books



previous page: The American Cyclopaedia Vol2 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana
  
page up: Reference Books
  
next page: The American Cyclopaedia Vol4 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana

The American Cyclopaedia Vol3 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol3

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Coal Plants
Coal Plants, traces and fossil remains of ancient vegetation found in the strata constituting the coal measures. To many of these reference has already been made in the article Coal. The occurrence of...
-Coal Products
Coal Products. The readiness shown by the elements of coal to enter into new combinations where it is exposed to an increase of temperature, and the great variety of the combinations obtained under di...
-Coanza
Coanza, a river of S. W. Africa, flowing into the Atlantic ocean on the coast of Lower Guinea, south of St. Paul deLoanda, in lat, 9 20' S. and lon. 13 12' E. Its source is supposed to lie e...
-Coast Range, Or Coast Mountains
Coast Range, Or Coast Mountains, a mountain range of California, nearly parallel with the Pacific coast, and extending from near the boundary of Oregon into the peninsula of Lower California. Its widt...
-Coatzacoalco, Or Goatzaeoalcos
Coatzacoalco, Or Goatzaeoalcos, a river of Mexico, rising in the unexplored part of the Sierra Madre, and flowing N. across the isthmus of Tehuantepec into the bay of Coatza-coalco, in the gulf of Mex...
-Cobalt
Cobalt, one of the elementary metals. The word cobalt was formerly used to designate a whole group of worthless metals. The superstitious miners imagined that the genii of the mountains resisted all a...
-Cobija, Or Puerto La Mar
Cobija, Or Puerto La Mar, the only seaport town of Bolivia, capital of the department of Atacama or Cobija, on the Pacific coast, in lat. 22 32' 50 S., lon. 70 17' 5 W., 365 m. S. W. of Po...
-Cobirg
Cobirg. I. A duchy of Germany, forming with Gotha the united duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, one of the states of the empire; area of Coburg alone, 218 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 51,709. (See Saxe-Coburg-Gotha...
-Coblentz
Coblentz (Ger. Collenz or Kollenz; anc. Confluentes), a fortified city of Prussia, capital of the province of the Rhine, at the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle, 49 m. S. E. of Colognc; pop. in 187...
-Cobra De Capello
Cobra De Capello (hooded snake), the Portuguese name of the naja tripudiam (Merr.), a venomous serpent of the East Indies, so called from its habit of dilating the neck into a kind of hood, covering i...
-Cobweb
Cobweb, the delicate silken thread woven by the spider, and applied to various uses by the different species. Some form of it webs in which to entangle their prey, others use it as a lining for their ...
-Coca
Coca, the dried leaf of the shrub erythroxylon coca, or, as in Prescott's Conquest of Peru, erythroxylum Peruvianum, or cuca, as called by the natives. This plant is found wild in the mountainous ...
-Coccoliths And Coccospheres
Coccoliths And Coccospheres, names given, the former by Prof. Huxley, the latter by Dr. Wallich, to minute rounded bodies adherent to the gelatinous submarine protoplasm to which Prof. Huxley gave the...
-Cocctlts
Cocctlts, the fruit of a climbing plant, called by Linmeus menispermum cocculus, but now referred to a new genus, anamirta, imported from the East Indies. It is about the size of a pea, and somewhat r...
-Cochabamba
Cochabamba (cocha, a lake, and pampa, a plain). I. A department of Bolivia, bounded by La Paz, Beni, Santa Cruz, Chuquisaca, and Oruro; area, 20,808 sq. m.; pop. about 380,-000. It includes almost eve...
-Cochin
Cochin. I. A rajahship of India, near its S. extremity, on the Malabar coast, intersected by lat. 10 N., bounded N. by the district of Malabar, S. by Travancore, and W. by the Indian ocean; area,...
-Cochin China
Cochin China. I. A province of the kingdom of Anam, occupying a narrow strip of its eastern coast, extending from about lat. 11 30' to 17 30' N. Its greatest length is a little more than 400...
-Cochineal
Cochineal (coccus cacti; Span, cochinilla), an insect used as a dye. Other species of the same genus of hemipterous insects, of the bark-louse family, have been used from the remotest periods to affor...
-Cock
Cock (Lat. gallus), a gallinaceous or rasorial bird of the order gallium and family phasi-anidae, originally a native of Asia. The birds of this genus, which includes the numerous varieties of domesti...
-Cockatoo
Cockatoo, a name given to the parrots of the subfamily cacatuince, family psittacidce, from their peculiar call note or cry. The cockatoos have the bill large, of various lengths, broad at the base, w...
-Cockchafer
Cockchafer (mclolontha vulgaris, Fab.), a European insect, belonging to the lamellicorn family of the order coleojrtera or beetles. The genus melolontha was established by Fabricius, who first separat...
-Cockney
Cockney (probably from Lat. coquina, a kitchen, and related to the Fr. Cocagne and It. Cuccagna, an imaginary country of luxurious idleness), a nickname applied to a certain class of Londoners. It has...
-Cockroach
Cockroach (Malta, Linn.), an insect belonging to the order of orthoptera, and to the group of runners or cursoria, having straight wings, and all the legs adapted for rapid motion. The genus Matta has...
-Coco-Maricopas, Or Maricopas
Coco-Maricopas, Or Maricopas, a tribe of semi-civilized Indians, living upon the river Gila, New Mexico, about 150 m. above its mouth. They occupy a portion of the rich alluvial valley found there, in...
-Cocoa
Cocoa, a preparation of the seeds of the tree called by Linnaeus thedbroma cacao. (See Cacao.) Several varieties of the tree have been since described, which produce beans, or seeds, varying somewhat ...
-Cocoanut Tree
Cocoanut Tree (cocos nucifera, Linn.), one of the best known of the great family of palms, and perhaps also the most useful. There is a saying among eastern nations that its attributes would fill a bo...
-Cod
Cod (morrhua, Cuv.), a genus of soft-rayed fishes belonging to the family of gadida, characterized by an elongated, smooth body, compressed toward the tail; three dorsal fins; ventral fins pointed; ab...
-Cod-Liver Oil
Cod-Liver Oil, the oil drained or expressed from the livers of the cod, and also of the pollock, hake, and haddock, largely used in medicine. Other fish oils are sometimes fraudulently substituted; th...
-Code
Code (Lat. codex, manuscript, originally designating any writing, but afterward used specially for a law, or some form prescribed by law; hence codicillus, the diminutive of codex, was a supplement to...
-Codex (Lat)
Codex (Lat), in Roman antiquity, originally the trunk of a tree, afterward applied to the wooden tablets smeared with wax which were used for writing. At a later period it became the name of all large...
-Codrington. I. Sir Edward
Codrington. I. Sir Edward, an English admiral, born in 1770, died in London, April 28, 1851. He became a lieutenant in the navy in 1793, and served on board Lord Howe's flag ship at the victory over t...
-Coehorn, Or Cohorn, Menno Van
Coehorn, Or Cohorn, Menno Van, baron, a Dutch general and engineer, born in Friesland in 1641 (according to some in 1632), died at the Hague, March 17, 1704. A captain at the age of 16, he distinguish...
-Coelins Symmachus
Coelins Symmachus, a pope and saint, born at Sinagiain Sardinia about 440, died in Rome, July 19, 514. He was appointed archdeacon of the Roman church by Pope Felix III., and was elected to succeed An...
-Coeurs Dalene (Awl-Hearts)
Coeurs D'Alene (Awl-Hearts), an Indian tribe in Idaho and Washington territories, of the Selish family, although their dialect differs greatly from others of the language. They call themselves Skizoom...
-Coffee (Turkish Kahve)
Coffee (Turkish Kahve), the seeds of the plant coffea Ardbica, of the order cinchona-ceae; also the beverage prepared by infusion or decoction of them in boiling water. In southern Abyssinia the plant...
-Coffee. I
A S. E. county of Georgia, bounded N. by the Ocmulgee river, S. W. by the Allapaha, and intersected by the Satilla and its branches; area, 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,192, of whom 678 were colored. ...
-Cofts. I. The N. County Of New Hampshire
Cofts. I. The N. County Of New Hampshire, bounded N. by Canada, E. by Maine, and W. by Vermont and Canada, and intersected in the E. part by the Androscoggin river; area, 1,950 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,14...
-Cogalniceano, Or Cogalnitchann, Michael
Cogalniceano, Or Cogalnitchann, Michael, a Roumanian historian and statesman, born about 1806. He filled the newly established chair of history at Jassy, founded scientific, literary, and political jo...
-Cohasset
Cohasset, a town of Norfolk co., Massachusetts, on the South Shore railroad, 15 m. S. E. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 2,130. It borders N. E. and E. on Massachusetts bay, and is surrounded on all other si...
-Cohesion
Cohesion, that kind of attraction by which the particles of bodies are held together, as the molecules of water, of iron, or of stone. It is manifested in a high degree in solids, less in liquids, and...
-Cohoes
Cohoes, a city of Albany co., New York, on the right bank of the Mohawk river, at its confluence with the Hudson, and on the Erie canal near its junction with the Champlain canal, 8 m. N. of Albany; p...
-Cohort
Cohort, in Roman antiquity, a division of an army, comprising three maniples or six centuries, and being the tenth part of a legion. It contained from 400 to 600 men, according to the number in the le...
-Coimbatore, Or Coimbatoor. I
A district of British India, in the presidency of Madras, between lat. 10 14' and 12 19' N, and lon. 76 36' and 78 16' E.; area, 8,099 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 1,754,705. The district...
-Coimbra
Coimbra, a city of Portugal, capital of the province of Beira, 120 m. N. N. E. of Lisbon; pop. about 19,000. It is situated on the river Mondego, in the midst of a mountainous but fertile and well cul...
-Coins (2)
Coins (Fr. coin, a die or stamp), metallic money; specie; pieces of metal, generally gold, silver, or copper, bearing certain marks or devices to indicate their origin and value, and designed to be us...
-Coin's Of Russia
Ruble, 1849 (Silver). Twenty-Copeck Piece (Silver). Twenty Yen (Gold). Fifty Sen (Silver). GOLD. COUNTRY AND DENOMINATION. Weight in ounces. Fineness, 1000ths....
-Cojvchology
Cojvchology (Gr. a shell, and a discourse), the science which treats of the testaceous parts of the mollusca. Formerly these were made the basis for classifying the animals to which they belong; b...
-Colapoor, Or Kolapoor. I
A rajahship of Bombay presidency, British India, bounded N. and N. E. by Sattara, E. and S. by Belgaum, and W. by the Ghauts; area, 3,445 sq. m.; pop., including dependencies, about 500,000, mostly Ma...
-Colbert. I. Jean Baptiste
Colbert. I. Jean Baptiste, marquis de Sei-gnelay, a French statesman, born at Rheims, Aug. 29, 1619, died in Paris, Sept. 6, 1683. The son of a merchant, he obtained employment as a clerk in an Italia...
-Colchester
Colchester, a municipal and parliamentary borough, market town, and river port of Essex, England, on the river Colne, and the Great Eastern railway, 51 m. N. E. of London; pop. in 1871, 26,361. It is ...
-Colchicum
Colchicum (from Colchis, a country where it abounded), a common name of the colcliicum autumnale (Linn.), or meadow saffron, a perennial bulbous-rooted plant, growing naturally in the temperate climat...
-Colchis (Modern Mingrelia And Part Of Imerethia)
Colchis (Modern Mingrelia And Part Of Imerethia), an ancient country of Asia, at the E. extremity of the Euxine, bounded N. by the Caucasus, E. and S. E. by Iberia and the Mos-chian mountains, S. by A...
-Colden. I. Cadwallader
Colden. I. Cadwallader, a physician and statesman, born in Dunse, Scotland, Feb. 17, 1688, died on Long Island, N. Y., Sept. 28,1776. He studied at Edinburgh, and at the age of 20 emigrated to America...
-Cole
Cole, a central county of Missouri, bounded N. E. by the Missouri river, S. E. by the Osage, which joins the Missouri at the E. extremity of the county,' and drained by Moreau creek; area, 410 sq. m.;...
-Colfax. I. A N. E. County Of Mississippi
Colfax. I. A N. E. County Of Mississippi, formed since the census of 1870, bounded E. by the Tombigbee river, and S. partly by the Oktibbeha, which with its branches intersects the W. portion; area, a...
-Colic
Colic, in its strictest sense a severe and moving pain in the colon, or large intestine; but pains having their seat in the small intestines, and in any of the abdominal viscera, are now included unde...
-Colima. I
A state of Mexico, between lat. 18 and 19 30' N, and lon. 102 40' and 104 20' W., bounded K by Jalisco, E. and S. E. by Michoacan, and S. W. by the Pacific; area, 2,393 sq. m.; pop...
-Colin Maclaurin
Colin Maclaurin, a Scottish mathematician, born at Kilmodan, Argyleshire, in February, 1698, died in Edinburgh, June 14, 1746. He was educated at the university of Glasgow, and in 1717 was appointed p...
-Coliseum, Or Colisaeum Colosseum
Coliseum, Or Colisaeum Colosseum, an immense amphitheatre in Rome, the largest permanent structure of the kind ever built, standing near the centre of the ancient city, upon the spot once occupied by ...
-College
College (Lat. collegium, an association), in its primary and most general meaning, the union of several persons (collegce, colleagues), with like powers, privileges, and customs, in one office for a c...
-College Of William And Mary
College Of William And Mary, the oldest seat of learning, except Harvard college, in the United States, near the city of Williamsburg, Va. An effort had been made as early as 1619 to establish a colle...
-Colliery
Colliery, a term applied to coal-mining establishments, including the mines, buildings, and machinery employed. In their simplest form, as now seen in the Alleghany coal field, where the strata lie ne...
-Collodion, Or Coliodium
Collodion, Or Coliodium (Gr. Ka, glue, and eo, form), an adhesive substance produced by dissolving gun cotton in ether and alcohol. The proportions recommende...
-Colloredo
Colloredo, a noble family of Austria, represented also in Italy, a branch of the house of Wallsee or Waldsee, which held the vice-comi-tat of Mels in 1031, and was divided at the death of During II. i...
-Colmajv. I. George
Colmajv. I. George, the elder, an English comic dramatist, born in Florence about 1733, died at Paddington, Aug. 14,1794. His father was British resident at the court of the grand duke of Tuscany. Aft...
-Colmar (Under The Franks Columbaria)
Colmar (Under The Franks Columbaria), a city of Germany, capital of Upper Alsace, (formerly of the French department of Haut-Rhin), 40 m. S. S. W. of Strasburg; pop. in 1872, 23,045. It is situated ne...
-Colocynth
Colocynth, the fruit of citrullus colocyn-this, a plant of the order cucurMtacece, somewhat resembling a small watermelon, and growing in various parts of Asia and Africa. The pulp of the fruit, depri...
-Cologne (German Koln)
Cologne (German Koln), a city of Prussia, capital of the province of the Rhine and of a district of the same name, situated on the left bank of the Rhine, in lat. 50 58' N., lon. 7 E., 38 m....
-Colombo, Or Colombo, A City Of Ceylon
Colombo, Or Colombo, A City Of Ceylon, the seat of government and principal seaport, on the W. coast; pop. in 1871, 100,238. It consists of an open and a fortified town. The latter stands on a rocky p...
-Colon
See Aspinwall. Colon #1 Colon, the portion of the large intestine extending from the caecum to the rectum, from the right to the left iliac region. It is divided into four portions: the ascending co...
-Colonization Society
The idea of sending a colony of persons of African descent from the United States to Africa appears to have first occurred to the Rev. Samuel Hopkins and the Rev. Ezra Styles of Newport, R. I. They is...
-Colonna
Colonna, a princely family of Italy, of which the founder claimed that he brought from Jerusalem a part of the column (colonna) to which Christ was bound when scourged. It is now divided into the thre...
-Colony
Colony (Lat. colonia, from colere, to cultivate), a word originally applied to a body of people established in a foreign country, whether remaining subject to the government of the mother country, or ...
-Colony Of Darien
Colony Of Darien, founded on the isthmus of Panama, near the close of the 17th century, by William Paterson, a Scotchman, and the founder of the bank of England. (See Pater-son, William.) In June, 169...
-Colophon
Colophon, one of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor, situated about 9 m. N. W. of Ephesus on the banks of the Halesus, a small stream, famed for the coldness of its waters. It was 2 m...
-Color
Color, one of those simple and obvious qualities of physical objects, as perceived by us, which can only be defined by its syno-nymes, hue, dye, etc, or by some theory respecting the nature of light, ...
-Color-Blindness
Color-Blindness, a curious defect in vision, depending on a want of sensibility in the eye, or perceptive capacity in the brain, in consequence of which certain colors are not distinguished, or all co...
-Colorado, A Territory Of The United States
A Territory Of The United States Colorado, bounded N. by Wyoming territory and Nebraska, E. by Nebraska and Kansas, S. by the Indian territory and New Mexico, and W. by Utah. It is situated between la...
-Colored And Ornamented Glass
Moulded or pressed glass never exhibits its full lustre or the clearly cut configurations of the mould. This defect is remedied by the process called cutting glass, which is in reality grinding and af...
-Colossus
Colossus (Gr. koo), a statue of gigantic size. Such statues were often erected in ancient times, and many still remain in existence, especially among the ruins of Thebes ...
-Coluber
Coluber, the principal genus of a family of ophidian reptiles, characterized by an elongated head, distinct from the neck, and covered above with smooth polygonal plates; the snout rather rounded; the...
-Columba
Columba, called by his countrymen Columb-Kille or Cille (dove of the cell), a saint of the Roman Catholic church, styled also the apostle of Caledonia, born at Gartan, Donegal, Ireland, in 521, died...
-Columbanus
Columbanus, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born in Leinster, Ireland, in 543, died at Bobbio, Italy, Nov. 21, 615. Educated with great care from childhood, he fled from his native place to avoi...
-Columbia
Columbia, the name of seven counties in the United States. I. An E. S. E. county of New York, bounded E. by Massachusetts, and W. by the Hudson river; area, 620 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 47,044. In the E....
-Columbia (3)
Columbia, a city, capital of South Carolina, and seat of justice of Richland county, situated on the E. bank of the Congaree, just below the falls, and at the confluence of the Broad and Saluda rivers...
-Columbia (4)
Columbia, the capital of Maury co., Tennessee, on the left bank of Duck river, 38 m. S. by W. of Nashville; pop. in 1870, 2,550, of whom 1,108 were colored. The surrounding country is fertile and prod...
-Columbia College
Columbia College, a seat of learning in the city of New York, originally called King's college. The institution comprises an academic department, law school, medical school, and school of mines. The g...
-Columbia Or Oregon (River)
Columbia Or Oregon (River), a river of N. W. America, rising in Otter lake on the W. slope of the Rocky mountains, in British Columbia, in lat. 50 30' N, lon. 116 W. It flows N. W. to lat. 5...
-Columbiana
Columbiana, an E. county of Ohio, separated from Pennsylvania on the S. E. by the Ohio river, and drained by several streams; area, 490 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 38,299. The southern portion is hilty, the...
-Columbus
Columbus, a S. E. county of North Carolina, bordering on South Carolina, bounded S. E. by the Waccamaw river, and N. W. by Lumber river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,474, of whom 2,948 were color...
-Columbus (2)
Columbus, a city and the capital of Ohio, seat of justice of Franklin co., built mostly on the E. bank of the Scioto, just below the mouth of the Olentangy, in the centre of the state, 100 m. N. E. of...
-Columbus. I. Christopher
Columbus. I. Christopher, the discoverer of America, born in Genoa, Italy, died in Valla-dolid, Spain, May 20, 1506. The time of his birth is uncertain. The earliest date given (1430), derived from a ...
-Coma
Coma (Gr. Ka, lethargy), a condition resembling profound sleep, in which the activity of the sensory ganglia is more or less completely suspended. The sensorium consists of the ganglionic ...
-Comanches
Comanches, a tribe of American Indians belonging to the great Shoshone family. They are a roving race, living in skin lodges with no fixed villages, roaming when first known from the head waters of th...
-Comb
Comb (Sax. camb), an instrument of wood, horn, shell, ivory, or other material, cut on one or both sides into a series of teeth, serving to disentangle and adjust the hair, and often worn by women as ...
-Combaconum, Or Kumbakonam
Combaconum, Or Kumbakonam, a city of British India, in the Carnatic, 20 m. N. E. of Tan-jore; pop. about 40,000. It is a place of great antiquity, is esteemed a holy city, and has several pagodas, gat...
-Combe. I. George
Combe. I. George, a Scottish phrenologist, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 21,1788, died at Moor Park, England, Aug. 14, 1858. He studied law, and continued in practice till 1837, when he resolved to devote h...
-Combustion
Combustion, a chemical process, in which bodies combine to form a new compound, with the evolution of heat, and usually, light. In ordinary cases of combustion, oxygen is one of the combining bodies, ...
-Comet
Comet (Gr. long-haired), a celestial body presenting a nebulous aspect, and travelling under the sun's attraction. Many of these bodies are distinguished by a remarkable taillike appendage. The grea...
-Comitia
Comitia, the public assemblies of the Roman people for the transaction of important political business. There were three different kinds of comitia, corresponding to the three great divisions of the R...
-Commandery
Commandery, a species of benefice, or an honorary dignity, belonging to certain of the orders of chivalry, and conferred upon aged knights who had rendered worthy services to the order or to the state...
-Common Carrier
Common Carrier, one who undertakes for compensation to carry goods from place to place for all who see fit to employ him. Of this class are proprietors of stage coaches, owners of vessels, railroad an...
-Common Law
By this term in English jurisprudence is sometimes designated that part of the law of England which has grown up from usage, as distinguished from acts of parliament; the former being also classified ...
-Common Schools
Under the general head of Education will be found a condensed history of instruction, public and private, so far as there are data for such a history. Under the present title will be given only an out...
-Commune De Paris. I
The name of a revolutionary committee which played a most important part in France from July 14, 1789, to July 27, 1794. On the first insurrection the Parisian electors convened, and under the above n...
-Como. I. A Province Of Italy
Como. I. A Province Of Italy, in Lombardy, bounded N. by Switzerland and S. by Milan; area, 1,048 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 477,642. It is traversed by branches of the Lepontine and Rhsetian Alps and othe...
-Comorn, Or Komorn (Hun., Komarom). I
A county of Hungary, on both sides of the Danube, and watered by its affluents the Waag and the Neutra; area, 1,145 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 143,090, almost all Magyars. It is level and exceedingly ferti...
-Comoro Isles, Or Comoros
Comoro Isles, Or Comoros, a group of high volcanic islands in the Mozambique channel, between Africa and the N. W. coast of Madagascar, consisting of the islands of Angaziya or Great Comoro, Anzooan o...
-Comparative Anatomy
Comparative Anatomy, the science which treats of the structure and relations of organs in the various branches of the animal kingdom, without a knowledge of which it is impossible to understand the be...
-Compass
Compass, a magnetized needle, balanced upon its centre so as to swing freely, used to indicate the magnetic meridian, and, by means of a graduated circle connected with it, the azimuths or bearings of...
-Compiegne (Under The Early Frankish Kings Compendium)
Compiegne (Under The Early Frankish Kings Compendium), a town of France, in the department of Oise, on the left bank of the river Oise, near the mouth of the Aisne, and on the great northern railway, ...
-Complexion
Complexion (Lat. complexio), the color of the skin. This color exists in the epidermis alone, and depends upon the admixture of pigment cells with the ordinary epidermic cells. The ancient anatomists ...
-Compressibility
Compressibility, that property of matter which allows the volume of a body to be diminished by pressure, being a consequence as well as an evidence of porosity. The word porosity as used here does not...
-Conant. I. Thomas Jefferson
Conant. I. Thomas Jefferson, an American Biblical scholar, born at Brandon, Vt., Dec. 13, 1802. He graduated at Middlebury college in 1823, pursued philological studies for two years in New York, was ...
-Concepcion. I. A S. Province Of Chili
Concepcion. I. A S. Province Of Chili, bounded E. by the Andes and W. by the Pacific, and having the river Itata on the north and the Biobio on the south; area, about 3,600 sq. m.; pop. 155,382. The s...
-Conch
Conch (Lat. concha, a shell), a name given to many univalve shells, of the families strom-MdcE or wing shells, pyrulidce or fig shells, fasciolaridae or band shells, etc. The name is also applied to t...
-Concha. I. Jose De La
Concha. I. Jose De La, marquis of Havana, a Spanish soldier and statesman, born in Cordova de Tucuman, Buenos Ayres, in 1800. He took part in the war against the patriots in South America and against ...
-Conchifera
Conchifera (Lat. concha, Gr. a shell, and fero, to bear), a class of mollusks including all the bivalve shells, as oysters, clams, scallops, etc.; they were called lamelli-brancMata by De Blainville...
-Conclave (Lat. Cum With And Clanis, Key)
Conclave (Lat. Cum With And Clanis, Key), the apartments where the cardinals of the Roman Catholic church assemble for the election of a new pope, or the assembly of cardinals shut up for such electio...
-Concord
Concord, a city and the capital of New Hampshire, and the shire town of Merrimack county, situated on the Merrimack river, about 45 m. from the Atlantic coast, and 60 m. N. N. W. of Boston. The Merrim...
-Concord (2)
Concord, a town of Middlesex co., Massachusetts, 18 m. N. W. of Boston by the old county road, and 20 m. by the Fitchburg railroad; pop. in 1870, 2,412. The Indian name of the place was Musketaquid, s...
-Concordance
Concordance, a book which contains all or the principal words that occur in the Bible, arranged in alphabetical order, with references to the book, chapter, and verse in which each occurs, designed to...
-Concordat
Concordat, a treaty or agreement entered into by the see of Rome with a secular prince or government, touching one or more points of ecclesiastical discipline. The Roman Catholic church is governed by...
-Concordia
Concordia, an E. central parish of Louisiana, bounded E. by the Mississippi river, W. by the Tensas and Washita, and S. by Red river; area, 790 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,977, of whom 9,257 were colored....
-Concordia Formula
Concordia Formula, the seventh and last symbolical book of the Lutheran church, in which the doctrinal development of that church in respect to the Lord's supper and the person of Christ was completed...
-Concrete
Concrete (Lat. concrescere, to grow together), a name given by architects and engineers to a mixture of common lime, hydraulic lime, or hydraulic cement, with sand and gravel or broken stones. A mixtu...
-Concubinage
Concubinage (Lat. concubare, to cohabit), a term applied in ancient times to a quasi-conjugal relation. Among the Hebrews the concubine was liable to be discarded, and to see her offspring excluded fr...
-Conde
Conde, the name of a younger branch of the Bourbon family, the successive heads of which have played important parts in French history. I. Louis I. de Bourbon, prince de, born at Vend6me, May 7,1530, ...
-Condor (Sarcoramphus Gryphus)
Condor (Sarcoramphus Gryphus), a large bird of prey, belonging to the order raptores, family vulturidm. In the genus sarcoramphus, which includes two species, both peculiar to the American continent, ...
-Condottieri
Condottieri (Ital., conductors), the common designation of adventurers who, principally in Italy, during the 14th and 15th centuries, kept bands of soldiers which they hired out to the party that paid...
-Condy Raguet
Condy Raguet, an American political economist, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 28, 1784, died there, March 22, 1842. He was of French descent, was educated at the university of Pennsylvania, and for 18 mon...
-Cone
Cone, in geometry, a solid figure described by a straight line moving in such a way that it always passes through a given curve enclosing a portion of a plane and through a fixed point not in that pla...
-Cone Shells
Cone Shells, univalve shells of the genus conus, comprising many species and varieties. The shell is very thick, and appears as if rolled up in conical form. The outer lip is simple and sharp-edged, t...
-Conestogas, Or Gandastognes
Conestogas, Or Gandastognes, a tribe of Indians formerly on the Susquehanna river, commonly called by the French Andastes, by the people of Virginia and Maryland Susquehannas, and by the Dutch and Swe...
-Confarreation
Confarreation, the most solemn of the three ceremonies of marriage used among the ancient Romans. The other forms of marriage were coemptio and usus. These last are the only ones mentioned by Cicero, ...
-Confederate States Of America
Confederate States Of America, a confederacy formed by eleven southern and slave-holding states which seceded from the United States in 1860-61, and organized a government terminating in 1865. In the ...
-Confirmation
Confirmation, in some churches a sacrament, in others a rite supplemental to baptism. Its history is traced to the apostles (Acts viii. and xix., Eph. xix., &c), who were wont to lay hands on neophyte...
-Conflagration
Conflagration (Lat. conflagratio, a burning together), the destruction by fire of a considerable part of a large town or city. The term is also applied to fires which overrun a large extent of prairie...
-Confucius
Confucius, the Latinized name of the Chinese philosopher Kung-fu-tse (Reverend Master Kung), a man who stands in a relation to the civilization of China similar to that which Moses and Socrates combin...
-Congestion
Congestion, strictly speaking, an accumulation of any liquid in an organ or tissue, but generally limited in medical works to an abnormal amount of blood in the vessels of a part otherwise healthy, an...
-Congo
Congo, a country of Africa, extending from about lat. 4 30' to 8 30' S., bounded N. by the river Congo or Zaire, E. by a range of mountains parallel to the coast, S. by the river Dande, whic...
-Congo Snare (Amphiuma Means Linn)
Congo Snare (Amphiuma Means Linn), one of the batrachian family of the amphiumida, destitute of gills except at the earliest periods of life, breathing by exposed spiracles or branchial openings on th...
-Congo, Or Zaire
Congo, Or Zaire, the largest river of western Africa S. of the Niger. It has also been called the Barbela, but the native appellation is Moienzi Enzaddi, the great river, or the river that absorbs...
-Congregationalism
Congregationalism, a form of church polity, or a system of ecclesiastical organization, management, and control. Its correlatives are Presbyterianism, Episcopacy, Papacy. Its essential peculiarity is ...
-Congress
Congress, in international politics, an assembly of the sovereigns or plenipotentiaries of several states to determine questions and concert measures of common interest. The term is of modern origin, ...
-Coni, Or Cnneo I
A province of Italy, in Piedmont, bordering on France and the provinces of Turin, Alessandria, Genoa, and Porto Maurizio; area, 2,755 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 616,817. About one half of the surface is le...
-Conic Sections
Conic Sections, the name given to the sections formed by cutting a right cone by a plane. The term is also constantly used to denote the curves formed by the intersection of the cutting plane with the...
-Conium
Conium, a genus of umbelliferous plants, of which 0. maculatum, the poisonous hemlock, is the best known species. This is an erect, branching, biennial plant, from 2 to 5 ft. high, with a tap-shaped r...
-Connaught
Connaught, the westernmost of the four provinces of Ireland, comprising the counties Galway, Mayo, Roscommon, Leitrim, and Sligo; area, 6,614 sq. m.; pop. in 1841, 1,418,859; in 1851, 1,012,006; in 18...
-Connecticut
Connecticut, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, and the smallest of the present states in area except Rhode Island and Delaware. It derives its name from its chief river, the C...
-Connecticut River
Connecticut River, the largest river of New England, has its sources in the highlands on the borders of New Hampshire and Canada, and after a general southerly course falls into Long Island sound at S...
-Conon
Conon, an Athenian general and admiral, living about 400 B. C. In 413 he commanded a fleet of 18 ships off Naupactus, to prevent the Corinthians from sending'aid to the Syra-cusans; in 409 he was elec...
-Conrad Konrad Vorst (Vorstius)
Conrad Konrad Vorst (Vorstius), a German Protestant theologian, born in Cologne, July 19, 1569, died at Tönningen, Holstein, Sept. 29, 1622. He took his degree at Heidelberg in 1594, and subsequently ...
-Conrad. I. Duke Of Franconia
Conrad. I. Duke Of Franconia, elected king of Germany in 911, when the male line of descendants of Charlemagne had become extinct, died Dec. 23, 918. The royal authority had been so much shattered und...
-Conradin
Conradin, the son of Conrad IV., duke of Swabia, and the last of the Hohenstaufen, born in 1252, beheaded Oct. 29, 1268. His father dying while he was an infant, he resided sometimes in the court of L...
-Consols
Consols, a term denoting a considerable portion of the debts of Great Britain, known as the three per cent, consolidated annuities. The government has borrowed money at different periods upon special ...
-Constable
Constable (Fr. connetable, from Lat. comes stabuli, count of the stable, or master of the horse), a title of office borrowed from Byzantine and old French usage. The constable of France was an officer...
-Constance. I
Constance. I (Ger. Konstanz, or Kostnitz; anc. Constantia), a city of Baden, on the S. shore of Lake Constance, or rather on the narrow channel which connects the lake with its N. W. arm, the Untersee...
-Constant Troyon
Constant Troyon, a French painter, born in Sèvres, Aug. 25, 1810, died in Paris early in 1865. He was early employed at Sèvres in painting on porcelain, and began in 1833 to send his works to the annu...
-Constantin Francois Chasselxenf Volney
Constantin Francois Chasselxenf Volney, count de, a French author, born at Craon in Anjou, Feb. 3, 1757, died in Paris, April 25, 1820. His family name was Chassebceuf, but his father gave him that of...
-Constantin Or Constance (Faulcon)
Constantin Or Constance (Faulcon), also Phatjlcon or Paulcon, a Greek adventurer, born at Custode, in the island of Cephalonia, in 1648, put to death in Siam in June, 1688. Engaged in commercial ventu...
-Constantine Henry Phipps Normanby
Constantine Henry Phipps Normanby, marquis of, an English statesman, born at Mul-grave castle, Yorkshire, May 15, 1797, died in South Kensington, July 28, 1803. He graduated at Cambridge in 1818, and ...
-Constantine II
Constantine II, emperor of Rome, eldest son of Constantine the Great by his second wife Fausta, born at Aries in Gaul, Aug. V, 312 (according to Gibbon in 316), killed near Aquileia, Italy, early in 3...
-Constantine IV
Constantine IV, surnamed Pogonatus (the Bearded), emperor of the East, born in 648, died in 685. He was the son of Constans II., who in 654 crowned him Augustus, and whom he succeeded in 668. In the f...
-Constantine Nirolayevitch
Constantine Nirolayevitch, grand duke of Russia, second son and fourth child of the emperor Nicholas, born in St. Petersburg, Sept. 21, 1827. He was made grand admiral when a mere child, and carefully...
-Constantine Pavlovitch
Constantine Pavlovitch, grand duke of Russia, son of the emperor Paul I., younger brother of Alexander I., and elder brother of Nicholas, born in St. Petersburg, May 8, 1779, died at Vitebsk, June 27,...
-Constantine Smaltz Rafinesque
Constantine Smaltz Rafinesque, an American botanist, born of French parents in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople, in 1784, died in Philadelphia, Sept. 18, 1842. He came to America in 1802, collected ...
-Constantine V
Constantine V, surnamed Copronymus, emperor of the East, born at Constantinoplcin 719, died off Selymbria, Sept. 14, 775. He was the son of Leo III., was crowned by his father in 720, and in 733 marri...
-Constantine VI
Constantine VI, emperor of the East, born in 771, died about 797. He was the son of Leo IV. In 780 he was crowned emperor, his mother Irene acting as regent. The five sons of his grandfather Constanti...
-Constantine VII
Constantine VII, surnamed Porphyrogeni-tus (born in the purple, or properly, in the imperial apartment called Porphyra), emperor of the East, born in 905, died Nov. 15, 959. He was the son of Leo VI...
-Constantine. I
The eastern province of Algeria, bounded N. by the Mediterranean, E. by Tunis, W. by the province of Algiers, and S. (where the limit has not been precisely fixed) by territories occupied by native tr...
-Constantinople
Constantinople (Gr. the city of Oonstantine; Turkish, Istambul or Stam-bul), the capital of Turkey, situated at the S. W. entrance of the Bosporus, upon a triangular peninsula belonging to the Euro...
-Constantius. I. Surnamed Chlorus
Constantius. I. Surnamed Chlorus(the Pale), a Roman emperor, father of Constantine the Great, born about A. D. 250, died at York, England, in July, 306. During his short reign the emperor Carus purpos...
-Constellations
Constellations, the name given by astronomers to the conventional divisions of the stars. Some of these are very ancient, and would seem to have been based on actual resemblances between certain star ...
-Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention, a term applied to a convention of delegates of the people assembled to frame a constitution for the state, which may or may not be submitted to the people for ratification. ...
-Consul
Consul (Lat. consulere, to take care for), in Roman antiquity, the title of two supreme civil and military officers, by whom the republic was governed after the expulsion of the kings about 510 B. C. ...
-Consumption
Consumption, in popular acceptation, and as used by physicians, a term denoting certain affections of the lungs, involving in general more or less destruction of these organs, together with progressiv...
-Contempt
Contempt, a disregard of the authority of a judicial tribunal or a legislative body, for which the offending party is liable to punishment by summary order, without the ordinary forms of criminal proc...
-Continental System
Continental System, the scheme of Napoleon I. for excluding Great Britain from commercial intercourse with the continent of Europe, and compelling her to acknowledge the maritime law established at th...
-Contra Costa
Contra Costa, a W. county of California, bounded N. by the strait of Carquinez, Suisun bay, and the San Joaquin river, E. by the San Joaquin, W. by the bay of San Francisco, and N. W. by San Pablo bay...
-Contraband
Contraband (law Lat. contra and oannum, contrary to an edict, proclamation, or treaty), a term used to designate goods exported from or imported into a country in violation of its laws. Contraband of ...
-Contract
Contract (Lat. contrahere, to draw together). As its derivation denotes, a contract is a concurrence of the minds of two or more parties in reference to something to be done by one or both, and import...
-Contributors To The Sixteenth Volume
Angelo Heilpein. Tyndall, John. Wallace, Alfred Russel. Louis Heilpein. Wurmser, dagobert slgmund. Zuyder Zee. Prof. J. E. Hilgaed, U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D. C. Weights and Measures (in...
-Convention
Convention, in diplomacy, a treaty not definite and permanent, but having some special and temporary purpose; in politics, an assembly of a special and peculiar character. According to the British con...
-Conveyance
Conveyance, a term formerly equivalent to voluntary alienation, and including all modes of transferring real estate by the act of the owner, whether by feoffment and livery of seisin, which was a deli...
-Convocation
Convocation (Lat. convocare, to call together), in the church of England, the assembly of the clergy by their representatives to consult on ecclesiastical matters, under the authority of a royal writ ...
-Convolvulus
Convolvulus (Lat. convolvere, to entwine), or Bindweed, an extensive genus of twining plants, annual and perennial. Most of its species have large and bright flowers, opening early in the morning, but...
-Conway
Conway, a central county of Arkansas, having Arkansas river on its S. W. border; area, 1,200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,112, of whom 630 were colored. The surface is agreeably diversified by mountains an...
-Conwy, Or Aberconwy Conway
Conwy, Or Aberconwy Conway, a market town of Carnarvonshire, N. Wales, on the left bank of the river Conway near its mouth in Beaumaris bay, 13 m. N. E. of Bangor, and 233 m. by the Northwestern and t...
-Conybeare. I. John
Conybeare. I. John, an English prelate, born at Pinhoe, near Exeter, in 1692, died at Bath, July 13, 1755. He studied at Exeter college, Oxford, received orders, and was curate at Fetch am in 1717. He...
-Conyers Middleton
Conyers Middleton, an English clergyman, born in Richmond, Yorkshire, Dec. 27, 1683, died at Hildersham, Cambridgeshire. July 28, 1750. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1702, was ordaine...
-Cook. I. A N. County Of Texas
Cook. I. A N. County Of Texas, separated from the Indian territory by Red river, and drained by Elm fork of Trinity river and its affluents; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,315, of whom 471 were col...
-Cooke. I. John Rodgers
Cooke. I. John Rodgers, an American jurist, born in Bermuda in 1788, died in Richmond, Va., Dec. 10, 1854. During a professional career of more than 40 years, he was concerned in nearly all the great ...
-Cookery
Cookery, the preparation of food by dressing, compounding, and the application of heat. Posi-donius was of opinion that the culinary art followed immediately the discovery of fire, and that it was at ...
-Cooly (Hindostanee Kuli Day Laborer)
Cooly (Hindostanee Kuli Day Laborer), a term applied by Europeans to laborers in the East Indies, China, and Japan. It has become familiar chiefly in a restricted sense, denoting those eastern laborer...
-Cooper
Cooper, a central county of Missouri, bounded N. by Missouri river, and intersected by the Lamine, which is navigable from its mouth to the Blackwater; area, 558 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,692, of whom ...
-Coosa
Coosa, a central county of Alabama, bounded S. W. by Coosa river; the former area was 860 sq. m., but a portion has recently been taken to form Elmore county; pop. in 1870, 11,945, of whom 3,394 were ...
-Coot
Coot, a lobe-footed bird of the order gralla-tores, family scolopacidce, and genus fulica. In this genus the bill is shorter than the head, strong, straight, and elevated, forming a broad shield on th...
-Copal
Copal, the resinous juice of the rhus copal-Una of Mexico and the elmocarpus copalifer of India. It is obtained by the natives by cutting a notch in the tree, in which it collects. Copal (Rhus cop...
-Copan
Copan, a small town of Honduras, Central America, in the department of Gracias, 120 m. W. by N. of Comayagua, on a river of the same name, an affluent of the Motagua. It gives its name to the wonderfu...
-Copenhagen (Danish Kjobenhavn Merchants Harbor; Lat. Hafnia)
Copenhagen (Danish Kjobenhavn Merchants' Harbor; Lat. Hafnia), the capital of Denmark, situated partly on the island of See-land in the Baltic, and partly on the island of Amager; lat. 55 41' N.,...
-Copiap6
Copiap6, a city of Chili, capital of the province of Atacama, on the right bank of a river of the same name, about 30 m. from its mouth, 425 m. N. of Santiago; pop. about 15,000. It is the centre of t...
-Copper
Copper (Lat. cuprum, from Cyprus the island, in which the ores of this metal were mined by the ancient Greeks), one of the first metals known to man. Tubal Cain, the seventh in descent from Adam, we a...
-Copper Mines
Copper occurs in nature both in the metallic slate, when it is known as native copper, and mineralized or combined with oxygen, sulphur, and various other foreign substances, constituting what are cal...
-Copper Smelting
With the exception of the native copper from Lake Superior, and smaller quantities from Peru and Bolivia, nearly all the copper of the world is obtained from sulphuretted or oxidized ores, which requi...
-Copperas
Copperas (Er. couperose), a metallic salt, known also as green vitriol. It is a hydrous ferrous sulphate or protosulphate of iron, and is represented by the formula FO,SO3,7HO. It forms pale green tra...
-Copperhead
Copperhead (trigonocephalus contortrix, Linn.; genus agkisirodon, Bd. and Gd.), a North American venomous serpent, the most dangerous after the rattlesnake. The head is thick and triangular; it has a ...
-Coprolites
Coprolites (Gr. dung, and a stone), the fossil excrements of various kinds of fishes and saurians, first recognized as such by Buckland. They are found, sometimes in enormous quantities, in severa...
-Copts
Copts, the principal sect of Christians in the valley of the Nlle. Ethnologically, the Copts are the representatives of the native race which inhabited Egypt in the time, of the Ptolemies. The race, h...
-Coptic Language
Coptic Language (Sahidic, Mentkyptaion or Aspi en Kemi, language of Egypt; Ethiopian, Gbetze; Arabic, Keft, in which also the Coptic people are called Ghipt). Some writers, following the Moslems, deri...
-Copyright
Copyright, a right conferred by law upon an author or his representatives to the exclusive sale or use of his intellectual productions. Owing probably to the circumstance that the ideas of property or...
-Coqudibo. I. A N. Province Of Chili
Coqudibo. I. A N. Province Of Chili, lying between lat. 29 and 32 S., and lon. 69 30' and 71 35' W., bounded N. by Atacama, E. by the Argentine Republic, S. by Aconcagua, and W. by...
-Coquerel. I. Athanase Laurent Charles
Coquerel. I. Athanase Laurent Charles, a French Protestant clergyman, born in Paris, Aug. 27, 1795, died there, Jan. 10, 1868. He studied at the divinity school of Montauban, and was ordained in 1816....
-Coral
Coral (Gr. ; Lat. coralium, curalium, or corallum). The derivation and use of tbis term are discussed by Theophrastus in his work on plants. Such were these stony products of the ocean naturally bel...
-Corbould. I. Henry
Corbould. I. Henry, an English artist, born in London, Aug. 13, 1787, died there, Dec. 9, 1844. He was considered one of the most accomplished draughtsmen of his time, and devoted nearly his whole lif...
-Cordeliers. I
A name given in France to the friars of the Franciscan order, in allusion to the cord tied with three knots which they wear as a girdle. The title is said to have originated in the time of the crusade...
-Cordiainus
Cordiainus ,.I. Marcos Autonius, surnamed Africanus, a Roman emperor, born in Rome A. I). 158, died in Carthage in 238. He was descended on his father's side from the Gracchi, and on his mother's from...
-Cordillera
Cordillera, a Spanish word meaning a mountain chain or ridge. It is commonly applied to the whole or a portion of the chain of the Andes, as la Cordillera de los Andes; la Cordillera de la Costa, the ...
-Cordova (Span. Cordoba). I
A S. province of Spain, in Andalusia, bounded N. W. by Badajoz, N. by Ciudad Real, E. by Jaen, S. E. by Granada, S. by Malaga, and S. W. and W. by Seville; area, 5,190 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 379,464 (e...
-Cordova. I
A central province of the Argentine Republic, lying between lat. 29 and 34 15' S., and lon. 61 and 66 16' W., bounded S. by the Pampas; area, 60,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 208,771. ...
-Core
Core, the solid product left behind when the volatile matters are expelled by distillation from bituminous coal. There are two kinds: gas coke, obtained from the retorts of gas works after the gases h...
-Corea
Corea, a kingdom on the E. coast of Asia, bounded N. by Mantchooria, N. E. by the Russian Amoor country, E. by the sea of Japan, S. by the strait of Corea, and W. by the Yellow sea and the Chinese pro...
-Corfu. I
A nomarchy of the kingdom of Greece, comprising the islands of Corfu, Paxo, Leucadia, and several smaller islands; area, 427 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 96,940. II. One of the Ionian islands (anc. Corcyra),...
-Corinth
Corinth, a city of ancient Greece, in the Peloponnesus, 48 m. W. of Athens, near the S. W. extremity of the isthmus which connects that peninsula with central Hellas, and separates the Corinthian and ...
-Coriolanus
Coriolanus, the name bestowed by the Roman people on the patrician Cneius Marcius, for the conquest of the Volscian town of Co-rioli. He was a leading member of the senate during the dissensions which...
-Cork
Cork (Lat. cortex, bark), the soft elastic bark of a species of oak (quercus suber) which grows abundantly in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Algeria, and the south of France. Commerce is indebted to Portugal...
-Cork. I
The southernmost county of Ireland, in the province of Munster, bounded N. by the county Limerick, E. by Waterford and Tipperary, S. by St. George's channel, and W. by Kerry; area, 2,873 sq. m.; pop. ...
-Cormorant
Cormorant (Fr. cormoran), a web-footed bird of the order natatores, family phalacro-coracidce, and genus graculus (Linn.); other synonymes are phalacrocorax of Brisson, and caroo of Lacepede. The Fren...
-Corn
Corn, a hard, circumscribed tumor, formed of thickened cuticle, situated generally on the feet, on the joints, or between the toes, and sometimes in the sole of the foot; but it may be formed over any...
-Corn Laws
Corn Laws, laws regulating the trade in corn or breadstufis. Such laws have existed in various forms, and still exist, in many countries; but the corn laws of England are most famous in our day, owing...
-Corn Snake
Corn Snake, the common name of the coluber guttatus, Linn, (genus scotophis, Bd. and Gd.). The head is narrow and elongated, and the snout obtuse; the neck is contracted, the body very long, and the t...
-Cornaro
Cornaro, a Venetian family, which furnished several doges in the 14th, 17th, and 18th centuries. The following are its best known members. I. Caterina, queen of Cyprus, born in Venice in 1454, died th...
-Cornea
Cornea, the transparent concavo-convex disk which forms the anterior fifth of the globe of the eye, fitted accurately into the sclerotic or fibrous coat forming the posterior four fifths of the organ....
-Corneille. I. Pierre
Corneille. I. Pierre, the father of the classical drama in France, born in Rouen, June 6, 1606, died in Paris, Oct, 1, 1684. After studying under the Jesuits of Rouen, he followed his father's profess...
-Cornelia. I. A Roman Matron
Cornelia. I. A Roman Matron, the younger daughter of P. Scipio Africanus the elder, and of Aemilia, daughter of L. Aemilius Paulus, who was killed at Cannae (216 B. 0.). She was of the highest birth i...
-Cornelias Harnett
Cornelias Harnett, an American revolutionary statesman, born in England, April 20, 1723, died at Wilmington, N. C, April 20, 1781. He came in early life to America, and prior to the disputes with Grea...
-Cornelis Van Drebbel
Cornelis Van Drebbel, a Dutch philosopher and inventor, born in Alkmaar in 1572. died in London in 1634. Of his life little is known; but his inventive genius appears to have given him a wide reputati...
-Cornelius Vanderbilt
Cornelius Vanderbilt, an American capitalist, born near the present Stapleton, Staten Island, N. Y., May 27, 1794. He was averse to education, and at the age of 16 he bought a boat with which he plied...
-Cornell University
Cornell University, an institution of learning situated at Ithaca, N. Y., named from its founder, Ezra Cornell. The university grounds embrace more than 200 acres lying on an upland E. of Ithaca, near...
-Cornet-A-Pistons
Cornet-A-Pistons, a musical wind instrument of metal, the mechanism of which enables it to give all the intervals of the chromatic scale as far as the low F sharp. It has a compass of about two octave...
-Cornhert, Or Coornhert, Diedcrik
Cornhert, Or Coornhert, Diedcrik, a Dutch author, born in Amsterdam in 1522, died in Gouda in October, 1590. He was for a while steward in the service of a nobleman, and afterward learned the art of a...
-Cornwall
Cornwall, a S. W. maritime county of England, bounded E. by Devonshire and on all other sides by the Atlantic; area, including the Scilly isles, 1,365 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 362,098. Its E. boundary, e...
-Coro. I. A State Of The Republic Of Venezuela
Coro. I. A State Of The Republic Of Venezuela, extending along the Caribbean sea from lon. 68 30' to 71 40' W., and bounded S. W. by Maracaibo and S. by Barquisimeto and Carabobo; area, 11,1...
-Coroner
Coroner, an officer so called from coronator, because originally his functions were for the most part those of a conservator of the peace, and in other respects of a ministerial deputy of the crown. T...
-Coronet
Coronet (Lat. corona, a crowm), a crown worn by princes and noblemen. It was not known in England prior to the reign of Henry III., and the oldest remaining representation of one is on the monument of...
-Corporation
Corporation, an artificial legal entity, established by law, composed of one or more persons, with certain powers and functions to be exercised in the corporate name, and continued by a succession of ...
-Corpulence
Corpulence, a state of excessive fleshiness, due not to unusual muscular development, but to an excess of fatty deposition in the adipose tissues of the body. (See Adipose Tissue.) The excessive accum...
-Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi (Lat., the body of Christ), a festival of the Roman Catholic church, celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday. It is called by the French Fete-Dieu, feast of God. The Catholic ch...
-Correction Of The Press
Correction Of The Press, the indication of errors and defects in a printed sheet, with a view to their removal by the compositor. The first impression taken from the types is termed a proof, and is co...
-Correlation Of Forces
Correlation Of Forces, and Conservation of Force, terms now used to express certain relations among the forces of nature which have been discovered by modern physical investigation. The view is that t...
-Correze
Correze, a southern department of France, bordering on the departments of Haute-Yienne, Creuse, Puy-de-D6me, Cantal, Lot, and Dor-dogne; area, 2,265 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 302,-746. It was formed from ...
-Corrieiytes. I
A province of the Argentine Republic, between lat. 25 30' and 30 S., and lon. 53 30' and 59 50' W., bounded N. by Paraguay and Brazil, E. by Brazil, S. by the province of Entre Rio...
-Corrosive Sublimate
This salt has long been described as a bichloride of mercury, consisting of two atoms of chlorine and one of mercury; but it is actually composed of one equivalent each of mercury and chlorine, and sh...
-Corset
Corset, an article of dress enclosing the chest and waist, worn chiefly by females to support or correct the figure. It is usually made of firm cloth, stiffened by rods of whalebone or other material,...
-Corsica
Corsica (Fr. Corse), an island in the Mediterranean, about 100 m. S. E. of the coast of France, of which it forms a department, 50 m. W. of Tuscany, and separated on the south from the island of Sardi...
-Cortland
Cortland, a central county of New York, touching Skaneateles lake on the northwest; area, 480 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,173. It has an uneven surface and a good soil. It is well supplied with water, an...
-Cortona
Cortona, a city of Italy, in the province and 14 m. S. E. of the city of Arezzo, in the Val di Chiana, on the railway from Arezzo to Perugia; pop. about 5,000. It contains a cathedral, theatre, and th...
-Corunna
Corunna (Span. Coru-na). I. A N. W. province of Spain, in Gali-cia, bounded N. and W. by the Atlantic, and bordering on the provinces of Lugo and Pon-tevedra; area, 3,078 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 609,-33...
-Corybantes
Corybantes, in antiquity, the priests of Cybele or Rhea in Phrygia. They celebrated the worship of this goddess by arraying themselves in full armor and performing licentious dances in the forests and...
-Cosenza. I
A S. province of Italy (also known as Calabria Citeriore), bounded N. by the province of Potenza, E. by the gulf of Taranto, S. by Catanzaro, and W. by the Mediterranean; area, 2,841 sq. m.; pop. in 1...
-Cosnie Damian Do Chirrcca Y Elorza
Cosnie Damian Do Chirrcca Y Elorza, a Spanish naval officer, born at Motrico, in the province of Guipuzcoa, Sept. 27, 1701, died at Trafalgar, Oct. 21, 1805. He distinguished himself at the siege of G...
-Cossacks
Cossacks, warlike tribes of S. and S. E. Russia, those of Little Russia (Malorussians) and those of the Don forming the chief divisions. In their own as well as in the Russian language they are called...
-Costa Rica, A Republic Of Central America
A Republic Of Central America Costa Rica, lying between lat. 8 11' and 11 8' N., and lon. 82 28' and 85 45' W., bounded N. by Nicaragua, N. E. by the Caribbean sea, S. E. by the Un...
-Costello. I. Dudley
Costello. I. Dudley, a British author and journalist, born in Ireland in 1803, died in London in September, 1865. The son of an officer, he entered the army, and served on various foreign stations, wh...
-Coster, Or Roster, Laurens Janszoon
Coster, Or Roster, Laurens Janszoon, a Dutch mechanic, considered by his countrymen the inventor of the art of printing, born in Haarlem about 1370, died about, 1440. The account given of him is, that...
-Cote-Dor
Cote-D'Or, an E. department of France, in Burgundy, bordering on the departments of Aube, Haute-Marne, Haute-Saonc, Jura, Saone-et-Loire, Nievre, and Yonne; area, 3,383 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 374,510. ...
-Cotes-Du-Nord
Cotes-Du-Nord, a N. W. maritime department of France, in Brittany, bordering on the English channel and on the departments of Ille-et-Vilaine, Morbihan, and Finistere, and including the islands of Bre...
-Cotopaxi
Cotopaxi, a volcano in Ecuador, in the E. chain of the Andes, 34 m. S. S. E. of Quito, in lat. 0 45' 11 S., lon. 78 42' W. Its summit, according to Humboldt, is 18,862 ft. above the sea; bu...
-Cotrone
Cotrone (anc. Crotona), a town of S. Italy, in the province and 36 m. N. E. of the city of Catanzaro, on the Ionian sea, at the mouth of the river Esaro; pop. about 6,000. It is a poor town, but is de...
-Cotta
Cotta, a family of Italian origin, settled in Germany since the 15th century. I. Johann Georg about 1640 founded an establishment at Tubingen, which at present is one of the leading publishing houses ...
-Cotton
Cotton (Ital. cotone, and this from the Arabic kotori), the downy fibrous substance attached to the seeds of the various species of gossy-pium, a genus of plants of the order malvacea, which also incl...
-Cotton Manufacture
The old method of spinning cotton into thread was to attach a bunch of the carded fibre to the end of a forked stick called a distaff, which was held under the left arm; with the right forefinger and ...
-Cotton Worm
Cotton Worm, the caterpillar of an owlet moth, of the tribe of noctuae (N. xylina, Say). The perfect insect is of a triangular shape, about an inch in length; the upper wings reddish gray, a dark spot...









TOP
previous page: The American Cyclopaedia Vol2 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana
  
page up: Reference Books
  
next page: The American Cyclopaedia Vol4 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana