood he was remarkable for his virtue...
-Carlo Crivelli
Carlo Crivelli, an Italian painter, born probably between 1430 and 1440, died after 1493. If not a native of Venice, he studied his art there under Antonio and Bartolommeo Vivarini, whose style is app...
-Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Goldoni, an Italian dramatist, born in Venice in 1707, died in Paris in 1793. He passed his childhood in the midst of festivals and theatrical performances, with which his grandfather amused his...
-Carlo Gozzi
Carlo Gozzi, count, an Italian dramatist, born in Venice about 1720, died April 4, 1806. He early published some poetry, but was obliged to enlist in the army owing to pecuniary embarrassment. After t...
-Carlo Marochetti
Carlo Marochetti, baron, an Italian sculptor, born in Turin in 1805, died in Paris, Dec. 28, 1867. He studied in Paris and Rome, and after 1848 went to London. Among his principal works are: The Fall...
-Carlo Matteucci
Carlo Matteucci, an Italian savant, born in Forli, June 21, 1811, died in Leghorn in June, 1868. He studied at Bologna and in Paris, returned to Forli in 1831, and there began his scientific experimen...
-Carlo Passaglia
Carlo Passaglia, an Italian theologian, born at San Paolo, near Lucca, May 12, 1812. He became a Jesuit in 1827, studied philosophy and theology in the Roman college, and taught successively canon law...
-Carlo Pel Ion Persano
Carlo Pel Ion Persano, count, an Italian admiral, born in Yercelli, March 11, 1806. He entered the navy in 1824, commanded a squadron in the war of 1859, and in 1860 became vice admiral and a member o...
-Carlo Pepoli
Carlo Pepoli, an Italian author, born in Bologna in 1801. He studied at the university of that city, and in 1831 became a member of the revolutionary provisional government. After its speedy overthrow...
-Carlo Poerio
Carlo Poerio, baron, an Italian statesman, born in Naples in April, 1803, died in Florence, April 28, 1867. He early followed his father into political exile, and was repeatedly under arrest after ret...
-Carlos Auersperg
Carlos Auersperg, prince, an Austrian statesman, born May 1, 1814. Though the head of the principal branch of his family, one of the oldest in the empire, he lived in retirement on his estates till th...
-Carlos De Siguenza Y Gongora
Carlos De Siguenza Y Gongora, a Mexican scholar, born in Mexico in 1645, died there, Aug. 22, 1700. He was chaplain to the archbishop of Mexico, and taught astronomy and mathematics in the university ...
-Carlos Maunel Do Cespedes
Carlos Maunel Do Cespedes, president of the revolutionary republic of Cuba, born in Baya-mo, April 18, 1810. His education commenced in the Dominican convent of his native city, and was completed at t...
-Carlovingians, Or Carolinians
Carlovingians, Or Carolinians, an imperial family who during the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries gave sovereigns to Germany, France, and Italy. Their origin is traced back to Arnulf and Pepin of Landen, ...
-Carlovitz
Carlovitz (Slavic, Karlovic; Hun. Karlo-ticz), a town of Transleithan Austria, in the Slavonian division of the Military Frontier, on the Danube, 8 m. S. of Peterwardein; pop. in 1869, 4,419. It has a...
-Carlow
Carlow (originally Catherlogh). I. A S. E. county of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, bounded by the counties Wicklow, Wexford, Kilkenny, and Queen's; area, 346 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 51,472. It i...
-Carlsbad, Or Karlsbad
Carlsbad, Or Karlsbad, a town of Bohemia, 70 m. W. N. W. of Prague; pop. in 1870, 7,276. It is situated in a narrow and picturesque valley on the Topi, near its confluence with the Eger, and is neatly...
-Carlsburg, Or Karlsbnrg
Carlsburg, Or Karlsbnrg(Hun. Karoly-Fejer-vd)'), a fortified town of Transylvania, on the Maros, 44 m. S. of Klausenburg; pop. in 1870, exclusive of the garrison, 7,955. It consists of . the upper tow...
-Carlsruhe, Or Karlsruhe
Carlsruhe, Or Karlsruhe, a city of Germany, capital of the grand duchy of Baden, 39 m. N. W. of Stuttgart, and 18 m. K N. E. of Baden-Baden; pop. in 1871, 36,622. It stands on an elevated plain of the...
-Carmagnole
Carmagnole, a French song and dance of the revolutionary era, which greatly contributed to exasperate the people against Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, who were lampooned in it as Monsieur and Madam...
-Carmelites
Carmelites, an order of friars in the Roman Catholic church. Mt. Carmel appears to have been a favorite place of resort for Hebrew ascetics, and after the Christian era hermits were fond of fixing the...
-Carmine
Carmine, the coloring matter of cochineal. To separate it, cochineal is exhausted with boiling water, and the clear decanted liquid is treated with cream of tartar, alum, or acid oxalate of potassium....
-Carmona
Carmona (anc. Carmo; Moorish, Karmunah), a city of Spain, in the province and 20 m. N. E. of Seville, on the Carhones river; pop. in 1867, 20,074. It is a well built and handsome town, on an isolated ...
-Carmontelle
Carmontelle,or Carmontel, a French playwright and artist, born in Paris, Aug. 25, 1717, died Dec. 20, 1806. He excelled as a writer of short plays (proverbes) adapted for private theatricals, and as a...
-Carmyora
Carmyora (Lat. caro, gen. carnis, flesh, and voro, to eat), an order of mammals which feed upon flesh, as distinguished from the herbivora, or vegetable feeders. This order has been divided into vario...
-Carnac
Carnac, a town of Brittany, France, in the department of Morbihan, 18 m. S. E. of Lo-rient, and 9 m. by road from the station of Auray, on the railway from Brest to Nantes; pop. in 1866, 2,804. It is ...
-Carnarvon, Or Caernarvon
Carnarvon, Or Caernarvon, the chief town of Carnarvonshire, Wales, a parliamentary and municipal borough, situated upon the Menai strait, at the mouth of the Seiont, 55 m. W. S. W. of Liverpool; pop. ...
-Carnatic
Carnatic, an ancient province of British India, on the E. coast of the peninsula, extending from Cape Comorin to lat. 1G N., with an average breadth of about 90 m.; area, about 50,000 sq. m.; pop...
-Carne
Carne. I. Louis Marcein, count de, a French author, born at Quimper, Feb. 17, 1804. He early entered the diplomatic service. In 1839 he was elected to the chamber of deputies, where he was a follower ...
-Carneades
Carneades, a Greek philosopher of the Skeptic school, considered as the founder of the third or new academy, born at Cyrene about 213 B. C, died in 129. Of the incidents of his life very little is kno...
-Carnelian
Carnelian (Lat. caro, gen. carnis, flesh; called by the ancients sarda), a clear red chalcedony, one of the numerous varieties of the quartz family of minerals. (See Agate.) It is found resembling fle...
-Carniola
Carniola (Ger. Krain), a duchy in the Cis-leithan half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, bounded N. by Carinthia, N. E. by Styria, E. by Croatia, S. by Croatia and the Coastland, and W. by the Coastla...
-Carnival
Carnival, a festival observed in most Roman Catholic countries immediately before the commencement of Lent, but celebrated with more parade in Rome and Venice than any other cities. Its name is derive...
-Carnot
Carnot. I. Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, a French statesman and tactician, born at Nolay, Burgundy, May 13, 1753, died in Magdeburg, Prussia, Aug. 2, 1823. When only 18 he was made a second lieutenant of...
-Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Sheridan (Norton)
Caroline Elizabeth Sarah Sheridan (Norton), an English authoress, born in 1808. She is a granddaughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, and sister of Lady Dufferin and the duchess of Somerset. Her first ...
-Caroline Islands, Or New Philippines
Caroline Islands, Or New Philippines, an archipelago of Oceania, between the Philippines, the Ladrones, the Marshall islands, and Papua. They lie between lat. 3 and 12 N. and lon. 135 a...
-Caroline Jones (Chisholm)
Caroline Jones (Chisholm), an English philanthropist, born at Wootton, Northamptonshire, in 1810. In her 20th year she married an officer of the Indian army, with whom she proceeded to Madras, where s...
-Caroline Matilda
Caroline Matilda, queen of Denmark, daughter of Frederick Lewis, prince of Wales, and sister of George III. of England, born July 22, 1751, died at Celle, May 10, 1775. She married in 1766 Christian V...
-Caron, Or Carron, Franciscus
Caron, Or Carron, Franciscus, a Dutch navigator, perished by shipwreck off Lisbon in 1674. He was of a French Protestant family which had taken refuge in the Low Countries. He engaged when very young ...
-Carp
Carp, a malacopterygian fish, of the family cyprinidm, genus cyprinus, having the body covered with large scales, a single elongated dorsal fin, fleshy lips, small mouth, with a barbel at the upper pa...
-Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains, a mountain system in central Europe, encircling Transleithan Austria on the N. W., N. E., and S., and separating it from Moravia, Austrian Silesia, Galicia, Bukowina, and Roumani...
-Carpet
Carpet, a sort of thick cloth, used principally for covering the floors of apartments. In its place, at a very early period, straw, rushes, and other coarse materials were used. Improving upon this, t...
-Carpocrates, Or Carpocras
Carpocrates, Or Carpocras, an Alexandrian theologian, of the Gnostic school, flourished under the reign of Hadrian in the 2d century. The fundamental Gnostic idea of a Supreme Being entirely disconnec...
-Carpzov
Carpzov, a family of learned Germans, said to be descended from a Spanish family named Car-pezano, who were driven from their country by religious persecution at the beginning of the 16th century. The...
-Carracci
Carracci. I. Ludovico, the founder of the Bolognese school of painting, born in Bologna in 1555, died there in 1619. His first master, Prospero Fontana, a Bolognese painter, so little appreciated his ...
-Carrara Marble
Carrara Marble, a beautiful white marble, of fine granular texture, deriving its name from the city of Carrara. The Parian differs from it in being composed of the most delicate little plates or scale...
-Carrickfergus
Carrickfergus, a parliamentary borough and seaport of Ireland, county Antrim, situated on Belfast lough, 7 m. N. E. of Belfast; pop. in 1871, 9,452. The town extends about a mile along the shore of Ca...
-Carrier Pigeon
Carrier Pigeon, a variety of the common pigeon (columba luia). This, they?igeon jwive of Belon, the pigeon domestique of Brisson, the wild rock pigeon of the British, and the colom-men of the Welsh, i...
-Carroll
Carroll, the name of 14 counties in the United States. I. An E. county of New Hampshire, bordering on Maine; area, about 5G0 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 17,332. Lake Winnipiseogee separates it from Belknap ...
-Carrot
Carrot (damns carota, Tourn.), a plant of the natural order umbelliferce, or parsley family. It is a biennial, bearing seeds on stems 2 to 2 1/2 ft. high, in clusters called umbels. It may be seen gro...
-Carson City
Carson City, the seat of justice of Ormsby co., Nevada, and capital of the state, situated in Eagle valley, 4 m. from Carson river, and 178 m. N. E. of San Francisco; pop. in 1870, 3,042, of whom 697 ...
-Carstairs, Or Carstares, William
Carstairs, Or Carstares, William, a Scottish divine, born at Cathcart, near Glasgow, Feb. 11, 1649, died Dec. 28, 1715. He was educated at Edinburgh and Utrecht, devoted himself warmly to the prince o...
-Cartagena
Cartagena, a fortified maritime city of the United States of Colombia, capital of a province of the same name and of the state of Bolivar, 410 m. N. N. W. of Bogota; lat. 10 25' N., Ion. 75 ...
-Cartagena, Or Carthagcna (Anc
Cartagena, Or Carthagcna (Anc. Carthago Nova, New Carthage), a seaport town of Spain, in the province and 29 m. S. S. E. of Murcia; lat. 37 36' K, lon. 0 56' W.; pop., including suburbs, abo...
-Cartago
Cartago, an inland city of the United States of Colombia, in the state of Cauca, on the right bank of the river Cauca, 130 m. W. of Bogota, for the trade of which city it is the entrepot; pop. about 8...
-Carter
Carter. I. A N. E. county of Tennessee, bordering on North Carolina, drained by affluents of Holston river, and by Doe river; area, about 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,909, of whom 573 were colored. It ...
-Carthage
Carthage (called by the Carthaginians Karth-ftadtha, the new city; the Carthago of the Romans, Kapxnowv of the Greeks), an ancient city and state in the north of Africa. The city, near the site of mod...
-Carthusians
Carthusians, a branch of the religious order of the Benedictines, founded by St. Bruno in 1086. The first monastery of the order was built in a wild and solitary district six miles from Grenoble, in t...
-Cartilage
Cartilage, a firm, elastic substance, of an apparently homogeneous structure, bearing some analogy to bone, and entering largely into the composition of the animal skeleton; in its intimate structure ...
-Cary
Cary. I. Alice, an American author, born in the Miami valley, 8 m. N. of Cincinnati, Ohio, April 20, 1820 died in New York, Feb. 12, 1871. Herparents were people of considerable culture, but she had o...
-Cass
Cass, the name of seven counties in the United States. I. A S. W. county of Michigan, bordering on Indiana; area, 528 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,094. It has a level surface, diversified by a number of s...
-Casas Grandes
Casas Grandes (Span., great houses), a town of about 4,000 inhabitants in Chihuahua, Mexico, on the Casas Grandes or San Miguel river, 35 m. S. of Llanos, which first became noted for ruined edifices,...
-Casaubon
Casaubon. I. Isaac, a Swiss theologian and critic, born in Geneva in February, 1559, died in London, July 1, 1614. He was the son of a French Protestant minister, studied at Lausanne, and afterward at...
-Case
Case, in law, a formal statement of facts agreed upon by the parties, or stated by a judge, with a view to obtaining the judgment of the court thereon. Formerly in England cases were sometimes directe...
-Case Shot, Or Canister Shot
Case Shot, Or Canister Shot, a missile consisting of a number of wrought-iron balls, packed in a tin canister of a cylindrical shape. The balls for field service are regularly deposited in layers, but...
-Case-Hardening
Case-Hardening, a process of hardening the surface of iron by converting it into steel. For this purpose the articles are placed in an iron case, together with animal or vegetable charcoal, and subjec...
-Caserta
Caserta. I. Or Terra di Lavoro, a province of Italy, formerly a part of the kingdom of Naples, bounded by the provinces of Rome, Aquila, Campobasso, Benevento, Avellino, and Naples, and the Mediterran...
-Cashel
Cashel (anc. Carsiol, the habitation in the rock), a town of Ireland, in the county and 12 m. N. E. of Tipperary, and 90 m. S. W. of Dublin; pop. in 1871, 3,976. Part of it is well built, but it has...
-Cashew Nut
Cashew Nut, the fruit of the aimcardium occidentale cultivated in the West Indies and other tropical countries. The tree, which resembles-the walnut tree, is large, with oval, blunt, alternate leaves;...
-Cashmere
Cashmere (Fr. cachemire), a textile fabric made of the fine wool of the Thibet goat. In Cashmere the wool is received from Thibet and Tartary, and, after being bleached, is spun and dyed of various co...
-Cashmere, Or Kashmir
Cashmere, Or Kashmir, a kingdom in the N. W. part of India, almost enclosed by ranges of the Karakorum and Himalaya, which separate it from Chinese Tartary, Thibet, and the British districts of Lahoul...
-Casimir
Casimir (Pol. Kazimierz), the name of several monarchs of Poland. I. The Peaceful, son of Miecislas II. and of Rixa, a German princess, died in 1058. After the death of his father in 1034 his mother r...
-Casimir Pulaski
Casimir Pulaski (Pol. Kazimierz Pulawski), count, a Polish soldier, born in Lithuania, March 4, 1747, died from a wound received in the attack on Savannah, Oct. 11, 1779. He was the son of a Polish no...
-Casino, Or Monte Casino
Casino, Or Monte Casino, a celebrated Benedictine monastery, established by St. Benedict in 529, upon the mountain of the same name, in the Italian province of Caserta, over the town of San Germano, t...
-Caspar Melehior De Jovellanos
Caspar Melehior De Jovellanos, a Spanish poet, born in Gijon, Jan. 5, 1744, died at Vega, Nov. 27, 1811. He was originally destined to the church, and received his first tonsure at the age of 13. But ...
-Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea (called by the Russians also the sea of Astrakhan; anc. Mare Caspium or Hyr-canum; Gr. Kapiria aaa), an inland sea, lying between Europe and Asia, between lat. 36&d...
-Cassandra
Cassandra (called also Alexandra), a Trojan princess, daughter of Priam and Hecuba. Apollo, enamored of her, permitted her to ask of him whatever she desired as a reward for her complaisance. She begg...
-Cassano
Cassano. I. A town of S. Italy, in the province of Cosenza, 10 m. W. of the gulf of Ta-rento, on the railroad which skirts the E. shore of Calabria; pop. about 8,000. It is built in the concave recess...
-Cassava
Cassava, the meal, and bread made from it, obtained from the roots of several species of the genus manihot (from the Indian manioc), plants of the family of the euphorbiacem, which grow in the West In...
-Cassel, Or Kassel
Cassel, Or Kassel, a city of Germany, capital of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, and of the district of Cassel, formerly the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, situated on the river Fulda, 90 m. N. N....
-Cassim
Cassim, a family of Italian and French astronomers, four members of which were directors of the Paris observatory for the first 122 years of its existence. I. Giovanni Donienico, born at Perinaldo, ne...
-Cassius
Cassius. I. Longinns Cains, the leader of the conspiracy against Ca3sar, died in 42 B. C. In 53 he was quaestor in the campaign against the Parthians, and distinguished himself by military skill, part...
-Cassius Mareellus Clay
Cassius Mareellus Clay, an American politician, son of Gen. Green Clay, born in Madison co., Kentucky, Oct. 19, 1810. He graduated at Yale college in 1832, practised law in Kentucky, and was elected t...
-Cassowary
Cassowary (casuarins galeatus, Vieill.), a bird of the ostrich family, the only species of the genus. The bill of the cassowary is long, compressed, and curved to the tip, the upper mandible overlappi...
-Castellamare, Or Castel A Mare
Castellamare, Or Castel A Mare. I. A seaport of S. Italy, in the province and 17 m. S. E. of Naples, with which it is connected by railway; pop. in 1872, 26,381. It is situated on the lower slopes of ...
-Castelnaudary
Castelnaudary, a town of France, in the department of Aude, on the canal of Languedoc, 30 m. S. E. of Toulouse; pop. in 1866, 9,075. The reservoir of St. Ferriol forms a harbor, and an active trade is...
-Castile
Castile (Span. Castilla, so called from the number of its castles). I. An ancient kingdom of Spain, situated in the centre of the peninsula, and the source and chief seat of the Spanish nation. It is ...
-Casting
Casting, the forming of metals and other substances by pouring them in a melted or liquid state into moulds, and allowing them to solidify by setting or cooling.- The term when applied to the casting ...
-Castor And Pollux
Castor And Pollux, called also the Dioscuri, or sons of Zeus, famous heroes in Greek mythology. According to Homer, they were sons of Tyndareus and Leda, and brothers of Helen and Clytemnestra, and he...
-Castor Oil
Castor Oil, a mild purgative obtained from the nuts of the castor oil plant, the ricinus communis or palma Christi. Ricinus is an apetalous genus of plants belonging to the natural order euphorbiaceae...
-Castration
Castration, a surgical operation practised upon some of the domestic animals, which consists in taking away the necessary and essential organs of reproduction, namely, the testicles in the male or the...
-Castriccio-Castracani
Castriccio-Castracani, a leader of the Ghi-bellinesin Italy, born in Lucca about 1282, died Sept. 3, 1328. He was a member of the noble Antelminelli family, and in childhood was banished with his rela...
-Castrogiovami, Or Castro Giovanni (Anc
Castrogiovami, Or Castro Giovanni (Anc. Enna, from one form of the name of which, Castrum Ennce, corrupted by the Arabs to Cassar Janna, the modern designation comes), a city of Sicily, in the provinc...
-Cat
Cat, a general name for animals of the genus felis (Linn.), which comprises about 50 species of carnivorous mammalia, the characters of which are closely assimilated, and at the same time widely diffe...
-Catacombs
Catacombs (Gr. kaa, downward, and kvuo, a hollow place), subterraneous places for burying the dead. The catacombs of Egypt, from their vast extent and elaborate decorations, both of...
-Catalepsy
Catalepsy (Gr. kaand, seizure), a non-febrile affection, occurring in paroxysms, and characterized by a sudden deprivation of intelligence, sensation, and voluntary moti...
-Catalonia
Catalonia (Span. Catalutla), a maritime division of Spain, on the Mediterranean, lying between lat. 40 30' and 42 51' N., and lon. 0 15' and 3 21' E.; area 12,504 sq. m.; pop. in 1...
-Catalpa
Catalpa, a genus of plants belonging to the natural order bignoniacew, whose generic characteristics are a two-parted calyx, a bell-shaped, swelling corolla, five stamens, two of which only are fertil...
-Catamaiua
Catamaiua. I. A province of the Argentine Republic, lying between lat. 25 and 29D S., and lon. 60' and 69 W., and bounded NT. by the province of Salta, E. by Tucuman and Santiago, S. by...
-Catamenia
Catamenia (Gr. kaa, according to, and unv, month), or Metises, a monthly flowing of sanguineous fluid, which occurs in the female economy. The function of menstruation generally commences at th...
-Catania
Catania. I. A province of Sicily, on the E. coast, bounded N. by Messina, E. by the Ionian sea, S. by Syracuse, and W. by Caltanisetta and Palermo; area, 1,970 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 479,-850. It compr...
-Catanzaro
Catanzaro. I. Or Calabria Uteriore II., a province of S. Italy, in the former kingdom of Naples, bounded N. by Cosenza, E. by the Ionian sea, S. by Reggio, and W. by the Tyrrhenian sea; area, 2,307 sq...
-Cataract
Cataract, a disease of the eye in which there is an opacity of the crystalline lens or of its capsular investment. It is most common in old persons, in whom it seems to be the natural consequence of a...
-Catarrh
Catarrh, a non-inflammatory disease, characterized by an increased secretion of mucus from the glands of the mucous membranes. The name is popularly confined to disease of the membrane of the air pass...
-Catawba
Catawba, a W. central county of North Carolina; area, 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,-984, of whom 1,703 were colored. It derives its name from the Great Catawba river, which forms its N. and E. boundar...
-Catbird
Catbird (mimus Carolinensis, Gray), a bird of the thrush family, peculiar to North America. It receives this name from its well known note, which resembles the mew of a half-grown cat; this is not, ho...
-Catcos
Catcos. See Caicos. CAYENNE, a fortified maritime city, capital of French Guiana, on the W. point of an island of the same name, at the mouth of the Oyak river; lat. 4 56' N., lon. 52°...
-Catechism
Catechism (Gr. instruction), in a general and modern sense, an elementary text book of any science or art. More commonly, however, it means a text book for the instruction of the catechumens and chi...
-Catechu
Catechu, an extract of the inner wood of the acacia catechu, a small tree which grows abundantly in the East Indies. The drug had long been in use before its origin was discovered. It is prepared by c...
-Caterpillar
Caterpillar, the common name of the larva) of lepidopterous insects, including butterflies and moths. Caterpillars vary greatly in form and appearance, as may be judged from the fact that about GOO sp...
-Caterpillar Fungus, Or Fungoid Parasites
Caterpillar Fungus, Or Fungoid Parasites, a name given to many species of fungi which attack various insects, especially the larva) of beetles and moths, filling out their bodies, and sending out shoo...
-Catfish
Catfish, one of the malacopterygii or soft-rayed fishes, of the family siluridae, and of the genus pimelodus of Cuvier; characterized by a smooth palate, the palatic bones often having teeth, but with...
-Catgut
Catgut, string made of the dried and twisted intestines of animals. Such strings are usually made from the intestines of sheep, but sometimes from those of the horse, ass, or mule. They are used on vi...
-Catharine De Medici
Catharine De' Medici, queen of France, born in Florence in 1519, died at Blois, France, Jan. 5, 1589. She was the only daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, and in 1533 Pope Clement VII., her uncle, negotia...
-Catharine Grace Gore
Catharine Grace Gore, an English novelist, born in Nottingham in 1799, died Jan. 29, 1801. Her maiden name was Francis. In 1822 she married Capt. Charles Gore, and in the following year published her ...
-Catharine II
Catharine II., empress of Russia, born in Stettin, May 2, 1729, died in St. Petersburg, Nov. 17, 1796. She was the daughter of Christian August, governor of Stettin, who was afterward reigning prince ...
-Catharine Of Braganza
Catharine Of Braganza, queen of England, born in 1638, died Dec. 31, 1705. She was the daughter of John IV., after 1640 king of Portugal, and in 1662 married Charles II., king of England, bringing her...
-Catharine Of France, Or Of Valois
Catharine Of France, Or Of Valois, queen of England, born in Paris, Oct. 27, 1401, died in the abbey of Bermondsey, England, Jan. 3, 1438. She was the youngest child of Charles VI. of France and Isabe...
-Catharine Sawbridge (Macaulay)
Catharine Sawbridge (Macaulay), an English authoress, born in Kent in 1733, died at Bin-field, Berks, June 22, 1791. In 1760 she was married to Dr. George Macaulay, a London physician. He died soon af...
-Catharine Stevens (Crowe)
Catharine Stevens (Crowe), an English authoress, born at Borough Green, Kent, about 1800. She married in 1822 Lieut. Col. Crowe of the royal army, and began her literary career in 1838 by the publicat...
-Catharists, Or Cathari (Gr
Catharists, Or Cathari (Gr. Kaapo, pure), a name assumed by heretics of the middle ages to justify their opposition to the alleged corruptions of the Roman Catholic church. They were also ...
-Catharlne I
Catharlne I., empress of Russia, born according to some in Livonia, according to others in Sweden, about 1(585, died in St. Petersburg, May 17, 1727. She was formerly believed to have been the daughte...
-Cathartics
Cathartics (Gr. from to cleanse), medicines used to promote evacuation of the intestines. Their number is very large, and they may be divided into several classes, such as mechanical, including un...
-Cathedral
Cathedral (Lat. cathedra, a seat), a church containing a bishop's throne or seat, the chief church of the diocese. Its usual form is a Latin or Greek cross, and it is not distinguished architecturally...
-Catherine De Vivonne Rambouillet
Catherine De Vivonne Rambouillet, marchioness de, a French leader of society, born in Rome in 1588, died in Paris, Dec. 2, 1665. Her father was Jean de Vivonne, marquis of Pisani, French ambassador in...
-Catherine Henrietta De Balzac D Entragues
Catherine Henrietta De Balzac D' Entragues, marchioness de Verneuil, a mistress of Henry IV., born in Orleans in 1579, died in Paris, Feb. 9, 1633. She was a daughter of Francois de Balzac d'Entragues...
-Catiline, Or Catilina, Lucius Scrgins
Catiline, Or Catilina, Lucius Scrgins, a Roman conspirator, killed in the engagement of Fae-sula3, 62 B. C. He was the descendant of an ancient but decayed patrician family, and is said by his enemies...
-Catlli George
Catlli George an American artist, born at Wilkesbarre, Penn., in 1796, died in Jersey City, K J., Dec. 23, 1872. He studied law in Connecticut, and practised there for two years. Afterward he devoted ...
-Cato
Cato, a surname, signifying the Wise, first given to the Roman Marcus Porcius, known in history as Cato the Censor, and afterward borne by that family of the (plebeian) Porcian gens of which he was th...
-Catskill Mountains
Catskill Mountains, a group of the Appalachian chain, on the W. side of the Hudson river, lying mostly in Greene co., N. Y. Their E. base is 7 or 8 m. distant from the village of Catskill. These mount...
-Cattaraugus
Cattaraugus, a S. W. county of New York, bordering on Pennsylvania; area about 1,250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 43,909. It is partly bounded N. by Cattaraugus creek. The surface is hilly, but there are few...
-Cattaro
Cattaro (Slavic, Kotor), a town of Dalmatia, Austria, capital of a circle of its name, at the foot of the Montenegro mountains, at the S. E. extremity of the gulf of Cattaro, 337 m. S. E. of Trieste, ...
-Catti, Or Chatti
Catti, Or Chatti, an ancient German people, who according to Caesar lived beyond the Ubii, whose seat was about Cologne, and were divided inland from the Cherusci by a wood which he calls Bacenis. Tac...
-Cattle
Cattle, a class of domestic animals. In its primary sense, horses and asses are included in the term, as well as oxen, cows, sheep, goats, and perhaps swine. In England, beasts of the ox species arc m...
-Cattywar, Or Kattywar
Cattywar, Or Kattywar, a peninsula in N. W. India, forming a considerable part of the province of Guzerat, or the Guicowar's dominions, bounded N. by the gulf and run of Cutch, N. E. by the British pr...
-Catulus
Catulus, the name of a Roman family of the plebeian gens Lutatia. I. Cains Lutatins, consul with Aulus Postumius Albinus in 242 B. C. On March 10, 2-41, he won a great and decisive naval victory over ...
-Cauca
Cauca, a river of South America, rising in that part of the Colombian Andes called Paramo de Guanacos, in the United States of Colombia, lat. 2 N, lon. 76 30' W. On descending from the mount...
-Caucasus
Caucasus, a general name given to the region and the chain of mountains therein which stretch between the Black and Caspian seas, the mountains forming part of the boundary between Europe and Asia. Th...
-Caucus
Caucus, a word of American origin, employed in the United States to designate a part of the political machinery of the country, which, though resting merely on usage, forms a marked feature of the Ame...
-Caudine Forks
Caudine Forks (Furculae Caudinae, rarely Furcaz Caudinae or Caudinae Fauces), two narrow passes through the mountains of ancient Samniuin, affording access from opposite sides to an enclosed plain tha...
-Cauiillo Benso Cavoir
Cauiillo Benso Cavoir, count, an Italian statesman, born in Turin, Aug. 10, 1810, died there, June 6,1861. Being a younger son of a noble and wealthy family, he was destined for the army, entered the ...
-Caul
Caul (Lat. caula, a fold), a membrane which sometimes envelopes the head of a child when born. It is of interest only for the superstitious feelings with which it has long been regarded. The child tha...
-Cauliac Chailiac
Cauliac Chailiac, or Chaulieu, Gui de, a French surgeon of the 14th century, studied at Mont-pellier and Bologna, practised his profession in Lyons, and was afterward employed by three popes of Avigno...
-Cauliflower
Cauliflower (hrassica oleracea botrytis, De Candolle), a cultivated plant of the cabbage tribe. It has a compact rounded head of delicate flavor, standing on a stalk 18 to 2G inches in height, and sur...
-Caus, Or Canlx. I. Salomon De
Caus, Or Canlx. I. Salomon De, a French engineer, born at or near Dieppe about 1570, died in Paris about 1630. Being a Protestant, he went to England about 1612. From 1614 to 1620 he resided at Heidel...
-Causes Of Deafness
The causes of deafness are both ante-natal and post-natal. Ante-natal causes produce not merely congenital deafness, but also gradual decay of hearing, or a weakness in the organ predisposing it to yi...
-Caussin De Perceval
Caussin De Perceval. I. Jean Jacqnes An-toine, a French orientalist, born at Montdidier, June 24, 1759, died July 29, 1835. He published good editions of some Arabian works, among which were Lokman's...
-Caustics
Caustics (Gr. kav, fut. kavw, to burn), or Eseharotics, substances which destroy the life of the tissues upon which they act. They may be classified according to the depth and ...
-Cavaignac
Cavaignac. I. Jean Baptiste, a French revolutionist, born at Gordon in 1762, died in Brussels, March 24, 1829. In 1792 he was elected to the national convention, where he voted for the death of Louis ...
-Cavalry
Cavalry (Fr. cavalerie, from cavalier, a horseman), a body of soldiers on horseback. The use of the horse for riding, and the introduction of bodies of mounted men into armies, naturally originated in...
-Caveau
Caveau, a Parisian literary and convivial association, initiated in 1729 in the shop of the grocer Gallet, who was a witty songster and a friend of Crebillon the younger and other literary men. Subseq...
-Cavendish, Or Candish, Sir Thomas
Cavendish, Or Candish, Sir Thomas, an English adventurer of the 16th century. He was the son of a gentleman of good estate, residing at Trimley St. Martin in Suffolk; but having spent his patrimony, h...
-Cavery, Or Canvery (Anc
Cavery, Or Canvery (Anc. Chaleris), a river of southern India, rises among the Coorg hills, near the W. or Malabar coast, 4,000 ft. above the level of the sea, in lat. 12 25' N., lon. 75 34'...
-Cavy
Cavy, a mammal of the order rodentia, family histricidae, subfamily caviina (Waterhouse), and genera dolichotis and cavia. This subfamily is exclusively South American; the molar teeth are (4-4)/4-4, ...
-Cawnpore
Cawnpore. I. A district of British India, in the Northwest Provinces, bounded N. E. by the Ganges, which separates it from Oude, and S. W. by the Jumna, which divides it from Bundelcund; area, 2,348 s...
-Cayan
Cayan. I. The southernmost county of the province of Ulster, Ireland, bounded by the counties Fermanagh, Monaghan, Meath, West-meath, Longford, and Leitrim; area, 746 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 140,555. Th...
-Caylis
Caylis. I. Marthe Marguerite de Villette de Murcay, marquise de, a French woman of fashion, born in Poitou in 1673, died April 25,1729. A descendant of D'Aubigne, she was converted to Roman Catholicis...
-Cayuga
Cayuga, a central county of New York, bounded N. by Lake Ontario, W. by Cayuga lake, touching Skaneateles lake on the E., and traversed by the Seneca river and other smaller streams, which furnish abu...
-Ccsare Cantu
Ccsare Cantu, an Italian historian, poet, and philosopher, born in Brivio, Sept. 5, 1805. He was educated at Sondrio, where he taught belles-lettres, resided afterward in Como, and next at Milan till ...
-Ceara
Ceara, a maritime province of Brazil, bounded N. by the Atlantic ocean, E. by the provinces of Rio Grande do Norte and Parahyba, S. by Pernambuco and W. by Piauhy; area, 42,G34 sq. m.; pop. about 550,...
-Cebu, Or Zebu
Cebu, Or Zebu. I. An island in the Philippine archipelago, between Bohol and Negros, and between lat. 9 35' and 11 N., and lon. 123 and 123 50' E. It is a narrow strip of land, str...
-Cecco Dascoli, An Italian Savant And Martyr
Cecco D'Ascoli, An Italian Savant And Martyr, whose real name was Francesco (of which Cecco is a diminutive) Stabili, born at Ascoli in 1257, died in Florence, Sept. 16, 1327. He taught astrology, phi...
-Cecil
Cecil, a N. E. county of Maryland, bordering on Pennsylvania and Delaware, and situated at the head of Chesapeake bay, which forms its S. W. boundary; area, about 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,874, of ...
-Cecilia Bohl Fiber
Cecilia Bohl Fiber, a Spanish authoress, known under the nom de plume of Fernan Ca-ballero, born at Morget, Switzerland, in 1797. Her mother was a Spaniard, and her father, Nikolas Bold von Faber, the...
-Cecrops
Cecrops, first king of Attica, said to have reigned about 1550 B. C, and represented in the ancient legends as the civilizer of that country. He founded Cecropia, which at a later period became the Ac...
-Cedar
Cedar, the name of several species of evergreen trees of the order coniferm, the principal of which arc the cedar of Lebanon (pinus ce-drus, Linn.), the cedar of Goa (cupressvs Lusi-tanica, Linn.), th...
-Cedar Bird
Cedar Bird (bombycilla cedrorum, Vieill.; ampelis cedrorum, Baird), a bird of the wax-wing family, smaller, more southern, and less migratory than the A. garrulus, Linn. (See Waxwixg.) The general col...
-Ceiram Ceram
Ceiram Ceram, Siraiig, or Zeram, one of the Molucca islands, in the Malay archipelago, lying X. of Amboyna, between Booroo on the west and Papua on the east; lat. 2 47' to 3 50' S.; lon. 127...
-Ceita
Ceita (anc. Septa; Moorish, Sebta), a town and fortress on the X. coast of Fez, Morocco, belonging to Spain, and included in the province of Cadiz; pop. about 7,000. It is situated at the E. entrance ...
-Celakovsky, Or Czelakowsky, Frantisek Ladis-Lav
Celakovsky, Or Czelakowsky, Frantisek Ladis-Lav, a Bohemian poet and philologist, born at Strakonitz, March 7, 1799, died in Prague, Aug. 5, 1852. He studied at Pisek, Linz, and subsequently at Prague...
-Celandine
Celandine (chelidonium majus), a plant of the order papaveracece, indigenous in Europe, but never wild in this country. It is one or two feet high, bears pinnate leaves and small peduncled umbels of y...
-Celebes
Celebes, an island of the Malay or East Indian archipelago, under the control of the Dutch, situated E. of Borneo, and like that island crossed by the equator. It lies between lat. 1 50' N. and 5...
-Celery
Celery (apium graveolens, Linn.), an umbelliferous plant chiefly cultivated for salad. In its wild state, in which it is found in ditches throughout Europe, it is rank, coarse, and even poisonous; but...
-Celestine
Celestine, the name of five popes. I. Saint, a Roman, died April 0, 432. He was related to the emperor Valentinian II., was created cardinal deacon by Innocent I., and succeeded Pope Boniface, Nov. 3,...
-Celibacy
Celibacy (Lat. carfebs, unmarried), the state of being unmarried, whether the person be a bachelor or a widower, a maid or a widow. In its restricted and more usual sense, it means the state of those ...
-Cell
Cell, a microscopic anatomical form, very abundant in most vegetable and many animal tissues. It has received its name from the fact that in its simplest form it consists of a closed membranous sac or...
-Cellular Tissue
Cellular Tissue, a name given by the older anatomists to a tissue formed by a mixture of white and yellow fibres, extensively diffused in the animal body under the names of cellular, fibro-cellular, a...
-Celsiis
Celsiis. I. Anders, a Swedish astronomer, born Nov. 27, 1701, died in Upsal, April 25, 1744. His grand-uncle, Magnus Celsius (1621-79), an astronomer, was the discoverer of the Helsing runes. His uncl...
-Celts
Celts (Lat. Celta; Gr. ), a people of the Aryan or Indo-European family, who in prehistoric times, and probably before the migration of any other Aryan tribes, passed over from Asia into Europe. Sub...
-Celtiberians
Celtiberians (Lat. Celtiberi), the people who during the time of the Romans occupied the inland district of Spain lying between the Ebro and the Tagus. The name was sometimes used in a wider sense, in...
-Cements
Cements, certain substances which by their interposition cause the surfaces of solid bodies to adhere together or to unite, the action being either mechanical or chemical, or both. The history of the ...
-Cemetery
Cemetery (Gr. a sleeping place), a place appointed for the burial of the dead. In rude states of society the dead are often buried in any place that may be found most convenient, by the side of some...
-Censes
Censes, an official enumeration of persons and their property, generally with such facts as tend to show their moral, social, physical, and industrial condition. In the Pentateuch the enumeration of t...
-Censor
Censor (hat. censere, to estimate), the title of Roman magistrates of high dignity and great influence, instituted in the year 443 B. C. The office was vested in two persons, originally elected for fi...
-Censorship Of The Press
Censorship Of The Press, a regulation by which books, pamphlets, and newspapers are subjected to the examination of certain civil or ecclesiastical officers, who are empowered to authorize or forbid t...
-Cent
Cent (Lat. centum, a hundred), a United States coin of the value of 1/100 of a dollar. The act of April 2, 1792, authorized the coinage of a copper cent weighing 264 grains, and a half cent in proport...
-Centairs,
Centairs, a mythological race of beings, half man and half horse, who were supposed to inhabit the mountains and forests of Thes-saly, where they led a wild and savage life. One legend was that Ixion,...
-Centigrade Scale
Centigrade Scale, the 100 parts, named grades or degrees, adopted particularly by the French for the thermometer. It was devised in 1742 by Celsius, professor at Upsal, the limits of the division into...
-Centipede
Centipede, an .articulated animal, formerly considered an insect, but since the time of Dr. Leach placed in the class myriapoda, and in the genus scolojiendra. This class is distinguished from insects...
-Central America
Central America, the narrow, tortuous strip of territory connecting North and South America, extending from about lat. 7 to 18 N., in length from 800 to 900 m., and varying in breadth from a...
-Central America; Area Comayagua. I. A Department Of Honduras
Central America; Area Comayagua. I. A Department Of Honduras, 4,800 sq. m.; pop. about 75,000. It occupies the S. central portion of the state, and consists chiefly of the plains of Comayagua and of E...
-Central City
Central City, a town and the capital of Gilpin co., Colorado, situated partly in the valley of a tributary of North Clear creek and partly on the slopes of the surrounding mountains, 30 m. W. of Denve...
-Central Heat
Central Heat. Since the year 1740, when the first observations respecting the increase of heat encountered with the increased depth below the surface were made by M. Gensanne in the lead mines of Giro...
-Central Provinces
Central Provinces, one of the eight large administrative departments into which British India was in 187- divided, situated between lat. 18 and 24 N., and lon. 77 and 83 E. They we...
-Centre
Centre, a central county of Pennsylvania; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 34,418. It is traversed by the Alleghany, Bald Eagle, and several other mountain ranges. It is drained by a number of ...
-Cephalonia, Or Cephalgia
Cephalonia, Or Cephalgia, called by Homer Same or Samos, the largest of the Ionian islands, separated from Ithaca on the E. by a narrow channel. It is now one of the 13 nomarchies of the kingdom of Gr...
-Cephalopoda
Cephalopoda (Gr. head, and foot), the highest of the branch of mollusks. Some have no external shell, like the squid (loligo); others an internal one, like the cuttle fish (sejnii); others a simp...
-Cerainian Mountains
Cerainian Mountains (Gr. the thunder-riven mountains), a name given by the ancient Greeks to two different ranges. I. One belonging to the eastern extremity of the great range of Caucasus, the pre...
-Ceres
Ceres (called by the Greeks Demetcr), the goddess of grain and harvest among the Greeks and Romans, daughter of Saturn and Rhea, and mother of Proserpine. She dwelt on Olympus till after the abduction...
-Cerigo
Cerigo (anc. Cythera), the southernmost of the Ionian islands, now an eparchy of the kingdom of Greece, situated at the E. entrance of the Laconian gulf, between lat. 36 7' and 30 22' X., an...
-Cerinthus
Cerinthus, also called derisively MERINTHUS (i. e., cord), a religious personage who is supposed to have come from Alexandria to Asia Minor, and to have resided at Ephesus simultaneously with St. John...
-Cerium
Cerium, a metal which was discovered simultaneously in 1803 by Klaproth, Hisinger, and Berzelius, and was so called by the last named after the planet Ceres. It occurs in association with lanthanum an...
-Cerro Gordo
Cerro Gordo, a mountain pass in Mexico, 40 m. N. W. of Vera Cruz, on the national highway to the city of Mexico, where a victory was gained by the Americans under Gen. Scott, over the Mexicans under S...
-Cesare Balbo
Cesare Balbo, count, an Italian statesman and author, born in Turin, Nov. 21, 1789, died there, June 3, 1853. Through the favor of Napoleon, he was appointed auditor to the French privy council in 180...
-Cesare Bonesana Beccaria
Cesare Bonesana Beccaria, marquis of, an Italian jurist and economist, born in Milan, March 15, 1738, died there, Nov. 28, 1794. He attended the Jesuits' college in Parma and afterward studied philoso...
-Cesarean Section
Cesarean Section, the taking of a child from the womb by cutting. Sextus Julius, an ancestor of Julius Caesar, is said to have come into the world by this operation, and to have received accordingly t...
-Cette
Cette, a fortified seaport of France, in the department of Herault, 17 m. S. W. of Mont-pellier-; pop. in 1866, 24,177. It is built on the slope and at the foot of a hill (anc. Mons Setius), on a tong...
-Cevennes
Cevennes, a mountain range of France, which separates the valleys of the Garonne and the Loire from those of the Saone and the Rhone. In its widest sense it extends over more than 300 m., and is divid...
-Ceylon
Ceylon, an island in the Indian ocean, belonging to Great Britain, between 50 and GO m. from the S. extremity of Hindostan. It is separated from the mainland by the gulf of Manaar and Palk strait. Its...
-Chabrias
Chabrias, an Athenian general, killed in the harbor of Chios in 357 B. C. In 392 he succeeded Iphicrates in the command of the Athenian forces before Corinth, was afterward sent to chastise the AEgine...
-Chaeronea
Chaeronea, a town of Boeotia, on the Ther-modon, a small tributary of the Cephissus, near the frontier of Phocis, renowned for the battle in which Philip of Macedon defeated the Athenians, Corinthians...
-Chaffinch
Chaffinch (fringilla coelebs, Linn.), one of the most common and most beautiful of the passerine family of birds, a native of Europe. The color of the bill varies according to the season from a blue t...
-Chagres
Chagres, a river of the United States of Colombia, rising in the mountains about 40 m. N. E. of Panama. It flows first W., then curves abruptly to the N. W., and falls into the Caribbean sea at the to...
-Chain Snake
Chain Snake (coronella getula, Linn.; genus ophibolus, Bd. and Gd.), an American species, first described by Catesby under this name; it is also called thunder snake, and king snake. It has been arran...
-Chalcedon
Chalcedon, an ancient town of Asia Minor, on the Bosporus, opposite Constantinople, and near the modern town of Scutari. It was founded by a colony from Megara about 680 B. 0., who were ridiculed as b...
-Chalcedony
Chalcedony (from the city of Chalcedon), one of the numerous varieties of the quartz family, which are distinguished from each other, not by difference of chemical composition, but by their external f...
-Chalchihuitl
Chalchihuitl, the Indian name of a green-colored stone, held in high repute by the ancient Mexicans, and by the Indian tribes now inhabiting the northern and western portions of New Mexico. They posse...
-Chaldea
Chaldea, properly the name of the S. W. part of ancient Babylonia, bordering on the N. E. confines of Arabia. So it is mentioned by Ptolemy the geographer. Strabo also speaks of a Chaldean tribe livin...
-Chaldee Language
Chaldee Language, the eastern dialect of the Aramaic, of which the Syriac is the west-tern, and which forms the northern branch of the Semitic tongues, the Hebrew, the Arabic, and some other minor dia...
-Chalk
Chalk, an earthy mineral, consisting of carbonate of lime of friable texture, easily rubbed to a white powder. It constitutes rock formations of vast extent, being seen along the shores of the North s...
-Challenge
Challenge. This word, which is now, except in a legal sense, used chiefly to imply a provocatory summons to mortal combat, seems originally to have conveyed within itself the idea of an appeal, of an ...
-Chalon-Sur-Saone
Chalon-Sur-Saone (anc. Cabillonum or Ca-ballinum), a walled city of France, in the department of Saone-et-Loire, 33 m. N. of Macon, and 185 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 19,982. It is situated on t...
-Chalons-Sur-Marne
Chalons-Sur-Marne (anc. Catalauni), a walled town of Champagne, France, capital of the department of Marne, 90 m. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 17,692. It is situated on the right bank of the Marne, on t...
-Chalotais
Chalotais, La, Louis Rene de taradenc de, a French statesman and author, born at Rennes, March 6, 1701, died there, July 12, 1785. He was procureur general of the parliament of Brittany, and became kn...
-Chalybeate
Chalybeate (from Chalybes, a Scythian people, S. and S. E. of the Black sea, who worked in iron, whence Gr. steel), a name now applied to waters and medicines which contain iron. It generally exist...
-Chambers
Chambers. I. An E. county of Alabama, bordering on Georgia; former area, 775 sq. m., which has been diminished by taking a portion to form Lee county; pop. in 1870, 17,562, of whom 8,588 were colored....
-Chamberlain
Chamberlain (Fr. chambellan; Lat. camera-rius), an officer attached to royal courts, and to establishments of the great. The word means simply a person having care of apartments, and in its early acce...
-Chambersburg
Chambersburg, a borough and the capital of Franklin co., Pennsylvania, situated on Conecocheague creek, and on the Cumberland Valley railroad, 45 m. S. W. of Harrisburg and 135 m. W. of Philadelphia; ...
-Chambery
Chambery(Ital. Ciamberi), a town of France, capital of the department of Savoie, situated within a circle of high mountains, on the rivulets Leisse and Albane, affluents of Lake Bourget, 44 m. S. S. W...
-Chambord
Chambord, a village of France, in the department of Loir-et-Cher, 9 m. E. of Blois; pop. in 18G6, 332. It is noted for its chateau, surrounded by a beautiful park, 21 m. in circumference. The counts o...
-Chameleon
Chameleon (chameleo, Brongn.), a genus of saurian reptiles, inhabiting the warmest parts of Africa and India. The genus is characterized by teeth on the upper edge of the jaws, toes united into two gr...
-Chamfort, Or Champfort, Sebastien Roth Nicolas
Chamfort, Or Champfort, Sebastien Roth Nicolas, a French author, born near Clermont, in Au-vergne, in 1741, died in Paris, April 13, 1794. He received a superior education, became successively a lawye...
-Chamois, Or Gems (Antilope Rupicapra, Pallas)
Chamois, Or Gems (Antilope Rupicapra, Pallas), the mountain or Alpine antelope of Europe, and the only animal of that geographical division which partakes in any degree of the character of the antelop...
-Champ De Burs
Champ De Burs. I. The name given to the annual meetings held by the Prankish tribes who took possession of Gaul during the 5th century. They were called in Latin Plactia, while the Frankish appellatio...
-Champagne
Champagne, an ancient province of France, bounded N. by Belgium, E. by Lorraine, S. E. by Franche-Comte, S. by Burgundy and Niver-nais, and W. by Orleanais, He de France, and Picardy. Capital, Troyes....
-Champagny
Champagny. I. Jean Baptiste Nonipere, count de, duke de Cadore, a French statesman, born at Roanne, Aug. 4, 1756, died in Paris, July 3, 1834. He belonged to a junior branch of an ancient family, stud...
-Champaign. I
Champaign. I. A W. central county of Ohio, intersected by Mad river; area, about 390 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 24,188. The surface is level or undulating, and the soil fertile. It is traversed by the Cinc...
-Champerty
Champerty (Lat. campi partitio), an agreement between a party to a suit and some third person that the latter shall carry on the suit at his own expense, and in consideration thereof shall receive a p...
-Champfleury, Jules Fleury
Champfleury, The Popular Name Of Jules Fleury, a French author, born at Laon, Sept. 10, 1821. He is the son of a municipal officer, became clerk in a publishing house in Paris, described his literary ...
-Champion
Champion, a term derived from chivalry, and signifying one who undertakes to defend his cause by force of arms. Custom allows a wider latitude of application to the word. In the ruder stages of societ...
-Champmesle
Champmesle. I. Marie Desmares, a French actress, born in Rouen in 1644, died at Auteuil in 1098. Her father, the son of a president of the parliament of Normandy, being disinherited on account of his ...
-Chancel
Chancel, that portion of a church specially occupied by the clergy, and usually separated from the nave and aisles by screens made of carved stone or oak. The screen which separated the chancel from t...
-Chancellor
Chancellor, a law officer known to the polity of several countries. The derivation of the title is uncertain. It has been derived by Coke from the right of cancellation of patents and other royal gran...
-Chancery
Chancery. 13y this term is designated the English system of equity, which in a modified form has been introduced into the United States. The name, according to Coke, was derived a cancellando, because...
-Chandairi Chendaree
Chandairi Chendaree, or Chnuderee, a town and district of Malwa, in the territory of Gwalior, Hindostan, situated near the frontier of Bundelcund, 115 m. S. of Gwalior, and 280 m. S. S. E. of Delhi. T...
-Chang-Chow, Or Chang-Choo
Chang-Chow, Or Chang-Choo, a city of China, in the province of Kiang-soo, on the E. bank of the imperial canal, about 100 m. N. W. of Shanghai; lat. 31 55' N., lon. 119 43' E. It is surround...
-Channel Islands
Channel Islands, a group of islands belonging to Great Britain, in the English channel, between lat. 49 and 49 50' N., and lon. 2 and 2 45' W., off the N. W. coast of France, betwe...
-Chantilly
Chantilly, a town of France, in the department of Oise, 24 m. N. by E. of Paris; pop. about 3.500. It abounds in natural beauties. A forest extending over nearly 7,000 acres adjoins the fine public pa...
-Chaos
Chaos (Gr. from to gape, to open widely), in classical mythology, either the empty and infinite space which existed before all things or the mixture of all the elements, the confused mass out of w...
-Chapel
Chapel, a term originally applied to private oratories, derived from the practice of the ancient kings of France of carrying along with them on the battle field St. Martin's hat as a relic, the place ...
-Chapiltepec
Chapiltepec, a Mexican fortress, built upon a rock of the same name, 150 or 200 ft. high, about 2 m. S. W. of the city of Mexico. At the time of the war with the United States it was heavily armed, ha...
-Chapter
Chapter, the community of canons or prebendaries attached to a cathedral or collegiate church, and presided over by a dean. (See Canon.) They govern the diocese during the vacancy of the see, in some ...
-Charcoal
Charcoal, the solid residuum of the destructive distillation of wood. Exclusive of hygroscopic water and ash, it is composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, in proportions varying with the ...
-Chares
Chares. 1. An Athenian general, first mentioned in 367 B. C, when he was sent to the aid of the Phliasians, whom he relieved from siege by the Arcadians and Argives. He was next sent to take command a...
-Chareme-Inferiecre
Chareme-Inferiecre, a W. department of France, on the Atlantic coast, bordering on Vendee, Deux-Sevres, Charente, Dordogne, and Gironde; area, 2,635 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 463,653. Besides being inters...
-Charente
Charente, a W. department of France, bordering on the departments of Vienne, Ilaute-Vienne, Dordogne, Charente-Inferieure, and Deux-Sevres; area, 2,294 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 307,520. It is formed prin...
-Chariot
Chariot, among ancient nations, a two-wheeled carriage, open above and behind and closed in front, and used in war, in public games, and for the purposes of common life. The axle of the Greek chariot ...
-Charivari
Charivari (Fr. charivari; Ger. Katzen-musik; Sp. concezada; It. scarnpanata), a mock serenade, which was performed in the middle ages whenever an old man married a young girl, or when a man married fo...
-Charles
Charles, a S. W. county of Maryland, separated from Virginia by the Potomac river, and bounded N. E. by the Patuxent; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,738, of whom 9,318 were colored. The surface is...
-Charlemagne, Or Charles The Great Charles I (Of Germany)
Charlemagne, Or Charles The Great Charles I. (Ger. Karl der Grosse), emperor of the West and king of France, born according to some in Aix-la-Chapclle, according to others in the castle of Salzburg, n...
-Charleroi, Or Cliarleroy
Charleroi, Or Cliarleroy, a town of Belgium, in the province of Hainaut, situated on the Sambre, and connected by railroads with Brussels, Xainur, and Paris, 28 m. S. of Brussels; pop. in 1866, 12,150...
-Charles (Of Sweden)
Charles (Wurtemberg) 307 Gustavus III. in 1792 he was appointed regent; in which situation, at a highly critical period, he preserved the kingdom for his nephew Gustavus in its constitutional form, k...
-Charles Adolphe Wurtz
Charles Adolphe Wurtz, a French chemist, born in Strasburg, Nov. 26, 1817. He became chief of the chemical department in the medical faculty at Strasburg in 1839, and took his degree there in 1843. Su...
-Charles Albert (Of Sardinia)
Charles Albert (Carlo Alberto Amadeo), king of Sardinia,born Oct. 2,1798, died at Oporto, July 28, 1849. The son of Charles Emanuel of Savoy-Carignan, of a younger branch of the royal family, and havi...
-Charles Alexandre De Calome
Charles Alexandre De Calome, a French courtier and minister of state, born at Douai in 1734, died in Paris, Oct. 30, 1802. He studied law, and in 1763 became master of requests. In 1768 he was made in...
-Charles Alfred Lee
Charles Alfred Lee, an American physician, born at Salisburv, Conn., March 3, 1801, died at Peekskill, N. Y., Feb. 14, 1872. He graduated in medicine at the Berkshire medical institution in Pittsfield...
-Charles Athanase Walcrevaer
Charles Athanase Walcrevaer, baron, a French author, born in Paris, Dec. 25,1771, died there, April 27, 1852. He studied at Glasgow and Oxford; served as director of transportation in the army of the ...
-Charles Auguste De Beriot
Charles Auguste De Beriot, a Belgian violinist and composer, born in Louvain, Feb. 20, 1802, died in Brussels April 10, 1870. At the age of nine he was able to perform difficult concertos for the viol...
-Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve, a French author, born in Boulogne, Dec. 23, 1804, died in Paris, Oct. 13, 1869. His mother, a woman of English descent, instructed him in the English language and litera...
-Charles Augustus
Charles Augustus, grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, born Sept. 3, 1757, died June 14, 1828. Having lost his father in the first year of his life, he was very carefully educated together with his pos...
-Charles Augustus Young
Charles Augustus Young, an American astronomer, born in Hanover, N. H., Dec. 15, 1834. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1853, from 1854 to 1856 taught the classics in Phillips Andover academy, and...
-Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage, an English mathematician, born at Teignmouth, Dec. 26, 1792, died in London, Oct. 20, 1871. He was a fellow student of Sir John llerschel at the university of Cambridge, and was Lucas...
-Charles Baudin Des Ardennes
Charles Baudin Des Ardennes, a French naval officer, born at Sedan, July 21, 1784, died in Paris in June, 1854. In 1812, as lieutenant in command of the brig Renard, accompanying an expedition of 14 s...
-Charles Blount
Charles Blount, an English deistical writer, born in Middlesex, April 27, 1654, died in August, 1693. His first work, a pamphlet in defence of Dryden's Conquest of Granada, was followed in 1679 by A...
-Charles Bonnet
Charles Bonnet, a Swiss naturalist and philosopher, born in Geneva, March 13,1720, died there, May 20, 1793. He was educated for the law, but reading Pluche's account of the formica leo, he undertook ...
-Charles Bresson
Charles Bresson, count de, a French diplomatist, born in Paris, died by his own hand in Naples, Nov. 2, 1847. His father was one of the chief clerks in the department of foreign affairs. During the re...
-Charles Brockden Brown
Charles Brockden Brown, an American novelist, born in Philadelphia, Jan, 17, 1771, died Feb. 22, 1810. His ancestors were Quakers who came over with William Penn. At 11 years of age he was placed unde...
-Charles Burney
Charles Burney, an English organist, composer, and historian of music, born at Shrewsbury, April 7, 1726, died at Chelsea, April 15, 1814. At the age of 18 he came under the tuition of Dr. Arne, with ...
-Charles Butler
Charles Butler, an English historian and lawyer, nephew of Alban Butler, born in London, Aug. 15, 1750, died there, June 2, 1832. He was called to the bar in 1791, being the first Roman Catholic admit...
-Charles Button
Charles Button, an English mathematician, born in Newcastle-on-Tyne, Aug. 14, 1737, died Jan. 27, 1823. At the age of 18 he became an usher in the village of Jesmond, and some years later the master o...
-Charles Caldwell
Charles Caldwell, an American physician, born in Caswell co., N. C, May 14, 1772, died in Louisville, Ky., July 9, 1853. He was the son of an emigrant Irish officer. In 1792 he went to Philadelphia, a...
-Charles Carroll
Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, a patriot of the American revolution, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence, born at Annapolis, Md., Sept. 20, 1737, died Nov. 14,1832. In 1745 h...
-Charles Chirchill
Charles Chirchill, an English poet, born in Westminster in February, 1731, died in Boulogne, Nov. 4, 1704. He studied for a time at Trinity college, Cambridge, but did not graduate. At the age of 17, ...
-Charles Clinton
Charles Clinton, the ancestor of the Clintons in New York, born in the county of Longford, Ireland, in 1690, died in what is now Orange co., N. Y., Nov. 19, 1773. His grandfather was an adherent of Ch...
-Charles Constantino Pise
Charles Constantino Pise, an American clergyman, born in Annapolis, Md., in 1802, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., May 26, 1866. He graduated in Georgetown college, entered the society of Jesus, and went to s...
-Charles Cornwallis
Charles Cornwallis, first Marquis and second Earl Cornwallis, a British general, born Dec. 31, 1738, died at Ghazepore, India, Oct. 5, 1805. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, served in the seven ...
-Charles Cotton
Charles Cotton, an English poet, born at Beresford hall, Staffordshire, in 1630, died at Westminster in 1687. He was educated at Cambridge, travelled on the continent, and inherited in 1658 his father...
-Charles Da Vies
Charles Da Vies, an American mathematician, born at Washington, Litchfield co., Conn., Jan. 22, 1798. He entered the military academy at West Point in 1813, graduated in 1815, and was made lieutenant ...
-Charles De Blois, Or De Chatillon
Charles De Blois, Or De Chatillon, duke of Brittany, died in 1364. He was the nephew of Philip VI. of France, who, anxious to secure his fortune, married him to Jeanne de Penthievre, heiress apparent ...
-Charles De Lorraine
Charles De Lorraine, a French statesman, brother of the second duke of Guise, and best known as the cardinal de Lorraine, born in Joinville, Feb. 17, 1525, died Dec. 26, 1574. At the age of 13 he rece...
-Charles De Marguetel De Saint-Denis Saint-Evremond
Charles De Marguetel De Saint-Denis Saint-Evremond, seigneur de, a French author, born near Coutances, April 1, 1613, died in London, Sept. 20, 1703. He early acquired military and social distinction,...
-Charles De Secondat Montesquieu
Charles De Secondat Montesquieu, baron de, a French philosopher, born at the chateau of La Brede, near Bordeaux, Jan. 18, 1689, died in Paris, Feb. 10, 1755. He was remarkable during his youth for dil...
-Charles De, Or Debrosses Brosses
Charles De, Or Debrosses Brosses, a French author, born at Dijon, Feb. 17, 1709, died in Paris, May 17, 1777. He was early proficient in science, jurisprudence, and literature, spent some time in Ital...
-Charles Denis Santer Bourbakri
Charles Denis Santer Bourbakri, a French soldier, born in Paris, April 22,1816. His father, of Greek origin, and an officer in the French army, lost his life in the Greek war of independence (1827). B...
-Charles Dickens
Charles Dickens, an English novelist, born at Landport, a suburb of Portsmouth, Feb. 7, 1812, died at Gadshill, near Rochester, June 0, 1870. He was baptized as Charles John Huffham, and occasionally ...
-Charles Do Fresne Du Cange
Charles Do Fresne Du Cange, sieur, a French historian and philologist, born in Amiens, Dec. 18, 1610, died in Paris, Oct. 23, 1688. He was educated in the Jesuits1 college in his native city, and at t...
-Charles Duke Yonge
Charles Duke Yonge, an English author, born in November, 1812. He is the son of the Rev. Charles Yonge, lower master of Eton college, and graduated at Oxford in 1835. He is now (1876) professor of his...
-Charles Edward
Charles Edward (Louis Philip Casimir), an English prince, called the young pretender, son of James Stuart and Clementina Sobieska, and grandson of James II., born in Rome, Dec. 31, 1720, died there, J...
-Charles Edward Brown-Sequard
Charles Edward Brown-Sequard, a French -American physiologist, born in the island of Mauritius in 1818. His father, Edward Brown, was a native of Philadelphia, and at one time commanded an American me...
-Charles Edwards Lester
Charles Edwards Lester, an American author, horn in Griswold, Conn., July 15, 1815. He was admitted to the bar, but spent two years at the Auburn theological seminary, and was duly licensed to preach....
-Charles Ellet
Charles Ellet, jr., an American engineer, born at Penn's Manor, Pa., Jan. 1, 1810, died at Cairo, 111., June 21, 1862. He planned and built the first wire suspension bridge in the United States, that ...
-Charles Elliott
Charles Elliott, D. D., an American clergyman, born at Greenconway, county Donegal, Ireland, May 16, 1792, died at Mount Pleasant, Iowa, Jan. 6, 1869. In his youth he became a member of the Wesleyan M...
-Charles Ernest Beule
Charles Ernest Beule, a French archaeologist, born in Suumur, June 29, 1826. He was professor of rhetoric at Moulins, an 1 in 184!) became connected with the French school at Athens. His excavation- a...
-Charles Etienne Brasseur De Bourbourg
Charles Etienne Brasseur De Bourbourg, abbe, a French traveller and archaeologist, born at Bourbourg, near Dunkirk, Sept. 8, 1814. He studied theology at the university of Ghent, was rdained at ...
-Charles Eugene Delainay
Charles Eugene Delainay, a French astronomer, born at Lusigny, in the department of Aube, April 9, 1816, drowned off Cherbourg, Aug. 5, 1872. He left the polytechnic school in 1836 with high honors as...
-Charles Farrar Browne
Charles Farrar Browne, an American humorist, born at Waterford, Me., April 26, 1834, died at Southampton, England, March 6, 1867. He became a printer, and worked at his trade in Maine, in Boston, and ...
-Charles Fenno Hoffman
Charles Fenno Hoffman, an American author, born in New York in 1806. In 1817 his leg was crushed between a steamboat and the wharf and had to be amputated. He was educated at Columbia college, which h...
-Charles Francis Hall
Charles Francis Hall, an American arctic explorer, born at Rochester, N. II., in 1821, died in Greenland, Nov. 8, 1871. A blacksmith by trade, he finally became a journalist in Cincinnati. In 1859 he ...
-Charles Francois Beautemps-Beaupre
Charles Francois Beautemps-Beaupre, a French hydrographer, born at Neuville-au-Pont, near Ste. Menehould, in 1766, died in 1854. He studied engineering and geography at the depot of marine charts and ...
-Charles Francois Brissean De Mirbel
Charles Francois Brissean De Mirbel, a French naturalist, born in Paris, March 27, 1776, died near there, Sept. 12, 1854. In 1794he entered the topographical bureau, but in 1796 fled to the south of F...
-Charles Francois Dumouriez
Charles Francois Dumouriez, a French general, born in Cambrai, Jan. 25, 1739, died near Henley-upon-Thames, England, March 14,1823. He served with distinction and was frequently wounded during the sev...
-Charles Francois Dupuis
Charles Francois Dupuis, a French scholar and philosopher, born at Trie-le-Chateau, Normandy, in October, 1742, died near Dijon, Sept. 29, 1809. He was the son of a country schoolmaster, and through L...
-Charles Francois Gounod
Charles Francois Gounod, a French composer, born in Paris, June 17, 1818. He studied counterpoint at the Paris conservatory under Halevy, receiving also instructions in composition from Lesueur and Pa...
-Charles Francois Lebrun
Charles Francois Lebrun, duke of Piacenza, a French statesman, born at St. Sauveur-Len-delin, Normandy, March 19, 1739, died near Dourdan, June 16, 1824. In early life he secured the protection of Cha...
-Charles Frederick Henningsen
Charles Frederick Henningsen, an English soldier and author, of Scandinavian extraction, born in 1815. In 1834 he left England to enter the service of Don Carlos in Spain, was a captain in the body gu...
-Charles G. Athertoiy
Charles G. Athertoiy, an American senator, born at Amherst, N. H., July 4, 1804, died Nov. 15, 1853. He was elected a member of congress in 1837, and on Dec. 11, 1838, introduced under a suspension of...
-Charles Genevieve Louis Augnste Andre Timothee D Eon De Beaumont
Charles Genevieve Louis Augnste Andre Timothee D' Eon De Beaumont, commonly called the chevalier d'Eon, a French diplomatist, who owes his notoriety to doubts which long existed as to his sex, born in...
-Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny
Charles Giles Bridle Daubeny, an English natural philosopher, born at Stratton, Gloucestershire, Feb. 11, 1795, died Dec. 13, 1867. He studied medicine at Edinburgh, and was professor of chemistry at ...
-Charles Gnillaume Marie Apollinaire Antoine Cousin-Montauban Palikao
Charles Gnillaume Marie Apollinaire Antoine Cousin-Montauban Palikao, count de, a French soldier, born in Paris, June 24, 1796. In early life he served in the French army in Spain, and afterward in Al...
-Charles Gnstavus Memminger
Charles Gnstavus Memminger, an American politician, born in Wiirtemberg, Germany, Jan. 7, 1803. His mother, a widow, emigrated to Charleston, S. C, when he was an infant, and soon died. He was placed ...
-Charles Goodyear
Charles Goodyear, an American inventor, born in New Haven, Conn., Dec. 29, 1800, died in New York, July 1, 1860. He received only a public school education. After coming of age, he joined his father A...
-Charles Gravier Vergennes
Charles Gravier Vergennes, count de, a French statesman, born in Dijon, Dec. 28, 1717, died in Versailles, Feb. 13, 1787. He early accompanied his relative M. de Chavigny on diplomatic missions, and w...
-Charles Haddon Spurgeon
Charles Haddon Spurgeon, an English preacher, born at Kelvedon, Essex, June 19, 1834. His father and grandfather were preachers in the Independent denomination. At the age of 16 he became an usher at ...
-Charles Hardwick
Charles Hardwick, an English theologian, born at Slingsby, Yorkshire, Sept. 22, 1821, died Aug. 18, 1859, while ascending the Pyrenees near Bagneres de Luchon. He was a fellow of St. Catharine's hall,...
-Charles Henry Davis
Charles Henry Davis, an American naval officer, born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 16, 1807. He entered the navy as midshipman in 1823, and from 1844 to 1849 was assistant in the coast survey. In 1846-'9 he ...
-Charles Hettor Estaing
Charles Hettor Estaing, count d', a French naval officer, born at the chateau of Ruvel, Auvergne, in 1729, executed in Paris, April 28, 1794. He entered the military service, and in 1758 accompanied t...
-Charles I
Charles I., prince of Roumania, born in Prussia, April 20, 1839. He is a son of Prince Anthony of Hohenzollern, and a brother of Prince Leopold, who was proposed for the Spanish throne in 1870, and be...
-Charles I (Of England)
Charles I., the second of the house of Stuart who sat on the English throne, third son of James VI. of Scotland and I. of England, and Anne, daughter of Frederick II. of Denmark, born at Dunfermline, ...
-Charles II (Of England)
Charles II., second son of the preceding (the first son, Charles James, having died on the day of his birth, March 18, 1629), born May 29, 1630, died Feb. 6, 1685. At 12 years of age he was appointed ...
-Charles II. Laverdiere
Charles II. Laverdiere, a Canadian historian, born at Chateau-Richer, Oct. 23, 182G, died in Quebec, March 27, 1873. He was ordained priest in August, 1851, and soon became a teacher in the seminary o...
-Charles III (Of Spain)
Charles III., king of Spain and of the Two Sicilies, second son of Philip V. and Elizabeth Farnese, born Jan. 20, 1710, died Dec. 13, 1788. Since his elder brother Ferdinand would by right succeed to ...
-Charles III Of Durazzo
Charles III Of Durazzo., king of Naples and Hungary, born in 1345, assassinated in Buda, Feb. 8,1387. He was the son of Louis de Duras, or Durazzo, count of Gravina, who had rebelled against Queen Joa...
-Charles IV (Of Germany)
Charles IV., emperor of Germany, a member of the family of Luxemburg, and son of King John of Bohemia, burn in Prague, May 13, 1310, died there, Nov. 29, 1378. When seven years old he was taken to Par...
-Charles IV (Of Spain)
Charles IV., king of Spain, born in Naples, Nov. 12, 1748, died' in Rome, Jan. 19, 1819. The son of Charles III., he succeeded to the throne in 1788, having married at an early age his cousin, Maria L...
-Charles IX (Of France)
Charles IX., the twelfth king of the family of Valois, born at St. Germain-en-Laye, June 27, 1550, died May 30, 1574. The second son of Henry II. and Catharine de' Medici, he succeeded his brother, Fr...
-Charles Ignace Peyronnet
Charles Ignace Peyronnet, count de, a French statesman, born in Bordeaux in October, 1778, died at Monferrand, Gironde, Jan. 2, 1854. His father, an attorney of the parliament of Guienne, had been enn...
-Charles Irenee Castel Saint-Pierre
Charles Irenee Castel Saint-Pierre, abbé de, a French philanthropist, born near Barfleur, Normandy, Feb. 18; 1658, died in Paris, April 29, 1743. He was educated by the Jesuits at Caen and joined the ...
-Charles James Blomfield
Charles James Blomfield, an English clergyman and scholar, born at Bury St. Edmunds, May 29, 1786, died in London, Aug. 5, 1857. He was educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, and in 1810-'12 edited t...
-Charles James Lever
Charles James Lever, an Irish novelist, born in Dublin, Aug. 31, 1806, died in Trieste, June 1, 1872. He was educated as a physician, studying first at Trinity college and afterward in Gottingen. In 1...
-Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux
Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux, a French revolutionist, born in Marseilles, March 6, 1707, guillotined at Bordeaux, June 25, 1794. He was a prominent young lawyer when in 1791 he was sent by his native ...
-Charles John Ellicott
Charles John Ellicott, an English prelate and author, born at Whitwell, near Stamford, April 25, 1819. He graduated at St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1841, and was rector of Pilton, Rutlandshire, f...
-Charles Julius Hempel
Charles Julius Hempel, an American physi-cian, born in Solingen, Prussia, Sept. 5, 1811. He studied medicine in Paris, and in 1835 emigrated to the United States, where he has since resided. He gradua...
-Charles Knight
Charles Knight, an English publisher and author, born at Windsor, March 15, 1791, died at Addlestone, Surrey, March 9, 1873. His father was a bookseller at Windsor, and he succeeded to the business. H...
-Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun, a French painter, born in Paris in 1619, died there, Feb. 12, 1690. He studied in the school of Simon Vouet, and at the age of 15 produced a picture of Diomedes devoured by his own H...
-Charles Lee
Charles Lee, a major general in the American revolutionary army, born at Dernhall, Cheshire, England, in 1731, died in Philadelphia, Oct. 2, 1782. He was the youngest son of John Lee, colonel of the 4...
-Charles Lefebvre-Desxoiettes
Charles Lefebvre-Desxoiettes, count, a French general, born in Paris, Sept. 14, 1773, lost at sea near Kinsale, Ireland, April 22, 1822. He ran away from college to enter the army, served under Dumour...
-Charles Loring Brace
Charles Loring Brace, an American clergyman and author, born at Litchfield, Conn., in 1826. He graduated at Yale college in 1846, and afterward studied theology in the theological department of that i...
-Charles Loring Elliott
Charles Loring Elliott, an American painter, born in Scipio, N. Y., in December, 1812, died in Albany, Aug. 25, 1868. He was for some time employed in a country store, but that occupation being distas...
-Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas
Charles Louis Ambroise Thomas, a French composer, born in Metz, Aug. 5, 1811. In 1828 he was admitted to the conservatory of Paris, where in 1829 he took the first prize for piano playing, and in 1830...
-Charles Loyson
Charles Loyson, known as Pere Hyacinthe, a French pulpit orator, born in Orleans, March 10, 1827. He studied at the academy in Pan, and in his boyhood produced some verses which attracted notice. He e...
-Charles Mackay
Charles Mackay, a British author, born in Perth in 1812. He was educated in London and Brussels. From 1834 to 1844 he was on the staff of the London Morning Chronicle, and from 1844 to 1847 editor o...
-Charles Macklin
Charles Macklin, an Irish actor, born in Westmeath about 1690, died in London, July 11, 1797. His real name was McLaughlin. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a saddler, and soon ran away to Engla...
-Charles Marie De La Condamine
Charles Marie De La Condamine, a French geographer, born in Paris, Jan. 28, 1701, died there, Feb. 4, 1774. He was educated at the university of his native city, and in 1719 entered the army, and acco...
-Charles Martel (Of France)
Charles Martel, duke of Austrasia and mayor of the palace of the Frankish kings, born about 690, died in 741. He was the natural son of Pepin of Heristal, by his mistress Alpaida, and seemed at first ...
-Charles Mauriee Talleirmd-Perigord
Charles Mauriee Talleirmd-Perigord, prince de, a French statesman, born in Paris, Feb. 13, 1754, died there, May 17, 1838. He was the eldest son of the count de Talleyrand-Perigord, and, having been l...
-Charles Michel Epee
Charles Michel Epee, abbe de 1', a French instructor of the deaf and dumb, born at Versailles, Nov. 25, 1712, died in Paris, Dec. 23, 1789. He studied theology, and gave in his adhesion to the doctrin...
-Charles Montague
Charles Montague, earl of Halifax, a British statesman, born at Horton, Northamptonshire, April 16, 1661, died May 19, 1715. His father was a younger son of the earl of Manchester. Charles was destine...
-Charles Montvard
Charles Montvard, a Swiss author, born in Bern in 1790, died in Bonn, Germany, Jan. 12, 1865. He was educated in Lausanne and Paris, and in 1817 became professor of French literature in Lausanne. He s...
-Charles Mordaunt Peterborough
Charles Mordaunt Peterborough, earl of, a British soldier, born in 1658, died in Lisbon, Oct. 25, 1735. His youth until his 17th year was passed in the frivolous and profligate amusements of the court...
-Charles Morris
Charles Morris, an American naval officer, born in Connecticut in 1784, died in Washington, D. C, Jan. 27, 1856. He entered the navy in July, 1799, and served in the war with Tripoli, 1801-5. In Janua...
-Charles Nordhoff
Charles Nordhoff, an American author, born at Erwitte, Westphalia, Prussia, Aug. 31, 1830. In 1835 he came with his parents to the United States, and went to school in Cincinnati, where at the age of ...
-Charles Oconor
Charles O'Conor, an American lawyer, born in New York in 1804. Shortly before his birth his father emigrated from Ireland, and soon after his arrival lost a handsome property which he had inherited. T...
-Charles Othon Frederic Jean Baptiste Clarac
Charles Othon Frederic Jean Baptiste Clarac, count, a French antiquary and artist, born in Paris, June 16, 1777, died in 1847. Having emigrated with his family, he served for some time in the army of ...
-Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault, a French author, horn in Paris, Jan. 12, 1628, died there, May 16, 1703. He was educated at the college de Beauvais, studied law, and was admitted to practise at the Paris bar in 165...
-Charles Pettit Mellvaine
An American bishop, born in Burlington, N. J., Jan. 18, 1798, died in Florence, Italy, March 12, 1873. He graduated at Princeton college in 1816, was admitted to orders in 1820, and labored for two or...
-Charles Philippe Robin
Charles Philippe Robin, a French physiologist, born at Jasseron, department of Ain, June 4, 1821. He studied in Paris, and won in 1844 a prize at the école pratique de médecine, where he established a...
-Charles Phillips
Charles Phillips, an Irish barrister, born in Sligo in 1787, died in London, Feb. 1, 1859. He was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, was called to the Irish bar in 1811, and to the English bar in 18...
-Charles Pichegru
Charles Pichegru, a French general, born at Arbois, Feb. 16, 1761, died in Paris, April 5, 1804. He was teacher of mathematics at Bri-enne while Bonaparte was a student there, afterward entered the ar...
-Charles Porterfield Krauth
Charles Porterfield Krauth, an American theologian, born in Martinsburg, Va., March 17, 1823. He is the son of the Rev. Charles Philip Krauth, former president of Pennsylvania college, Gettysburg. He ...
-Charles Pratt Camden
Charles Pratt Camden, earl, an English statesman, born in Devonshire in 1714, died in London, April 18, 1794. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge, and was called to the bar in 1738, where, after pas...
-Charles Robert Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin, an English naturalist and author, son of Dr. R. W. Darwin, and grandson of Dr. Erasmus Darwin, born in Shrewsbury, Feb. 12, 1809. He received his early education at the Shrewsbu...
-Charles Rollin
Charles Rollin, a French historian, bom in Paris, Jan. 30, 1661, died there, Sept. 14, 1741. He was gratuitously admitted to a school the pupils of which attended classes at the college de Plessis. He...
-Charles Sealsfield
Charles Sealsfield, a German author, whose real name was Karl Postel, born at Poppitz, Moravia, March 3, 1793, died near Solothurn, Switzerland, May 26, 1864. He became secretary of a religious order ...
-Charles Sprague
Charles Sprague, an American poet, born in Boston, Oct. 26, 1791, died there, Jan. 14, 1875. At the age of 13 he entered a mercantile house as clerk, and subsequently became a partner. In 1820 he beca...
-Charles Stewart
Charles Stewart, an American naval officer, born in Philadelphia, July 28, 1778, died in Bordentown, N. J., Nov. 7, 1869. He entered the merchant service at the age of 13 as cabin boy, and rose to the...
-Charles Stuart Hoggs
Charles Stuart Hoggs, an American naval officer, born at New Brunswick, N. J., Jan. 28, 1811. He is a nephew of James Lawrence, commander of the Chesapeake, who fell in the action with the Shannon. He...
-Charles Sumer
Charles Sumer, an American statesman, born in Boston, Mass., Jan. 6, 1811, died in Washington, D. 0., March 11, 1874. His father, who died in 1839, was a graduate of Harvard college, a lawyer, and for...
-Charles The Bold, Duke Of Burgundy
Duke Of Burgundy Charles The Bold, son of Philip the (rood and Isabella of Portugal, born at Dijon, Nov. 10, 1433, killed in battle near Nancy, Jan. 5, 1477. On the day of his baptism he was created c...
-Charles Thomas Jackson
Charles Thomas Jackson, an American physicist, born in Plymouth, Mass., June 21, 1805. He devoted much attention to science in his youth, studied medicine under Drs. James Jackson and Walter Channing,...
-Charles Upham Shepard
Charles Upham Shepard, an American physicist, born at Little Compton, E. I., June 29, 1804. He graduated at Amherst college in 1824, taught botany and mineralogy in Boston, was for two years assistant...
-Charles V (Of France)
Charles V., the Wise, the third king of the family of Valois, son of John II., born Jan. 21, 1337, died at Vincennes, Sept. 16, 1380. He was a prince of very little military genius, but with much tast...
-Charles VI (Of France)
Charles VI., the Mad, or the Beloved, the fourth king of the family of Valois, born in Paris, Dec. 3, 1368, died' Oct. 21, 1422. The son of Charles the Wise, he was but 11 years old when his father di...
-Charles VI (Of Germany)
Charles VI., emperor of Germany, and a pretender to the throne of Spain under the title of Charles III., the second son of the emperor Leopold I., and the last in the male line of the pure Hapsburg fa...
-Charles VII (Of Germany)
Charles VII. (Karl Albrecht), emperor of Germany, born in Brussels, Aug. 6, 1697, died in Munich, Jan. 20, 1745. His father was Maximilian Emanuel, elector of Bavaria, and governor of the Spanish Neth...
-Charles VIII (Of France)
Charles VIII., the seventh king of the house of Valois, born at Amboise, June 30, 1470, died April 7, 1498. Being only 13 years of age on the death of his father, Louis XL, his eldest sister, Anne de ...
-Charles Valentine Riley
Charles Valentine Riley, an American entomologist, born in London, England, Sept. 18, 1843. At 17 he came to America, and after farming for three years was for nearly five years editor of the entomolo...
-Charles Waterton
Charles Waterton, an English naturalist, born at Walton hall, near Wakefield, Yorkshire, June 12, 1782, died there, May 27,1865. He was educated at Ushaw and Stonyhurst. In 1804 he went to Demerara to...
-Charles Wentworth Upham
Charles Wentworth Upham, an American author, born in St. John, New Brunswick, May 4, 1802, died in Salem, Mass., June 14, 1875. He graduated at Harvard college in 1821, and at the Cambridge divinity s...
-Charles Wilkes
Charles Wilkes, an American naval officer, born in New York in 1801. He was appointed a midshipman in 1816, and served on the Mediterranean station in 1819-'20, and in the Pacific in 1821-'3. In 1826 ...
-Charles William Eliot
Charles William Eliot, an American educator, born in Boston, Mass., March 20, 1834. His father was Samuel Atkins Eliot, the author of a History of Harvard College, a member of congress in 1850-55, a...
-Charles Wyllys Elliott
Charles Wyllys Elliott, an American author, born in Guilford, Conn., May 27, 1817. He is a lineal descendant in the fifth generation from Eliot the Indian Apostle. After some years spent in mercanti...
-Charles X (Of France)
Charles X., the seventh and last king of the family of Bourbon, born at Versailles, Oct. 9, 1757, died at Gorz, in Austria, Nov. 6,1836. He was the fourth son of the dauphin, son of Louis XV., and rec...
-Charles X (Of Sweden)
Charles X., Gastavus, born at Nykoping, Nov. 8, 1622, died at Gothenburg, Feb. 13, 1660. He was the son of John Casimir, prince palatine of Deux-Ponts, and of Catharine, daughter of Charles IX. and si...
-Charles XII (Of Sweden)
Charles XII., born in Stockholm, June 27, 1682, killed at the siege of the fortress of Frederikshald, Norway, Dec. 11, 1718. He was the eldest son of Charles XI. (1660-1697), a peaceful prince, who im...
-Charles XIII (Of Sweden)
Charles XIII., born Oct. 7, 1748, died Feb. 5, 1818. He was the second son of Adolphus Frederick and Louisa Ulrica, sister of Frederick the Great of Prussia. Destined from his birth to fill the high o...
-Charles XV (Of Sweden)
Charles XV., king of Sweden and Norway, born May 3, 1826, died at Malmo, Sept. 18, 1872. He succeeded his father Oscar I., son of Bernadotte, July 8, 1859, and was crowned in Stockholm May 3, ...
-Charles. Other Princes
Charles, archduke of Austria, third son of the emperor Leopold II., younger brother of Francis I., and uncle of Ferdinand L, born in Florence, Sept. 5, 1771, died April 30, 1847. Of weak constitution ...
-Charleston
Charleston, a county of South Carolina, bordering on the Atlantic, including several islands, of which the largest is Edisto; area, 1,906 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 88,863, of whom 60,603 were colored. The...
-Charleston (2)
Charleston, the chief commercial city of South Carolina, a port of entry, and capital of Charleston co., in lat. 32 45' 1ST., lon. 79 57' W., 100 m. S. S. E. of Columbia, the capital of the ...
-Charlestown
Charlestown (Indian, Mishawun), a city of Middlesex co., Massachusetts, one of the oldest places in the state, separated from Boston on the south by Charles river. It occupies a peninsula formed by th...
-Charlevoix
Charlevoix, a N. W. county of Michigan, bordering on Lake Michigan, and intersected by Green river; area, about 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,724. Its N. W. shore is deeply indented by Little Traverse b...
-Charlotte
Charlotte, a S. county of Virginia, bounded S. W. by Staunton river; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,513, of whom 9,613 were colored. The surface is hilly. The Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railr...
-Charlotte "Currer Bell" (Bronte)
Charlotte Currer Bell (Bronte), an English novelist, born at Thornton, Yorkshire, April 21, 1816, died at Haworth, March 31, 1855. She was the daughter of the Rev. Patrick Bronte, a native of Irelan...
-Charlotte Libertine Ernestine Von Stein
Charlotte Libertine Ernestine Von Stein, a German baroness, born in Weimar, Dec. 25, 1742, died there, Jan. 6, 1827. She was a daughter of a marshal of the grand ducal court, and in 1764 married the b...
-Charlotte Mary Yonge
Charlotte Mary Yonge, an English authoress, born at Otterbourne, Hampshire, in 1823. Her father was an army officer. She published Abbey Church, or Self-Control and SelfConceit, in 1844, which was f...
-Charlotte Saunders Cushman
Charlotte Saunders Cushman, an American actress, born in Boston, Mass., July 23, 1816. In consequence of the bankruptcy of her father she was called upon at the age of 12 to contribute to the family s...
-Charlottenbirg
Charlottenbirg, a town of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, on the left bank of the Spree, connected with Berlin by a fine promenade 4 m. long, which is lighted at night; pop. in 1871, 19,518. ...
-Charlottetown
Charlottetown, the capital of Prince Edward Island, in Queen's co., on the N. side of East river and on the strait of Cumberland, 42 m. N. W. of Pictou, Nova Scotia; pop. in 1871, 8,807. The site, loo...
-Charon
Charon, in Greek mythology, son of Erebus and Night, the ferryman who transported the souls of the dead over the river Acheron to the infernal regions. The fee exacted for this service from each spiri...
-Charter
Charter (Gr. parchment; Lat. harta), the name given in the middle ages to every kind of written convention. Among the principal kinds were chartce juratce or sacra-mentales, by which an engagement ...
-Charterhouse
Charterhouse (Fr. Chartreuse, a Carthusian convent), a celebrated modern school and charitable foundation for aged soldiers and merchants in the city of London. The site it occupies was bought for a p...
-Chartism
Chartism, a political creed in England, which takes its name from a proposed charter or bill of rights, known as the people's charter, drawn up in 1838, the principal points of which were universal ...
-Chartres
Chartres, a city of France, capital of the department of Eure-et-Loire, 45 m. S. W. of Paris; pop. in 1860, 19,442. It is situated on the railroad running S. W. from Paris, and is built on a slope at ...
-Chartreuse
Chartreuse, the name of various Carthusian monasteries, chiefly situated in France and Italy. The most famous institution of the kind is La Grande Chartreuse (Cartusia), in the department of Isere, Fr...
-Charybdis And Scylla
Charybdis And Scylla, in Grecian mythology, two voracious monsters winch dwelt opposite to each other, the former on the Sicilian and the latter on the Italian coast. Cha-rybdis abode in a rock off th...
-Chasseloup-Laubat
Chasseloup-Laubat. I. Francois de, marquis, a French soldier, born at St. Sernin, near Marennes, Aug. 18, 1754, died in Paris in October, 1833. Descended from a family of soldiers, he became one of th...
-Chastelain, Or Chastellaiii, Georges
Chastelain, Or Chastellaiii, Georges, surnamed the Adventurous, a French chronicler and poet, born at Alost, Flanders, in 1403, died in Valenciennes, March 20, 1475. He belonged to a noble family, stu...
-Chat
Chat, a genus of warblers (icteria), placed by Baird in the subfamily sylvicolino2. The best known species is the yellow-breasted chat (I. viridis, Bonap.). The bill is shorter, stronger, and more cur...
-Chateau-Thierry
Chateau-Thierry, a town of France, in the department of Aisne, on the right bank of the Marne, and on the Paris and Strasburg railway, 45 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 6,519. It is a pretty town, l...
-Chateaudun
Chateaudun, a town of France, in the department of Eure-et-Loir, on the left bank of the Loir, 25 m. S. of Chartres and 30 m. N. W. of Orleans; pop. in 1866, 6,781. It is prettily situated on a comman...
-Chatelet
Chatelet (Lat. Castcllucium), the name of two fortresses which existed in Paris in former times, said to have been built by Julius Ca3-sar. The Grand Chatelet was restored and enlarged by Louis IX., C...
-Chatham
Chatham. I. A central county of North Carolina, drained by Rocky and New Hope rivers, and traversed by the Haw and the Deep, which unite in the S. E. part to form the Cape Fear; area, 700 sq. m.; pop....
-Chatillon-Sir-Seine
Chatillon-Sir-Seine, a town of France, in the department of Cote d'Or, on the railway from Paris to Muhlhausen, 110 m. S. E. of Paris; [top. in 1860, 4,860. The Seine divides it into two parts, one of...
-Chatsworth
Chatsworth, a celebrated estate in the parish of Edensor, Derbyshire, England. A branch of the London and Northwestern railway leads from Manchester to Whaley bridge, and a coach from the latter place...
-Chattanooga
Chattanooga, a city and the capital of Hamilton co., Tennessee, at the base of Lookout mountain, near where the S. boundary of the state touches Alabama and Georgia; pop. in 1870, 6,093, of whom 2,221...
-Chattels
Chattels (law Lat. cutalla), a term used to designate personal property. This is of two kinds: chattels personal, including movable goods, as domestic animals, money, harvested crops, etc.; and chatte...
-Chattooga
Chattooga. I. Or Chatnga, one of the head branches of the Savannah river, rises near the S. frontier of North Carolina, and flows S. W. about 40 m. along the boundary between South Carolina and Georgi...
-Chaudet
Chaudet. I. Autoinc Denis, a French artist, born in Paris, March 31, 1763, died April 19, 1810. His statue of dipus, exhibited in 1801, established his reputation as a sculptor. Among his other ...
-Chaudon
Chaudon. I. Dom Louis Maieul, a French author, born at Valensolle, May 20, 1737, died at Mezin, May 28,1817. He studied in the colleges of Marseilles and Avignon, and entered the order of Benedictines...
-Chaumonot, Or Chaumonnot, Pierre Marie Joseph
Chaumonot, Or Chaumonnot, Pierre Marie Joseph, a French missionary, born near Chatillon-sur-Seine in 1611, died at Lorette, near Quebec, Canada, Feb. 21, 1693. In early life he entered the society of ...
-Chauncy
Chauncy. I. Charles, second president of Harvard college, born in Hertfordshire, England, in 1592, died Feb. 19. 1672. Educated at Westminster and Cambridge, he made the acquaintance of Archbishop Ush...
-Chautauqua
Chautauqua, the westernmost county of New York, bounded N. W. by Lake Erie, and W. and S. by Pennsylvania; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 59,327. It is well supplied with water power, and dra...
-Chaux-De-Fonds
Chaux-De-Fonds, La, a borough of Switzerland, in the canton and 9 m. N. W. of Neuf-chatel; pop. in 1870, 19,930. It is a large scattered town, resembling an assemblage of form houses and hamlets, a ga...
-Cheese
Cheese, the curd of milk, separated from the whey and compressed into a solid mass. It consists of the caseine and butter and a portion of the water and saline constituents of the milk, and whatever s...
-Cheever. I. George Barrell
Cheever. I. George Barrell, D. D., an American clergyman and author, born at Hallowell, Me., April 17,1807. He graduated atBowdoin college in 1825, at the Andover theological seminary in 1830, and was...
-Chelsea
Chelsea, a city of Suftblk co., Massachusetts, separated from Charlestown on the S. W. by Mystic river, which is crossed by Chelsea bridge, 3,300 ft. long. It is connected with Boston by the Eastern r...
-Cheltenham
Cheltenham, a market town and parliamentary borough of Gloucestershire, England, on the river Chelt, 86 m. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 44,519. It is celebrated as a fashionable watering place. It l...
-Chemical Element
Chemical Element. In the present state of science this term admits of no very precise definition. In general the word element is applied to any substance which has as yet never been decomposed into co...
-Chemical Equivalent
Chemical Equivalent. When an element enters into chemical combination with another element, it does so in a fixed proportion which may be expressed in numbers. This ratio is termed the combining equiv...
-Chemical Nomenclature
Chemical Nomenclature, the vocabulary of terms used in chemistry. Being the instrument of thought upon chemical subjects, it lias necessarily at every period in the history of the science reflected th...
-Chemical Symbols
Chemical Symbols, abbreviations of the chemical names of the elements, which are combined into formulas, with or without quantitative signs, to represent the composition of compound bodies. The idea o...
-Chemical Types
Chemical Types, a term used to designate the characteristics of chemical substances which are supposed to have an analogous molecular architecture, or are built up of elements which, although unlike, ...
-Chemistry
Chemistry, the science which investigates the composition and certain properties of material substances. Nothing is certainly known of the derivation of the term, but it is most probably from (Chemi...
-Chemnitz
Chemnitz, a city of Saxony, in the circle of Zwickau, at the foot of a northern offshoot of the Erzgebirge, on the river Chemnitz, 38 m. S. W. of Dresden, and 43 m. S. E. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 68,...
-Chemung
Chemung, a S. county of New York, bordering on Pennsylvania, bounded E. partly by Cay-uta creek, and intersected by Tioga river; area, 513 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 35,281. The Northern Central and the Er...
-Chenango
Chenango, a S. E. central county of New York; area, 624 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 40,564. Unadilla river touches its E. boundary; the Chenango and the E. branch of the Susquehanna intersect it; and it is ...
-Chenier
Chenier. I. Louis de, a French historian, born at Montfort, Languedoc, in 1723, died in Paris, May 25,1796. Established as a merchant at Constantinople, he was afterward employed there in the French e...
-Cheops
Cheops, an ancient king of Egypt, who reigned several thousand years B. 0. and built the first and largest pyramid. Diodorus calls him Chembes or Chemmis, but the name Cheops given to him by Herodotus...
-Cher
Cher, a river of France, rises in the department of Creuse, flows N., N. W., and W., and after a course of 220 m., during which it describes a semicircle, joins the Loire near Tours. The canal of Berr...
-Cherbourg
Cherbourg (anc. Cori-allum or Cortallum, afterward Carusbur), one of the principal seaports and naval stations of France, in the department of La Manche, 185 m. W. N. W. of Paris, with which it is con...
-Cherbuiez
Cherbuiez. I. Antoinc Elisee, a Swiss political economist, born in Geneva in 1797, died in Zurich, March 4, 1809. In 1833 he became professor of jurisprudence, and in 1837 of political economy, at the...
-Cheriang
Cheriang, an E. province of China, bordering on the Pacific, and including the Chusan archipelago, between lat. 27 and 31 N., and lon. 118 and 123 E., traversed by the great canal,...
-Cherokee
Cherokee, the name of six counties in the United States. I. The S. W. county of North Carolina, bounded N. E. by Graham county; area, 050 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,080, of whom 301 were colored. It is i...
-Cherokees (2)
Cherokees, a tribe of North American Indians, called by themselves Tsaragliee, who when first known by the whites, and down to 1830, occupied the upper valley of the Tennessee river, the mountains and...
-Cherry
Cherry. The common cherry tree (prunus cerasus, Linn.; cerasus vulgaris, Loud.) is of Asiatic origin, and is said by Pliny to have been introduced into Italy by Lucullus from Cerasus in Pontus during ...
-Cherry Laurel
Cherry Laurel (primus lauro - cerasus, Linn.), called in England the common or broad-leaved laurel, is a native of the Levant, and was brought from Constantinople to Holland in 1576. It has racemose f...
-Chersonesis, Or Chersonese (Gr
Chersonesis, Or Chersonese (Gr. ), the ancient designation for a peninsula. The word is not used generally of all peninsulas, and the ancients do not appear to have regarded all such pieces of land ...
-Chertsey
Chertsey (Anglo-Saxon, Ceortes Eye, or island), a town of England, in Surrey, situated on a slip of land between the right bank of the Thames and the brook from Virginia water, 22 m. S. W. of London; ...
-Cherub
Cherub (in Scripture more frequently in the Hebrew plural form, cherubim), a symbolical figure of a composite form, which finds a parallel in the composite mythological figures of Assyria, Egypt, Pers...
-Cherusci
Cherusci, a Gorman tribe, celebrated for their great victory over the Romans under Varus. They are first mentioned by Caesar. They dwelt on both sides of the Weser, border-ing S. on the Suevi, from wh...
-Chess and Brome Grass
Chess, and Brome Grass, common names of several species of the genus hromus, belonging to the natural order gramineae, or grasses, and tribe festuceae (fescue grass, &c). In the wheat-raising district...
-Chess
Chess (Fr. echecs, It. scacco, Ger. Schach, from Persian shah, king, the principal piece in the game), the oldest and most scientific of sedentary amusements, originated in India about 5,000 years ago...
-Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay, the greatest inlet in the Atlantic coast of the United States. It enters Virginia between Cape Charles and Cape Henry, and extends into Maryland. Its length, following the curve, is ab...
-Cheshire
Cheshire, the S. W. county of New Hampshire, bounded S. by Massachusetts, and separated from Vermont on the W. by the Connecticut river; area, 770 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 27,265. It is drained by the As...
-Cheshire, Or Chester
Cheshire, Or Chester, a N. W. county of England, bounded N. by the Irish sea and the estuary of the Mersey; area, 1,105 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 561,131. It has a level surface, diversified with small la...
-Chest
Chest. The human body being commonly divided into head, trunk, and limbs, these again are subdivided into head and face, chest and abdomen, upper and lower limbs. The chest, then, is the upper portion...
-Chester
Chester. I. A S. E. county of Pennsylvania, bounded S. and S. E. by Maryland and Delaware, N. E. by the Schuylkill river, W. by Octorara creek, and drained by French, Elk, and the sources of Brandy wi...
-Chester Dewey
Chester Dewey, D. D., an American clergyman, born at Sheffield, Mass., Oct. 25, 1784, died in Rochester, N. Y., Dec. 15, 1867. He graduated at Williams college in 1806, was licensed to preach in 1808,...
-Chester Harding
Chester Harding, an American portrait painter, born in Conway, Mass., Sept. 1, 1792, died in Boston, April 1, 1866. His family, who were poor, removed to Caledonia, N. Y., when he was 14 years old, an...
-Chester-Le-Street
Chester-Le-Street (Saxon, Coneceastre), a parish and village of England, county of Durham, on a Roman military road, and near an ancient Roman station, 6 m.N of the city of Durham; pop. of the parish ...
-Chesterfield
Chesterfield. I. A S.E. county of Virginia, bounded S. by the Appomattox, and N. E. by James- river; area, 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,470, of whom 8,733 were colored. The surface is uneven and most...
-Chestntt
Chestntt (castanea vesca, Linn.; castanea vulgaris, Lamb.), a large and handsome tree, valuable both for its timber and fruit, and growing wild in Europe and the United States. Its foliage is ample an...
-Chewink
Chewink, a name popularly given to the ground robin or towhee bunting (pipito ery-throphthalmus, Vieill.), from its usual note. It belongs to the family of fringillidae or finches, and the genus inclu...
-Cheyenne
Cheyenne, a S. W. county of Nebraska, bounded W. by Wyoming and S. by Colorado, and intersected by the N. and S. forks of the Platte; area, about G,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 190. The Union Pacific rai...
-Chezy
Chezy. I. Antoine Leonard de, a French orientalist, born at Neuilly, Jan. 15, 1773, died in Paris, Sept. 3, 1832. In 1798 he was appointed a member of the learned commission who were to accompany Bona...
-Chiapas
Chiapas, the southernmost state of the Mexican republic, bounded N. W. by Vera Cruz, N. by Tabasco, N. E. by Yucatan, E. and S. E. by Guatemala, S. W. by the Pacific ocean, and W. by Oajaca; area, abo...
-Chicago
Chicago, the principal city of Illinois, capital of Cook county, the commercial metropolis of the northwest, and the fifth in population of the cities of the United States. It is situated on the W. sh...
-Chiccory, Or Succory (Cichorhim In Tybus)
Chiccory, Or Succory (Cichorhim In Tybus), or the wild endive, a plant belonging to the same family as the dandelion, found growing wild in most parts of Europe, and in England in great profusion. It ...
-Chichen, Or Chichen Itza
Chichen, Or Chichen Itza, an ancient city of Mexico, in the state and peninsula of Yucatan, about 35 m. S. W. of Valladolid; lat. 20 15' N., lon. 88 30' W. Notwithstanding the appearance of ...
-Chichester
Chichester (anc. Regnum), a city of England, capital of the county of Sussex, at the termination of a gentle slope from the South Down hills, 53 m. S. W. of London, and 14 m. E. N. E. of Portsmouth; p...
-Chickahominy
Chickahominy, a river in S. E. Virginia, near which were fought several important battles during the civil war. It rises in swampy uplands about 20 m. N. W. of Richmond, flows S. E. about 50 m. parall...
-Chickaree
Chickaree, a name given, from its loud chattering note, to the red, Hudson bay, or pine squirrel (sciurus Hudsonius, Pall.). The body is stout, 7 to 8 inches long, and the tail rather less, narrow and...
-Chickasaw
Chickasaw. I. A N E. county of Mississippi; area, about 990 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,899, of whom 10,069 were colored. It was ceded to the state by the Chickasaw Indians. The surface is level, and the...
-Chickasaws (2)
Chickasaws, a nation of American Indians, residing when first known to the whites about 160 m. E. of the Mississippi, between lat. 34 and 35 N. According to their own tradition, they came fr...
-Chicken Pox
Chicken Pox (varicella), an exanthematous disease, characterized by the eruption of small vesicles appearing in successive crops. It is confined almost exclusively to children. The eruption is precede...
-Chicken Snake
Chicken Snake, a name given in the northern states to the coluber eximius (De Kay), ophibolus eximius and O. clericus (Bd. and Gd.). The head is short and the snout rounded; the nostrils are lateral, ...
-Chicopee
Chicopee, a town of Hampden co., Mass., on the E. side of the Connecticut, at the mouth of the Chicopeo river, 95 m. by rail W. S. W. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 9,607. It contains the villages of Chicop...
-Chieti
Chieti, a province of Italy. See Abruzzo Citeriore. Chieti #1 Chieti (anc. Teate Marrucinorum), a fortified city of Italy, capital of the province of Chieti or Abruzzo Citeriore, Italy, built on a h...
-Chigi
Chigi, a family of Roman prelates and princes, who are hereditary marshals of the conclave. They originally came from Siena, where the Chigi-Zondadavi branch still exists. Fabio (1599-1667) became pop...
-Chigo
Chigo, a species of flea (sarcopsylla penetrans), called also jigger and sand flea, found in the West Indies and the tropical regions of South America. It inhabits the sand and chinks in the stalls of...
-Chihuahua
Chihuahua. I. A N. state of Mexico, bounded N. by New Mexico and Texas, E. by Coahuila, S. by Durango, and W. by Sinaloa and Sonora, between lat. 26 30' and 31 45' N., and lon. 103 50' ...
-Chili, Or Chile
Chili, Or Chile, a republic of South America, lying W. of the Andes, between lat. 24 and 56 S., and lon. 70 and 74 W. It is bounded N. by Bolivia, E. by the Argentine Republic and ...
-Chillicothe
Chillicothe, a city of Ohio, capital of Ross county, on the right bank of the Scioto river, 45 m. in a direct line, or 70 m. following the windings, above its junction with the Ohio, and 3 m. above th...
-Chilling Worth
Chilling Worth. William, an English divine and controversial writer, born at Oxford in October, 1602, died at Chichester, Jan. 30, 1644. He was admitted a scholar of Trinity college, Oxford, in 1618, ...
-Chiloe
Chiloe. I. The southernmost province of Chili, comprising the island of the same name and the other islands of the archipelago of Chiloe, and the islands of the archipelago of Chinos. Since 1865 the e...
-Chimborazo
Chimborazo, a mountain of Ecuador, South America, the most famous peak of the Andes, situated in lat. 1 30' S., lon. 79 W. It was for a long time supposed to be not only the highest point on...
-Chimes
Chimes, a set of bells tuned to the modern musical scale, and struck by hammers which are moved either by clockwork or by hand. In the latter case they are commonly termed carillons, a name applied by...
-Chimney
Chimney (Lat. caminvs, Gr. a furnace), the flue for producing a draught and conveying off the smoke of a fire. Simple as these contrivances are, chimneys do not appear to have been known in ancient ...
-Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee (troglodytes niger, Geoff.), the form of the four-handed animals which conies the nearest to man; so much so, indeed, that Linmeus places it under the genus homo, with the epithet troglodyt...
-China
China (Chinese,. Tsin, or Tai-tsing). I. An immense empire of eastern Asia, comprising the eighteen provinces or China proper, Man-tchooria, Inner and Outer Mongolia, Ili or Chinese Turkistan, Koko-no...
-China Sea
China Sea (Chinese, Nan-hai, Southern sea), that portion of the Pacific cut off from the main ocean by a chain of islands, of which Borneo, the Philippines, and Formosa are the principal. It is bounde...
-Chincha Islands
Chincha Islands, a group of three small islets off the coast of Peru, celebrated for their deposits of guano, from which the Peruvian government derives a revenue larger than from all other sources co...
-Chinchilla
Chinchilla, a little animal of the family chinehillidae and order rodentia. The family is defined by Mr. Bennett, to whom the world owes most of what is known concerning this species, as follows: The ...
-Chinsoora, Or Chinsnra
Chinsoora, Or Chinsnra, a town of Bengal, British India, on the right bank of the Hooglv, 20 m. above Calcutta; lat. 22 53' N., lon. 88 23' E.; pop. about 14,000. It extends about half a mil...
-Chio, Or Khio Scio Skio
Chio, Or Khio Scio Skio (anc. Chios; Turk. Sakis-Adassi), an island of Asiatic Turkey, in the Grecian archipelago, off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the strait of Scio, 4 m. w...
-Chioggia, Or Chiozza (Anc
Chioggia, Or Chiozza (Anc. Fossa Clodia, and Olugia), a seaport of Italy, in the province of Udine, on the Adriatic, 15 m. S. of Venice; pop. in 1872, 26,336. It is situated on a small island at the S...
-Chipman
Chipman. I. Nathaniel, LL. D., an American jurist, born at Salisbury, Conn., Nov. 15, 1752, died at Middlebury, Vt., Feb. 15, 1843. He was educated at Yale college, during his senior year obtained a l...
-Chipmunk
Chipmunk, the name usually given to the ground squirrel (tamias, Illig). The ground squirrels have cheek pouches extending to the hind head and opening internally; the tail is shorter than the body, t...
-Chippewa
Chippewa, a river of Wisconsin, called by the Indians the Ojibway, or Ojibbeway. It rises in the N. part of the state, flows in a S. W. direction through a country mostly covered with pine forests, an...
-Chiqimula
Chiqimula. I. A department of Guatemala, Central America, lying on the gulf of Honduras, and N. and W. of the states of Honduras and San Salvador; area, about 4,000 sq. m.; pop. about 75,000. The rive...
-Chiquitos
Chiquitos, a once powerful Indian tribe of South America, inhabiting the country west of the river Paraguay, in the present province of Chiquitos in Bolivia. They are described by Charlevoix and other...
-Chiriqui
Chiriqui, a province on the isthmus and in the state of Panama, United States of Colombia, bounded N. by the Caribbean sea, S. by the Pacific, E. by the province of Veragua, and W. by Costa Rica; area...
-Chiromancy
Chiromancy (Gr. hand, and divination), the pretended art of judging the character and foretelling the fortune of a person from the aspect of his hand. The elements to be observed are the thumb a...
-Chiron
Chiron, in Greek mythology, the wisest of all the centaurs, reputed to be the son of Cronus (Saturn) and Philyra, born before the Ar-gonautic expedition. He was taught by Apollo and Diana, and was ski...
-Chiton
Chiton, a genus of marine animals, generally arranged as a family of gasteropod mollusks. The shell is composed of eight transverse imbricated plates, attached to a thick mantle which forms an expande...
-Chittagong, Or Chittagaon
Chittagong, Or Chittagaon. I. A district of British India, lying beyond the Ganges, but included in the province of Bengal, bounded N. by independent Tiperah, E. by Burmah and Aracan, S. by Aracan, an...
-Chitteldroog, Or Chitradurg (Anc
Chitteldroog, Or Chitradurg (Anc. Sitala Durc/a, the spotted castle), a town of British India, in the province of Mysore, capital of a district of the same name, 280 m. W. N. W. of Madras, 125 N. of...
-Chittenden
Chittenden, a N. W. county of Vermont, bounded W. by Lake Champlain; area, 517 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,480. It is drained by Lamoille and Onion rivers, which afford valuable water power. Near the lak...
-Chittnden
Chittnden. I. Thomas, the first governor of Vermont, born in East Guilford, Conn., Jan. 6, 1730, died at Williston, Chittenden co., Vt., Aug. 25, 1797. He represented Salisbury, Conn., in the legislat...
-Chittor Chitore
Chittor Chitore, Chetorc, or Chittorgurh, a town of British India, formerly the capital of the rajahship of Odeypoor, situated on the river Biruch or Beris, over which is a bridge of nine arches, 36 m...
-Chiusa
Chiusa, an Italian word for a narrow mountain pass, as for instance the Chiusa dell' Adige, near Verona, and the name of a number of localities in Italy, including a Benedictine abbey, San Michele del...
-Chivalry
Chivalry (Fr. chevalerie, riders of horses), an institution forming the special characteristic of European civilization in the middle ages. It flourished from about the beginning of the 10th century t...
-Chlamys
Chlamys (Gr. a scarf), an outer garment of the ancient Geeks and of the oriental races. It somewhat resembled the paluda-mentum of the Romans, and in the reigns of some of the later emperors was ad...
-Chlamyphorus, Or Chlamydophoros
Chlamyphorus, Or Chlamydophoros, a name first given by Dr. Harlan to a small mammal, a native of Chili, which seems to form a connecting link between the edentates and the insectivora; it is placed, h...
-Chloral
Chloral (synonymes, trichlormethyl, hydrocarbon oxide, trichloraldehyde, trichlorace-tyl, oxide hydrate), a chemical compound first obtained by Liebig in 1831 by the action of chlorine upon absolute a...
-Chloric Ether
Chloric Ether, a name sometimes given to Dutch liquid, or bichloride of ethylene, and also erroneously applied to chloroform by its discoverer, Mr. Guthrie of Sackett's Harbor. At present it is applie...
-Chlorimetry
Chlorimetry, a process chiefly designed to estimate the commercial value of bleaching powder. As this value depends upon the quantity of chlorine which can be liberated from the powders by an acid, Ga...
-Chlorine
Chlorine (Gr. green), a gaseous chemical element of yellowish green color, discovered by Scheele in 1774, called dephlogisti-cated marine acid air, also oxidized muriatic acid, and first pronounced ...
-Chloro-Methyl, Or Bichloride Of Methylene
Chloro-Methyl, Or Bichloride Of Methylene, a substance produced by exposing to sunshine, in a glass globe, chlorine and gaseous chloride of methyl. The products of the decomposition, which consist, in...
-Chloroform
Chloroform (synonymes, trichlormethane, dichlorinated methyl chloride, and perchloride of formyl), a transparent, colorless oily liquid, discovered in 1831 by Samuel Guthrie of Sack-ett's Harbor, N. Y...
-Chlorosis
Chlorosis (from Gr. green), a disease characterized by pallor, with a greenish tint of the face. The disease has been called the green sickness, and is known in past medical literature by a varie...
-Choco
Choco, formerly a province of New Granada, now a district of the state of Cauca, in the United States of Colombia, bordering on the Pacific and touching the gulf of Darien on the N. E.; pop. about 45,...
-Chocolate
Chocolate (Aztec, chocolatl), an alimentary preparation, usually a beverage, introduced into Europe by the Spaniards in 1520, and by them kept for a long time a secret. It is prepared from the fruit o...
-Choctaw
Choctaw. I. A S. W. county of Alabama, bordering on Mississippi; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,676, of whom 6,872 were colored. The Tombigbee river, which flows along the E. boundary, is na...
-Choctaws, Or Chalitas
Choctaws, Or Chalitas, an extensive nation of North American Indians, who, with the Ali-bamons, Timuquas, and kindred tribes, and the Muskogees, occupied nearly all the territory on the gulf of Mexico...
-Choiseul
Choiseul. I. Etienne Francois, duke de, a French statesman, born June 28, 1719, died in Paris, May 8, 1785. He was educated at a Jesuit college, and entered the army, being at first known as count de ...
-Cholera
Cholera, a term used to designate a variety of diseases characterized by profuse discharges from the stomach and bowels upward, but more especially downward, and in their extreme stages by cramps, abs...
-Cholesterine
Cholesterine (Gr. bile, and firm, solid), or Biliary Fat, a non-nitrogenized organic substance, found in the bile and in other fluids or situations in the human body, or that of animals in which ...
-Cholula
Cholula, a decayed town of Mexico, situated on the table land of Ana-huac, 6,912 ft. above the sea, in the state and 5 m. W. N. W. of the city of Puebla; pop. 10,000, wholly Indians. It was formerly t...
-Chontales
Chontales, a district of Nicaragua, N. E. of Lakes Nicaragua and Managua, separated from Honduras by the district of Segovia. The chain of the Cordilleras called the Alto Grande mountains traverses th...
-Choragus
Choragus (Gr. chorus, dance, and to lead), a functionary among the ancient Athenians who paid the expenses attendant on the equipment and instruction of a chorus. Originally, the chorus in dram...
-Chorley
Chorley, a town of Lancashire, England, on the Cham, near its confluence with the Yarrow, 20 m. N. W. of Manchester; pop. in 1871, 19,824. It is situated on rising ground, is well built, and has been ...
-Chorus
Chorus (Gr. ), originally a dance in a ring, or round dance; then any dance accompanied by music, or choral dance. The chorus was an integral part of the Grecian drama, both tragic and comic, and wa...
-Chose In Action
Chose In Action, that species of property which, in distinction from property in possession, consists in the right to reduce something of value to possession by means of some legal reined)'. Thus, the...
-Chosroes, Or Khosru
Chosroes, Or Khosru, the name of two kings of Persia, I. Surnamed by historians the Just, by those of his nation Nushirvan (noble spirit), one of the most remarkable monarchs of the East, reigned from...
-Chouans
Chouans, a name given to the royalist peasantry of Brittany and Lower Maine, in France, who, following the example of the Vendeans, rose in arms against the revolutionary government as early as 1791, ...
-Chough
Chough (coracia gracula, Linn.), a bird of the crow family, sometimes called Cornish daw, and red-legged crow. It is a native of Europe, and is most numerous on the bold rocky shores of Cornwall, Devo...
-Chprubusco
Chprubusco, a small village about 6 m. S. of the city of Mexico, on the Rio de Churu-busco, at which a battle between the Mexicans under Santa Anna, and the Americans under Scott, was fought Aug. 20, ...
-Chretien
Chretien (or Clirestien) DE TROYES, a French poet, born probably at Troves about 1150, died near the close of the 12th or in the beginning of the 13th century. Of his life little is known, except that...
-Chretien Gnillaume De Lamoi-Srnon Dp Malesherbes
Chretien Gnillaume De Lamoi-Srnon Dp Malesherbes, a French statesman, born in Paris, Dec. 6, 1721, guillotined April 22,1794. Ofanillus-trioiH family, son of a chancellor of France, he was educated in...
-Christ's Hospital
Christ's Hospital, commonly called the Blue Coat school, one of the oldest and most famous of the charitable educational establishments of London. It was founded in 1552, by the citizens assembling a ...
-Christian
Christian. I. A S. W. county of Kentucky, bordering upon Tennessee; area, 704 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 23,227, of whom 9,812 were colored. It is watered by a number of small streams, several of which flo...
-Christian (2)
Christian, the name of nine kings of Denmark. Since 1448 the Danish kings (with the single exception of John, 1481-1513) have upon their accession to the throne assumed alternately the names of Christ...
-Christian (3)
Christian, archbishop of Mentz, born at the beginning of the 12th century, died in 1183. He is chiefly celebrated for his military exploits under Frederick Barbarossa, for whom he opened the way to It...
-Christian August Crisius
Christian August Crisius, a German theologian and philosopher, born at Leuna, near Merse-burg, Jan. 10, 1715, died in Leipsic, Oct. 18, 1775. He was educated at Leipsic, where he was professor of theo...
-Christian August Vulpius
Christian August Vulpius, a German author, born in Weimar, Jan. 23, 1762, died there, June 26, 1827. He was educated at Jena and Erlangen, studied German romance, and published Romantische Geschichten...
-Christian Daniel Rauch
Christian Daniel Rauch, a German sculptor, born in Arolsen, Jan. 2, 1777, died in Dresden, Dec. 3, 1857. He studied in Cassel, and in 1797 went to Berlin, where he was attached to the royal household ...
-Christian Friedrich Stockmar
Christian Friedrich Stockmar, baron a German physician, born in Coburg, Aug. 22, 1787, died there, July 9, 1863. He practised medicine at Coburg, and in 1814 - 15 in the army. In 1816 he became physic...
-Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees Von Esenbeck
Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees Von Esenbeck, a German botanist, born near Erbach in the Odehwald, Feb. 14,1776, died in Breslau, March 16, 1858. He was educated at the gymnasium of Darmstadt and the ...
-Christian Gottfried Eherenberg
Christian Gottfried Eherenberg, a German naturalist, born at Delitzsch, April 19, 1795. He was educated at Leipsic and Berlin. In 1818 he published Sylvoe Mycologicoe Beroli-nenses, in which he descri...
-Christian Gottlob Barth
Christian Gottlob Barth, a German divine and philanthropist, born in Stuttgart, July 31, 1799, died in Tubingen, Nov. 12, 1862. He was educated at Stuttgart and Tubingen, and in 1824 was appointed pas...
-Christian Gottlob Heyne
Christian Gottlob Heyne, a German philologist, born in Chemnitz, Saxony, Sept. 25,1729, died in Gottingen, July 14, 1812. He studied philology and the classics at Leipsic, and afterward obtained at Dr...
-Christian Karl Josias Bunsen
Christian Karl Josias Bunsen, baron von, popularly known as Chevalier Bunsen, a German scholar and diplomatist, born at Korbach, Wal-deck, Aug. 25, 1791, died in Bonn, Nov. 28, 1860. His grandfather w...
-Christian Lassen
Christian Lassen, a German philologist, born in Bergen, Norway, Oct. 22, 1800. He studied at Christiania, Heidelberg, and Bonn, passed some years in London and Paris, and returned again to Bonn, where...
-Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen
Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen, a German historian, born at Garding, Schleswig, Nov. 30, 1817. He studied at Altona and Kiel, was aided by the Berlin academy in his archaeological explorations in ...
-Christian Von Wolf
Christian Von Wolf, baron, a German philosopher, born in Breslau, Jan. 24, 1679, died in Halle, April 9, 1754. He graduated at Leipsic in 1703, and subsequently lectured there. In 1706 the invasion of...
-Christiania
Christiania. I. A province of Norway, bounded E. by Sweden, and S. by the Skager Rack; area, 11,000 sq. m.; pop. about 500,000. It is covered with mountains, contains the Mjosen, Famund, Tyri, and oth...
-Christianity
Christianity, that system of religion of which Christ is the founder. What was accomplished by his Spirit through the apostles and others is to be referred to him no less than that which was performe...
-Christians Of St
Christians Of St. JOHN, Disciples of St. John, Nazareans, Meiidseans, or Sabscans, designations applied indiscriminately, and with great confusion, to a sect of religionists now only found in Persia, ...
-Christiansand. I
The southernmost province (stift or diocese) of Norway, bordering on the provinces of Bergen and Christiania, the North sea, and the Skager Rack; area, 15,400 sq. m.; pop. in 1865, 328,742. It is trav...
-Christianstad
Christianstad, a fortified town of Sweden, capital of the lan or district of the same name, in the province of Gothland, 262 m. S. S. W. of Stockholm; pop. in 1868, 7,710. It is built upon a little pr...
-Christine Nilsson
Christine Nilsson (Mine. Rouzaud), a Swedish vocalist, born at Hussaby, near Wexio, Aug. 3, 1843. Her father, though only a peasant, was a violinist, and had charge of the music at the village church....
-Christmas
Christmas (Christ and mass), a festival of the Christian church, observed on Dec. 25 as the anniversary of the birth of the Saviour. Its institution is attributed by the decretal letters to Pope Teles...
-Christmas, Or Noel-Feara, Henry
Christmas, Or Noel-Feara, Henry, an English clergyman and author, born in London in 1811, died there, March 10,1868. He received the degree of A. M. at St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1837, entered ...
-Christoph August Tiedge
Christoph August Tiedge, a German poet, born at Gardelegen, Prussia, Dec. 14, 1752, died in Dresden, March 8, 1841. He studied at Halle, and led a precarious life as a clerk in the civil service and a...
-Christoph Friedrieh Nicolai
Christoph Friedrieh Nicolai, a German author, born in Berlin, March 18, 1733, died Jan. 8, 1811. His father was a bookseller, and at the age of 16 he was sent to Frankfort-on-the-Oder to learn the sam...
-Christoph Martin Wieland
Christoph Martin Wieland, a German author, born at Oberholzheim, Swabia, Sept. 5, 1733, died in Weimar, Jan. 20,1813. Soon after his birth his father settled as Protestant minister at Biberach. He dis...
-Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland
Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, a German physician, born at Langensalza, Thuringia, Aug. 12, 1762, died in Berlin, Aug. 25, 1836. He studied at Jena and Gottingen, graduated as M. D. in 1783, and was appo...
-Christoph Wilibald Von Gluck
Christoph Wilibald Von Gluck, a German composer, born at Weidenwang in the Upper Palatinate, July 2, 1714, died in Vienna, Nov. 15, 1787. The dates and other particulars in this article which differ f...
-Christophe Louis Leon Juchault De Lamoriciere
Christophe Louis Leon Juchault De Lamoriciere, a French general, born in Nantes, Feb. 6, 1806, died near Amiens, Sept. 10, 1865. He was educated at the polytechnic school of Paris, and at the academy ...
-Christopher Carson
Christopher Carson, popularly known as Kit Carson, an American mountaineer, trapper, guide, and soldier, born in Madison co., Ivy., Dec. 24, 1809, died at Fort Lynn, Colorado, May 23, 1868. While he w...
-Christopher Colles
Christopher Colles, an American engineer, born in Ireland about 1738, died in New York in 1821. He was educated under the care of Kichard Pococke, the oriental traveller, after whose death he emigrate...
-Christopher Greene
Christopher Greene, an American soldier, born in Warwick, R. I., in 1737, killed near the Croton river, Westchester co., N. Y., May 13, 1781. He was among the first to take the field on the patriotic ...
-Christopher Hansteen
Christopher Hansteen, a Norwegian astronomer, born in Christiania, Sept. 20, 1784, died there in April, 1873. He studied at the university of Copenhagen, and in 1815 was appointed professor of astrono...
-Christopher Newport
Christopher Newport, one of the founders of the colony at Jamestown, Va. He commanded the three vessels which carried out in 1606 the first settlers of that colony, and was one of the council appointe...
-Christopher, Or Kit Marloyte
Christopher, Or Kit Marloyte, an English dramatic poet, born in Canterbury in 1564, killed in Deptford, June 16, 1593. His father, a shoemaker, obtained for him admission into King's school, Canterbur...
-Chromatics
Chromatics, that branch of optics which treats of the mathematical relations of colors. White light may be compared to a full chord in music, containing all the notes in the octave, but the comparison...
-Chromioi
Chromioi (Gr. color), a metal so named from its tendency to impart beautiful colors to its compounds. About the year 1760 S. Lehmann, a Saxon mineralogist, was puzzled by a red mineral that was tho...
-Chronicles
Chronicles, the name first given by Jerome to two books of the Old Testament, which in the English Bible are the last of the historical books, while in the Hebrew Scripture they conclude the entire vo...
-Chronology
Chronology (Gr. from time, and oyo, discourse), the science of establishing historical dates, by arranging events in the order of their succession, and determining the interval betwee...
-Chrysalis
Chrysalis, a name generally limited to the second stage of the growth of lepidopterous insects, or to the pupa from a caterpillar, because, as the term implies, they are sometimes gilt or ornamented w...
-Chrysoberyl
Chrysoberyl (Gr. gold, and beryl), a gem, also called cymophane ( wave, and to appear), so named from a peculiar opalescence it sometimes exhibits. It occurs in crystals derived from the rec...
-Chub, Or Chevin (Hvciscus Cepahalus Flem
Chub, Or Chevin (Hvciscus Cepahalus Flem.), a common fresh-water fish, of the family cypri-nidae. It is abundant in almost all the slow-running, soft, clear streams of England; and sufficiently plenti...
-Chubb
Chubb. Thomas, an English theological writer, born at East Harnham, Wiltshire, in 1079, died at Salisbury, Feb. 8, 1740. His parents were poor, and gave him very little education; and nearly all his l...
-Church
Church (Gr. consecrated to the Lord; Saxon, Tcyrch; Scandinavian, Mrha; Slavic, cerkiev; Scotch, kirk: the common root in these forms did not pass into the Romanic languages, but from the New Testa...
-Church Of England (2)
Church Of England, the church established by law within the realm of England, and until 1871 of Ireland. Its origin is readily traced in English history, 'Christianity having gained a foothold in Engl...
-Church Of Ireland
Church Of Ireland, the name of the Irish branch of the Anglican Episcopal church. Until Jan. 1, 1871, this church was an integral part of the Church of England and Ireland, which was the establishm...
-Church Of The Disciples
Church Of The Disciples, a religious body, designated as Disciples of Christ, Christians, the Church of Christ, etc, resulting from an effort to effect union among the Protestant denominations ...
-Church Rate
Church Rate, a tax imposed on the parishioners and occupiers of land in a parish of England for church repairs. The tax is proposed by the church wardens, and must be voted by a majority of the parish...
-Churn
Churn, a vessel in which cream is agitated to separate the butter from the other portions. It has various forms, the simplest and most generally preferred being the common dash churn, which is either ...
-Chusan, Or Chowsan (Boat-Like)
Chusan, Or Chowsan (Boat-Like), a group of islands, consisting of one large island with a great number of smaller ones, off the coast of China, about lat. 30 N., lon. 122 E. They are beautif...
-Chyle
Chyle (Gr. juice), the white, opaque, milky-looking fluid found in the lymphatic vessels of the small intestine during digestion. The lymphatic vessels of the whole body absorb from the tissues in w...
-Cibber
Cibber. I. Cains Gabriel, a sculptor, born in Holstein about 1630, died in London about 1700. He went to England during the protectorate of Cromwell, and was employed to execute the bassirilievi on th...
-Cicacole, Or Chicacole
Cicacole, Or Chicacole, a town, fort, and cantonment of British India, presidency of Madras, in an ancient district of the same name, one of the five Northern Circars, 110 m. S. W. of Ganjam and 445 m...
-The Cid, Or Cid Campeador
The Cid, or Cid Campeador (lord champion), a popular hero of Spain, whose real name was Ruy or Rodeigo Diaz, born at the castle of Bivar, near Burgos, about 1040, died at Valencia in 1099. He figures ...
-Cider,
Cider, the expressed juice of apples, either fermented or unfermented. Its quality depends upon that of the fruit from which it is made. Vinous fermentation converts the sugar contained in the juice i...
-Cigar
Cigar (Span, cigarro), a cylindrical roll of tobacco for smoking, usually pointed at one end and truncated at the other, made of the leaf divested of stems and enveloped tightly in a single leaf. A di...
-Cilia
Cilia (Lat. cilium, an eyelash), minute, hairlike, constantly moving organs on the surface of animal and vegetable tissues. They are abundantly found in all the individuals belonging to the class of m...
-Cilicia
Cilicia, an ancient division of Asia Minor, lying between lat. 36 and 38 N., lon. 32 and 37 E., bounded W. by Pamphylia, N. by Ismiria, Lycaonia, and Cappadocia, from which it was ...
-Cilly, Or Cilli (Anc
Cilly, Or Cilli (Anc. Celela; Slovenish, Ceje), a town of Austria, in the crown land of Styria, capital of an extensive circle, situated near the junction of the Kodenbach with the San, 36 m. E. N E. ...
-Cimamon
Cimamon, the inner bark of the cinnamon tree (laurus cinnamomtim), which appears to have been known at a very early period. The spice obtained from it was used by the Hebrews in their religious ceremo...
-Cimbri
Cimbri, a warlike people of antiquity, who first appear in the history of the Romans in the year 113 B. C. Together with the Teutons they left their abodes in N. W. Germany with their families, wagons...
-Cimmerii
Cimmerii, a nomadic race of extreme antiquity, concerning whom there are numerous theories of more or less plausibility, but nothing has been established that seems even to approach to certainty or tr...
-Cimon
Cimon, an Athenian general and statesman, born about 510 B. C, died in 449. He was the son of Miltiades, and his mother was Ilegesi-pyle, the daughter of Olorus, a Thracian king. He is said to have ma...
-Cincinnati
Cincinnati, the chief city of Ohio, capital of Hamilton county, and in population the eighth city of the United States. It is situated in lat. 39 6' N., lon. 84 27' W., on the N. bank of the...
-Cindad Real De Las Palmas
Cindad Real De Las Palmas, a fortified maritime city of the Canary islands, on the N. E. coast of Grand Canary; lat. 28 7' N, Ion. 15 32' W.; pop. about 14,500. It is situated on the river A...
-Cingalese Language
Cingalese Language (more correctly Sinhalese), a language spoken in the interior of Ceylon and on its southern coast. The name is derived from Sinhabahu (lion-son) a king of Ladha on the Ganges, whose...
-Cinnabar
Cinnabar. According to Pliny, this is an Indian name given to a mixture of the blood of the dragon and elephant, and to other substances which produce a similar color. It was afterward applied to the ...
-Cino Da Pistoja
An Italian Poet And Jurist Cino Da Pistoja, whose real name was Guittoncino or Guit-toxk, born at Pistoja in 1270, died there, Dec. 24, 1336. He belonged to the noble Sinibaldi family, and became a ju...
-Cintra
Cintra, a town of Portugal, in the province of Estremadura, on the edge of a granitic sierra, which forms a continuation of the Estrella range, 15 m. W. N. W. of Lisbon; pop. about 3,000. It is a plac...
-Cipher
Cipher (Arab, sifr, empty), one of the ten characters used in the notation of numbers by the Arabic system. When it stands by itself it signifies zero. Each cipher placed at the right of a significant...
-Circassia
Circassia (properly Tcherkessia; called by the Circassians the land of the Adighei), a mountainous region of European Russia, forming a part of the Kuban district, between lat. 42 40' and 45...
-Circe
Circe, in Greek mythology, a sorceress, daughter of Helios and Perse, and married to a prince of Colchis, whom she murdered. Expelled by his subjects, she was transported by her father to the island o...
-Circeii
Circeii, an ancient city of Latium, situated at the N. foot of Mons Circeius (now the mountain promontory Circello), near the sea, 55 m. S. E. of Rome. It was colonized by the Romans in the reign of T...
-Circle
Circle, a plane figure bounded by a line every part of which is equally distant from its centre. This line is called the circumference, and in popular language the word circle is sometimes used for ci...
-Circus
Circus, in ancient Rome, a place reserved for public games, races, and shows of different kinds. The circus maximus, in the valley now called Via de' Cerchi, was founded by Tarquin the Elder. It gradu...
-Circulation
Circulation. Under this title we shall examine only the circulation of blood in the animal economy, omitting all that relates to the circulation of lymph and chyle, and to the circulation of the nutri...
-Circumcelliones
Circumcelliones, fanatics who, about the year 31V, in the war of the Donatists in Africa, occasioned by the election of the Carthaginian bishop Ciecilianus, espoused the cause of the Numidians or Dona...
-Circumcision
Circumcision (Lat. circumcisio, a cutting around), a practice of eastern nations, consisting in cutting off the prepuce or foreskin in males and the internal labia in females. Among the Jews it is a s...
-Cirripedes, Or Cirrkopoda (Lat
Cirripedes, Or Cirrkopoda (Lat. cirrus, curly, and pes, a foot), a group of articulated animals, long regarded as belonging to the mollusca, but really to the class of crustaceans, and to the order of...
-Cirta
Cirta, the capital of the ancient Massylii, in Numidia, on the site of the modern city of Constantine, Algeria. It was built by architects from Carthage, and its name in Phoenician signified city. It ...
-Cistercians
Cistercians, a widely extended branch of the Benedictine order, founded in the 11th century by St. Robert, a French nobleman by birth, and a Benedictine abbot, who, being very zealous for the strict o...
-Citizen
Citizen (Fr. citoyen), a member of a free commonwealth. Aristotle defines a citizen to be one who participates in the legislative and judicial authority of the state. But in every state there are two ...
-Citric Acid
Citric Acid, the acid which gives to the fruits of the citron family their peculiar sour taste. It may be extracted from many fruits and vegetables, as oranges, currants, gooseberries, strawberries, r...
-Citron
Citron, the fruit of a low, evergreen tree (citrus medica, Linn.), which belongs to the same genus as the lime, lemon, shaddock, and orange trees, attains in its wild state a height of about 8 ft., an...
-Ciudad Real
Ciudad Real. I. A S. province of Spain, comprising the greater part of the old province of La Mancha, and a portion of New Castile proper; area, 7,837 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 264,908. It consists mainly...
-Ciudad Rodrigo
Ciudad Rodrigo, a town of Spain, in the province and 44 m. S. W. of Salamanca, situated on the right bank of the Agueda, 15 m. from the Portuguese boundary; pop. about 6,500. It occupies one of the mo...
-Civet
Civet (viverra civetta, Linn.), a digitigrade carnivorous mammal, belonging to the family viverridae, inhabiting northern Africa. The dentition is less carnivorous than that of the cats, there being t...
-Civil Law
Civil Law, the positive municipal law of the Roman empire, as comprised in the collections made by order of the emperor Justinian (530-'33) and published by his authority. These collections were the I...
-Civiti Vecchia,
Civiti Vecchia, a seaport town of Italy, on the Mediterranean, in the province and 37 m. N. W. of Rome, with which it is connected by railway; pop. about 10,000. The harbor consists of two marble pier...
-Ckamouny Chamouni
Ckamouny Chamouni, or Chamonix, a picturesque Alpine valley of France, between the Graian and Pennine Alps, in the department of Haute-Savoie, over 3,000 feet above the Mediterranean, and about 2,000 ...
-Claiborne
Claiborne. I. A S. W. county of Mississippi; area, 740 sq rn.; pop. in 1870, 13,386, of whom 9,990 were colored. The Mississippi river on the west separates it from Louisiana, and the Big Black river ...
-Clairvaux
Clairvaux, a village of France, in the department of Aube, on the left bank of the river Aube, 30 m. S. E. of Troyes; pop. about 2,000. It was the seat of a celebrated monastery dependent on the abbey...
-Claistiial, Or Klansthal
Claistiial, Or Klansthal, a town of Prussia in the province of Hanover, situated on the Zel-lerbach, 26 m. N. E. of Gottingen; pop. in 1871, 0,138. It stands in a bleak district of the llartz mountain...
-Clajus
Clajus. I. Johann, a German clergyman and author, whose real name was Clai, born at Herzberg, electoral Saxony, about 1533, died at Bendeleben, Thuringia, April 11, 1592. He studied at Grimma and Witt...
-Clallam
Clallam, a N. W. county of Washington territory, bounded N. by the strait of Juan de Fuca; area, 1,720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 408. It is watered by several streams that fall into the strait. Mount Olym...
-Clam
Clam, a common name for several species of bivalve shells. The largest of these, the giant clam, the tridacna gigas of Lamarck, but formerly classed in the genus chama, is an edible species found amon...
-Clamecy
Clamecy, a town of France, in the department of Nievre, situated at the foot of a hill at the confluence of the Yonne and the Beuvron, 38 m. N. E. of Nevers; pop. in 1866, 5,616. The parish church is ...
-Clandime Alexandria Guerin De Tencin
Clandime Alexandria Guerin De Tencin, a French woman of society, born in Grenoble in 1681, died in Paris, Dec. 4, 1749. She became a nun, and like her two sisters led a gay life at her convent, and af...
-Clara Louisa Kellogg
Clara Louisa Kellogg, an American singer, born in Sumter, S. C, of New England parents, in 1842. At the age of seven she was able to read difficult music at sight. She was educated in this country, an...
-Clare
Clare, a central county of the southern peninsula of Michigan, drained by Maskegon and Assemoqua rivers and their branches; area, about 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 366. The surface is mostly covered wit...
-Claremont
Claremont, a town of Sullivan co., N. II., on the Connecticut river, 48 m. W. by N. of Concord; pop. in 1870, 4,053. The Vermont Central and the Concord, Claremont, and Contoocook railroads pass throu...
-Clarion
Clarion, a N. W. county of Pennsylvania; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 26,537. It is bounded S. W. by Alleghany river, which is here navigable by steamboats, and intersected by the Clarion, from whi...
-Clark
Clark, the name of five counties in the United States. I. A S. E. county of Mississippi, bordering on Alabama, watered by the Chickasawha river; area, 650 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,505, of whom 3,432 we...
-Clark Mills
Clark Mills, an American sculptor, born in Onondaga co., N. Y., Dec. 1, 1815. He lost his parents in childhood, and learned the trade of a plasterer, which he followed in Charleston, S. C, for nine ye...
-Clarke
Clarke, the name of nine counties in the United States. I. A N. county of Virginia, bounded N. E. by West Virginia; area, 208 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,670, of whom 2,159 were colored. It is traversed b...
-Clarkes Fork, Or River
Clarkes Fork, Or River, a branch of the Columbia, formed at the Horse Plain, near the centre of Missoula co., Montana, hit. 47 21' N., lon. 114 38' W., by the junction of the Bitter Root r...
-Clarkson Stanfield
Clarkson Stanfield, an English painter, born in Sunderland about 1798, died at Hampstead, May 18, 1867. He followed the sea in early life, and was afterward distinguished as a theatrical scene painter...
-Classification Of The Animal Kingdom. Inveetebrata
Subkingdom Protozoa - Class Rhizopoda (Amorpliozoa). Order Spongidae Of fossil sponges, palaozpongia and acanthosponffta and other forms occur in the Cambrian; and astyloapon gta, axtrcvospongia, pal...
-Claude Adrien Helvetius
Claude Adrien Helvetius, a French philosopher, born in Paris in January, 1715, died Dec. 26, 1771. He was of German descent, and his name was a translation of Schweitzer. His father was physician to Q...
-Claude Alexandre Bonneval
Claude Alexandre Bonneval, count de, a French soldier, born at Coussac, in Limousin, July 14, 1675, died in March, 1747. Being found unmanageable at the Jesuit college, he left it to enter the navy at...
-Claude Bernard
Claude Bernard, a French physiologist, horn at Saint Julien, department of the Rhone, July 12, 1813. He studied in Paris, and became in 1854 incumbent of the newly established chair of general physiol...
-Claude Brousson
Claude Brousson, a French Protestant martyr, born in Nimes in 1647, put to death in Montpellier, Nov. 4, 1698. He was an advocate at Castres and Toulouse, and displayed great ability in defending the ...
-Claude Etienue Minie
Claude Etienue Minie, a French inventor, born in Paris about 1805. At an early age he entered the army as a private soldier, and, after serving several campaigns in Algeria, reached the rank of captai...
-Claude Francois De Malet
Claude Francois De Malet, a French conspirator, born in Dole, June 28, 1754, executed in Paris, Oct. 29, 1812. In 1799 he distinguished himself in the army during the passage of the Little St. Bernard...
-Claude Francois Jouffroy Darbans
Claude Francois Jouffroy D'Arbans, marquis de, a French mechanician, born about 1751, died in Paris in 1832. The idea of steamboats occurred to him first in 1775, on occasion of his examining a fire e...
-Claude Henri Saint-Simon
Claude Henri Saint-Simon, count de, a French socialist, born in Paris, Oct. 17, 1760, died there, May 19, 1825. In 1777 he entered the army, and in 1779 went to America, where he distinguished himself...
-Claude Lonis Hector De Villars
Claude Lonis Hector De Villars, duke, a French soldier, born in Moulins, May 8, 1653, died in Turin, June 17, 1734. He was the son of the marquis Pierre de Villars, was a page at the court, where his ...
-Claude Lorraine
Claude Lorraine (properly Lorrain), a landscape painter, whose real name was Claude Gelee, born in Lorraine in 1600, died in Rome, Nov. 21, 1682. He was left an orphan at 12 years of age, displayed li...
-Claude Louis Berthollet
Claude Louis Berthollet, a French chemist, born at Talloire, near Annecy, in Savoy, Nov! 9, 1748, died at Arcueil, near Paris, Nov. 6, 1822. He took his medical degree at the university of Turin, and ...
-Claude Marie Francois Niepce De Salit-Victor
Claude Marie Francois Niepce De Salit-Victor, a French chemist, nephew of the preceding, born at St. Cyr, near Chalon-sur-Saone, July 26, 1805, died in Paris in April, 1870. He was educated at the mil...
-Claude Victor (Victor-Perrin)
Claude Victor (Victor-Perrin), duke of Belluno, a French soldier, born at Lamarche, Lorraine, Dec. 7, 1764, died in Paris, March 1, 1841. He entered the army as a private in 1781, became a major in 17...
-Claudian
Claudian (Claudius Ciaudiauus), an epic poet, born at Alexandria about 305, flourished in the reigns of Theodosius the Great and his two sons, Honorius and Arcadius. His education was Greek, but when ...
-Claudius
Claudius, the name of two Roman emperors. I. Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus, the fourth emperor, born at Lugdunum (Lyons), Aug. 1, 10 B. C, died A. D. 54. He was the son of Drusus and Antoni...
-Claudius Civilis
Claudius Civilis, also called Julius, leader of the revolt of the Germanic nation of the Ba-tavi (settled around the mouths of the Rhine and Maas) against the Romans, A. D. 69-70, as chronicled by Tac...
-Claudius James Rich
Claudius James Rich, an English traveller, born near Dijon, France, March 28, 1787, died in Shiraz, Persia, Oct. 5, 1821. When 15 years old he was familiar with Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, and Tu...
-Claudius Nero
Claudius Nero, a Roman general, consul in B. C. 207, who inflicted a blow on the Carthaginians which contributed not a little to render the Romans victorious in the second Punic war. He was in the sou...
-Claudius Ptolemy
Claudius Ptolemy, a Helleno-Egyptian mathematician, astronomer, and geographer, said to have been born in Pelusium, flourished at Alexandria in the 2d century A. D. Scarcely any particulars of his lif...
-Clay
Clay, a finely levigated silico-aluminous earth, found in its natural state in beds of varying depth, and in lamime of varying thickness. It is formed by the disintegration of feldspathic rocks, and t...
-Clayton
Clayton. I. A W. central county of Georgia, bounded S. W. by Flint river; area, about 150 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,477, of whom 1,743 were colored. The surface is diversified, and in parts the soil is ...
-Cleanthes
Cleanthes, a Greek Stoic philosopher, born at Assus in Asia Minor about 300 B. C, died in Athens about 220. He followed the profession of an athlete, till, fleeing from a civil commotion, he arrived i...
-Clearcihs
Clearcihs, a Lacedaemonian general, distinguished in the last years of the Peloponnesian war, and at its close sent to Thrace to protect the Greeks against the barbarians. Recalled by the ephors, he r...
-Clearfield
Clearfield, a W. central county of Pennsylvania, situated mostly on the W. declivity of the Alleghany mountains; area, about 1,150 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,741. The W. branch of the Susquehanna river ...
-Clematis
Clematis (Gr. tendril), a genus of mostly climbing and highly ornamental shrubs, belonging to the natural order ranunculaceae. It is generically distinguished by having four valvate colored sepals,...
-Clemens Brentano
Clemens Brentano, a German poet and novelist, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Sept. 9, 1777,. died at Aschaffenburg, July 28, 1842. He studied at the university of Jena, and afterward taught there as a...
-Clement
Clement, the name of fourteen popes and of three antipopes. I. St. Clement, or Clement of Rome (Clemens Romanus), one of the apostolic fathers, born about A. I). 30, died about 100. He is supposed to ...
-Clement Comer Clay
Clement Comer Clay, an American politician, born in Madison co., Alabama, in 1819. He graduated from the law department of the university of Virginia in 1839, and was admitted to the bar of Alabama in...
-Clement Marot
Clement Marot, a French poet, born in Ca-hors in 1495, died in Turin in September, 1544. He succeeded his father Jean Marot, who was also a poet, as valet-de-chambre to Francis I., whom he accompanied...
-Clement Of Alexandria
Clement Of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens, surnamed Alexaxdeixus), one of the fathers of the church, born probably at Athens about the middle of the 2d century, died in Alexandria about 215. Early ...
-Clements Robert Markham
Clements Robert Markham, an English geographer, born at Stillingfleet, near York, July 20, 1830. He was educated at Westminster school, and entered the navy in 1844. In 1840 he was appointed naval cad...
-Cleomenes
Cleomenes, the name of three kings of Sparta, of the Agid line. I. Son of Anaxan-drides, reigned from about 520 till 491 B. C. Before his accession he was regarded as almost insane; and subsequently h...
-Cleon
Cleon, an Athenian politician, died in 422 B. C. He was the son of Clesenetus, and a tanner by trade. Endowed with eloquence, he turned his attention to politics, and soon became one of the popular le...
-Cleopatra
Cleopatra, the last queen of Egypt, third and eldest surviving daughter of King Ptolemy Auletes, born in Alexandria in 69, died there, August 30, 30 B. C. In 51 her father died, and left her by his wi...
-Clepsydra
Clepsydra (Gr. from to steal, and water), a hydraulic clock in use among the ancients, which measured time by the quantity of water that escaped from a small orifice in a reservoir. The simples...
-Clerfayt, Or Clairfait, Francois Sebastien Charles Joseph De Croix
Clerfayt, Or Clairfait, Francois Sebastien Charles Joseph De Croix, count de, an Austrian general, born at Braille, in the Low Countries, Oct. 14, 1733, died in Vienna, July 18, 1798. He entered the A...
-Clergy
Clergy (Gr. ko, lot, portion, heritage), a collective term commonly applied to all persons consecrated to the service of the church, because they are metaphorically said to be ...
-Clerk
Clerk (Lat. clericus, from Gr. portion or heritage), the designation of all ecclesiastics in the middle ages. The various usages of the word illustrate the influence exorcised by the clergy in the a...
-Clermont - De - Loise, Or Clcrmont-En-Bean-Vaisis
Clermont - De - Loise, Or Clcrmont-En-Bean-Vaisis, a town of France, in the department of Oise, 35 m. N. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 5,743. It is pleasantly situated on the slope of a hill, and contains, ...
-Clermont, Or Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont, Or Clermont-Ferrand, a town of Auvergne, France, capital of the department of Puy-du-I)6me, 215 m. S. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 37,690. It is situated on a hill between the rivers Bedat ...
-Cleves
Cleves (Ger. Kleve or Cleve), a town of Rhenish Prussia, in the district and 48 m. N. W. of the city of Diisseldorf, about 4 m. from the Dutch frontier and the Rhine; pop. in 1871, 9,038. It is built ...
-Cleveland
Cleveland, a port of entry and the capital of Cuyahoga co., Ohio, the second city in size and importance in the state, situated on the S. shore of Lake Erie, at the mouth of Cuyahoga river, in lat. 41...
-Clfb-Foot
Clfb-Foot, a deformity arising from rigidity and contraction of the muscles of the leg, in which the individual walks, with one or both legs, on the toes, on the external or internal border of the foo...
-Client
Client (Lat. cliens, according to some from an old Latin verb, cluere, to obey), in Roman antiquity, a man of inferior class, or lower situation, connected for mutual service and obligation with a cit...
-Clifton
Clifton, a watering place of Gloucestershire, England, now forming a suburb of Bristol; pop. in 1871, 20,701. It is built on the southern acclivity of a steep cliff, nearly at the top of which is York...
-Climate
Climate (Gr. Fr. climat), the condition of any portion of the earth's surface in respect to temperature, moisture, and other atmospheric phenomena. The Greek original (from , to slope or incline) ...
-Clinometer
Clinometer (Gr. to incline, and a measure), an instrument for measuring the angle made by any plane with the horizontal, and commonly used for determining the dip of beds of rock and the inc...
-Clinton
Clinton, the name of nine counties in the United States. I. The N. E. county of New York, bordering on Lake Champlain, bounded N. by Canada and S. by the Ausable river; area, 952 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,...
-Clinton (2)
Clinton, a city of Clinton co., Iowa, on the Mississippi, about 42 m. above Davenport; pop. in 1870, 6,129. The river is here crossed by an iron drawbridge, 4,100 ft. long, which cost $600,000. The Ch...
-Clinton (3)
Clinton, I)e Witt, an American statesman, grandson of the preceding, and son of James Clinton and Mary De Witt, born at Little Britain, New Windsor, Orange co., N. Y., March 2, 1769, died in Albany, F...
-Clistiienes
Clistiienes, an Athenian statesman, the grandson of a tyrant of Sicyon, of the same name, and the son of Megacles, and at the end of the rule of the Pisistratiche the head of the Alcmaoonidce, their c...
-Clitus
Clitus, surnamed Melas (the Black), a Macedonian general, foster-brother and a familiar friend of Alexander the Great, whose life he saved at the battle of the Granicus, 334 B. C. He was afterward app...
-Cloacae
Cloacae (Lat. cloaca, a conduit, pipe), the sewers of ancient Rome. The trunk drain, called the cloaca maxima, is formed by three tiers of concentric arches overlying each other in contact; the whole ...
-Clocks And Watches
Clocks And Watches, instruments for measuring time. In early ages any device for this purpose received the general name of horolo-gium (Gr. hour-teller), whether it was a sun dial, clepsydra, sand g...
-Clonmel
Clonmel (Irish, vale of honey), a town and parliamentary borough of Ireland, in the counties of Watcrford and Tipperary, on the Suir, 90 m. S. TV. of Dublin, and 25 m. N. W. of Waterford; pop. in 1871...
-Cloquet
Cloquet. I. Hippolyte, a French physician, born in Paris in 1787, died there, March 3, 1840. He was for 15 years the most distinguished private teacher of anatomy of his time, but fell into a state of...
-Clotaire
Clotaire. I. King of the Franks, the youngest son of Clovis and Clotilda, born in 497, died in 561. On his father's death in 511 he received as his kingdom a part of Neustria, the capital of which was...
-Clotilda
Clotilda. I. Saint, the wife of the Frankish king Clovis, born about 475, died in Tours, June 8, 545. While an infant, her father, mother, and two brothers were murdered by her uncle Gundebald, king o...
-Clouds (2)
Clouds, bodies of vapor in the atmosphere. From the surface of the earth and of the waters aqueous vapor is continually ascending into the atmosphere, where it remains in an invisible state so long as...
-Cloves
Cloves, a celebrated spice of the Molucca islands, so called from the resemblance to small nails, and designated in all countries wherever known and used by a term having this signification (Port, cra...
-Clover
Clover (trifolium), a genus of plants belonging to the natural order leguminosm, comprising 59 species, and generically distinguished as tufted or diffuse herbs, with flowers in heads or spikes, leave...
-Clovis
Clovis, the founder of the Frankish monarchy, born at Tournai about 405, died in Paris in 511. On the death of his father Childeric (481), Clovis, then about 15 years old, was proclaimed king by the S...
-Club
Club, a word of Saxon derivation, signifying a society of persons united for political, social, scientific, artistic, or literary ends, or for purposes of recreation. Clubs differ from mere associatio...
-Cluny, Or Clugny
Cluny, Or Clugny, a town of France, in the department of Saone-et-Loire, 12 m. N. W. of Macon; pop. in 1866, 4,253. It has several churches and schools, manufactures, a government stud, and some trade...
-Cluro V. Claire Josephe Hippolyte Leyris De Latnde
Cluro V. Claire Josephe Hippolyte Leyris De Latnde, a French actress, born in Flanders in 1723, died in Paris, Jan. 18, 1803. She was not 13 years old when she appeared with great success at a Parisia...
-Clusium
Clusium (the modern Chiusi), one of the twelve cities of the ancient Etruscan confederation, situated on the right bank of the Chmis, near a small lake to which it gave name, and 83 m. N. N. W. of Rom...
-Cluverius, Or Clover, Philinp
Cluverius, Or Clover, Philinp, a German geographer, born in Dantzic in 1580, died in Leyden in 1623. His father destined him for the law, but withdrew his support on his devoting himself at Leyden to ...
-Clyde
Clyde, the most important river of Scotland, rises in the southern part of Lanarkshire, out of the northern declivities of the chain of hills which may be regarded as a part of the Cheviots, dividing ...
-Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra, in Grecian legends, the daughter of Tyndarus, king of Sparta, and Leda. After her seduction by Jupiter, Leda, metamorphosed into a swan, is fabled to have laid two eggs, from one of whic...
-Cmticles, Or Seng Of Solomon
Cmticles, Or Seng Of Solomon(the of the Septuagint, the Canticvm Canli-corum of the Vulgate), the fourth book of the Hagiographa, and the first of the so-called Megil-loth, called Song of So...
-Coach
Coach (Ger. Kutsche, Fr. coche, Hun. Ifocsi [formerly kotsi], probably derived from Kocs [Kots], the name of a village S. of the Danube, in which coaches were made in the 16th century), a covered four...
-Coach-Whip Snake
Coach-Whip Snake (psammophis flagelli-formis, Catesby; genus masticoyihis, B. and Gd.), an American species characterized by a long and narrow head, projecting upper jaw, superior orbital plates large...
-Coahula, Or Colialmila
Coahula, Or Colialmila, a state of Mexico, between lat. 24 17' and 29 43' N, and lon. 100 and 103 30' W., bounded N. and N. E. by Texas, from which it is separated by the Rio Grand...
-Coaiti
Coaiti, a South American mammal, formerly placed among the viverridce, but now considered as coming near the raccoon, which it resemhies in general appearance, habits, and diet. There are two species...
-Coal
Coal, a term now commonly used to denote all kinds of mineral fuel, though formerly applied to the glowing embers of wood, and more recently to charcoal. English and German writers until a very recent...









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