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The American Cyclopaedia Vol5 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol5

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Ethyle
Ethyle (Gr. upper air, and material), the name given by Berzelius to what was then a hypothetical body, which he considered, and which has since been proved to be, the base of ether and alcohol; e...
-Etiennc Cabet
Etiennc Cabet, a French communist, born in Dijon, Jan. 2, 1788, died in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 9, 1856. He was educated for the bar, and became attorney general of Corsica, from which office he was soon...
-Etienne Balize
Etienne Balize, a French historian, born at Tulle, Dec. 24, 1630, died in Paris, July 28, 1718. He studied jurisprudence at Toulouse, where he became secretary of the archbishop. In 1667 Colbert made ...
-Etienne Bonnot De Condillac
Etienne Bonnot De Condillac, a French philosopher, born at Grenoble, Sept. 30, 1715, died Aug. 3, 1780. In early youth his constitution was so feeble that he could not be kept at school; at 12 years o...
-Etienne Denis Pasquier
Etienne Denis Pasquier, duke, a French statesman, of the same family with the preceding, born in Paris, April 22, 1767, died there, July 5, 1862. Before he became of age he was appointed councillor in...
-Etienne Henri Mehul
Etienne Henri Mehul, a French composer, born at Givet in the Ardennes, June 24, 1763, died in Paris, Oct. 18, 1817. He was of humble extraction, and having shown a strong taste for music was taken to ...
-Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre Macdonald
Etienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre Macdonald, duke of Taranto, a marshal of France, born at Sancerre, Nov. 17,1765, died at his chateau near Guise, Sept. 24, 1840. He was descended from a Scottish famil...
-Etienne Louis Mills
Etienne Louis Mills, a French engineer and physicist, born in Paris June 23, 1775, died there, Feb. 23, 1812. He belonged to a distinguished family, and bis intellectual precocity manifested itself wh...
-Etienne Marc Quatremere
Etienne Marc Quatremere, a French orientalist, born in Paris, July 12, 1782, died Sept. 18, 1857. He was a pupil of Sylvestre de Sacy and Chezy. In 1809 he became professor of Greek literature at Roue...
-Etienne Pasquier
Etienne Pasquier, a French author, born in Paris, April 7, 1529, died Aug. 31, 1615. He first appeared in 1549 in the capacity of attorney before the parliament of Paris. After publishing Le Monophile...
-Etna
Etna (Lat. AEtna, probably from Gr. to burn), a volcano of Sicily, called by the inhabitants of the island Mongibello, from a combination of the Italian monte with the Saracenic jebel, also meaning...
-Eton
Eton, a town of Buckinghamshire, England, on the left bank of the Thames, opposite Windsor, 22 m. W. of London by road; pop. about 3,000. Its college, the most celebrated of English public schools, wa...
-Etruria, Or Tuseia
Etruria, Or Tuseia, a division of ancient Italy, bounded W. by the Tyrrhenian sea, and separated on the N. W. from Liguria by the river Macra (now Magra), N. E. by the Apennines from Cispadine Gaul, a...
-Etymology
See Language. EU, a town of France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, on the Bresle, about 2 m. from its mouth in the English channel and 17 m. E. N. E. of Dieppe; pop. in 1866, 4,168. It has a ...
-Euboea
Euboea (Ital. Negroponte; Turk. Fgripo), an island of Greece, the largest of the archipelago, lying in the AEgean sea, between lat. 37 57' and 39 3' N., and Ion. 22 48' and 24 35'E...
-Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus (Gr. ev well covered), a genus of myrtaceous trees, mostly natives of Australia and the Indian archipelago. The calyx tube is turbinate or campanulate ; sepals united in a calyptra or cov...
-Euchre
Euchre, a game of cards, usually played by two or four persons with a pack from which all the cards from 2 to 6 inclusive have been withdrawn. Before commencing the game, the players draw for the deal...
-Euclid
Euclid (Gr. the most celebrated of ancient geometers, flourished at Alexandria in the reign of the first Ptolemy, about 300 B. C. The Arabic historians give many unauthenticated particulars of his l...
-Euclid Of Megara
Euclid Of Megara, a Greek philosopher, born about 440 B. C. His first master was Parmenides; afterward he became a devoted disciple of Socrates, at whose death, according to Plato, he was present. But...
-Eudiometer
Eudiometer (Gr. pure air, and measure), an instrument invented by Priestley for determining the proportion of oxygen in the air, in the belief that on this depended its salubrity. Many other inst...
-Eudocia. I. A Roman Empress
Eudocia. I. A Roman Empress, born in Athens about A. D. 394, died in Jerusalem about 461. She was instructed by her father, the sophist Leontinus, in the religion, literature, and science of the pagan...
-Eudoxus Of Cnidus
Eudoxus Of Cnidus, a Greek natural philosopher, born about 409 B. C, died about 356. He studied under Archytas and Plato, travelled in Egypt, and returned to Cnidus in 359, founded a school, and built...
-Eugene
Eugene (Francois Eugene de Savoie-Ca-eignan), prince, a general in the service of the house of Austria, born in Paris, Oct. 18, 1663, died in Vienna, April 21, 1736. He was the youngest of the five so...
-Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-Le-Duc
Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-Le-Duc, a French architect, born in Paris, Jan. 27, 1814. He early studied Gothic architecture, and in 1836 -'9 studied in Italy the remains of Greek and Roman art. Since 1840 ...
-Eugene Francois Vidocq
Eugene Francois Vidocq, a French detective, born in Arras, July 23, 1775, died in Paris, May 10, 1857. He began life as a baker, and early became the terror of his companions by his athletic frame and...
-Eugene Occrry
Eugene O'Ccrry, an Irish archaeologist, born at Dunaha, near Carrigaholt, county Clare, in 17U6, died in Dublin, July 30, 1802. He was an assistant in the antiquarian department of the government ordn...
-Eugene Rouher
Eugene Rouher, a French politician born in Riom, Nov. 30, 1814. He became an advocate, and was returned in 1818 to the constituent, and in 1849 to the legislative assembly. He was minister of justice ...
-Eugenie John
Eugenie John, a German novelist, popularly known under the nom de plume of E. Marlitt, born at Arnstadt, Thuringia, Dec. 5, 1825. She is the daughter of a painter, and on account of her fine voice wa...
-Eugenius
Eugenius, the name of four popes. I. Saint, born in Rome, died there, June 2, 657. After the banishment of Martin I. in 653, Eugenius was chosen to govern the church as vicar general, and in September...
-Eumenes
Eumenes, a general of Alexander the Great, and one of his successors, born at Cardia, in the Thracian Chersonese, about 360 B. C, put to death in Gabiene, Elymais, in 316. He attracted the notice of P...
-Eunomius
Eunomius, a heresiarch of the 4th century, a native of Dacora in Cappadocia, who studied theology under the Arian teacher Aetius, and was made bishop of Cyzicus about 300. His opinions were a logical ...
-Eunuchs
Eunuchs (Gr. from a bed, and to guard), emasculated men employed in the East from time immemorial to take charge of women. A product of oriental polygamy, jealousy, and despotism, eunuchs were ...
-Eupatoria
Eupatoria (formerly Kozlov), a seaport town of Russia, in the government of Taurida, on the W. coast of the Crimea, and on the N. shore of the bay of Kalamita, 38 m. N. W. of Simferopol, and 40 m. N. ...
-Euphorbia
Euphorbia, the typical genus of the botanical family euphorbiaceoe, or spurges, said to have been so named from Euphorbus, physician to Juba, king of Mauritania. The flowers are monoecious, collected ...
-Euphrates
Euphrates (Turk. Frat), the largest river of western Asia. It rises from two chief sources in the Armenian mountains; one of them at Dumly, 25 m. N. E. of Erzerum, the other on the northern slope of t...
-Euphrosyne Parepa Rosa
Euphrosyne Parepa Rosa, an English soprano singer, born in Edinburgh in 1836, died in London, Jan. 21, 1874. Her father was Geor-giades de Boyescu, a Wallachian nobleman; her mother was Elizabeth Segu...
-Euphuism
Euphuism (Gr. elegant), an affected style of speech which distinguished the conversation and writings of many of the wits at the court of Queen Elizabeth. The name and the style were derived from th...
-Eure
Eure, a 1ST. department of France, formed by the union of four ancient districts of Normandy, bordering on the departments of Seine-Inferieure (from which it is partly separated by the lower part of t...
-Eure-Et-Loir
Eure-Et-Loir, a N. department of France, formed from parts of the ancient provinces of Orleanais, Ile-de-France, and Maine, bordering on the departments of Eure, Seine-et-Oise, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher, S...
-Eurico Cialdlyi
Eurico Cialdlyi, an Italian soldier, born near Castelvetro, Aug. 8, 1811. He is the son of a hydrographical engineer and a Spanish lady. Expelled from the Jesuit college at Reggio on account of his ir...
-Euripides
Euripides, the last of the illustrious trio of the tragic poets of Athens, born, according to the almost unanimous consent of the ancient authorities, in the island of Salamis, in the 1st year of the ...
-Europe
Europe, one of the five principal divisions of the globe, the smallest except Australia, but the most important in the history of civilization. Geographically considered, it is merely a N. W. peninsul...
-Eusebius
Eusebius, surnamed PAMPHILI, an ecclesiastical writer of the early church, born in Palestine about 265, died about 340. But little is known of his youth, save that he began his studies in Antioch, the...
-Eustace Budgell
Eustace Budgell, an English writer, born at St. Thomas, near Exeter, in 1685, died in 1736. He assisted Steele in the composition of the Tatler, and Addison in the Spectator, where his contributio...
-Eustachi, Or Eustachio, Bartolommeo (Lat
Eustachi, Or Eustachio, Bartolommeo (Lat. Eustachius), an Italian anatomist, born probably at San Severino, near Salerno, died in Rome in 1574. He was a contemporary of Vesalius, and shares with him t...
-Eutaw Springs
Eutaw Springs, a small affluent of the San-tee river, in South Carolina, about 50 m. N. W. of Charleston, near which was fought, Sept. 8, 1781, a battle between the Americans under Gen. Greene and the...
-Eutyches
Eutyches, a heresiarch of the 5th century, born about 380, died about 454. For many years he lived as a priest and archimandrite in the cloisters of Constantinople, where he had more than 300 monks un...
-Evagoras
Evagoras, king of Salamis in Cyprus, died about 374 B. C. His family claimed descent from Teucer, the reputed founder of Salamis, and had long held the sovereignty of that city, till expelled by a Pho...
-Evald, Or Ewald, Johannes
Evald, Or Ewald, Johannes, a Danish poet, born in Copenhagen, Nov. 18, 1743, died there, March 17, 1781. He early displayed his love of adventure by an attempt to go to sea, and afterward entered the ...
-Evangelical Alliance
Evangelical Alliance, a religious association among different denominations of Protestants in Europe and America. A convention, called for the formation of such an alliance, met in Freemason's hall, L...
-Evangelical Association
Evangelical Association, an ecclesiastical body, sometimes erroneously called the German Methodist church, probably because its confession of faith and its polity are very similar to that of the Metho...
-Evangelinus Apostolides Sophocles
Evangelinus Apostolides Sophocles, an American scholar, born near Mt. Pelion, in Thessaly, March 8,1807. He studied in the convent on Mt. Sinai, emigrated to the United States, entered Amherst college...
-Evangelist
Evangelist (Gr. well, and to announce), one who brings good tidings. Hence the writers of the four Gospels are called the evangelists, because they in a preeminent sense declare the glad tidings o...
-Evansville
Evansville, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Vanderburg co., Indiana, 144 m. S. S. W. of Indianapolis, built on high ground on the N. bank of the Ohio river, nearly 200 m. from its mouth and ...
-Evaporation
Evaporation, the dissipation of bodies by the volatile particles at their surface assuming the form of vapors and disappearing in the space around them. Liquids manifest this property most sensibly. M...
-Evariste Desire Desforges Parny
Evariste Desire Desforges Parny, chevalier de, a French poet, born in St. Paul, island of Bourbon, Feb. 6, 1753, died near Paris, Dec. 5, 1814. He went to France to study for the church, but became a ...
-Evariste Regis Huc
Evariste Regis Huc, a French missionary and traveller, born in Toulouse, Aug. 1, 1813, died in Paris, March 31,1860. He studied theology in his native city, and taught in the seminary there for a whil...
-Evarts. I. Jeremiah
Evarts. I. Jeremiah, secretary of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions, born in Sunderland, Vt., Feb. 3, 1781, died in Charleston, S. 0., May 10, 1831. He graduated at Yale college...
-Evening Papers
Evening Standard - established in 1827; 1d; now forms an evening edition of the. Standard. Pall Mall Gazette - established in 1865; 2d.; politics liberal; remarkable for literary ability, and in par...
-Evripo Chalcis
Evripo Chalcis, Egripo, or Negropont, the principal town of the island of Eubcea, in Greece, 34 m. N. by W. of Athens; pop. about 6,000. It is the seat of a Greek archbishop, and is said to be the onl...
-Executive Directory
Executive Directory(Fr. directoire execu-tif), the name given to the executive government of the first French republic, established by the constitution of Fructidor, year III. (August, 1795). This con...
-Ezekiel Cheever
Ezekiel Cheever, an American teacher, born in London, Jan. 25, 1615, died in Boston, Aug. 21, 1708. He was the son of a linen draper, and the pure Latinity of some essays and verses written by him in ...
-Ezekiel Gilman Robinson
Ezekiel Gilman Robinson, an American clergyman, born at Attleborough, Mass., March 23, 1815. He graduated at Brown university in 1838, at Newton theological institution in 1842, and was ordained and s...
-Ezra Stiles
Ezra Stiles, an American clergyman, born at North Haven, Conn., Dec. 15, 1727, died in New Haven, May 12, 1795. He graduated at Yale college in 1746, and was a tutor there from 1749 to 1755. He studie...
-Fanny And Therese Elssler
Fanny And Therese Elssler, two sisters celebrated as dancers, born in Vienna, Therese in 1808, Fanny in 1811. Fanny, the more famous, was instructed in the juvenile ballet corps of the Viennese theatr...
-The Fat Charles III (Of Germany)
The Fat Charles III., the last emperor of the Carlovingian dynasty, born about 832, died in 888. He was the third son of Louis the Germanic, and received the kingdom of Swabia for his portion of his f...
-Father Joseph
Father Joseph, the confidential friend of Cardinal Richelieu, whose real name was Francois Leclerc du Tremblay, born in Paris, Nov. 4, 1577, died at Rueil, Dec. 18, 1638. He was the son of an eminent ...
-Fathers Of The Patres Ecclesiae (Church)
Fathers Of The Patres Ecclesiae (Church), those Christian teachers and writers, from the 2d to the 18th century, who were eminent for their orthodoxy, genius, and beneficent influence upon the church....
-Faustin Soulouque
Faustin Soulouque, a Haytian emperor under the title of Faustin I., born in the district of Petit Goave, in the southern peninsula of Hayti, about 1785, died there in July, 1867. He was born a slave, ...
-Feast Of Tabernacles
Feast Of Tabernacles (Heb. 'hag hassulcoth), one of the three great festivals of the Jews, observed after harvest, and beginning on the 15th day of the month Tisri. It commemorated God's protecting ca...
-Fedor Rostoptchin
Fedor Rostoptchin, count, a Russian soldier, born in the government of Orel about 1765, died in Moscow in January or February, 1826. He became a page of Catharine II. and a favorite of Paul I., under ...
-Felice Orsini
Felice Orsini, an Italian revolutionist, born in Meldola, near Forli, in 1819, executed in Paris, March 13, 1858. He early engaged with his father in political plots, and when scarcely 25 years of age...
-Felicia Dorothea Hemans
Felicia Dorothea Hemans, an English poetess, born in Liverpool, Sept. 25, 1794, died near Dublin, May 12,1835. Her father, a merchant named Browne, was a native of Ireland, but her mother was of Venet...
-Felix Antoine Philippe Dupanloup
Felix Antoine Philippe Dupanloup, a French prelate, born at St. Felix, Savoy, Jan. 3, 1802. He was brought up in the house of his uncle, a country priest, and in his eighth year was placed at school i...
-Felix De Azara
Felix De Azara, a Spanish naturalist, born in Aragon, May 18, 1746, died there in 1811. He became a brigadier general in the Spanish army, and was wounded in the warfare against the Algerine pirates (...
-Felix Del Rey Calleja
Felix Del Rey Calleja, conde de Calderon, a Spanish general, born in 1750, died about 1820. He commanded the royal forces in Mexico during the insurrection under Hidalgo, whose army he defeated in sev...
-Felix Dujardin
Felix Dujardin, a French naturalist, born in Tours, April 5, 1801, died April 8, 1860. He was the son of a poor watchmaker, and was dependent on his own exertions for his education. From 1827 to 1834 ...
-Felix Grundy
Felix Grundy, an American statesman, born in Berkeley co., Va., Sept. 11, 1777, died in Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1840. He was educated for a physician, but studied law, was admitted to practice in 1...
-Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, a German composer, born in Hamburg, Feb. 3, 1809, died in Leipsic, Nov. 4, 1847. He was a grandson of Moses Mendelssohn. His father, Abraham Mendelssohn, had added the nam...
-Felix O. C Darley
Felix O. C Darley, an American artist, born in Philadelphia, June 23,1822. He was placed in a mercantile house at the age of 14, but spent his leisure hours in drawing. Some of his sketches having att...
-Felix Pyat
Felix Pyat, a French author, born in Vierzon, department of Cher, Oct. 4, 1810. He studied law in Paris, and was admitted to the bar in 1831, but devoted himself entirely to literature and politics. H...
-Felix Vicq Dazyr
Felix Vicq D'Azyr, a French physician, born at Valogne, Normandy, April 28,1748, died in Paris, June 20,1794. In 1765 he went to Paris to complete his studies, and in 1773 he opened public courses of ...
-Feodor Petrovitch Lutke
Feodor Petrovitch Lutke, a Russian traveller, born in 1797. He early entered the navy, and accompanied Golovnin in his explorations of Nova Zembla (1817-'19), and Staniukovitch in circumnavigating the...
-Ferdinand Christian Bur
Ferdinand Christian Bur, a German theologian, born at Schmiden, Wurteinberg, June 21, 1792, died in Tubingen, Dec. 2, 1860. He was educated at Tubingen, became a clergyman and afterward a private tuto...
-Ferdinand De Lesseps
Ferdinand De Lesseps, viscount, a French diplomatist, born in Versailles, Nov. 19, 1805. In 1825 he was attached to the French consulate at Lisbon, and in 1828 to that in Tunis. After the taking of Al...
-Ferdinand Gregorovius
Ferdinand Gregorovius, a German author, born at Neidenburg, Prussia, Jan. 19,1821. He entered the university of Konigsberg in 1838, studied theology and philosophy, and afterward devoted himself to po...
-Ferdinand Hiller
Ferdinand Hiller, a German composer, born in Frankfort, Oct. 24, 1811. His father, a wealthy Jew, fostered his disposition for music, and he received lessons in succession from Hoffmann, Schmidt, Voll...
-Ferdinand Pauwels
Ferdinand Pauwels, a Belgian painter, born at Eckeren, near Antwerp, April 13,1830. He studied at Antwerp and under Wappers, and exhibited in 1851 his Meeting of Baldwin I. with his daughter Joan at ...
-Ferdinand Tonssaint Francois Chatel
Ferdinand Tonssaint Francois Chatel, abbe, a French religious reformer, born at Gannat, Jan. 9, 1795, died in Paris, Feb. 13, 1857. His parents were poor, and he was apprenticed to a tailor; but his p...
-Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden
Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden , an American geologist, born in Westfield, Mass., Sept. 7,1829. He emigrated to Ohio at an early age, and graduated at Oberlin college in 1850. He afterward studied medicin...
-Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix
Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix, a French painter, born at Charenton, April 26, 1799, died at Champrosay, near Versailles, Aug. 13, 1863. He first became known by some able criticisms on art. He stu...
-Ferdinand Von Hompesch
Ferdinand Von Hompesch, the last grand master of the order of St. John, horn in Dussel-dorf, Germany, Nov. 9, 1744, died in Mont-pellier, France, in 1803. He was of a noble Prussian family, and at the...
-Ferdinand Wrangell
Ferdinand Wrangell, baron, a Russian traveller, born in Esthonia about 1795, died in Dorpat, June 6, 1870. He was a naval officer, and in 1820-'23 commanded a sledge expedition to the Polar sea, N. of...
-Ferdinando Francesco D Avalos
Ferdinando Francesco D Avalos, marquis of Pescara, an Italian general of Charles V., born in Naples in 1490, died in Milan, Nov. 4, 1525. His ancestors came from Spain to Naples in the middle of the 1...
-Ferencz Deak
Ferencz Deak, a Hungarian statesman, born at Sojtor, in the county of Zala, Oct. 17, 1803. He was educated at Comorn and Raab, studied law, was elected to the diet of 1832-'6, and became the leader of...
-Ferenez Kazinczy
Ferenez Kazinczy, a Hungarian author, born in the county of Bihar, Oct. 27, 1759, died in that of Zemplen, Aug. 22, 1831. He pursued his classical studies from 1769 to 1779 at the college of Patak, an...
-Fernam Mendez Pinto
Fernam Mendez Pinto, a Portuguese adventurer, born near Coimbra about 1510, died near Lisbon, July 8, 1583. At an early age he went to the East Indies, and in 1537 embarked as a volunteer against the ...
-Fernan Nunez
Fernan Nunez, a Spanish scholar, born in Valladolid about 1470, died in Salamanca in 1553. He was knight commander of the order of Santiago; and being also a Greek scholar, he was called the Greek c...
-Fernando De Soto
Fernando De Soto, a Spanish explorer, born at Xeres de los Caballeros, in Estremadura, about 1496, died on the banks of the Mississippi in 1542. Of a noble but reduced family, he was enabled by the fa...
-Ferrante Pallavicino
Ferrante Pallavicino, an Italian author, born in Parma or Piacenza about 1615, executed at Avignon, March 5, 1644. He became an Augustinian friar, and at first was reputed one of the most devout and l...
-Filippo Buonarotti
Filippo Buonarotti, a French revolutionist, a descendant of Miehel Angelo, born in Pisa, Nov. 11,1761, died in Paris, Sept. 15,1837. He became a favorite of the grand duke of Tuscany, but was expelled...
-Filippo De Neri
Filippo De' Neri (commonly called in English St. Philip Neri), a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born in Florence in July, 1515, died in Rome, May 26, 1595. He was the adopted heir of a rich uncle...
-Firmianus Lactantius
Firmianus Lactantius, one of the fathers of the Latin church, born, according to some, in Firmium, Italy, according to others, in Africa, about 260, died in Treves about 325. The names Lucius Ccelius ...
-First King Of Sicily Roger II
First King Of Sicily Roger II., son of the preceding, born in Mileto, Calabria, about 1095, died Feb. 26, 1154. He succeeded his father under the guardianship of his mother, Adelaide of Montferrat. On...
-Fitz John Porter
Fitz John Porter, an American soldier, born in Portsmouth, N. H., in 1823. He graduated at West Point in 1845, and served in garrison at Fortress Monroe until the opening of the Mexican war. He was en...
-Fitzroy James Henry Somerset Raglan
Fitzroy James Henry Somerset Raglan, baron, an English general, born Sept. 30, 1788, died in camp before Sebastopol, June 28, 1855. He was the eighth and youngest son of the fifth duke of Beaufort. He...
-Flavins Leo I
Flavins Leo I, surnamed the Thracian and the Great, a Byzantine emperor, born in Thrace about A. D. 400, died in January, 474. At the death of Marcian in 457 he was only a military tribune; but being ...
-Flavins Leo III
Flavins Leo III, surnamed the Isaurian, a Byzantine emperor, born in Isauria about 680, died June 18, 741. The son of a farmer who emigrated from Asia Minor to Thrace, he joined the army under Justini...
-Flavins Leo VI
Flavins Leo VI, surnamed the Philosopher, a Byzantine emperor, born about 865, ascended the throne in 886, died in 911. He was associated with his father Basil I. in the government two years before he...
-Flavins Stilicho
Flavins Stilicho, a Roman general, beheaded Aug. 23, A. D. 408. He was the son of a Vandal officer of the cavalry under the emperor Valens. For his services as an envoy to Persia in 384 Theodosius gav...
-Flavins Tiberius Macricus
Flavins Tiberius Macricus, a Byzantine emperor, born in Arabissus, Cappadocia, about 539, executed Nov. 27, 602. Descended from an ancient Roman family, he passed his youth in the camp and at the cour...
-Flavins Valens
Flavins Valens, a Roman emperor of the East, born about A. D. 328, killed at Adrianople, Aug. 9, 378. In March, 364, his brother Valentinian I. made him emperor of the East. In the following year Proc...
-Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus, a Jewish historian, born in Jerusalem about A. D. 37, died about 100. His father belonged to the highest sacerdotal family, and his mother was descended from the Asmonean princes. He...
-Flavius Leo V
Flavius Leo V, surnamed the Armenian, a Byzantine emperor, reigned from 813 to 820. He was of noble Armenian descent, distinguished himself as a general under Nicephorus I. (802-811), was exiled for t...
-Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale, an English philanthropist, born in Florence, Italy, in May, 1820. She is the younger daughter of William Edward Shore, a Sheffield banker, who inherited the estates of Peter Nigh...
-Florent Carton Dancoijrt
Florent Carton Dancoijrt, a French comedian and dramatist, born at Fontainebleau, Nov. 1, 1661, died in Berry, Dec. 6, 1725. He studied law, and was admitted to the bar at the age of 17. But his legal...
-Forbes Benignns Winslow
Forbes Benignns Winslow, an English physician, born in London in August, 1810, died there, March 3,1874. He commenced his professional studies in New York, passed the royal college of surgeons, London...
-Foretell Missions
In a theological sense, this term denotes the efforts made by the professors of a religious creed to propagate their doctrines in countries following other religious persuasions. The disciples of Chri...
-Fort Moultrie
Fort Moultrie, a fortification on Sullivan's island at the mouth of Charleston harbor, where a victory was gained, June 28, 1776, by the South Carolina troops under Col. William Moultrie over a Britis...
-Fort Sumter
Fort Sumter, a work built upon an artificial island near the entrance of the harbor of Charleston, S. C, which it was designed to protect. It stands about 2f m. from Castle Pinckney, the fort near the...
-Fra Bartolommeo
Fra Bartolommeo, an Italian painter, whose real name was Baccio della Porta, called also il Frate and Fra Bartolommeo di San Marco, born at Savignano in 1469, died in Florence, Oct. 8, 1517. He studie...
-Frances Browne
Frances Browne, an Irish poetess, born at Stranorlar, county Donegal, June 16, 1818. At the age of 18 months she lost her sight from smallpox, and as she grew up her brothers and sisters read to her s...
-Frances Power Cobbe
Frances Power Cobbe, an English authoress, born in Dublin in 1822. She is of English extraction, her father having derived his estates from his great-grandfather, Charles Cobbe, who was archbishop of ...
-Frances Wright (Darnsmont) (Commonly Called Fanny)
Frances Wright (D'Arnsmont) (Commonly Called Fanny) , a Scottish reformer, born in Dundee, Sept. 6, 1795, died in Cincinnati, Ohio, Dec. 14, 1852. She was left an orphan at the age of nine, and was in...
-Francesco Bartolozzi
Francesco Bartolozzi, an Italian engraver, born in Florence in 1725 or 1730, died in Lisbon about 1815. He was the son of a goldsmith, perfected himself in his art in Venice, Florence, and Milan, and ...
-Francesco Carmagnola
Francesco Carmagnola, an Italian condot-tiere, whose real name was Bussone, born at Carmagnola about 1390, executed in Venice, May 5, 1432. The son of a peasant, he was a herdsman in his youth; but en...
-Francesco Dall Ongaro
Francesco Dall Ongaro, an Italian poet, born at Oderzo, Venetia, in 1808, died in Naples, Jan. 10, 1873. He completed his studies in Padua and took orders; but his sermons being regarded as too indepe...
-Francesco Giuseppe Bressani
Francesco Giuseppe Bressani, an Italian missionary, member of the society of Jesus, born in Rome in 1612, died in Florence, Sept. 9, 1672. He was sent to Canada, and spent two years among the Indians ...
-Francesco Guicciardini
Francesco Guicciardini, an Italian historian, born in Florence, March 6, 1482, died near that city in May, 1540. At the age of 23 he held a professorship of law, and was afterward appointed ambassador...
-Francesco Huppazoli
Francesco Huppazoli, a Piedmontese centenarian, who lived in three centuries, born in Casale in March, 1587, died Jan. 27, 1702. His parents sent him to Rome to be educated, and obliged him to enter h...
-Francesco Redi
Francesco Redi, an Italian naturalist, born in Arezzo, Feb. 18, 1626, died in Pisa, March 1, 1698. He was physician to successive grand dukes at Florence, and acquired a high reputation in his profess...
-Francesco Saverio Carretto
Francesco Saverio Carretto, marquis of, a Neapolitan minister of police, born in Salerno about 1788, died in Naples in December, 1862. He fought his way to distinction in the army, and, although a mem...
-Francesco Scipione Maffei
Francesco Scipione Maffei, marquis, an Italian author, horn in Verona, June 1,1675, died there, Feb. 11, 1755. He was educated at Parma, and in 1698 entered the academy of the Arcadians at Rome. He wa...
-Francis Andrew March
Francis Andrew March, an American scholar, born at Millbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1825. He graduated at Amherst college in 1845, where he was tutor from 1847 to 1849. He studied law in New York, and was ad...
-Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans and Baron Verulam, an English philosopher and lord chancellor, born at York house, in the Strand, London, Jan. 22, 1561, died at High-gate, April 9, 1626. He was the...
-Francis Barber
Francis Barber, the negro servant and friend of Dr. Samuel Johnson, born in Jamaica, probably about 1741, died Feb. 13, 1801. He was taken to England in 1750, and sent to a boarding school in Yorkshir...
-Francis Bowen
Francis Bowen, an American author, born at Oharlestown, Mass., Sept. 8,1811. He graduated at Harvard college in 1833, and during four years was instructor there in intellectual philosophy and politica...
-Francis Bret Harte
Francis Bret Harte, an American author, born in Albany, N. Y., Aug. 25, 1839. His father, who was a teacher in a girls' seminary, died when he was very young. In 1854 Bret went to California, where fo...
-Francis Cheynell
Francis Cheynell, an English clergyman, born in Oxford in 1608, died at Preston, Sussex, in 1665. He entered Oxford university in 1623, and at first took orders in the church of England, but in 1640 s...
-Francis Dana
Francis Dana, an American jurist, son of Richard Dana, born in Charlestown, Mass., June 13, 1743, died in Cambridge, April 25, 1811. He graduated at Harvard college in 1762, and was admitted to the ba...
-Francis Egerton Ellesmere
Francis Egerton Ellesmere, earl of, an English nobleman, born in London, Jan. 1, 1800, died there, Feb. 18, 1857. He was the second son of the first duke of Sutherland, and until the death of his fath...
-Francis Henry Egerton Bridgewater
Francis Henry Egerton Bridgewater, earl of, born Nov. 11, 1758, died in Paris, Feb. 11, 1829. He was the second cousin of the preceding, and the youngest son of John Egerton, bishop of Durham, grandso...
-Francis Hutcheson
Francis Hutcheson, a Scottish philosopher, born in Ireland, Aug. 8, 1694, died in Glasgow in 1747. He studied theology at Glasgow, and became pastor of a Presbyterian congregation in Ulster. His Inqu...
-Francis Jeffrey
Francis Jeffrey, a Scottish critic, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 23, 1773, died at Craigcrook, Jan. 26, 1850. He was the eldest son of a depute clerk in the court of session, and was educated at Edinburgh,...
-Francis Lewis
Francis Lewis, an American revolutionist, born at Llandaff, Wales, in March, 1713, died in New York, Dec. 30, 1803. He was educated at Westminster school, and afterward served a clerkship in a mercant...
-Francis Lister Hawks
Francis Lister Hawks, an American clergyman, born in New Berne, N. C, June 10,1798, died in New York, Sept. 26, 1866. He graduated at the university of North Carolina in 1815, studied law and practise...
-Francis Marion
Francis Marion, an American revolutionary officer, born in Winyaw, near Georgetown, S. C., in 1732, died near Eutaw, S. C, Feb. 28, 1795. Ho was of a Huguenot family which emigrated from France to Sou...
-Francis Mason
Francis Mason, an American missionary, born in York, England, April 2, 1799, died in Ran-goon, Burmah, March 3, 1874. His father was a shoemaker, but seems to have been also a Baptist preacher. Young ...
-Francis Parkman
Francis Parkman, an American author, born in Boston, Sept. 16, 1823. He made in the latter part of 1843 and the beginning of 1844 a rapid tour in Europe, graduated at Harvard college in the latter yea...
-Francis Rawdon Hastings Hastings
Francis Rawdon Hastings Hastings, marquis of, an English soldier, born Dec. 9, 1754, died in the bay of Baja, near Naples, Nov. 28, 1820. He was educated at Oxford, and at the age of 17 entered the ar...
-Francis Wayland
Francis Wayland, an American clergyman, born in New York, March 11, 1796, died in Providence, R. I., Sept. 26, 1865. His parents were natives of Great Britain, and his father was a clergyman. He gradu...
-Francis Wharton
Francis Wharton, an American author, born in Philadelphia in 1820. He graduated at Yale college in 1839, studied law, and settled in his native city. He was professor of English literature, jurisprude...
-Francis William Pitt Greenwood
Francis William Pitt Greenwood, an American clergyman, born in Boston, Feb. 5, 1797, died there, Aug. 2, 1843. He graduated at Harvard college in 1814, and immediately commenced the study of theology ...
-Francisco De Bobadilla
Francisco De Bobadilla, a Spanish governor of Hispaniola or Santo Domingo, died June 29, 1502. Owing to the complaints of maladministration against Columbus made by the colonists of Santo Domingo, it ...
-Francisco De Cabarrus
Francisco De Cabarrus, count, a Spanish financier, born in Bayonne in 1752, died in Seville, April 27, 1810. He was the son of a French merchant, and became a clerk of his father's correspondent at Sa...
-Francisco Gomez De Quevedo Y Villegas
Francisco Gomez De Quevedo Y Villegas, a Spanish author, born in Madrid, Sept. 26, 1580, died at Villanueva de los Infantes, Sept. 8, 1645. He was educated at the university of Alcalá, and took a degr...
-Francisco Martinez De La Rosa
Francisco Martinez De La Rosa, a Spanish statesman, born in Granada, March 10, 1789, died Feb. 7, 1862. He became professor of moral philosophy at Granada when only 19 years old. He took an active par...
-Francisco Miranda
Francisco Miranda, a Venezuelan revolutionist, born in Caracas about 1754, died in prison in Cadiz, Spain, July 14, 1816. He entered the Spanish army at an early age, and at 17 was captain in the Guat...
-Francisco Morazan
Francisco Morazan, the last president of the republic of Central America, born in Honduras in 1799, shot in Costa Rica, Sept. 15, 1842. He was secretary general of Honduras in 1824, was soon after ele...
-Francisco Orellana
Francisco Orellana, a Spanish adventurer, born in Trujillo early in the 10th century, died near Montalegro, Brazil, about 1550. He accompanied Francisco Pizarro to Peru in 1531, and took part in the c...
-Francisco Pacheco
Francisco Pacheco, a Spanish painter, born in Seville in 1571, died there in 1654. From an early age he wrote verses in Spanish and in Latin. Until the age of 40 his reputation as a painter was confin...
-Francisco Paez
Francisco Paez, a Spanish Jesuit missionary, born at Olmedo, near Valladolid, in 1564, died in Abyssinia about 1620. In 1588 he was sent from Goa with Father Antonio Montserrat to direct a mission in ...
-Francisco Serrano
Francisco Serrano, duke de la Torre, a Spanish statesman, born at San Fernando, near Cadiz, in 1810. He entered the army when still a boy, and took part in the war against the Carlists. In 1843, durin...
-Francisco Tadco Calomarde
Francisco Tadco Calomarde, count de, a Spanish satesman, born at Villel in Aragon about 1775, died in Toulouse, France, in June, 1842. He was employed in ,the office of the minister of justice, and wa...
-Francisco Vasqnez De Coronado
Francisco Vasqnez De Coronado, an explorer of New Mexico and the countries on the river Gila. On the arrival in Culiacan of Cabeca de Vaca from his journey from Florida in 1536, when he brought news o...
-Francisco Xavier De Castanos
Francisco Xavier De Castanos, duke of Baylen, a Spanish general, born in Madrid about 1755, died there, Sept. 24, 1852. In early life he was sent with Gen. O'Reilly to the court of Frederick the Great...
-Francisco Xavier De Isturiz
Francisco Xavier De Isturiz, a Spanish statesman, born in Cadiz in 1790, died in April, 1871. After the fall of Joseph Bonaparte and the restoration of Ferdinand VII., those in Cadiz who were disconte...
-Francisco Zurbarajy
Francisco Zurbarajy, a Spanish painter, born in 1598, died in Seville in 1662. He was educated in the school of Juan de Roelas in Seville, and early formed his style on that of Caravaggio. He also gav...
-Francisque Xavier Michel
Francisque Xavier Michel, a French archaeologist, born in Lyons, Feb. 18, 1809. He began his literary career in Paris as a writer for the journals, and in 1832 published two historical novels, Job and...
-Francois Achille Longet
Francois Achille Longet, a French physician, born in St. Germain-en-Laye in 1811, died in Bordeaux in June, 1871. He early showed a strong taste for physiological pursuits, and from 1838 was almost en...
-Francois Adricn Boieldieu
Francois Adricn Boieldieu', a French composer, born at Rouen, Dec. 15, 1775, died at Grosbois, near Bordeaux, Oct. 8, 1834. At an early age he was distinguished as a performer on the piano, for which ...
-Francois Aebille Bazaine
Francois Aebille Bazaine, a French general, born in Versailles, Feb. 13, 1811. He enlisted as a private in 1831, became a lieutenant in Algeria in 1835, captain after two years' service with the forei...
-Francois Alexander Frederic La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt
Francois Alexander Frederic La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, duke de, a French statesman and philanthropist, born Jan. 11,1747, died in Paris, March 27, 1827. Having fallen under the displeasure of Mme, du...
-Francois Andre Better Known As Philidoe (Damcajv)
Francois Andre Better Known As Philidoe (Damcajv), a French composer and chess player, born at Dreux about 1727, died in London, Aug. 30, 1795. His father and grandfather were musicians, and the latt...
-Francois Anguste Marie Mignet
Francois Anguste Marie Mignet, a French historian, born in Aix, May 8, 1796. He was educated at Avignon, and in 1818 was called to the bar. In 1820 he obtained a prize offered by the academy of Nimes ...
-Francois Antoine De Boissy Danglas
Francois Antoine de Boissy D'Anglas, a French statesman, born at St. Jean Chambre, Dec. 8, 1756, died in Paris, Oct. 20, 1826. His family were Protestant, and had destined him to the bar; but having p...
-Francois Athanase Charette De La Contrie
Francois Athanase Charette De La Contrie, a Vendean soldier, born at Couffe, April 21, 1763, executed in Nantes, March 29, 1796. He was a member of an ancient Breton family, his branch adding the surn...
-Francois Auguste Chateaubriand
Francois Auguste Chateaubriand, viscount de, a French author and statesman, born at St. Malo in September, 1768, died in Paris, July 4, 1848. He sprung from a noble family which was known in Brittany ...
-Francois Bassompierre
Francois Bassompierre, baron de, a French courtier, born in Lorraine, April 12, 1579, died Oct. 12, 1646. Henry IV. appointed him member of the council and commandant of a regiment, and under Louis XI...
-Francois Baucher
Francois Baucher, a French teacher of horsemanship, born at Versailles about the beginning of this century, died in 1873. He invented a system of equine gymnastics, a portion of which, the method of s...
-Francois Bernier
Francois Bernier, a French traveller and philosopher, born in Anjon about 1025, died in Paris, Sept 22, 1G88. He first studied medicine, but his taste for travelling led him to Syria, to Egypt, and af...
-Francois Blanchard
Francois Blanchard, a French aeronaut, born at Andelys in 1738, died in Paris, March 7,1809. In his youth he spent his time in trying to make flying machines, and after the invention of the balloon in...
-Francois Certain Canrobert
Francois Certain Canrobert, a French marshal, born in the department of Gers, June 27, 1809. In 1826 he entered the military school of St. Cyr, and in 1830 enlisted as a private soldier. In 1835 he we...
-Francois Claude Amour Bouille
Francois Claude Amour Bouille, marquis de, a French general, born Nov. 19, 1739, died in London, Nov. 14, 1800. He distinguished himself in the seven years' war, was appointed governor of Guadeloupe i...
-Francois De Barbe-Marbois
Francois De Barbe-Marbois, count and marquis, a French statesman, born at Metz, Jan. 31, 1745, died Jan. 14, 1837. After filling diplomatic offices at several German courts, he was sent to the new gov...
-Francois De La Noue
Francois De La Noue, a French soldier, born near Nantes in 1531, died near Lamballe, Aug. 4, 1591. He belonged to an illustrious family of Brittany, was converted to the reformed religion by D'Andelot...
-Francois De Montmorency Bouteville
Francois De Montmorency Bouteville, seigneur de, sovereign count of Suxe, a French duellist, born in 1600, beheaded in Paris, June 27, 1627. In his youth he served against the Huguenots, and acquired ...
-Francois De Vendome Beaufort
Francois De Vendome Beaufort, duke of, son of Cesar de Vendome and grandson of Henry IV. of France, born in Paris in January, 1616, died June 25, 1669. He served with some distinction during the 30 ye...
-Francois Dominique Toussaint
Francois Dominique Toussaint, surnamed l'OU-veetuee, a Haytian general, born near Cap Francois in 1743, died in the dungeon of Joux, France, April 27, 1803. His parents were both slaves, and of pure n...
-Francois Ferdinand Philippe Louis Marie Dorleans Joinville
Francois Ferdinand Philippe Louis Marie Dorleans Joinville, prince de, the third son of Louis Philippe, king of the French, born at the palace of Neuilly, near Paris, Oct. 14, 1818. Like his elder bro...
-Francois Henri De Montmoreney-Bonteville Luxembourg
Francois Henri De Montmoreney-Bonteville Luxembourg, duke de Luxembourg-Pinei, a French soldier, born in Paris, Jan. 8, 1628, died Jan. 4, 1695. He was the posthumous son of Francois de Montmorency, c...
-Francois Horace Bastien Sebastiani
Francois Horace Bastien Sebastiani, count, a French soldier, born near Bastia, Corsica, Nov. 11, 1775, died in Paris, July 21, 1851. After several years' service, he became prominent in the Italian ca...
-Francois Iiuber
Francois Iiuber, a Swiss naturalist, born in Geneva, July 2, 1750, died in Lausanne, Dec. 21, 1831. At 15 years of age a too close devotion to the study of the natural sciences, which he had followed ...
-Francois Jean Chastellux
Francois Jean Chastellux, marquis de, a French military officer and man of letters, born in Paris in 1734, died there, Oct. 28, 1788. At an early age he entered the army, and distinguished himself in ...
-Francois Joachim De Pierre De Bernis
Francois Joachim De Pierre De Bernis, a French cardinal and statesman, born May 22, 1715, at St. Marcel, department of Ardeche, died in Rome, Nov. 1, 1794. He was of a noble and ancient, but not wealt...
-Francois Joseph Chabas
Francois Joseph Chabas, a French archaeologist, born at Briancon in 1817. He early devoted himself to scientific studies, and acquired eminence as one of the highest recent authorities on Egyptology. ...
-Francois Joseph Lefebvre
Francois Joseph Lefebvre, duke of Dantzic, a French marshal, born at Ruffach, Alsace, Oct. 25, 1755, died in Paris, Sept. 14, 1820. He was the son of a miller who had served in the hussars, enlisted i...
-Francois Joseph Talma
Francois Joseph Talma, a French actor, born in Paris, Jan. 15, 1763, died there, Oct. 19, 1826. He received a collegiate education, and in 1787 appeared at the Theatre Francais in the part of Seide in...
-Francois Joseph Victor Broussais
Francois Joseph Victor Broussais, a French physician, born at St. Malo, Dec. 17,1772, died at Vitry, near Paris, Nov. 17, 1838. His early years were passed at a small village where his father was a ph...
-Francois Juste Marie Raynouard
Francois Juste Marie Raynouard, a French author, born in Brignolles, Provence, Sept. 18, 1761, died at Passy, near Paris, Oct. 27, 1836. Elected an assistant deputy to the convention, he sided with th...
-Francois La Rochefoucauld
Francois La Rochefoucauld, duke de, prince of Marsillac, a French author, born in Paris, Dec. 15, 1613, died March 17, 1680. He was in boyhood withdrawn from school to enter the military service, and ...
-Francois Le Vaillant
Francois Le Vaillant, a French traveller, born in Paramaribo, Dutch Guiana, in 1753, died at Sezanne, France, Nov. 22, 1824. His father, a merchant and consul at Paramaribo, returned to Europe when hi...
-Francois Leuret
Francois Leuret, a French anatomist, born in Nancy, Dec. 29, 1707, died there, Jan. 6, 1851. At the end of a year after commencing his medical studies, his father being unable to supply him with means...
-Francois Magendie
Francois Magendie, a French physiologist, born in Bordeaux, Oct. 15, 1783, died in Paris, Oct. 8, 1855. He removed at an early age to Paris, where he graduated in medicine in 1803. He subsequently gav...
-Francois Marie Aronet De Voltaire
Francois Marie Aronet De Voltaire, a French author, born in Paris, Nov. 21,1694, died there, May 30, 1778. His parents were the sieur Arouet, treasurer in the chamber of accounts, and Marie Catharine ...
-Francois Michel Letellier Louvois
Francois Michel Letellier Louvois, marquis de, a French statesman, born in Paris, Jan. 18, 1641, died there, July 16, 1691. He was the son of Michel Letellier, chancellor of France under Louis XIV., b...
-Francois Napoleon Marie Moigno (De Yillebeau)
Francois Napoleon Marie Moigno (De Yillebeau), a Erench scientific author, born at Guemene, Morbihan, April 20, 1804. He studied successively at Pontivy and Ste. Anne d'Auray, entered the society of J...
-Francois Pierre Gonthier Maine De Biran
Francois Pierre Gonthier Maine De Biran, a French metaphysician, born at Grateloup, near Bergerac, Nov. 29, 1766, died in Paris, July 16, 1824. He entered the body guard of Louis XVI. in 1784, and was...
-Francois Rabelais
Francois Rabelais, a French author, born in Chinon, Touraine, about 1490, died about 1553. He was educated at the convent of Seuillé and the monastery of La Baumette, and was ordained as a priest in 1...
-Francois Ravaillac
Francois Ravaillac, the assassin of Henry IV. of France, born in Angoulême about 1578, executed May 27, 1610. He was first a lawyer's clerk, and then a schoolmaster. Having been cast into prison for s...
-Francois Snerin Des Gravlers Marceau
Francois Snerin Des Gravlers Marceau, a French soldier, born in Chartres, March 1, 1769, died at Altenkirchen, Rhenish Prussia, Sept. 23, 1796. His father, a lawyer, intended him for the legal profess...
-Francois Vincent Raspail
Francois Vincent Raspail, a French naturalist and revolutionist, born in Carpentras, Jan. 29, 1794. He studied at the seminary of Avignon, settled in Paris in 1815 as a scientific writer, and was in 1...
-Francois Xavier Joseph Droz
Francois Xavier Joseph Droz, a French author, born in Besancon, Oct. 31, 1773, died Nov. 4, 1850. In 1803 he removed to Paris, where he became acquainted with the prominent philosophers of the day. Af...
-Francois Xavier Marie Frederic Ghis-Lain De Merode
Francois Xavier Marie Frederic Ghis-Lain De Merode, a Roman Catholic archbishop, born in Brussels in March, 1820, died in Home, July 24, 1874. His family claims descent from Raymond Berenger V., count...
-Francois Xavier Martin
Francois Xavier Martin, an American jurist, born in Marseilles, France. March 17, 1T.V. died in New Orleans. Dec. 11, 1846. At tillage of 18 he emigrated to Martinique, where he was unsuccessful in b...
-Francoisc Athenais De Roelieclionart De Mortentart Montespan
Francoisc Athenais De Roelieclionart De Mortentart Montespan, marquise de, a mistress of Louis XIV. of France, born at the chateau of Ton-nay-Charente in 1641, died at Bourbon-1'Ar-chambault in 1707. ...
-Francoise Danbigne Maiotenon
Francoise D'Anbigne Maiotenon, marchioness de, second wife of Louis XIV. of France, born in Niort, Nov. 27, 1635, died at St. Cyr, April 15, 1719. She was the daughter of Constant d'Aubigne and Jeanne...
-Francoise De Foix Chateaubriant
Francoise De Foix Chateaubriant, countess de, a mistress of Francis I. of France, born about 1485, died Oct. 16, 1537. A scion of the illustrious house of Foix, she repaired at an early age to the cou...
-Francoise Louise De La Baume Le Blanc La Valliere
Francoise Louise De La Baume Le Blanc La Valliere, duchess de, mistress of Louis XIV., born in Tours in August, 1644, died in Paris, June 6, 1710. After the death of her father, a nobleman and superio...
-Frandsco Ximenes Or Ximenez (De Cisneros)
Frandsco Ximenes Or Ximenez (De Cisneros) cardinal, a Spanish statesman, born at Torrelaguna, New Castile, in 1436, died at Roa, on the Douro, Nov. 8, 1517. He graduated in both civil and canon law at...
-Franklin Buchanan
Franklin Buchanan, an American naval officer, born in Baltimore about 1800. He entered the navy in 1815, was the first superintendent of the United States naval academy (1845-'7), became captain in 18...
-Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce, the fourteenth president of the United States, born in Hillsborough, N. PL, Nov. 23, 1804, died in Concord, Oct. 8, 1869. His father, Gen. Benjamin Pierce, served throughout the revol...
-Franris Muhony
Franris Muhony, an Irish journalist, born in Cork about 1805, died in Paris, May 19, 1866. He studied at a Jesuit college in Paris, and subsequently in Rome, where he remained for -even years, and too...
-Frantisek Palacky
Frantisek Palacky, a Bohemian historian, born at Hodslawitz, Moravia, June 14, 1798. He was educated at Presburg and Vienna, and from 1827 to 1837 was editor of the Casopis ceskeho Museum, the journal...
-Franz Anton Staudenmaier
Franz Anton Staudenmaier, a German theologian, born at Danzdorf, Wurtemberg, Sept. 11, 1800, died in Freiburg, Baden, Jan. 19, 1856. He studied at Tubingen, was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 182...
-Franz Bock
Franz Bock, a German theologian and ar-clucologist, born at Burtscheid in 1823. He was educated at Bonn, became chaplain at Crefeld in 1850, then founded in 1852 the first large exhibition of ancient ...
-Franz Bopp
Franz Bopp, a German philologist, born at Mentz, Sept. 14, 1791, died in Berlin, Oct. 23, 1867. He began his studies at Aschaffenburg, went to Paris in 1812, and devoted several years to the study of ...
-Franz Catel
Franz Catel, a German artist, born in Berlin, Feb. 22, 1778, died in Rome. Dec. 19, 1856. His early works were designs for illustrated al-manacs, and he first acquired reputation by his illustrations ...
-Franz Delitzsch
Franz Delitzsch, a German theologian, born in Leipsic, Feb. 23, 1813. He studied at the university of his native city, and in 1846 was appointed professor of theology at Rostock. He removed in 1850 to...
-Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt, a Hungarian pianist and composer, born at Raiding, near Oedenburg, Oct. 22, 1811. At six years of age he manifested so extraordinary an aptitude for music, that his father, himself a musi...
-Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert, a German composer, born at Lichtenthal, near Vienna, Jan. 31, 1797, died in Vienna, Nov. 19, 1828. His father was a school teacher, from whom he received his first lessons. Having a fi...
-Franz Theodor Kugler
Franz Theodor Kugler, a German author, born in Stettin, Jan. 19, 1808, died in Berlin, March 18, 1858. His Skizzenbuch (1830) contained original compositions in poetry, music, and linear design, and i...
-Franz Von Sickingen
Franz Von Sickingen, a German soldier, born in the castle of Sickingen, Baden, March 1, 1481, died May 7, 1523. He was rich and distinguished for valor and generosity. He encouraged the reformation, p...
-Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn
Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn, a German naturalist, born at Mansfeld, Oct. 26, 1812, died at Lembang, Java, April 24, 1864. He studied medicine, botany, and geology in Halle and Berlin, and became assistant ...
-Franz Zach
Franz Zach, baron, a German astronomer, born in Presburg in June, 1754, died in Paris, Sept. 2, 1832. He served in the Austrian army, was director of the observatory at Seeberg near Gotha from 1787 to...
-Fraucois Xavier De Laval-Montmorecy
Fraucois Xavier De Laval-Montmorecy, the first Roman Catholic bishop of Quebec, born in Laval, France, March 23,1622, died in Quebec, May 26, 1708. He was ordained priest in Paris, Sept. 23,1645, was ...
-Frauds Atterbury
Frauds Atterbury, an English theologian and politician, born at Milton, near Newport-Pagnell, Buckinghamshire, March 6,1662, died in Paris, Feb. 15, 1732. He was the son of a clergyman, and was educat...
-Frederic Bastiat
Frederic Bastiat, a French economist, born in Bayonne, June 29, 1801, died in Rome, Dec. 24, 1850. He was educated for commercial pursuits, but the bent of his mind was toward political economy; and a...
-Frederic Cailliaud
Frederic Cailliaud, a French traveller, born in Nantes in 1787, died there, May 1, 1869. In 1809 he was working as a goldsmith in Paris, and also attended the lectures at the museum, giving special at...
-Frederic Cesar La Harpe
Frederic Cesar La Harpe, a Swiss statesman, born at Rolle in 1754, died in Lausanne, March 30, 1838. He was educated in democratic opinions, and began the practice of law, but, disliking the professio...
-Frederic Francois Chopin
Frederic Francois Chopin, a Polish pianist and composer, born at Zelazowa-Wola, near Warsaw, Feb. 8, 1810, died in Paris, Oct. 17, 1849. His father was French, his mother Polish. His education in musi...
-Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard
Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard, LL. D., an American scholar and educator, born at Sheffield, Mass., in 1809. He graduated at Yale college in 1828, became tutor there in 1829, in 1831 teacher in the...
-Frederick Dan Huntington
Frederick Dan Huntington, an American bishop, born in Hadley, Mass., May 28, 1819. He graduated at Amherst college in 1839, and spent the three following years in the Cambridge divinity school. In 184...
-Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass, an American orator and journalist, born at Tuckahoe, near Easton, Talbot co., Md., about 1817. His mother was a negro slave and his father a white man. He was reared as a slave on ...
-Frederick Edwin Chcrch
Frederick Edwin Chcrch, an American landscape painter, born in Hartford, Conn., May 4, 1826. He was a pupil of Thomas Cole for two years. Among the works which first brought him into notice was a view...
-Frederick Henry Hedge
Frederick Henry Hedge, an American clergyman, born in Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 12, 1805. His father was for a long time professor of logic and metaphysics in Harvard college. In 1818 the son accompanied...
-Frederick Henry Scrivener
Frederick Henry Scrivener, an English clergyman, born at Bermondsey, Surrey, Sept. 29, 1813. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1835, was appointed assistant master of the king's school, S...
-Frederick Hermann Schomberg
Frederick Hermann Schomberg, duke of, an English soldier of German origin, born in Heidelberg about 1616, fell in battle, July 1 (N. S. 12), 1690. He was a son of the German count Johann Meinhardt von...
-Frederick Law Olmsted
Frederick Law Olmsted, an American landscape gardener, born in Hartford, Conn., April 26, 1822. He studied engineering and agricultural science at Yale college, and subsequently followed farming and h...
-Frederick Leighton
Frederick Leighton, an English painter, born at Scarborough, Dec. 3, 1830. He studied . principally in Italy and Germany. His first great work, Cimabue finding Giotto drawing in the Fields, was pro...
-Frederick Lemaitre
A French actor, born in Havre about 1800. At an early age he prepared himself for the stage. In 1822 he failed in a competition for prizes offered to the pupils of the conservatory, only a single vote...
-Frederick Lucas
Frederick Lucas, an English journalist, born in London, March 30, 1812, died at Staines, Middlesex, Oct. 23, 1855. His family belonged to the society of Friends. His education was commenced at a Frien...
-Frederick Richard Lees
Frederick Richard Lees, an English temperance orator, born at Meanwood Hall, near Leeds, Yorkshire, March 15, 1815. When 19 years old he connected himself with the temperance cause, and in the followi...
-Frederick Temple Hamilton Black-Wood Dufferin
Frederick Temple Hamilton Black-Wood Dufferin, earl of, an English statesman and author, son of the fourth Baron Dufferin and Helen Selina, granddaughter of Richard Brinsley Sheridan, born June 21, 18...
-Frederick Thesiger Chelmsford
Frederick Thesiger Chelmsford, baron, an English lawyer, born in London in July, 1794. His father was a collector of customs in the island of St. Vincent. In 1803 he entered the navy, and served as mi...
-Frederick William Augustus Steiben
Frederick William Augustus Steiben, baron, an American soldier, born in Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 15, 1730, died near Utica, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1794. He was educated at the Jesuit colleges of Neisse and B...
-Frederick William Beechey
Frederick William Beechey, an English navigator, born in London in February, 1796, died there, Nov. 29, 1856. He was a son of Sir William Beechey, the painter. He entered the navy as a volunteer at th...
-Frederick William Robertson
Frederick William Robertson, an English clergyman, born in London, Feb. 3, 1816, died in Brighton, Aug. 15, 1853. His early inclinations were toward military life, but he entered Brasenose college, Ox...
-Fredrika Bremer
Fredrika Bremer, a Swedish novelist, born near Abo, in Finland, Aug. 17, 1801, died at Arsta, near Stockholm, Dec. 31, 1865. Her father was a wealthy merchant, and on the annexation of Finland to Russ...
-Freiherr Von Canstein Karl Hildebrand
Freiherr Von Canstein Karl Hildebrand, the originator of a system for the diffusion of Biblical knowledge in Germany, and founder of the Canstein Bible society of Halle, born at Lindenberg, Aug. 4, 16...
-French Financiers Of Jewish Origin Pereire Emile And Isaac
French Financiers Of Jewish Origin Pereire Emile And Isaac, born in Bordeaux, the former Dec. 3, 1800, the latter Nov. 25, 1806. Emile died in Paris, Jan. 7, 1875. They were brothers, and grandsons of...
-French Revolutionists Jean Marie And Marie Or Manon Jeanne Roland De La Platiere
French Revolutionists Jean Marie And Marie Or Manon Jeanne Roland De La Platiere, whose histories are so interwoven that they can be best treated in a single article. M. Roland (born near Villefranche...
-Friederike Sophie Christiane Br Un
Friederike Sophie Christiane Br Un, a German authoress, born at Grafen-Tonna, near Goth a, June 3, 1765, died in Copenhagen, March 25, 1835. The daughter of Balthasar Miinter, a German clergyman and p...
-Friedrich Adolf Von Kalckreuth
Friedrich Adolf Von Kalckreuth, count, a German general, born at Sottershausen, Feb. 22, 1737, died in Berlin, June 10, 1818. He entered the army in 1752, and in reward of distinguished services was m...
-Friedrich Angnst Gotttreu Tholuck
Friedrich Angnst Gotttreu Tholuck, a German theologian, born in Breslau, March 30, 1799. He completed his education at the university of Berlin, and was thoroughly converted from his skeptical tendenc...
-Friedrich August Rauch
Friedrich August Rauch, a German philosopher, born at Kirchbracht, Hesse-Darmstadt, July 27, 1806, died in Mercersburg, Pa., March 2, 1841. He graduated at the university of Marburg in 1827, afterward...
-Friedrich August Rosen
Friedrich August Rosen, a German orientalist, born in Hanover, Sept. 2, 1805, died in London, Sept. 12, 1837. After attending the gymnasium in Göttingen, he studied in Leipsic, and subsequently in Ber...
-Friedrich Christoph Dahlmam
Friedrich Christoph Dahlmam, a German historian, born in Wismar, May 13, 1785, died in Bonn, Dec. 5, 1860. He was educated at Wismar, Copenhagen, and Halle, began to lecture at Dresden in 1809, and be...
-Friedrich Christoph Oetinger
Friedrich Christoph Oetinger, a German theologian, born at Göppingen, Würtemberg, May 6,1702, died at Murrhardt, Feb. 10, 1782. He was educated at Tubingen, Jena, and Leipsic, was for a time tutor at ...
-Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher
Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher, a German theologian, born in Breslau, Nov. 21, 1768, died in Berlin, Feb. 12, 1834. His father was a Reformed minister, and chaplain of a Prussian regiment in Si...
-Friedrich Dubner
Friedrich Dubner, a German philologist, born at Horselgau, near Gotha, Dec. 21, 1802, died Oct. 13, 1867. In 1826 he was appointed professor in the gymnasium at Gotha, and during the five years that h...
-Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock
Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, a German poet, born in Quedlinburg, July 2, 1724, died in Hamburg, March 14, 1803. He was born in a small house at the foot of the castle hill in the Schlossplatz, recogn...
-Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, Or Julius
Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle, Or Julius, a German physiologist, born in Furth, Bavaria, July 9, 1809. He studied medicine at Heidel-berg and at Bonn, receiving his degree of doctor in the latter place...
-Friedrich Hoffmann
Friedrich Hoffmann, a German physician, born in Halle, Feb. 19, 1660, died there, Nov. 12, 1742. He graduated at Jena, visited Holland and England, and after his return was appointed physician to Fred...
-Friedrich Julius Stahl
Friedrich Julius Stahl, a German jurist, born in Munich, Jan. 16, 1802, died at Brtickenau, near Kissingen, Aug. 10, 1861. He was of a Jewish family named Schlesinger, but adopted the name Stahl in 18...
-Friedrich Kapp
Friedrich Kapp, a German author, born in Hamm, Westphalia, April 13, 1824. He studied law, and in consequence of the revolution of 1848 went in 1850 to New York, where he practised his profession, att...
-Friedrich Karl Franz Hecker
Friedrich Karl Franz Hecker, a German politician, born in Eichtersheim, Baden, Sept. 28, 1811. He early acquired distinction as a lawyer and politician, and was elected to the second chamber of Baden ...
-Friedrich Koppen
Friedrich Koppen, a German philosopher, born in Lubeck, April 21, 1775, died in Er-langen, Sept. 5, 1858. He studied theology in Jena, but he attended also the lectures of Rein-hold and Fichte, and af...
-Friedrich Krupp
Friedrich Krupp, a German manufacturer, born at Essen, Rhenish Prussia, early in the present century. He succeeded his father, Alfred Krupp, as proprietor of the cast-steel works at Essen, and sent to...
-Friedrich List
Friedrich List, a German political economist, born in Reutlingen, Aug. 6,1789, died by his own hand in Kufstein, Nov. 30, 1846. He studied political economy, was for two years professor of this and ki...
-Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, a German patriot, born at Lanz, Prussia, Aug. 11, 1778, died in Freiburg, Baden, Oct. 15, 1852. In 1809 he went to Berlin, became a teacher at the Kol-nisches gymnasium, and pub...
-Friedrich Melchior Grimm
Friedrich Melchior Grimm, baron, a French critic, born in Ratisbon, Dec. 26, 1723, died in Gotha, Dec. 19, 1807. After distinguishing himself as a scholar at Leipsic, he accompanied Count Schonberg to...
-Friedrich Muller
Friedrich Muller, a German painter and poet, born in Creuznach in 1750, died in Rome, April 23, 1825. He early devoted himself to painting and copperplate engraving, and in his 18th year published sev...
-Friedrich Spielhagen
Friedrich Spielhagen, a German novelist, born in Magdeburg, Feb. 24, 1829. He studied at Berlin, Bonn, and Greifswald, and devoted himself to literature. His works are: Clara Vere (1857); Auf der Dune...
-Friedrich Ueberweg
Friedrich Ueberweg, a German historian of philosophy, born near Solingen, Rhenish Prussia, Jan. 22, 1826, died in Konigsberg, June 7, 1871. He completed his studies at Gottingen and Berlin, and was a ...
-Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von Schelling
Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von Schelling, a German philosopher, born at Leonberg, near Stuttgart, Jan. 27, 1775, died at Ragatz, Switzerland, Aug. 20, 1854. His father was pastor at Leonberg, and subseq...
-Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Von Berg
Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Von Berg, count, a Russian general, born May 26, 1790. When a young man he published an account of his travels in southern Europe and Turkey, which led to his being sent by C...
-Friedrich Williclm Bessel
Friedrich Williclm Bessel, a German astronomer, born in Minden, July 22, 1784, died in Konigsberg, March 17, 1846. His fondness for science w\as aroused in Bremen, where he was employed in a merchant'...
-Friedrich Willielm Von Hacklander
Friedrich Willielm Von Hacklander, a German author, born at Burtscheid, near Aix-la-Chapelle, Nov. 1, 1816. He qualified himself for mercantile pursuits at Elberfeld, to which he returned after servin...
-Friedrich You Hardenberg
Friedrich You Hardenberg, baron, better known under his nom de plume of Novalis, a German author, born at his family estate of Wiederstedt, Saxony, May 2, 1772, died there, March 25, 1801. He was educ...
-Friedridi Ednard Beneke
Friedridi Ednard Beneke, a German philosopher, born in Berlin, Feb. 17, 1798, disappeared March 1, 1854, his body being found more than two years afterward in a canal at Char-lottenburg. After serving...
-Friedrieh Bouterwer
Friedrieh Bouterwer, a German metaphysician and writer on aesthetics, born at Oker, near Goslar, April 15, 1766, died at Gottingen, Aug. 9, 1828. He began the study of law at the university of Gotting...
-Friedrieh Drake
Friedrieh Drake, a German sculptor, born in Pyrmont, June 23, 1805. He began life as a mechanic, and struggled against poverty until at length his talent was recognized and developed by Rauch. His fir...
-Friedrieh Heinrich Alexander Von Humboldt
Friedrieh Heinrich Alexander Von Humboldt, baron, a German naturalist, born in Berlin, Sept. 14, 1769, died there, May 6, 1859. He was less than ten years old at the death of his father, who had been ...
-Friedrieh Wilhelm Karl Umbreit
Friedrieh Wilhelm Karl Umbreit, a German Protestant theologian, born at Sonneborn, Gotha, April 11, 1795, died in Heidelberg, April 26, 1860. He studied theology at Göttingen, especially under Eichhor...
-Friedrieh Wohler
Friedrieh Wohler, a German chemist, born at Eschersheira, near Frankfort, July 31,1800. He studied at the gymnasium of Frankfort, where chemical experiments became a passion with him, and at the unive...
-Friedrkh Martin Bodenstedt
Friedrkh Martin Bodenstedt, a German author born at Peine in Hanover, April 22,1819. He studied at Gottingen, Munich, and Berlin, and in 1840 became private tutor at Moscow, in the family of Prince Ga...
-Friodricli Max Miller
Friodricli Max Miller, an English philologist, son of the poet Wilhelm Müller, born in Dessau, Germany, Dee. 6,1823. He commenced his philological studies in Leipsic, where he took his degree in 1843....
-Fruto Chamorro
Fruto Chamorro, a Central American statesman, born in Guatemala in 1800, died March 12, 1855. He belonged to an old and wealthy Spanish family, but joined the national cause and became a member of the...
-Gabor Bethlen
Gabor Bethlen, prince of Transylvania, born in 1580, of an eminent Magyar Protestant family, died Nov. 15,1629. In 1613, after the death of the two Bath oris, he succeeded, with the aid of Turkey, in ...
-Gabriel Bonnot De Mably
Gabriel Bonnot De Mably, a French publicist, born in Grenoble, March 14, 1709, died in Paris, April 23, 1785. His family name was Bonnot. Like his younger brother, the philosopher Condillac, he was de...
-Gabriel Honore Riqnetti Mirabeau
Gabriel Honore Riqnetti Mirabeau, count de, a French author and statesman, born on his father's estate of Bignon, near Nemours, March 9, 1749, died in Paris, April 2, 1791. A huge-headed infant, who h...
-Gabriel Julien Ouvrard
Gabriel Julien Ouvrard, a French financier, born near Clisson, Oct. 11, 1770, died in London in October, 1840. In 1797, being then a merchant at Nantes, he entered into a contract for supplying the Fr...
-Gabrielle D Estrees
Gabrielle D' Estrees, mistress of Henry IV. of France, born in 1571, died April 10, 1599. Her father and mother were of noble birth. Gabrielle, who possessed remarkable beauty, was but 16 years old wh...
-Gabrielle Emilie Le Tonnelier De Breteuil Du Chatelet
Gabrielle Emilie Le Tonnelier De Breteuil Du Chatelet, marchioness, a French authoress, born in Paris, Dec. 17, 1706, died in Luneville, Aug. 10, 1749. She was married at an early age to the marquis d...
-Gaetano Donizetti
Gaetano Donizetti, an Italian composer, born in Bergamo, Sept. 25, 1798, died there, April 8, 1848. He was originally destined for the law, but showing an unusual taste for art, he was placed at the m...
-Gamaliel Bailey
Gamaliel Bailey, an American journalist, born at Mount Holly, N. J., Dec. 3, 1807, died at sea, June 5, 1859. He studied medicine in Philadelphia, taking his degree in 1828. After making a brief visit...
-Gaspar Or Raspar Netscher
Gaspar Or Raspar Netscher, a Dutch painter of German origin, born in Heidelberg about 1639, died at the Hague, Jan. 15, 1684. He was the son of a sculptor, who had fled from persecution in Bohemia, wa...
-Gaspard Dc Crayer
Gaspard Dc Crayer, a Flemish painter, born in Antwerp in 1582, died in Ghent in 1669. He was the pupil of Raphael van Coxcie, but subsequently developed a style not unlike that of Rubens, with whom, a...
-Gaspard De Coligni, Or Coligny
Coligni, Or Coligny, Gaspard De, leader of the French Huguenots, and principal victim of the St. Bartholomew massacre, born at Chatillon-sur-Loing, Feb. 16, 1517, murdered in Paris, Aug. 24, 1572. He ...
-Gaspard Gourgaud
Gaspard Gourgaud, baron, a French general, born in Versailles, Sept. 14, 1783, died July 26, 1852. He studied at the polytechnic school, and at that of Chalons, entered the army in 1802, and fought in...
-Gaspard Monge
Gaspard Monge, a French mathematician, born in Beaune in 1746, died July 28, 1818. He became assistant to Bossut, and also to the abbe Nollet at Mezieres, whom he succeeded in the chair of natural phi...
-Gasparo Da Salo
Gasparo Da Salo, an Italian violin maker, born at Salo, on the lake of Garda, about 1540, died in Brescia about 1614. He was a contemporary of the Amatis, and was one of the first to bring the instrum...
-Gasparo De Guzman Olivarez
Gasparo De Guzman Olivarez, count, a Spanish statesman, born in Rome, Jan. 0, 1587, died in Toro, July 22, 1045. His father was ambassador at the papal court of Sixtus V. He studied at the university ...
-Gasparo Lnigi Pacifico Spointini
Gasparo Lnigi Pacifico Spointini, an Italian composer, born at Majolati, near Ancona, Nov. 14, 1774, died there, Jan. 24, 1851. At the age of 13 he entered the conservatory of La Pieta at Naples, and ...
-Gaur Gour, Or Lucknouti
Gaur Gour, Or Lucknouti, a ruined city of Bengal, British India, 179 m. N. of Calcutta. Its remains are spread over a range of low hills which extend along the E. bank of the Bhagruttee, and cover a s...
-Gavriil Romanovitch Derzhavin
Gavriil Romanovitch Derzhavin, a Russian lyrical poet, born in Kazan in July, 1743, died in July, 1816. He was admitted to the gymnasium of Kazan in 1758, and attracted the attention of the principal,...
-Gawin Douglas, Or Gavin
Gawin Douglas, Or Gavin, a Scottish poet, bishop of Dunkeld, third son of Archibald, fifth earl of Angus (called Bell-the-Cat ), born in Brechin about 1474, died in London in 1521 or 1522. He was ed...
-Gcorg Cancrin
Gcorg Cancrin, count, a Russian statesman, born at Hanau in Germany, Dec. 8, 1774, died in St. Petersburg, Sept. 22, 1845. He was educated in Germany, and while at Gottingen published a treatise on mi...
-Gebhard Lcberecht Von Blucher
Gebhard Lcberecht Von Blucher, prince of Wahlstadt, Prussian field marshal, born at Rostock, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Dec. 16, 1742, died at Krieblowitz, in Silesia, Sept. 12, 1819. He was sent, while...
-General Index To Appletons American Cyclopedia
It is the object of such an index to point out, and make readily accessible to the reader, all the important items of knowledge contained in the work. This is attained: 1. By exhibiting, in alphabeti...
-Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer, an English poet, born probably in London in 1328, died there, Oct. 25, 1400. Sharon Turner, however, suggests that the year 1340 is more likely to have been that in which Chaucer was...
-Georcre Sewall Bodtwell
Georcre Sewall Bodtwell, an American statesman, born in Brookline, Mass, Jan. 28, 1818. He is the son of a farmer, and received a common school education, which he supplemented by a course of reading ...
-Georg August Schweinferth
Georg August Schweinferth, a German traveller, born in Riga, Sept. 29, 1836. He studied in Heidelberg, Munich, and Berlin, devoting himself especially to botany, and set out in 1864 on a journey throu...
-Georg Christoph Lichtenberg
Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, a German physicist, born at Oberramstadt, near Darmstadt, July 1, 1742, died in Gottingen, Feb. 24, 1799. He was educated at Darmstadt and Gottingen, and appointed profess...
-Georg Ernst Stiiil
Georg Ernst Stiiil, a German chemist born in Anspach, Oct. 21, 1660, died in Berlin, May 14, 1734. He took his degree at Jena in 1684, and after giving private lectures there, he was physician to the ...
-Georg Friedrich Creuzer
Georg Friedrich Creuzer, a German philologist and antiquary, born at Marburg, March 10, 1771, died in Heidelberg, Feb. 16, 1858. He was the son of a bookbinder, commenced his studies in his native cit...
-Georg Friedrich Grotefend
Georg Friedrich Grotefend, a German philologist and archaeologist, born in Munden, June 9, 1775, died in Hanover, Dec. 15, 1853. He studied in Gottingen, officiated for some time as rector of the gymn...
-Georg Friedrich Kolb
Georg Friedrich Kolb, a German journalist and author, born at Spire, Sept. 14, 1808. He published a journal in Spire in 1830, which he edited for more than 20 years in the liberal interest, and was a ...
-Georg Hermes
Georg Hermes, a German theologian, born at Dreyerwalde, Westphalia, April 22, 1775, died in Bonn, May 26, 1831. He studied theology at the university of Minister, and in 1798 became teacher in the gym...
-Georg Lorenz Bauer
Georg Lorenz Bauer, a German theologian, born at Hilpoltstein, Aug. 14, 1755, died in Heidelberg, Jan. 12, 1806. He studied theology in Altdorf, and was minister and professor of theology in Nuremberg...
-Georg Rapp
Georg Rapp, founder of the sect of Harmonists, born in Würtemberg in 1770, died at Economy, Pa., Aug. 7, 1847. Believing that he had a divine call, and was charged with the restoration of the Christia...
-Georg Rcinhold Pauli
Georg Rcinhold Pauli, a German historian, born in Berlin, May 25, 1823. He studied at Berlin and Bonn, went to Great Britain in 1847 to pursue historical researches, and from 1849 to 1852 was private ...
-Georg Willielm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Willielm Friedrich Hegel, a German philosopher, born in Stuttgart, Aug. 27, 177o, died in Berlin, Nov. 14, 1831. From his 8th to his 18th year he was thoroughly trained in philology, mathematics...
-Georg Zoega
Georg Zoega, a Danish antiquary, born in Jutland, Dec. 20,1755, died in Rome, Feb. 10, 1809. He was the son of a Lutheran clergyman, was educated at Göttingen, started in 1782 on a numismatic tour in ...
-George Alexander Macfarren
George Alexander Macfarren, an English composer, born in London, March 2, 1813. He studied music under Mr. Lucas and in the royal academy, where he became professor of harmony in 1838. He was one of t...
-George Augustus Henry Sala
George Augustus Henry Sala, an English author, born in London in 1828. He is the son of an Italian gentleman and an English singer of West Indian extraction. He was educated for an artist, but became ...
-George Bancroft
George Bancroft, an American historian and statesman, son of the Rev. Aaron Bancroft, born in Worcester, Mass., Oct. 3, 1800. He pursued his preparatory studies at Exeter, N. H., and in 1813 entered H...
-George Barrell Emerson
George Barrell Emerson, an American educator, born in Kennebunk, York co., Maine, Sept. 12, 1797. He graduated at Harvard college in 1817, and soon after took charge of an academy in Lancaster, Mass. ...
-George Berkeley
George Berkeley, an Irish prelate and philosopher, born at Kilcrin, county Kilkenny,. March 12, 1684, died in Oxford, Jan. 14, 1753. His father, William Berkeley, came of a family noted for its loyalt...
-George Bethune English
George Bethune English, an American author and adventurer, born in Cambridge, Mass., March 7, 1787, died in Washington, D. C, Sept. 20, 1828. He graduated at Harvard college in 1807, and was admitted ...
-George Borrow
George Borrow, an English author, born near Norwich in February, 1803. He is the son of an officer in the army, and received his early education at various schools in England and at the high school in...
-George Brinton Mcclellan
George Brinton Mcclellan, an American soldier and engineer, born in Philadelphia, Dec. 3,1826. He studied at the university of Pennsylvania, and in 1842 entered the military academy at West Point, whe...
-George Bryan Brummel
George Bryan Brummel, a celebrated English man of fashion, born in London in June, 1778, died at Caen, France, March 29,1840. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, where, though he displayed some skill ...
-George Brydges Rodney
George Brydges Rodney, baron, an English admiral, born at Walton-upon-Thames, Surrey, Feb. 19, 1718, died in London, May 21, 1792. At the age of 12 he was taken from Harrow school and sent to sea; in ...
-George Buchanan
George Buchanan, a Scottish author, born at Killearn, Stirlingshire, in February, 1506, died in Edinburgh, Sept. 28, 1582. He was sent to Paris for his education, returned in about two years to Scotla...
-George Burroughs
George Burroughs, an American clergyman, executed for witchcraft at Salem, Mass., Aug. 19, 1692. He graduated at Harvard college in 1670, was a preacher at Falmouth (now Portland), Me., in 1676, and a...
-George Bush
George Bush, an American theologian, born at Norwich, Vt., June 12, 1796, died in Rochester, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1859. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1818, studied at Princeton theological seminary...
-George Chapman
George Chapman, an English poet, born at Hitching Hill, Hertfordshire, in 1557, died in London, May 12, 1634. After studying two years in Trinity college, Oxford, where he was distinguished for his kn...
-George Charles Bingham Lucan
George Charles Bingham Lucan, earl of, a British soldier, born in London, April 16, 1800. His mother, before her marriage with his father Richard, second earl of Lucan, had been the wife of Bernard Ed...
-George Charles Grantley Fitz-Har-Dinge Berkeley
George Charles Grantley Fitz-Har-Dinge Berkeley, an English sportsman and author, born Feb. 10,1800. He is a son of the late earl of Berkeley, and younger brother of the present de jure earl, who does...
-George Clinton
George Clinton, an American soldier and statesman, youngest son of Charles Clinton, born in Ulster co., N. Y., July 20, 1739, died at Washington, April 20, 1812. He received a careful education, direc...
-George Clymer
George Clymer, a signer of the declaration of independence, born in Philadelphia in 1739, died at Morrisville, Bucks co., Pa., Jan. 23, 1813. Left an orphan at the age of 7 years, he was adopted by hi...
-George Crabbe
George Crabbe, an English poet, born at Aldborough, Suffolk, Dec. 24, 1754, died at Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Feb. 3, 1832. His father, who was a collector of salt duties, exerted himself to give him a s...
-George Croghan
George Croghan, an American soldier, born near Louisville, Ky., Nov. 15, 1791, died in New Orleans, Jan. 8, 1849. He graduated at William and Mary college, Va., served in 1811 at the battle of Tippeca...
-George Croly
George Croly, a British clergyman and author, born in Dublin in August, 1780, died in London, Nov. 24, 1860. He was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, and, having become noted as an eloquent preache...
-George Cruikshank
George Cruikshank, an English caricaturist, born in London, Sept. 27, 1792. His father and elder brother were engravers, and occasionally practised caricaturing. It is said that he thought of followin...
-George Dance
George Dance, an English architect and artist, son of a distinguished architect of the same name, born in 1741, died in London, Jan. 14, 1825. He had already secured a reputation when he was commissio...
-George Edward Ellis
George Edward Ellis, D. D., an American clergyman, born in Boston, Aug. 8, 1814. He graduated at Harvard college in 1833, studied theology at the Cambridge divinity school till 1836, and after a year'...
-George Father Ignatius Of St. Paul (Spencer)
George Father Ignatius Of St. Paul (Spencer), an English clergyman, youngest son of John George, second Earl Spencer, born in London, Dec. 21, 1799, died at Carstairs, Scotland, Oct. 1, 1864. He gradu...
-George Francis Lyon
George Francis Lyon, an English traveller, born in Chichester in 1795, died on the passage from America to England in 1832. He entered the naval service in 1809, was present at the attack on Algiers b...
-George Frederick Cooke
George Frederick Cooke, an English actor, born in Westminster, April 17, 1755, died in New York, Sept. 26,1812. His father, an Irish captain of dragoons, died soon after his birth, and his mother remo...
-George Frederick Holmes
George Frederick Holmes, an American educator, born in Demerara, Guiana, in 1820. He was brought up and educated in England. When 11 years of age he was presented by the bishop of Bristol with a schol...
-George Frederick Samuel Robinson Ripon
George Frederick Samuel Robinson Ripon, earl de Grey and marquis of, an English statesman, born in London, Oct. 24, 1827. He was a member of parliament from 1852 to 1859, and became prominent as a lib...
-George Gordon
George Gordon, commonly called Lord George Gordon, an English political agitator, born in London in December, 1750, died in Newgate prison, Nov. 1, 1793. He was the third son of Cosmo George, third du...
-George Granville Leveson Gower Sutherland
George Granville Leveson Gower Sutherland, duke of, born Jan. 9, 1758, died July 19, 1833. He was a son of the marquis of Stafford, belonging to a family of historic distinction since the 14th century...
-George Grote
George Grote, an English historian, born at Clay Hill, Beckenham, Kent, Nov. 17, 1704, died in London, June 18, 1871. He was educated at Charterhouse school, and in 1809 became a clerk in his father's...
-George Guess, Or Sequoyah
George Guess, Or Sequoyah, a half-breed Cherokee Indian, inventor of the Cherokee alphabet, born about 1770, died in San Fernando, northern Mexico, in August, 1843. He cultivated a small farm in the C...
-George H. Boughton
George H. Boughton, an American painter, born in Norfolk, England, in 1836. His family removed to the United States about 1839, and he passed his youth at Albany, N. Y. He early developed a taste for ...
-George Henry Calvert
George Henry Calvert, an American author, born in Baltimore, Md., Jan. 2,1803. He graduated at Harvard college in 1823, and afterward studied at Gottingen. On returning to America, he edited for sever...
-George Henry Thomas
George Henry Thomas, an American soldier, born in Southampton co., Va., July 31, 1816, died in San Francisco, March 28, 1870. He graduated at West Point in 1836, was assigned to the artillery, and ser...
-George Herbert
George Herbert, an English poet, fifth brother of the preceding, born at Montgomery castle, Wales, April 3, 1593, died at Bemerton, England, in February, 1632. He was educated at Westminster and at Tr...
-George Hickes
George Hickes, an English author, born at Newsham, Yorkshire, June 20, 1642, died Dec. 15, 1715. He studied at Oxford, and in 1664 was chosen fellow of Lincoln college. In 1675 he became rector of St....
-George Horne
George Horne, an English bishop, born at Otham, Kent, Nov. 1, 1730, died in Bath, Jan. 17, 1792. He took orders in 1753, and soon became distinguished as a preacher. He became president of Magdalen c...
-George Inness
George Inness, an American landscape painter, born in Newburgh, N. Y., May 1,1825. His parents removed to Newark, N. J., where he early learned drawing and the rudiments of oil painting. He has from h...
-George Jacob Holyoake
George Jacob Holyoake, an English reformer, born in Birmingham, April 13, 1817. He studied and afterward taught mathematics in the mechanics1 institute of that city, and became known as an advocate of...
-George Jeffreys
George Jeffreys, lord, an English judge, born at Acton, Denbighshire (Wales), in 1648, died in the tower of London, April 19, 1689. His family was good, though not rich. He was educated at Shrewsbury...
-George Joachim Goschen
George Joachim Goschen, an English statesman, born in London in 1831. His father, who died in 1866, was a German merchant doing business in London. The son was educated at Rugby and afterward at Oriel...
-George Johnston
George Johnston, a Scottish naturalist, born in 1798, died in Berwick-on-Tweed, July 3, 1855. After serving a medical apprenticeship with Dr. Abercrombie of Edinburgh, he entered the university of tha...
-George Keith-Elphinstone Keith
George Keith-Elphinstone Keith, viscount, a British admiral, born at Elphinstone, East Lothian, Scotland, Jan. 12, 1746, died at his seat of Tulliallan, Perthshire, March 10, 1823. He was the youngest...
-George Lillie Craik
George Lillie Craik, an English author, born in Fifeshire in 1799, died June 25, 1866. He studied theology at the university of St. Andrews, but did not take license as a preacher. He went to London a...
-George Long
George Long, an English scholar, born at Poulton, Lancashire, in 1800. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1822. In 1824 he became professor of ancient languages in the university of Virgin...
-George Lunt
George Lunt, an American author, born in Newburyport, Mass., Dec. 31, 1803. He graduated at Harvard college in 1824, studied law, and commenced the practice of the profession in his native town. While...
-George Lyttelton
George Lyttelton, lord, an English author, born at Hagley, Worcestershire, Jan. 17, 1709, died there, Aug. 22, 1773. He was a member of an old family of considerable property, and was educated at Eton...
-George Macartney
George Macartney, earl, a British diplomatist, born at Lissanoure, near Belfast, May 14, 1737, died in Chiswick, England, March 31, 1806. He graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, studied law in London...
-George Mcduffie
George Mcduffie, an American statesman, born in Columbia co., Ga., about 1788, died in Sumter district, S. C, March 11, 1851. He began life as clerk in a mercantile establish-ment in Augusta, Ga., gra...
-George Mifflin Dallas
George Mifflin Dallas, an American statesman, son of the preceding, born in Philadelphia, July 10, 1792, died there, Dec. 31, 1864. He graduated at Princeton college in 1810, studied law with his fath...
-George Monk
George Monk, duke of Albemarle, an English general, born at Potheridge, Devonshire, Dec. 6, 1608, died in London, Jan. 3, 1670. At the age of 17 he was a volunteer in an unsuccessful expedition agains...
-George Muller
George Muller, an English philanthropist, born at Kroppenstadt, Prussia, Sept. 27, 1805. He graduated at Halle, went to England in 1829, and in 1830 was settled as pastor over a small Independent chap...
-George N. Hollins
George N. Hollins, an American naval officer, born in Baltimore, Sept. 20, 1799. He entered the navy as midshipman in 1814, and was on board the President, Commodore Decatur, when she was captured by ...
-George P Morris
George P Morris, an American journalist, born in Philadelphia, Oct. 10, 1802, died in New York, July 6, 1864. At an early age he removed to New York, where he wrote for the New York Gazette and the ...
-George Payne Rainsford James
George Payne Rainsford James, an English novelist, born in London in 1801, died in Venice, June 9, 1860. He was educated at Greenwich, and at the age of 15 was sent to France, where he passed several ...
-George Peabody
George Peabody, an American merchant, born in Danvers, Mass., Feb. 18, 1795, died in London, Nov. 4, 1869. After serving as a clerk in Thetford, Vt., and in Newburyport, Mass., he went to Georgetown, ...
-George Petrie
George Petrie, an Irish archaeologist, born in Dublin in 1789, died Jan. 18, 1866. He studied painting in Dublin, and won a silver medal at the age of 14. He exhibited his first pictures at Somerset h...
-George Podiebrad
George Podiebrad, king of Bohemia, born April 23, 1420, died March 22, 1471. He was the son of Herant of Podiebrad and Kunstat, a Hussite nobleman. In his youth he engaged in the Hussite war; but whil...
-George Poindexter
George Poindexter, an American politician, born in Louisa co., Va., in 1779, died in Jackson, Miss., Sept. 5, 1853. He began to practise law in Milton, Va., but in 1802 removedto Mississippi territory...
-George Properly Callisen (Calixtus)
George Properly Callisen (Calixtus), a Lutheran divine, born at Meelby in Holstein, Dec. 14, 1586, died in Helmstedt, March 19, 1656. From 1609 to 1613 he travelled through France, England, and German...
-George Psalmanazar
George Psalmanazar, the assumed name of a French impostor, born about 1679, died in London in 1753 or 1763. He travelled over various parts of France, Germany, and the Netherlands; was a soldier, a be...
-George Read
George Read, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Cecil co., Md., Sept. 18, 1733, died in New Castle, Del., Sept. 21, 1798. He studied law at Philadelphia, was admitted to the bar. at ...
-George Robert Gleig
George Robert Gleig, a Scottish author, born in Stirling, April 20, 1796. He abandoned his studies at Oxford to join as a volunteer a regiment going to Spain in 1813, and served both in the Peninsula ...
-George Robins Gliddon
George Robins Gliddon, an American Egyptologist, born in Devonshire, England, in 1809, died in Panama, Nov. 16, 1857. He went at an early age to Alexandria, where his father was a merchant and also Un...
-George Smith
George Smith, an English oriental scholar, born about 1825. In 1866, while examining the large store of Assyrian paper casts in the British museum, he discovered an inscription of Shalmaneser II., whi...
-George Steevens
George Steevens, an English editor, born at Stepney, May 10,1736, died at Hampstead, Jan. 22, 1800. He was educated at Eton and Cambridge. His first publication, a reprint of Twenty of the Plays of S...
-George Stillman Hillard
George Stillman Hillard, an American author, born in Machias, Me., Sept. 22, 1808. He graduated at Harvard college in 1828, and for some time was a teacher in the Round Hill school at Northampton. He ...
-George Thomas Doo
George Thomas Doo, an English engraver and painter, born in the parish of Christchurch, Surrey, Jan. 6, 1800. He produced his first published engraving, The Duke of York, after a painting by Sir Th...
-George Thomson Elliot
George Thomson Elliot, an American physician, born in New York, May 11, 1827, died there, Jan. 29, 1871. He received his academic education at Columbia college, graduated in medicine at the university...
-George Vancouver
George Vancouver, an English navigator, born about 1758, died near London, May 10, 1798. He entered the navy in 1771, and served as midshipman in the second and third voyages of Capt. Cook (1772-,5, a...
-George Walter Thornbury
George Walter Thornbury, an English author, born in London in 1828. In 1845 he published a series of topographical and antiquarian papers in the Bristol Journal. After 1858 the name George is omitte...
-George Washington
George Washington, the first president of the United States, born in Westmoreland co., Va., Feb. 22 (old style, 11), 1732, died at Mount Vernon, Dec. 14, 1799. The house in which he was born was in a ...
-George Washington Bethune
George Washington Bethune, D. D., an American clergyman and author, born in New York in March, 1805, died in Florence, Italy, April 27, 1862. His father, Divie Bethune, a native of Scotland, emigrated...
-George Washington Doane
George Washington Doane, an American bishop, born at Trenton, N. J., May 27, 1799, died at Burlington, N. J., April 27, 1859. He graduated at Union college in 1818, was admitted to holy orders in 1821...
-George Washington Greene
George Washington Greene, an American author, born in East Greenwich, R. I., April 8, 1811. He is a grandson of Nathanael Greene, the revolutionary general. He was obliged by ill health to leave Brown...
-George Washington Parke Custis
George Washington Parke Custis, the adopted son of George Washington, born at Mount Airy, Md., April 30, 1781, died at Arlington house, Fairfax co., Va., Oct. 10, 1857. He was the youngest child of Jo...
-George Washington Whistler
George Washington Whistler, an American engineer, born at Fort Wayne, Ind., May 19, 1800, died in St. Petersburg, April 7, 1849. He graduated at West Point in 1819, became second lieutenant of artill...
-George Webbe Dasent
George Webbe Dasent, an English author, bom about 1818. He was educated at King's college, London, and Magdalen hall, Oxford, where he graduated in 1840. He was called to the bar in 1852, but has devo...
-George Whitefield
George Whitefield, an English clergyman, born in Gloucester, Dec. 16, 1714, died in Newbury port, Mass., Sept. 30, 1770. He was the orphan of an innkeeper, and was educated first at a grammar school. ...
-George Wilklus Kendall
George Wilklus Kendall, an American journalist, born in Amherst, now Mount Vernon, N. H., about 1807, died at Oak Spring, near Bowie, Texas, Oct. 21, 1867. He travelled extensively through the souther...
-George William Curtis
George William Curtis, an American author, born at Providence, R. I., Feb. 24, 1824. He received his early education in a private school at Jamaica Plain, Mass. At the age of 15 he removed with his fa...
-George William Frederick Villiers Clarendon
George William Frederick Villiers Clarendon, fourth earl of, and Baron Hyde of Hindon, a British statesman, a descendant of the preceding through the female line, born in London, Jan. 12, 1800, died t...
-George William Manby
George William Manby, an English officer, born at llilgay, Norfolk county, Nov. 28, 17G5, died at Southtown, Nov. 18, 1854. He was educated at the military college of Woolwich, and became in 1803 bar...
-George Wishart
George Wishart, called the Martyr, a Scottish clergyman, born about the beginning of the 16th century, burned at the stake at St. Andrews, March 1, 1546. He began to preach about 1536, but in 1538 h...
-George Wither
George Wither, an English poet, born at Bent worth, Hampshire, June 11, 1588, died in London, May 2, 1667. He studied at Oxford, and in 1613 entered himself at one of the inns of chancery. For his sat...
-George Wythe
George Wythe, a signer of the American Declaration of Independence, born in Elizabeth City co., Va., in 1726, died in Richmond, June 8, 1806. He was admitted to the bar in 1757, and in 1758 was electe...
-Georges Bernard Depping
Georges Bernard Depping, a miscellaneous writer, born at Minister in Westphalia, May 11, 1784, died in Paris, Sept. 5, 1853. He went to Paris in 1803, and during the rest of his life was engaged in wr...
-Georges Cadoudal
Georges Cadoudal, the leader of the Chouans or Breton insurgents in the French revolution, born at Kerleano, in lower Brittany, Jan. 1, 1771, guillotined in Paris, June 25, 1804. He was educated at th...
-Georges Couthon
Georges Couthon, a French revolutionist, born near Clermont in 1756, died by the guillotine, July 28, 1794. He was a lawyer previous to the revolution, and was noted for amiability and probity, giving...
-Georges Eugene Haussmann
Georges Eugene Haussmann, baron, a French politician, born in Paris, March 27, 1809. He is a grandson of the revolutionist Nicolas Haussmann of Colmar (1761-1846). He studied law, became an advocate a...
-Georges Jacques Dantojv
Georges Jacques Dantojv, a French revolutionist, born at Arcis-sur-Aube, Oct. 28, 1759, executed in Paris, April 5,1794. A lawyer by profession, he became one of the most fervent champions of the revo...
-Georges Louis Duvernoy
Georges Louis Duvernoy, a French naturalist, born in Montbeliard, Aug. 6, 1777, died in Paris, March 1, 1855. He pursued his studies at Stuttgart, Strasburg, and Paris, and in 1802 was invited by Cuvi...
-Georges Louis Lederc Buffon
Georges Louis Lederc Buffon, count de, a French naturalist, born at Montbard, in Burgundy, Sept. 7, 1707, died in Paris, April 16, 1788. He was the son of Benjamin Leclerc, counsellor of the parliamen...
-Georges Mouton Lobau
Georges Mouton Lobau, count de, a French soldier, born in Pfalzburg in 1770, died in Paris in 1838. He enlisted as a volunteer in 1792, was aide-de-camp to Joubert in 1798, and to the emperor in 1805....
-Georges Perrot
Georges Perrot, a French archaeologist, born at Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, department of Seine-et-Oise, Nov. 12, 1832. He studied at the college Charlemagne, at the normal school, and from 1855 to 1858...
-Gerald Barry
Gerald Barry, or Giraldns Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales), a British ecclesiastic and historian, horn about 1146, died about 1220. His father was a Norman baron, his mother a descendant of princes of Sou...
-Gerald Griffin
Gerald Griffin, an Irish novelist, born in Limerick, Dec. 12, 1803, died in Cork, June 12, 1840. When he was about 17 years of age his family emigrated to the United States, leaving him at Adare, near...
-Gerald Massey
Gerald Massey, an English poet, born near Tring, Hertfordshire, May 29, 1828. He was the child of an illiterate couple, who lived in the most abject poverty; and his whole education was confined to a ...
-Gerard Christophe Michel Duroc
Gerard Christophe Michel Duroc, duke of Friuli, a French general, born at Pont-a-Mous-son, near Nancy, Oct. 25, 1772, killed near Markersdorf, Saxony, May 22, 1813. He served in the first wars of the ...
-Gerardus Johannes Mulder
Gerardus Johannes Mulder, a Dutch chemist, born in Utrecht, Dec. 27, 1802. He studied at the university of Utrecht, and became a physician in Amsterdam. In 1827 he was appointed lecturer on botany and...
-Gergely Czuczor
Gergely Czuczor, a Hungarian author, born at Andod, county of Neutra, Dec. 17, 1800, died in Pesth, Sept. 9, 1866. He was a Benedictine monk, and from 1825 to 1835 was professor at the colleges of Raa...
-Gerhard Groot, Or Gerard The Great
Gerhard Groot, Or Gerard The Great, founder of the congregation of Brethren and Clerks of the Common Life, born in Deventer, Holland, in 1340, died Aug. 20, 1384. He studied in Paris, graduated mast...
-Gerhard Rohlfs
Gerhard Rohlfs, a German traveller, born at Vegesack, near Bremen, April 14, 1834. He studied medicine at Heidelberg, Würzburg, and Göttingen, went to Algeria, enlisted in the foreign legion of the Fr...
-Gerrit Smith
Gerrit Smith, an American philanthropist, born in Utica, N. Y., March 6, 1797, died in New York, Dec. 28, 1874. He inherited from his father Peter Smith, a partner of John Jacob Astor in the fur trade...
-Giacomo Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meyerbeer, a German composer, born in Berlin, Sept. 5, 1794, died in Paris, May 2, 1864. His original name was Jakob Meyer Beer. (See Beer.) His parents belonged to a wealthy Jewish family, di...
-Giaconio Leopardi
Giaconio Leopardi, count, an Italian poet, born at Recanati, near Ancona, June 29, 1798, died near Naples, June 14, 1837. He was the son of Count Monaldi Leopardi and the marchioness Adelaide Antici. ...
-Giaeomo Maria Carlo Denina
Giaeomo Maria Carlo Denina, an Italian historian, born at Revello, Piedmont, Feb. 28, 1731, died in Paris, Dec. 5, 1813. He took holy orders, acted as professor at Pinerolo and Turin, and was subjecte...
-Giambattista Beccaria
Giambattista Beccaria, or Giovanni Battista, an Italian electrician, born at Mondovi, Oct. 3, 1716, died in Turin, May 27, 1781. He entered the religious order of the Piarists in 1732, and always rema...
-Giambattista Bodoni
Giambattista Bodoni, an Italian printer, born at Saluzzo, Feb. 16, 1740, died in Padua, Nov. 20, 1813. He learned the trade of printer with his father, and practised drawing and engraving upon wood. A...
-Giambattista Della Porta
Giambattista Della Porta, an Italian natural philosopher, born in Naples about 1540, died there, Feb. 4,1615. He opened his house to a society of literary men called i segreti, whose meetings were fin...
-Gian Domenico Romagnosi
Gian Domenico Romagnosi, an Italian jurist, born near Piacenza in December, 1761, died in Milan, June 8, 1835. He was chief civil magistrate of Trent, and the Austrians arrested him in 1799 on account...
-Gideon Algernon Mafttell
Gideon Algernon Mafttell, an English geologist, born in Lewes, Sussex, in 1790, died in London, Nov. 10, 1852. He was educated as a surgeon, and attained a lucrative practice in his native town. Incli...
-Gideon Johnson Pillow
Gideon Johnson Pillow, an American soldier, born in Williamson co., Tenn., June 8, 1806. He graduated at Nashville university in 1827, studied law, and commenced practice at Columbia, Tenn. In 1844 he...
-Gilbert Burnet
Gilbert Burnet, a British bishop and author, born in Edinburgh, Sept. 18, 1643, died in London, March 17, 1715. He took the degree of M. A. at Aberdeen before the age of 14, studied law for a short ti...
-Gilbert Charles Stuart
Gilbert Charles Stuart, an American painter, born in Narragansett, R. I., in 1756, died in Boston in July, 1828. He received his first instructions from a Scottish painter named Alexander, by whom, wh...
-Gilbert Elliot Minto
Gilbert Elliot Minto, first earl of, an English statesman, born April 23, 1751, died June 21, 1814. lie was the elder son of the third baronet, Sir Gilbert Elliot of Roxburghshire, Scotland, and enter...
-Gilbert Haven
Gilbert Haven, au American clergyman, born near Boston, Sept. 19, 1821. He graduated at Wesleyan university in 1846, and for two years taught Greek and Latin in Amenia seminary, of which in 1848 he be...
-Gilbert Stuart
Gilbert Stuart, a Scottish author, born in Edinburgh in 1742 or 1746, died in Musselburgh, Aug. 13, 1786. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and in 1767 published a Historical Disquisit...
-Gilbert Stuart Newtojv
Gilbert Stuart Newtojv, an English painter, born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Nov. 2, 1794, died in Chelsea, England, Aug. 3, 1835. On the death of his father he removed in 1803 with his mother to Boston,...
-Gilbert Wakefield
Gilbert Wakefield, an English theologian, born in Nottingham, Feb. 22, 1756, died in London, Sept. 9, 1801. He graduated at Cambridge in 1776, obtained a fellowship, and in the same year published a v...
-Gilles Menage
Gilles Menage, a French author, born in Angers, Aug. 15, 1613, died in Paris, July 23, 1692. After practising law for a short time he became a priest, and lived for a while with Cardinal de Ketz, but ...
-Gilles Personne Or Personier De Roberval
Gilles Personne Or Personier De Roberval, a French mathematician, born at Roberval, near Beauvais, Aug. 8, 1602, died in Paris, Oct. 27, 1675. He went to Paris in 1627, became professor of philosophy ...
-Gilmore Simms William
'Gilmore Simms William, an American author, born in Charleston, S. C., April 17, 1800, died there, June 11, 1870. For some years he was a clerk in a drug store, but at 18 he began the study of law, an...
-Gino Capponi
Gino Capponi, marquis, an Italian author, born in Florence, Sept. 14, 1792. His ancestors were called the Scipios of the Florentine republic. After spending several years in travel he became chamberla...
-Ginseppc Baretti
Ginseppc Baretti, an Italian writer, born in Turin, March 22, 1716, died in London, May 5, 1789. He was intended by his father for the bar, but, disliking the study, took to literature. After travelli...
-Ginseppe Mario
Ginseppe Mario, marquis di Candia. an Italian singer, born in Cagliari. Sardinia. Oct. 18, 1810. He received an excellent musical education, and in 1830 entered the Sardinian military service. Having ...
-Ginsfppe Mazzini
Ginsfppe Mazzini, an Italian revolutionist, born in Genoa, June 28, 1805, died in Pisa. March 10, 1872. His father, who was a rich medical professor in the university of Genoa, gave him an excellent e...
-Gioacchino Rossini
Gioacchino Rossini, an Italian composer, born in Pesaro, Feb. 29, 1792, died in Paris, Nov. 13, 1868. His parents were members of a strolling operatic company, and at 10 years of age he played the sec...
-Gioacchino Ventura De Raulica
Gioacchino Ventura De Raulica, an Italian pulpit orator, born in Palermo, Dec. 8, 1792, died in Versailles, Aug. 3, 1861. He was educated in the Jesuit college of Palermo, and entered the society of J...
-Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno, an Italian philosopher, born at Nola, near Naples, about the middle of the 16th century, burnt at the stake in Rome, Feb. 17, 1600. He entered the Dominican order at an early age, but,...
-Giorgio Blandrata
Giorgio Blandrata, an Italian Unitarian, born in the marquisate of Saluzzo, Piedmont, about 1515, died in Transvlvania about 1590. He at first practised medicine in Pavia, but having embraced anti-Tri...
-Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari, an Italian artist, born in Arezzo in 1512, died in Florence, June 27, 1574. He belonged to a family of painters, was brought up at Florence by his kinsman Cardinal Passerini, together ...
-Giovanni Alfonso Borelli
Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, an Italian mathematician and physician, born at Castelnuovo, near Naples, Jan. 28, 1608, died in Rome, Dec. 31, 1679. He was professor of mathematics in Messina and in Pisa, ...
-Giovanni Battista Belzoni
Giovanni Battista Belzoni, an Italian traveller and explorer, the son of a barber, born in Padua about 1778, died in Africa, Dec. 3, 1823. He was educated for monastic life; but the French revolution ...
-Giovanni Battista Donati
Giovanni Battista Donati, an Italian astronomer, born in Pisa in 1826, died in Florence, Sept. 20, 1873. In 1852 he became an assistant in the observatory of Florence, where ho soon gained distinction...
-Giovanni Battista Vico
Giovanni Battista Vico, an Italian author, born in Naples about 1668, died Jan. 20, 1744. He was educated by the Jesuits and studied law, but never practised. For nine years he was tutor in jurisprude...
-Giovanni Battista Viotti
Giovanni Battista Viotti, an Italian violinist, born at Fontanetto, Piedmont, about 1755, died in Brighton, England, March 3,1824. He studied under Pugnani, who enjoyed the highest reputation in his d...
-Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio, an Italian novelist, born in Paris in 1313, died at Certaldo, Dec. 21, 1375. His father was originally of Certaldo, but removed to Florence, where he amassed wealth, and filled sev...
-Giovanni Cimabue
Giovanni Cimabue, called the father of modern painting, born at Florence in 1240, died about 1302. He was of noble birth, and while a pupil in the school of the convent of Santa Maria Novella manife...
-Giovanni Da Verrazzano (Veeeazani)
Giovanni Da Verrazzano (Called Also Veeeazani), a Florentine navigator, born about 1485, executed at Puerto del Pico, Spain, in November, 1527. He was of a good family of the Val di Greve near Florenc...
-Giovanni Della Casa
Giovanni Della Casa, an Italian prelate and author, born near Florence, June 28, 1503, died in Rome, Nov. 14, 1556. He was of a distinguished family, studied in Bologna and Padua, and led a gay life i...
-Giovanni Diodati
Giovanni Diodati, a Swiss theologian, born in Geneva in 1576, died there in 1649. His parents, natives of Lucca, had taken refuge in Switzerland from the persecution directed against them on account o...
-Giovanni Francesco Poggio Bracciolini
Giovanni Francesco Poggio Bracciolini, an Italian scholar, born at Terra Nuova, near Arezzo, about 1380, died in Florence, Oct. 30, 1459. In 1414 he attended Pope John XXIII. at the council of Constan...
-Giovanni Giacomo De Seingalt Casanova
Giovanni Giacomo De Seingalt Casanova, an Italian adventurer, born in Venice, April 2, 1725, died in Austria about 1803. His father, who was of noble descent, was an adventurer and comedian, and marri...
-Giovanni Lanfranco
Giovanni Lanfranco, an Italian painter, born in Parma in 1581, died in Rome in 1647. While a boy in the service of Count Orazio Scotti in Piacenza, he attracted the attention of his master by some des...
-Giovanni Lanza
Giovanni Lanza, an Italian statesman, born at Vignale, Piedmont, in 1815. He became a member of the Sardinian chamber in 1848, and of Cavour's cabinet as minister of education in 1855, and of finance ...
-Giovanni Paisiello
Giovanni Paisiello, an Italian composer, born in Taranto, May 9, 1741, died in Naples, June 5, 1816. He was educated in the conservatory of St. Onofrio at Naples under Durante, and at the age of 20 wa...
-Giovanni Perrone
Giovanni Perrone, an Italian theologian, born in Chieri, Piedmont, in 1794. Having graduated as doctor of theology in the university of Turin, he entered the society of Jesus in Rome in 1815, and in 1...
-Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola
Giovanni Pico Della Mirandola, count and prince of Concordia, an Italian scholar, born at Mirandola, Modena, Feb. 24,1463, died in Florence, Nov. 17, 1494. Almost from childhood he displayed an extrao...
-Giovanni Pietro Aioisio Da Palestrina
Giovanni Pietro Aioisio Da Palestrina, an Italian composer, born in Palestrina in 1524, died in Rome, Feb. 2,1594. In 1551, having gained some distinction as a composer, he was admitted among the sing...
-Giovanni Villani
Giovanni Villani, an Italian historian, born in Florence about 1280, died there in 1348. He was the son of a wealthy nobleman, and gathered in Rome and other places materials for his Istorie fiorentin...
-Gipsies, Or Gipseys Gypsies
Gipsies, Or Gipseys Gypsies , (a corruption of the word Egyptians), a vagabond people now found in most parts of the world. The names given to them by other nations are: Zingari in Italy, Gitanos in S...
-Girolamo Ramorino
Girolamo Ramorino (according to some, properly Giovanni Pietro Remorino), a military adventurer, born in Genoa about 1792, executed in Turin, May 22, 1849. He was a natural son of a French officer, en...
-Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola, an Italian reformer, born in Ferrara, Sept. 21, 1452, executed in Florence, May 23, 1498. In 1475 he became a Dominican at Bologna; and having completed his theological studies an...
-Giuditta Pasta
Giuditta Pasta, an Italian singer, of Jewish origin, born at Saronno, near Milan, in 1798, died at her villa near Lake Oomo, April 1, 1865. She received her first musical education from Bartolommeo Le...
-Giulia Grisi
Giulia Grisi, an Italian singer, born in Milan in 1812, died in Berlin, Nov. 25, 1869. She was the daughter of Gaetano Grisi, who was an officer of engineers, and niece of the singer Grassini; and she...
-Giuseppe Bossi
Giuseppe Bossi, an Italian painter, born at Busto-Arsizio in August, 1777, died in Milan, Dec. 15, 1815. He studied at the Brera academy and in Rome, and on his return to Milan became secretary of the...
-Giuseppe Carlo Anrelio Bossi
Giuseppe Carlo Anrelio Bossi, baron de, an Italian poet and diplomatist, born in Turin, Nov. 15, 1758, died in Paris, Jan. 20, 1823. The son of a Sardinian count, he acquired the title of baron in the...
-Giuseppe Carpani
Giuseppe Carpani, an Italian dramatist and writer on music, born at Villalbese, near Milan, Jan. 28, 1752, died in Vienna, Jan. 22, 1825. Educated for the law, he devoted himself to literary pursuits,...
-Giuseppe Liaspardo Mezzofanti
Giuseppe Liaspardo Mezzofanti, an Italian linguist, born in Bologna, Sept. 17, 1774, died in Rome, March 15,181!). He was educated for the church, and was ordained in 1797. He bad an extraordinary mem...
-Giuseppe Montanelli
Giuseppe Montanelli, an Italian revolutionist, born at Fucecchio, Tuscany, in 1813, died June 17, 1862. He graduated in law at the university of Pisa in 1831, and became professor of commercial jurisp...
-Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi, an Italian composer, born at Busseto, in the duchy of Parma, Oct. 9, 1814. His father was an innkeeper, and his first instructions in music were given him by an obscure organist. In 18...
-Glass
Glass , (Sax. gloes), in chemistry, any product of fusion having the peculiar lustre known as vitreous, hard and brittle, whether transparent or not; in common use, the transparent product derived fro...
-Glascow,
Glascow, the chief commercial and manufacturing city of Scotland, in Lanarkshire. on the river Clyde, 21 m. from its mouth, and 41 m. W. S. W. of Edinburgh; lat. 55 51' 32 N., Ion. 4 17' 54 W.;...
-Glass Painting
Glass Painting ,.The art of painting upon glass is supposed to be of Byzantine origin, and to have arisen since the beginning of the Christian era. The first authentic account of the subject is given ...
-Glass Snake
Glass Snake , (ophisaurus ventral is, Daud.), a North American reptile, improperly called a snake, belonging to the order saurophidia of Gray, and to the chalcidian or cyclosaurian family of saurians ...
-Glass Sponge, Or Glass Hope
Glass Sponge, Or Glass Hope a silicious sponge of the genus hyalonema (Gray); the name may also be properly applied to other allied genera, and especially to the euplectella, which will be described u...
-Glastonbury
Glastonbury a market town and parish of Somersetshire, England, 25 m. S. W. of Bath; pop. in 1871, 3,670. The town occupies a peninsula, formerly an island (Avalon), in the river Brue. It derives its ...
-Glauber's Salt
Glauber's Salt sulphate of soda, found native, and produced artificially. The artificial salt was named from its discoverer (see above), who obtained it in making muriatic acid. The natural salt is us...
-Glaucus
Glaucus ,.I. Of Potniae, the grandson of AEolus, son of Sisyphus and Merope, and father of Bellerophon. To make his mares more swift and fierce, he prevented them from breeding, and, according to some...
-Glencoe
Glencoe one of the wildest and most gloomy of the Scottish glens, in the district of Lorn, Argyleshire, about 10 m. long, and enclosed by lofty mountains. The lower part of the glen near Loch Leven is...
-Glendower, Or Glendwr
Glendower, Or Glendwr Owen, a Welsh chieftain, born in Merionethshire about 1349, died Sept. 20, 1415. His father was Gryffydd Vy-chan, and his mother, Elena, was granddaughter of Llewellyn, the last ...
-Glicina
Glicina , (Gr. sweet), an earth, first obtained by Vauquelin in 1798, consisting, according to Berzelius, of two atoms of the metal glucinum, united with three atoms of oxygen; but Awdejew and other...
-Globigerina
Globigerina a microscopic protozoan animal, of the foraminiferous order of the class of rhizopods. The body is composed of simple sarcode or protoplasmic matter, enclosed in a shell pierced by numerou...
-Glommen
Glommen , the largest river of Norway, rising in the mountains of the S. E. part of the province of Drontheim, near lat. 63 N., and flowing for the most part nearly due S. through several lakes, ...
-Glory Pea
Glory Pea , a name given by Australians to plants of the genus clianthus, of the order leguminosoe, especially to the species named, in honor of the navigator Dampier, C. Dampieri. This is found in th...
-Gloucester
Gloucester ,.I. A S. W. county of New Jersey, separated by the Delaware river from Pennsylvania on the N. W., drained by Big Timber, Oldman's, Raccoon, and Mantua creeks; area, 280 sq. m.; pop. in 187...
-Gloucester (2)
Gloucester , a city and port of entry of Essex co., Massachusetts, on the peninsula of Cape Ann, 30 m. N. N. E. of Boston, with which it is connected by a branch of the Eastern railroad. It formerly c...
-Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire , a S. W. county of England, bordering on Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Monmouthshire, and Herefordshire; area, 1,258 sq. m.; pop. in ...
-Glove
Glove , a covering for the hand (sometimes extending up the arm), with a separate sheath for each finger. Gloves are spoken of by Homer as worn by Laertes to protect his hands while working in the gar...
-Glowworm
Glowworm , a name given to several serri-corn beetles, constituting the genus lampyris (Fab.). The antenna) are short, with cylindrical and compressed articulations; the head is concealed beneath the ...
-Glue
Glue , (Lat. gluere, to draw together), an impure variety of gelatine, used in the arts for uniting substances through its adhesive quality. It is obtained much in the same manner from the same substa...
-Gluten, Or Vegetable Fibrine
Gluten, Or Vegetable Fibrine a tough elastic substance, named from its adhesive glue-like property, an ingredient in wheat especially, and in smaller proportion in most of the cerealia and in some leg...
-Glutton
Glutton , a carnivorous mammal, belonging to the family mustelidoe, subfamily martinoe, and genus gulo (Storr). The dental formula is that of the true martens, viz.: incisors 3/3-3/3, canines 1/1-1/1,...
-Glycerine
Glycerine , (Gr. sweet), the sweet principle of oils, a triatonic alcohol, the base of the compounds found in animal fats and also in some vegetable substances, discovered by Scheele in 1779. Its c...
-Glyptodon
Glyptodon , a gigantic fossil mammal, belonging to the edentate order with the megatherium and mylodon, but to the family dasy-pidoe or armadillos, found in the post-tertiary deposits of the pampas of...
-Gmelin
Gmelin ,.I. Johann Georg, a German naturalist, born in Tubingen, June 12,1709, died there, May 20, 1755. In 1731 he became professor of chemistry and natural history in St. Petersburg. In 1733 - '43 h...
-Gmt
Gmt , a name commonly given to the family culicidoe, of the proboscidean division of the order diptera or two-winged insects; the cousin of the French, the mosquito of the United States. The gnats bel...
-Gnostics
Gnostics , (Gr. knowledge), a name given to various heretical sects in the early Christian church. We know them mainly through their opponents, almost nothing remaining of Gnostic writings except t...
-Gnstav Friedrich Waagen
Gnstav Friedrich Waagen, a German writer on art, born in Hamburg, Feb. 11, 1794, died in Copenhagen, July 15, 1868. After serving as a volunteer in 1813 - '14, he continued his art studies at Breslau,...
-Gnstnv Nachtigal
Gnstnv Nachtigal, a German traveller, born at Eichstedt, Prussian Saxony, Feb. 23, 1834. He practised medicine in Algeria from 1859 to 1863, when he entered the service of the bey of Tunis as a milita...
-Gnu
Gnu , a hollow-horned ruminating animal, inhabiting the plains of southern and central Africa, generally classed with the bovidoe or ox family, of the genus catoblepas (H. Smith) or connochetes (Gray)...
-Goa
Goa ,.I. A Portuguese colony in India, on the TV. coast, between lat. 14 54' and 15 45' N., and Ion. 73 45' and 74 26' E., bounded N. by Sawuntwarree, E. by N. Canara, and TV. and ...
-Goat
Goat , (capra, Linn.), a hollow-horned ruminant, of the subfamily ovinoe, which also contains the sheep. The genus is characterized by a convex forehead, nose for the most part straight in its upper o...
-Goatsucker
Goatsucker , a nocturnal fissirostral bird, of the order passeres or insessores, suborder strisores, and the family caprimulgidoe. The family are characterized by a short, very broad, depressed bill, ...
-Gobi
Gobi , (Mongol, a desert), an immense tract of country in central Asia, occupying mainly the table land between the Altai mountains on the north and the Kuenlun on the south, between lat. 37 and ...
-Godavery
Godavery , a large river of British India, rising in the Western Ghauts, about 60 m. from the Indian ocean, lat. 19 58' N., Ion. 73 30' E., and, after a S. E. course of 900 m. across the pen...
-Godfrey De Bouillon
Godfrey De Bouillon, the hero of the first crusade, born in South Brabant about 1060, died in Jerusalem, July 18, 1100. He was the son of Eustace II. of Boulogne, brother-in-law to Edward the Confesso...
-Godwin
Godwin , earl of Wessex, a Saxon noble, born about the end of the 10th century, died in April, 1053. He was a cowherd, but having ingratiated himself with Ulfr, the brother-in-law of King Canute, he r...
-Godwit
Godwit , a bird belonging to the scolopacidoe, or snipe family, and subfamily limosinoe, which includes also the curlew. It forms the genus limosa (Briss.), characterized by a long slender bill, incli...
-Gog And Magog
Gog And Magog ,.These names occur unconnected in Genesis and 1 Chronicles as the names of several persons; Magog, in the ethnological table of the former book (ch. x.), being the second son of Japheth...
-Goitacazes
Goitacazes , an Indian tribe of Brazil, long masters of the region lying between the Rio Ca-bapuana or Itabapuana and Cape Sao Thome, whence they repeatedly repulsed the Portuguese who attempted to se...
-Goitre
Goitre , an elastic swelling on the front and sides of the neck, arising from a hypertrophy of the thyroid gland; it is also called broncho-cele and Derbyshire neck. It is generally soft and yielding,...
-Golconda
Golconda , an ancient city and fortress of India, in the native state of Hyderabad or the Nizam's dominions, 7 m. N. W. of Hyderabad. The fortress stands on a rocky eminence, and is a large and strong...
-Gold
Gold , a precious metal, ranking the first in beauty and value among useful metals from the earliest times to the present day; distinguished for being the only metal of a yellow color, and for possess...
-Gold Coast
Gold Coast , a part of the coast of Upper Guinea, W. Africa, lying, according to most geographers, between Cape Three Points and the river Volta; but the jurisdiction of the British Gold Coast colony,...
-Gold Hill
Gold Hill , a town of Storey co., Nevada, 1 m. S. of the centre of Virginia, and about 190 m. E. N. E. of San Francisco; pop. in 1860, 638; in 1870, 4,311, of whom 2,346 were foreigners, including 210...
-Gold-Beating
Gold-Beating , the process of hammering gold into thin leaves. It is not known what were the methods in use by the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans for obtaining the thin leaves they manufactured; but it...
-Golden Fleece
Golden Fleece ,.See Argonauts. Golden Fleece #1 Golden Fleece , Order of the (Span, el toi-son de oro; Fr. ordre de la toison d'or), one of the oldest and most important of the orders of chivalry, f...
-Golden Number
Golden Number , the place of a given year in the lunar cycle. It is used to determine on what day the paschal moon falls, and thus to find Easter day. The mean length of the lunar cycle agrees exactly...
-Goldenrod
Goldenrod , (solidago, Linn.), the name of numerous plants, whose showy heads of flowers, waving like golden wands, make bright and gay the sides of roads, hills, and gravelly banks in the autumn. A s...
-Goldwin Smith
Goldwin Smith, an English author, born in Reading, Aug. 13, 1823. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn, but never practised. In 1858 he became regius professo...
-Gonds
Gonds , an aboriginal tribe inhabiting the highlands of the Central Provinces of India, whence that region derives the name of Gond-wana or Gundwana. The earliest authentic records represent them as a...
-Gondar
Gondar , a town of Abyssinia, the seat of the abuna or archbishop of the Abyssinian church, and formerly the residence of the negus or king, about 25 m. N. of Lake Tzana or Dem-bea; lat. 12 35' N...
-Gondola
Gondola , a light and swift kind of boat, used on the canals of Venice and supplying the place of carriages. They are usually 25 or 30 ft. long, 5 ft. wide in the middle, and sharp at both ends, which...
-Goniometer
Goniometer , (Gr. an angle, and a measure), an instrument for measuring the angles of crystals. Two kinds of goniometers are in use, one designed to measure the angles by direct application of ...
-Gonsalvo De Cordova, Or Gonzalo Hernandez De Cordova
Gonsalvo De Cordova, Or Gonzalo Hernandez De Cordova called el Gran Capitan (the Great Captain), a Spanish general, born at Montilla, near Cordova, March 16, 1453, died in Granada, Dec. 2, 1515. His f...
-Gonvernenr Morris
Gonvernenr Morris, an American statesman, born at Morrisania, Westchester co., N. Y., Jan. 31, 1752, died there, Nov. 6, 1816. He graduated at King's (now Columbia) college in 1768, and in 1771 was ad...
-Gonzaga
Gonzaga , a town of Italy, in the province and 15 m. S. of the city of Mantua; pop. about 15,000. It was formerly fortified, and is celebrated for its old castle, the cradle of the Gon-zaga family. Si...
-Gonzalo Annes Bandarra
Gonzalo Annes Bandarra, surnamed the Portuguese Nostradamus, born at Trancoso, province of Beira, died in Lisbon in 1550. He was a cobbler, addicted to improvising religious verses and prophecies, and...
-Gonzalo Fernandez De Oviedo Y Valdes
Gonzalo Fernandez De Oviedo Y Valdes, a Spanish chronicler, born in Madrid in 1478, died in Valladolid in 1557. He was educated at the court of Ferdinand and Isabella, as one of the pages of Prince Ju...
-Gonzalo Ximenes De Qiesada
Gonzalo Ximenes De Qiesada, a Spanish explorer, born in Granada about 1495, died at Mariquita, New Granada, Feb. 16, 1579. He came to America in 1535 as a judicial functionary in the suite of Pedro Fe...
-Good Friday
Good Friday , the anniversary of Christ's death. It is only in England that the term good is applied to this feast. Its ancient title was Holy Friday, or the Friday in Holy Week. The Saxons named it...
-Good Will
Good Will , the interest or advantage supposed to be attached to a certain established business. Nothing can be more uncertain or intangible than this; and it was for some time a question whether the ...
-Goodrich
Goodrich ,.I. Elizur, an American clergyman, born in Wethersfield, Conn., Oct. 26, 1734, died in Norfolk, Conn., Nov. 21, 1797. He graduated at Yale college in 1752. and was tutor there in 1755. In th...
-Goosander
Goosander , an American fishing duck of the subfamily merginoe and genus mergus (Linn.); besides the goosander (M. Americanus, Cassin), the subfamily includes the mergansers and the smew. The bird is ...
-Goose
Goose , a web-footed bird, of the order an-seres and family anatidoe, of which the typical species are in the subfamily anserinoe. The other subfamily consists of the plectropterinoe, or spur-winged g...
-Goose Fish
Goose Fish , an acanthopterous fish of the lophioid family, which contains some of the most hideous and voracious of the class. It belongs to the genus lophius (Artedi), characterized by a head enormo...
-Gooseberry
Gooseberry , (ribes grossularia, Linn.), the name of a familiar garden fruit of small size. The original species is indigenous to England, France, Germany, and Switzerland, and has been found in the H...
-Gopher
Gopher , the common name of two very different American animals, the one composing the rodent genera geomys and thomomys, the other the largo land tortoise, testudo poly-phemus, of the southern states...
-Gordius
Gordius , a legendary king of Phrygia, father of Midas. He was originally a peasant, but an eagle having alighted on his yoke of oxen while he was ploughing, and remained there till evening, this was ...
-Gorgey, Or Gorgei
Gorgey, Or Gorgei Arthur, a Hungarian general, born in the county of Zips, Feb. 5, 1818. He entered the military school at Tuln, and subsequently the royal Hungarian noble life guards at Vienna, and w...
-Gorgias
Gorgias , a Greek rhetorician and sophist, born in Leontini, Sicily, about 487 B. C, died about 380. He was a disciple of Empedocles and Prodicus, and first appears in history in 427, when he was sent...
-Gorilla
Gorilla , the largest of the anthropoid apes, a native of the equatorial region of western Africa, and first introduced to the scientific world by Dr. T. S. Savage in 1847. There were vague reports by...
-Gorkhas
Gorkhas , the dominant people of Nepaul in India. Little is known of their history until about 1708, when, having consolidated or conquered the petty independent tribes among whom Nepaul was parcelled...
-Gorkum
Gorkum , or Gorcum (Dutch, Gorinchem), a fortified town of the Netherlands, province of South Holland, on the right bank of the Maas, 22 m. S. E. of Rotterdam; pop. about 10,000. It has a college, a s...
-Gorres
Gorres ,.I. Jakob Joseph von, a German author, born in Coblentz, Jan. 25, 1776, died in Munich, Jan. 29, 1848. After the proclamation of the French republic he gave up the study of medicine to devote ...
-Gortchakoff
Gortchakoff , a Russian princely family, descended from the royal house of Rurik, several members of which have distinguished themselves. I. Petr, commander of Smolensk, is celebrated for his defence ...
-Gorz
Gorz , or Goritz. I. A circle of Cisleithan Austria (generally called Gorz and Gradisca), forming with Istria and Trieste the Littoral province, but having its own diet; area, 1,143 sq. m.; pop. about...
-Goshawk
Goshawk , a bird of prey of the family ful-conidoe, subfamily accipitrinoe, and genus astur (Lacep.). The bill is short, broad at the base, with the culmen elevated and arched; the tip acute, with the...
-Goths
Goths (Lat. Gothones, Guttones, etc.), an extinct Germanic race, first mentioned as dwelling on the coasts of the Baltic during the 4th century B. C, and disappearing from history in the 8th century A...
-Gotha
Gotha ,.I. Formerly an independent duchy (Saxe-Gotha), but now politically united with Coburg under the name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; pop. of Gotha in 1871, 122,030. (See Saxe-COBURG-GOTHA.) II. The capi...
-Gothenburg
Gothenburg , or Gottenbnrg (Swed. Goti borg). I. A laen or province of Sweden, in the S. W. part of the kingdom, bordering on the Catte-gat, the Skager Rack, and Norway; area, 1,890 sq. m.; pop. in 18...
-Gothic Language And Literature
Gothic language became extinct with that Germanic race by whom it was spoken. The existing Gothic manuscripts are written in characters related in form and order to the Greek alphabet, and, it is said...
-Gottfried August Burger
Gottfried August Burger, a German poet, born at Molmerswende, Dec. 31, 1747, died in Got-tingen, June 8, 1794. A comic poem of his composition drove him from the school of Asch-ersleben, and his disli...
-Gottfried Christian Friedrich Lucke
Gottfried Christian Friedrich Lucke, a German theologian, born at Egeln, near Magdeburg, Aug. 23, 1792, died in Gottingen, Feb. 14, 1855. He studied at Halle and Gottingen, published De Ecclesia Apost...
-Gottfried Heinrich Pappmheim
Gottfried Heinrich Pappmheim, count, an imperial general in the thirty years' war, born May 29, 1594, died at Leipsic, Nov. 7 (new style 17), 1632. He received a liberal education at Altdorf and Tubin...
-Gotthilf Heinrich Von Schubert
Gotthilf Heinrich Von Schubert, a German mystic, born at Hohenstein, Saxony, April 26, 1780, died at Laufzorn, Upper Bavaria, July 1, 1860. He studied theology at Leipsic and medicine at Jena, practis...
-Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, a German author, born in Camenz, Jan. 22, 1729, died in Brunswick, Feb. 15, 1781. His father, a clergyman, desired him to embrace his own profession, and at the age of 17 he ...
-Gottingen
Gottingen , a city of Prussia, in the province and 57 m. S. by E. of the city of Hanover; pop. in 1871, 15,841. It is the seat of a university (Georgia Augusta), which was founded in 1734 by King Geor...
-Gottlieb Christoph Adolf Harless
Gottlieb Christoph Adolf Harless, a German theologian, born in Nuremberg, Nov. 21, 1806. He graduated in theology at Erlangen in 1829, and in 1836 was made ordinary professor of theology at the same u...
-Gotz Or Gottfried Von Rerlichingen
Gotz Or Gottfried Von Rerlichingen, one of the last of the feudal knights of Germany, born at Jaxthausen, in Wfirtemberg, in 1480, died July 23, 1562. He was educated under the charge of his uncle Kon...
-Gourd
Gourd(Fr. gourde, a swelling), a name applied in Europe to plants of the order cucurbi-taceoe in general, but restricted in the United States to the lagenaria, the hard shell of which is put to variou...
-Gout
Gout , a painful disease affecting principally the fibrous tissues about the smaller joints, and intimately connected with an excess of uric acid and its compounds in the blood. Various names have bee...
-Goyaz
Goyaz ,.I. A central province of Brazil, lying between lat. 6 and 21 5' S., and lon. 44 35' and 50 58' W.; area, 284,000 sq. m.; pop. about 151,000, besides about 12,000 independen...
-Graal, Or Grail
Graal, Or Grail the Holy (in old French, san greal; in old English, sancgreall; either from Fr. saint, holy, and the Celtic greall, Provencal grazal, and mediaeval Latin gradalis, a vase or cup, or fr...
-Gracchus
Gracchus ,.I. Tiberius Sempronius, a Roman statesman, born about 168 B. C, died in 133. His father, Tiberius Gracchus, had been censor and consul, and had twice obtained a triumph. His mother, Corneli...
-Graces
Graces , The (Lat. Gratioe, Gr. Xaptres), mythological beings, generally described as daughters of Jupiter, but called by some daughters of Apollo, and by others of Bacchus; their maternity is still m...
-Gracias
Gracias , or Gracias a Dios ( Thanks to God), an inland city of Honduras, capital of a department of the same name, situated in a fertile plain, near the foot of a steep and craggy mountain, 77 m. W...
-Graduation
Graduation , the art of dividing astronomical, geodetical, and other mathematical instruments. It was formerly done by hand with ordinary dividing instruments, and so few makers possessed the requisit...
-Grafe
Grafe ,.I. Karl Ferdinand von, a German surgeon, born in Warsaw, March 8, 1787, died in Hanover, July 4, 1840. He graduated as a doctor of medicine at Leipsic in 1807, and in 1811 became professor of ...
-Grafting
Grafting , the process in horticulture by which a portion of a plant is made to unite with another plant, whether of the same kind or of another variety or species. The plant upon which the operation ...
-Grafton
Grafton , a W. county of New Hampshire, bounded N. by the Connecticut river; area, 1,403 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 39,103. It has a mountainous surface, containing some of the celebrated summits of the Wh...
-Graham Island
Graham Island , or Isle of Julia, a volcanic island, which appeared in the Mediterranean in July, 1831, and disappeared toward the close of October. The locality was about midway between Sciacca in Si...
-Grakle
Grakle ,.I. A conirostral bird of the East Indian genus gracula (Linn.), constituting in itself the subfamily guaculinoe of the family sturnidoe or starlings. The species, especially the mina bird (G....
-Gramont
Gramont , an ancient French family, which traces its origin to the 14th century, takes its name from the seigneurial estate of Gramont in Lower Navarre, and has produced several distinguished men. I. ...
-Grampus
Grampus , a porpoise-like cetacean, belonging to the genus phocoena (Cuvier); English writers, however, make a generic name of the word grampus, calling the animal G. orca (Fabr.). The name seems to b...
-Gran
Gran , (Hung. Esztcrgom). I. A N. W. county of Hungary, traversed from W. to E. by the Danube; area, 424 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 65,-306, mostly Magyars. The surface toward the centre is flat, in the no...
-Granada
Granada ,.I. A AY. department of Nicaragua, between Lake Nicaragua and Lake Managua, and bordering on the Pacific; area, 2,943 sq. m.; pop. about 56.000. The general aspect of this department is that ...
-Granada (2)
I. An ancient kingdom of Spain, in Andalusia, now comprising the three modern provinces of Malaga, Granada, and Alme-ria, bounded S. and E. by the Mediterranean; greatest length about 200 m., greatest...
-Granadilla
Granadilla , (Span., diminutive of granada, a pomegranate), the Spanish-American name for the edible fruit of several species of passi-flora, especially that of P. quadrangularis. The genus passiflora...
-Grand Haven
Grand Haven , a city, port of entry, and the capital of Ottawa co., Michigan, at the mouth of Grand river, on the E. shore of Lake Michigan, opposite Milwaukee, and 90 m. W. N. W. of Lansing; pop. in ...
-Grand Pensionary
Grand Pensionary, an officer of the Dutch republic, who bore the title also of advocate general, and was prime minister of the states or legislative body of the province of Holland. He was called gran...
-Grand Rapids
Grand Rapids , a city and the capital of Kent co., Michigan, situated at the rapids of Grand river, here spanned by five bridges, 30 m. E. of Lake Michigan and 60 m. W. N. W. of Lansing; pop. in 1850,...
-Grandee
Grandee , (Span. grande de Espana), the highest rank of Spanish nobility. The grandees of Spain were the great nobles descended from the ancient chief feudatories of the crown, and from members of the...
-Granite
Granite , a hard firm rock, made up essentially of crystalline grains of feldspar and quartz, deriving its name from its granular structure. The typical granites are generally described as composed of...
-Grant
Grant , a word constantly used in deeds of conveyance, and which once had a specific meaning, that now is almost lost. By the rules of the early common law all estates of land of which actual delivery...
-Grant (2)
Grant , the name of 11 counties in the United States. I. A N. E. county of West Virginia, bordering N. W. on Maryland, crossed by the Alleghany mountains, and watered by the N. and S. branches of the ...
-Granvelle
Granvelle , Antoine Perrenot, cardinal de, a Spanish statesman, born in Besancon, Aug. 20, 1517, died in Madrid, Sept. 21, 1580. He was the son of Nicolas Perrenot, the chancellor and minister of the ...
-Granville
Granville , a N. county of North Carolina, bordering on Virginia, intersected by Tar river and watered by the Neuse river; area, about 750 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 24,831, of whom 13,355 were colored. Th...
-Granville George Leveson Gower Granville
Granville George Leveson Gower Granville, second earl, a British statesman, born in London, May 11, 1815. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, and entered public life in 1835 as attache to the British ...
-Granville Sharp
Granville Sharp, an English philanthropist, born in Durham in 1734, died in London, July 6, 1813. He was the son of Dr. Thomas Sharp, archdeacon of Northumberland, author of several philological, anti...
-Grape
Grape , the fruit of woody vines of the genus vitis (the ancient Latin name), the type of the order vitacece, which includes shrubs climbing by tendrils. At each node or joint of the grape-vine is bor...
-Graphite
Graphite , (Gr. to write), a mineral commonly called black lead or plumbago, but which titles are incorrect, as it contains no lead. Its composition is similar to that of anthracite coal, containin...
-Graptolites
Graptolites , (Gr. to write, and stone), a genus of fossil acalephs, of as many as 20 species, found only in the Silurian rocks, abounding particularly in the slates of the Hudson river group. ...
-Grass Tree
Grass Tree , one of the English names given to plants of the genus xanthorrhoea, which are also called grass-gum trees and black-boys. They belong to the order liliaceoe, and are especially distinguis...
-Grasses
Grasses , plants of the natural order grami-neoe, one of the most extensive in number of species and individuals, and one of the most important in its relation to man. The stem (culm) is jointed, some...
-Grasshopper
Grasshopper , a name properly applied to orthopterous insects of the family loevstadoe. Some European entomologists assign the generic name locusta to the grasshopper; the sau-terelles of the French i...
-Gratian
Gratian , (Augustus Gratianus), emperor of Rome, born in Pannonia in 359, slain at Lugdunum (Lyons) in 383. His father, Valen-tinian I., bestowed upon him the title of Augustus in his childhood, but w...
-Gratz, Or Gratz
Gratz, Or Gratz a town of Austria, capital of the province of Styria, on the Mur, 90 m. S. S. W. of Vienna; pop. in 1870, 80,732. It consists of the town proper, which is on the left bank of the rive...
-Gravel
Gravel , small stones, commonly intermixed with sand, and sometimes with clayey or calcareous earth. Such a mixture constitutes the principal portion of the drift formation; and where this prevails, t...
-Gravity
Gravity , or Gravitation (Lat. gravitas, weight), in physics, the tendency of bodies toward each other or toward a centre of attraction. In the article Astronomy we have considered the history of the ...
-Gray
Gray , a town of France, in the department of Haute-Saone, on the left bank of the river Saone, 30 m. S. W. of Vesoul; pop. in 1866, 6,764. It is on a hill, in the form of an amphitheatre, and the str...
-Grayling
Grayling , a soft-rayed fish, of the salmon family, and genus thymallus (Cuv.), found in the rivers of northern Europe, Asia, and America. The English grayling has the head and body elongated, the for...
-Grayson
I. A S. W. county of Virginia, bounded S. by North Carolina and N. W. by the Iron mountain; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,587, of whom 754 were colored. It is intersected by Kanawha or New river. ...
-Great And Lesser Bear (Ursa Major And Minor)
Great And Lesser Bear, Ursa Major And Minor, two constellations of the northern hemisphere. The former in the latitude of 45 N. never passes below the horizon. The most remarkable stars in it are...
-Great And Little Belt
Great And Little Belt, the name given to two of the three channels which connect the Baltic with the Cattegat, and through it with the North sea. The Great Belt is about 50 m. long, 18 m. in medium wi...
-Great And Little Cumama
Great And Little Cumama, two districts of Hungary. - Great Cumania (Hung. Nagy Kiinsdg), in the circle beyond the Theiss, consists of a low plain, subject to frequent inundations from the rivers, and ...
-Great Basin, Or Fremont's Basin
Great Basin, Or Fremont's Basin the region lying between the Wahsatch mountains on the east and the Sierra Nevada on the west, embracing Nevada, the W. portion of Utah, and the S. E. part of Californi...
-Great Britain
Great Britain , in a geographical sense, the largest and most important island of Europe, and in a political sense, as popularly used, the British empire, or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ir...
-The Great Charles Emaniel I Of Savoy
The Great Charles Emaniel I., duke of Savoy, born at the castle of Rivoli, Jan. 12, 1562, died at Savillan, July 26, 1630. He succeeded his father, Philibert Emanuel, surnamed Ironhead, in 1580. His b...
-Great Dismal Swamp
Great Dismal Swamp, a large morass in Virginia and North Carolina, extending 40 m. S. from near Norfolk in the former state, and 25 m. E. and W. The soil consists of black vegetable matter to the dept...
-The Great III
The Great III. The Great, born in 1309, died Nov. 5, 1370. He was the son and successor of Ladislas Lokietek (the Short), who had restored the union and the power of the long distracted kingdom. While...
-Great Kanawha River
Great Kanawha River , a large stream of North Carolina and the Virginias, called in the upper part of its course New river. It rises in the N. W. part of the former state, between the Blue Ridge and I...
-Great Salt Lake
Great Salt Lake , an extensive sheet of water in Utah, Iying in the Great Basin, between lat. 40 40' and 41 45' N., and lon. 111 50' and 113 10' W. Its outline is somewhat irregula...
-Greathead Grosseteste, Or Greathead (Lat
Greathead Grosseteste, Or Greathead (Lat. Capito), Robert, a British theologian, born at Stradbrooke, Suffolk, about 1175, died at Buck-den, Oct. 9,1253. He was educated first at Oxford and Paris, bec...
-Grebe
Grebe , a lobe-footed bird of the family co-lynibidoe, and subfamily podicipnnoe, comprising the genera podiceps (Lath.) and podilym-bus (Lesson). The genus podiceps has a long, straight, and slender ...
-Greece
Greece , a country of southeastern Europe, occupying the central and southern portions of the large and irregular peninsula which extends into the Mediterranean between the Ionian and the AEgean seas....
-Greek Church
Greek Church , (also called the Greek Catholic, the Orthodox Greek, the Orthodox, or the Eastern church), that part of the Christian church which adheres only to the doctrinal decrees of the first sev...
-Greeley
Greeley' ,.I. A central county of Nebraska, formed since the census of 1870, drained by branches of Loup fork of the Platte river; area, 625 sq. m. II. An E. county of Dakota territory, recently forme...
-Green
Green ,.See Light, and Pigments. Green #1 Green ,.I. A central county of Kentucky, intersected by Green river, which is navigable by steamboats, 'and drained by several small streams; area, 525 sq. ...
-Green Bay
Green Bay , a large arm of Lake Michigan, communicating with the W. side of the lake by a broad opening at which lies a group of islands. It partly separates Wisconsin from the upper peninsula of Mich...
-Green Clay
Green Clay, an American soldier, born in Powhatan co., Virginia, Aug. 14, 1757, died Oct. 31, 1826. Prompted by the example of Boone's adventurous career in Kentucky, he migrated to that district befo...
-Green Mountains
Green Mountains , the northernmost portion of the Appalachian chain, extending from Canada S. through Vermont. To this state, over which they are largely spread, they give its name, from the term mont...
-Green River
Green River ,.I. A considerable stream which rises in Lincoln co., Ky., flows W. past the Mammoth cave, and, after receiving Big Barren river, bends N. W. and enters the Ohio 9 m. above Evansville in ...
-Greencastle
Greencastle , a city and the capital of Putnam co., Indiana, 1 m. E. of Walnut fork of Eel river, at the intersection of the Louisville, New Albany, and Chicago railroad with the St. Louis, Vandalia, ...
-Greene
Greene , the name of counties in 14 of the United States. I. A S. E. county of New-York, bounded E. by the Hudson river, and drained by Catskill creek and Schoharie river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 18...
-Greenfield
Greenfield , the shire town of Franklin co., Massachusetts, on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, 20 m. N. of Northampton, and 80 m. W. N. W. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 3,589. It is situated at the j...
-Greenhouse
Greenhouse , a name commonly applied to any glass structure in which plants are raised, but by professional gardeners restricted to houses in which a comparatively cool temperature is maintained. A co...
-Greenland
Greenland , (Dan. and Ger. Gronland; Fr. Groenland), an extensive region belonging to Denmark, lying N. E. of the mainland of North America, from which and its outlying islands it is separated by Davi...
-Greenock
Greenock , a parliamentary borough and seaport town of Renfrewshire, Scotland, on the S. shore of the estuary of the Clyde, 18 m. W. N W. of Glasgow; pop. in 1871, 57,138. It stands partly on a narrow...
-Greenport
Greenport , a village and port of delivery in the town of Southold, Suffolk co., N. Y., on the S. side of the N. E. point of Long Island, 95 m. E. N. E. of New York; pop. in 1870, 1,819. It has an exc...
-Greensand
Greensand , an important member of the cretaceous group of stratified rocks. In Europe it is found in both divisions of these rocks, the upper and lower, the clay called gault being intermediate. The ...
-Greenville
Greenville ,.I. A S. E. county of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, bounded N. by the Nottoway river, and watered by the Meher-rin river; area, 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,362, of whom 4,207 were...
-Greenwich
Greenwich , a town and borough of Fairfield co., Connecticut, on Long Island sound, and on the New York and New Haven railroad, 30 m. N. E. of New York and 42 m. S. W. of New Haven; pop. in 1870, 7,64...
-Greer Fire
Greer Fire , a name applied to compounds that burn on the surface of or under water. A summary of what is said about it in old writers is given by Gibbon in the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire,...
-Gregarina
Gregarina , the best known genus of the gregarinidoe, a division of protozoa, with no mouth and without the power of sending out the delicate filaments of sarcode characteristic of the foraminifera. T...
-Gregorian Chant
Gregorian Chant , a method of singing the psalms and litanies of the church, introduced by Pope Gregory the Great about 590., It was mainly founded on the Ambrosian chant, previously in use in the wes...
-Gregory (2)
Gregory , the name of 16 popes. I. Saint, surnamed the Great, born of a noble family in Rome about 540, died March 12, 604. His parents were patricians of great wealth. His father, Gordianus, renounce...
-Gregory Nazianzen
Gregory Nazianzen , a saint and doctor of the church, born about 328, died about 389. His father Gregory, a convert from heathenism, was on account of his holy life and great zeal made bishop of Nazia...
-Gregory Of Nyssa
Gregory Of Nyssa , a saint and father of the church, born in Cappadocia about 331, died about 400. He was a younger brother of Basil the Great, studied with him at Athens and Constantinople, was marri...
-Gregory Of Tours
Gregory Of Tours , (Georgius Florentius Gregorius), a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born in Auvergne about 540, died in Tours probably on Nov. 17, 595. He is called the father of French history,...
-Gregory The Illuminator
Gregory The Illuminator , a saint of the church, the apostle and first patriarch of Armenia, born in 257, died about 332. He was the son of Anag, a prince of the royal family of the Arsacidae, who hav...
-Grenada
Grenada , a British colony and island in the West Indies, the most southerly of what are called the Caribbee islands, between lat. 11 58' and 12 20' N., and Ion. 61 40' and 61 55' ...
-Grenoble
Grenoble , (anc. Cularo or Gratianopolis), a fortified city of France, capital of the department of Isere, on both sides of the river Isere, 58 m. S. E. of Lyons and 290 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 187...
-Grenville
Grenville , an E. county of Ontario, Canada, bordering on the St. Lawrence, and bounded X. by the Rideau river and canal; area, 463 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 22,010. It is well watered, and is traversed b...
-Greville
Greville , Sir Fulke (Lord Brooke), an English statesman, born in Warwickshire in 1554, died in London, Sept. 30, 1628. He studied both at Cambridge and Oxford. In 1597 he was knighted, and for severa...
-Grey
Grey , a W. county of Ontario. Canada, bounded N. E. by Georgian bay and Owen sound, and watered by Saugeen river and smaller streams; area, 1,800 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 59,395, of whom 23,511 were of ...
-Greyhound
Greyhound , (canis venaticus), a species of dog characterized by a narrow and sharp head, a nose greatly prolonged, and with its plane passing with little elevation nearly to the occiput, long neck, d...
-Gridley
Gridley ,.I. Jeremy, an American lawyer, born in Boston, Mass., March 10, 1702, died in Brookline, Sept. 10, 1767. He was educated at Harvard- college, and was for a year editor of the Weekly Rehear...
-Grigori Alexandroritch Potemkin
Grigori Alexandroritch Potemkin, prince, a Russian soldier, born in the government of Smolensk in 1736 or 1739, died in October, 1791. He was an ensign in the army when in 1762, soon after the accessi...
-Grimaldi
Grimaldi , one of the four great patrician families of Genoa. They derive their descent from Grimoald, mayor of the palace under the Frankish king Childebert II., and first made their appearance in no...
-Grimke
Grimke ,.I. Thomas Smith, an American lawyer and scholar, born in Charleston, S. 0., Sept. 26, 1786, died near Columbus, O., Oct. 12, 1834. He graduated at Yale college in 1807, studied law in Charles...
-Grimm
Grimm ,.I. Jakob Ludwig, a German philologist, born in Hanau, Jan. 4, 1785, died in Berlin, Sept. 20, 1863. He studied law in the university of Marburg under Savigny, whom in 1805 he accompanied to Pa...
-Grindelwald
Grindelwald , a village of Switzerland, in the canton and 36 m. S. E. of the city of Bern, and 10 m. E. S. E. of Interlaken, about 3,500 ft. above the sea, on the Bergelbach; pop. about 3,000. It is t...
-Griscom
Griscom ,.I. 'John, an American educator, born at Hancock's Bridge, Salem co., N. J., Sept. 27, 1774, died in Burlington, N. J., Feb. 26, 1852. He belonged to a family of Friends, passed his youth on ...
-Grisons
Grisons , (Ger. Graubundten), the easternmost and largest of the Swiss cantons, bordering on Liechtenstein, Tyrol, Italy, and the cantons of St. Gall, Glarus, Ticino, and Uri; greatest length 90 m., g...
-Gritti
Gritti ,.I. Andrea, doge of Venice, born in 1454, died Dec. 28, 1538. During the war against the league of Cambrai he led the armies of the republic against the imperialists, whom he at first defeated...
-Grodno
Grodno ,.I. A government of European Russia, in Lithuania, formerly a part of Poland, bordering on Wilna, Minsk, Volhynia, and the kingdom of Poland; area, 14,960 sq. m.; pop. in 18(37, 958,852, the l...
-Groningen
Groningen ,.I. A N. E. province of the Netherlands, bordering on the North sea and the estuary of the Ems, Prussia, and the provinces of Drenthe and Friesland; area, 885 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 234,903....
-Gronovius
Gronovius , the Latinized form of Gronov, the name of a German family settled in Holland. I. John Frederick, born in Hamburg, Sept. 8, 1611, died in Leyden, Dec. 28, 1671. He was educated at Leipsic a...
-Gros Ventres
Gros Ventres , (Fr., Big Bellies), a name applied to two Indian tribes of different origin; 1, the Gros Ventres of the Missouri, or Minne-taries (see Minnetaries); 2, the Gros Ventres of the prairies....
-Grosbeak
Grosbeak , the name of many conirostral birds of the finch family, and subfamily coc-eothraustinoe and spizinoe, or hawfinches, found in all parts of the world. One of the handsomest of the American s...
-Grotius
Grotius , (De Groot), Hugo, a Dutch jurist, born in Delft, April 10, 1583, died in Rostock. Aug. 28, 1645. In his 15th year he published an edition of Marcianus Capella, from the annotations of which ...
-Groton
Groton ,.I. A town of Middlesex co., Massachusetts, on Nashua and Squannacook rivers, 30 m. N. W. of Boston and 13 m. W. of Lowell; pop. in 1870, 3,584. Since the census the town of Ayer has been take...
-Grotto
Grotto , (It. grotto), a natural cavern, or an artificial excavation in the earth. Among the most famous caverns particularly designated by this name is the Kasegrotte at Bertrich, Rhenish Prussia, so...
-Groundsel
Groundsel , the common name of senecio vulgaris, of the natural order compositoe. It is a little, weedy plant, found in waste places and in gardens from New England to Pennsylvania, adventitiously int...
-Grouse
Grouse , the name of gallinaceous birds of the family tetraonidoe, characterized by a short broad bill with culmen curved; the nostrils concealed by closely set feathers in the nasal groove; wings sho...
-Grundy
Grundy ,.I. A S. E. county of Tennessee, drained by Collins river; area, 300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 3,250, of whom 137 were colored. It has a mountainous surface and a fertile soil. The chief productio...
-Grutli, Or Rutli
Grutli, Or Rutli a locality of Switzerland, in the canton of Uri, 5 m. S. W. of Schwytz, consisting only of a small space occupied by a meadow with a few cottages and walnut and chestnut trees, but ce...
-Guacharo
Guacharo , a fissirostral bird of the family caprimulgidoe or goatsuckers, subfamily stea-torninoe or oil birds, and genus steatornis (Humboldt). There is only one described species, the S. Caripensis...
-Guaco, Or Huaco
Guaco, Or Huaco a name given in the tropical regions of America to several plants used as antidotes for the bites of poisonous snakes. Aristolochia guaco is said to be the one most in repute; and so g...
-Guadalajara
Guadalajara , a city of Mexico, the second in importance of the republic, capital of the state of Jalisco, 275 m. N. W. of the city of Mexico; pop. about 70,000. It stands on the left bank of the Rio ...
-Guadalupe
Guadalupe , a river of Texas, rising in Edwards co., in the S. W. part of the state. It flows nearly E. until it enters the alluvial plain that stretches toward the gulf of Mexico, from which point it...
-Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe , one of the Leeward islands of the West Indies, and the most important of those which belong to France, between lat. 15 57' and 16 30' N., and Ion. 61 15' and 61 45' W....
-Guaiacum
Guaiacum , a name applied to both the wood and a resinous substance from the guaiacum officinale, of the natural order zygophyllacecoe. The tree grows in the West Indies and on the mainland opposite. ...
-Guaicurus
Guaicurus , a nation of Brazilian Indians, in that portion of the region watered by the Paraguay between lat. 18 and 22 S. They are of medium height and strong, and their skin is of copper c...
-Guam Guahan, Or San Joan
Guam Guahan, Or San Joan, the largest and southernmost of the Ladrone islands, in lat. 13 N., Ion. 145 E.; pop. about 5,000. It is about 100 m. in circumference, and surrounded by coral reef...
-Guan
Guan , a gallinaceous bird, of the family cra-cidoe or curassows, and subfamily penelopinoe; it includes the genera ortalida, penelope, and oreophasis, the first two South American, and the last pecul...
-Guanajuato
Guanajuato ,.I. A central state of Mexico, lying between lat. 20 and 22 N., and Ion. 100 and 102 W., and bounded N. by San Luis Po-tosi, E. by Queretaro, S. by Michoacan, and W. by...
-Guanches
Guanches , the aborigines of the Canary islands, extinct since the end of the 16th century. They are said to have been gigantic in stature, well proportioned, of an olive complexion, with long straigh...
-Guano (2)
Guano , (Sp. guano or huano, Peruvian huanu, dung), the excrement of sea fowl, intermixed with their decomposed bodies and eggs, and the remains of seals, found accumulated principally upon the island...
-Guarana
Guarana , a paste formed chiefly from seeds of Paullinia sorbilis, and perhaps P. cupana, climbing shrubs of the order sapindaccce, growing in Brazil and on the banks of the Orinoco. The paste is drie...
-Guaranty
Guaranty ,.This word is derived from the old English word warrant. The Latin and the Norman French languages, not having the letter w, in spelling this word and many others used the letter g instead o...
-Guardian
Guardian , one who guards, or has the care and charge of another. Guardians in law are of many kinds. There are guardians of minor children, and of those incapacitated otherwise than by age from takin...
-Guarneri, Or Guarnerius
Guarneri, Or Guarnerius the name of a family living at Cremona in the 17th century, some of whose members are celebrated as violin makers. - Andrea, born about 1630, worked at his art from 1650 to abo...
-Guastalla
Guastalla , a town of Italy, in the province of Reggio, at the junction of the Cros-tolo and the Po, 18 m. N. E. of Parma; pop. about 10,000. It is well built, is surrounded by walls, and contains a c...
-Guatemala
Guatemala ,.I. A republic of Central America, lying between lat, 13 50' and 18 15' N, and Ion. 88 14' and 93 12' W., bounded N. by Yucatan, E. by British Honduras, the bay of Hondu...
-Guatemozin
Guatemozin , the last Aztec emperor of Mexico, nephew and son-in-law of Montezuma, born about 1495, executed Feb. 15, 1525. On the death of Montezuma's brother and successor Cuitlahua, in 1520, he was...
-Guava
Guava , (Span, guayaba), a name for trees of the genus psidium, belonging to the myrtle family. There are about 100 species of the genus, which grow in tropical and sub-tropical America, though the nu...
-Guayaquil
Guayaquil , a maritime city of Ecuador, capital of the republic, and of the province of Guayas, 150 m. S. W. of Quito; pop. about 26,000. It is built on the W. bank of the bay of Guayaquil, on which i...
-Gubbio
Gubbio , (anc. Iguvium or Eugubium), a town of Italy, in the province of Pesaro ed Urbino, near Mount Calvo, 30 m. N. E. of Perugia, and 110 m. N. of Rome; pop. about 0,000. It contains a cathedral, s...
-Gudgeon
Gudgeon , a cyprinoid fish of the genus gobio (Cuv.), found chiefly in the fresh-water streams and lakes of central and temperate Europe. It is characterized by a lengthened, rounded body, with short ...
-Guebres
Guebres , or Ghebers (Turkish, Ghiavrs, Ghaurs, and Giaours, infidels), a name applied to those Persians who adhered to the ancient religion of Zoroaster after the great majority of the nation had bee...
-Guelder Rose
Guelder Rose , the name of a garden form of viburnum opulus, a shrub which in its wild state is common in the cooler parts of America, Europe, and Asia. It grows with an upright habit from 2 to 10 ft....
-Guelphs And Ghibellines
Guelphs And Ghibellines (Ger. Welfen, Ital. Guelfi, and Ger. Wiblingen or Waiblin-gen, an estate belonging to the Hohenstaufen family, in the modern Wurtemberg), the names of two celebrated factions i...
-Guercino
Guercino , (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri), an Italian painter, born at Cento, near Ferrara, in 1590, died in Bologna in 1000. An accident deprived him in infancy of the use of his right eye, whence he ...
-Guernsey
Guernsey , the westernmost of the Channel islands, belonging to Great Britain, and lying in the English channel, 28 m. from the N. W. coast of France, and 65 m. from England, between lat. 49 24' ...
-Guerrero
Guerrero ,.I. A state of Mexico, bounded N. by the states of Michoacan, Mexico, and Pue-bla, E. by Oajaca, S. by the Pacific, and W. by Michoacan; area, 24,226 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 241,860, mostly In...
-Guido Reni
Guido Reni , an Italian painter, of the Bo-lognese school, born near Bologna in 1575, died there in 1642. He studied under Denys Calvaert and Ludovico Carracci, and went to Rome, where his Martyrdom ...
-Guignes
Guignes ,.I. Joseph de, a French orientalist, born in Pontoise, Oct. 19, 1721, died in Paris in March, 1800. When only 20 years old he was an extraordinary sinologue. In 1752 the royal society of Lond...
-Guild
Guild , or Gild (Sax. gildan, to pay), a name given in England and France to societies organized for mutual aid and protection, as well as to confraternities whose chief object is piety or beneficence...
-Guilford
Guilford , a N. W. county of North Carolina, drained by Deep river, a branch of the Cape Fear, and by Reedy fork of Haw river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,736, of whom 6,080 were colored. The s...
-Guilford Court House
Guilford Court House , a locality about 5 m. from Greensborough, Guilford co., N. C, memorable for a battle fought, March 15,1781, between the Americans under Gen. Greene and the British under Lord Co...
-Guillanme Henri Dufour
Guillanme Henri Dufour, a Swiss general, born in Constance, Sept. 15, 1787. He was educated in Geneva and Paris, entered the French army, obtained a commission in 1809, served in the last campaigns of...
-Guillanme Marie Anne Brune
Guillanme Marie Anne Brune, a marshal of France, born at Brives-la-Gaillarde in 1763, died at Avignon, Aug. 2, 1815. He was educated at Paris for the law, but on the breaking out of the French revolut...
-Guillaume Dubois
Guillaume Dubois, a French cardinal and statesman, born in Brive-la-Gaillarde, Limousin, Sept. 6, 1656, died in Versailles, Aug. 10, 1723. He was the son of an apothecary, went at an early age to Pari...
-Guillaume Dupuytren
Guillaume Dupuytren, a French surgeon, born at Pierre-Buffiere, Limousin, Oct. 6,1777, died in Paris, Feb. 8, 1835. At the age of 12 he was placed in the college of La Marche at Paris, where he engage...
-Guillaume Thomas Francois Raynal
Guillaume Thomas Francois Raynal, a French historian, born at St. Geniez, Guienne, April 12, 1713, died near Paris, March 6, 1796. He was educated at a college of the Jesuits, became a priest, and for...
-Guillemot
Guillemot , an arctic web-footed bird, of the family alcidoe, and subfamily urinoe, including the genera uria (Mohring), brachyrham-phus (Brandt), and mergulus (Ray). The last, to which the lit...
-Guillotine
Guillotine , an instrument for inflicting capital punishment by decapitation. It consists of an oblique-edged knife, heavily weighted, sliding easily between two upright grooved posts, and descending ...
-Guimaraens
Guimaraens (Port. Guimaraes), a town of Portugal, in the province of Minho, between the Ave and Vizella, 32 m. N. E. of Oporto; pop. about 8,000. The town stands on a gentle slope, nearly surrounded b...
-Guinea (2)
Guinea , a name applied to all the TV. coast of Africa between Cape Verga, lat. 10 19' N, and Cape Negro, lat. 15 41' S.; that part N. of Cape Lopez, about lat. 1 8., being called Upper...
-Guinea Fowl, Or Pintado
Guinea Fowl, Or Pintado a gallinaceous bird, of the turkey family, and genus numida (Linn.), characterized by a moderate bill, with arched culmen and upper mandible overhanging the lower, and lateral ...
-Guinea Pig
Guinea Pig , a South American rodent, of the subfamily caviina, and genus caria (Klein). It will be seen that the common name conveys two erroneous impressions, as the animal is not found in Guinea, n...
-Guipuzcoa
Guipuzcoa , one of the Basque provinces of Spain, bordering on the bay of Biscay, France, and the provinces of Navarre, A lava, and Biscay; area, 728 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 180,743. The coast is inden...
-Guischard, Or Guisehardt
Guischard, Or Guisehardt Karl Gottlieb, a German writer, born in Magdeburg in 1724, died in Berlin, May 15, 1775. He studied at Halle, Marburg, and Leyden, with the intention of becoming a clergyman; ...
-Guizot
Guizot ,.I. Francois Pierre Guillanme, a French statesman and historian, born in Nimes, Oct. 4, 1787. His father, a Calvinist and a distinguished lawyer, having died on the scaffold in 1794, he was ta...
-Gulf Of Mexico
Gulf Of Mexico, a basin of the Atlantic ocean, enclosed by the United States, the West Indies, and Mexico, and measuring about 1,000 m. from E. to W. and 800 m. from N. to S.; area, about 700,000 sq. ...
-Gulian Cromelin Verplmck
Gulian Cromelin Verplmck, an American author, born in New York, Aug. 6, 1786, died there, March 18, 1870. He graduated at Columbia college in 1801, studied law, and passed several years in European tr...
-Gull
Gull , a web-footed bird, comprising several genera of the family laridoe, of which the typical genus larus (Linn.) is found over the marine portions of the entire world. The bill varies considerably ...
-Gum
Gum , an exudation from certain trees, distinguished by its either softening or dissolving in water, and not yielding to alcohol; also by affording mucic acid, when acted upon by nitric acid. The resi...
-Gum Resins
Gum Resins , inspissated juices of certain plants, obtained by spontaneous exudation or from incisions purposely made. They consist of resin and gum, the proportions varying in the different varieties...
-Gun Cotton
Gun Cotton , an explosive substance obtained by subjecting common cotton to the action of strong nitric acid, first brought to public notice in 1846 by Prof. Schonbein of Basel, Switzerland. Several p...
-Gun-Shot Wounds
Gun-Shot Wounds , injuries caused by the discharge or bursting of firearms. They are of two classes, according as the explosion of the powder does or does not carry solid projectiles. Slight wounds fr...
-Gunnery
Gunnery , the art of using guns, gunpowder, and projectiles. The forces which are of moment in gunnery as affecting the course of projectiles are terrestrial gravitation and the resistance of the air....
-Gunny
Gunny , a coarse cloth made in India of the fibres of two species of corchorus, and used for the sacks in which saltpetre, pepper, and other articles are packed for exportation. 1 he bagging itself is...
-Gunpowder
Gunpowder , a compound of nitre, charcoal, and sulphur, employed as an explosive. Its composition is described in the article Explosives. The date and the author of the invention are buried in obscuri...
-Gurhwai Gurwhal, Or Gurwal
Gurhwai Gurwhal, Or Gurwal, a N. W. district of British India, in the Northwest Provinces, between lat. 30 and 31 20' N., and Ion. 78 and 79 20' E., bounded N. and N. E. by the Him...
-Gurnard
Gurnard , an acanthopterous fish belonging to the family of sclerogenidoe or mailed cheeks, characterized by a prolongation of the suborbital bones forward across the cheek, and immovably articulate...
-Gustav Bergenroth
Gustav Bergenroth, a German-English historian, born in Prussia in 1813, died in Madrid in February, 1869. He was assessor to the high court of Berlin from 1843 to 1848, when he joined the extreme libe...
-Gustav Robert Kirchhoff
Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, a German physicist, born in Konigsberg, March 12, 1824. In 1845 he published an essay on the passage of the electric current through planes. He graduated at Konigsberg in 1846...
-Gustav Seyffarth
Gustav Seyffarth, a German archaeologist, born at Uebigau, Saxony, July 13, 1796. He studied at Leipsic, where in 1825 he became extraordinary professor of archaeology. In 1824 he published De Sonis L...
-Gustavc Lonis Adolphe Victor Charles Chaix Dest Ange
Gustavc Lonis Adolphe Victor Charles Chaix Dest Ange, a French advocate, born in Rheims, April 11, 1800. An able defence of the political conspirators of 1820 and 1821 gained for him early popularity....
-Gustave Auguste De Beaumont De La Bomiere
Gustave Auguste De Beaumont De La Bomiere, a French advocate and writer, born in the department of Sarthe, Feb. 16, 1802, died at Tours, March 2, 1866. In 1831 he was sent with Alexis de Tocqueville t...
-Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet, a French painter, born in Ornans, June 10, 1819. Going in 1839 to Paris to study law, he developed a decided talent for painting. He received some lessons from Steuben and Hesse, but ...
-Gustave Paul Cliseret
Gustave Paul Cliseret, a French soldier, born in Paris, June 13, 1823. In 1841 he entered the military school of St. Cyr, and two years afterward was appointed sub-lieutenant. In April, 1848, he was m...
-Gustave Xavier Delacroix De Ravignan
Gustave Xavier Delacroix De Ravignan, a French preacher, born in Bayonne, Dec. 2, 1795, died in Paris, Feb. 26, 1858. He studied law, and in 1821 became counsellor to the royal court of Paris, and dep...
-Gustavus I
Gustavus I., known as Gustavus Vasa, king of Sweden, born at the castle of Lind-holm, May 12, 1490, died in Stockholm, Sept. 29,1500. He was the son of Eric Johansson, a Swedish senator of the noble h...
-Gustavus III
Gustavus III., king of Sweden, eldest son and successor of King Adolphus Frederick and Ulrica Louisa, princess of Prussia, born in Stockholm, Jan. 24,1746, died there, March 29, 1792, He was educated ...
-Gutta Percha
Gutta Percha , (Malay, gutta, gum, and percha, the name of a tree), an inspissated juice called gutta taban by the Malays, the name being misapplied by the English. The tree which produces the gum was...
-Guy Warwick
Guy Warwick, earl of, a legendary English champion, supposed to have flourished in the time of the Saxon king Athelstan, though his existence at any period is problematical. Chaucer mentions the roman...
-Guyana Guiana, Or Guayana
Guyana Guiana, Or Guayana. I. An extensive territory on the 1ST. E. coast of South America, comprising three distinct colonies, viz.: British, Dutch, and French Guiana. It lies between lat. 0 55'...
-Guzerat
Guzerat , or Gujerat (Hindoo, Gurjara Rash-tra), a large district of India, in the province of Bombay, between lat, 20 45'and 24 45' X., and Ion. 69 and 74 20' E., bounded X. by th...
-Gwalior, Or Gualior. I. A Part Of India Until Lately Nominally Independent
Gwalior, Or Gualior. I. A Part Of India Until Lately Nominally Independent but now subsidiary to the British, bordering on the Northwest Provinces, Bombay, etc. It stretches very irregularly between l...
-Gwynn, Or Gwinn
Gwynn, Or Gwinn Eleanor, one of the mistresses of Charles II., born in London about 1650, died there about 1790. It is said that her father, Capt. Thomas Gwynn of the army, was a member of an ancient ...
-Gyges
Gyges , the first Lydian king of the dynasty of the Mermnadae. He was originally a chief officer at the court of his predecessor Can-daules. According to Herodotus, Candaules was proud of the beauty o...
-Gymnasium
Gymnasium , (Gr. naked), a term applied anciently in Greece and Italy, and now in continental Europe, and especially in Germany, to schools of a higher class, but in England and America to places f...
-Gymnastics
Gymnastics , (Gr. gymnastic art), a system of exercises which develop and invigorate the body, particularly the muscular system. If properly directed, gymnastics will enlarge and strengthen the var...
-Gyorgy Klapka
Gyorgy Klapka, a Hungarian soldier, born in Temesvar, April 7, 1820. He was educated in the school of artillery in Vienna, entered the noble life guards of the emperor, and in 1847 was appointed offic...
-Gypsum
Gypsum , a common mineral, frequently crystallized, oftener amorphous, and sometimes forming rock masses. Its crystallization is monoclinic; hardness, 1.5 to 2; specific gravity, 2.2 to 2.4; transpare...
-Gyroscope
Gyroscope , (Gr. a ring, and to examine), a name applied to various instruments designed to illustrate the phenomena of rotation. The most curious and generally interesting form of gyroscope, ri...
-Habeas Corpus
Habeas Corpus , an ancient English writ, used for a variety of purposes from the remotest time. It is addressed to a sheriff or other officer, and commands him to have the body of the person named at ...
-Hackberry
Hackberry , (celtis occidentalis), the popular name of a tree belonging to the nettle family (urticaceoa), and the elm suborder (ulmaceoe). In different parts of the country it is also known as sugarb...
-Haddock
Haddock ,.I. A soft-rayed fish of the cod family, and genus morrhua (Cuv.). This well known species varies in length from 1 to 2 ft., and in weight from 2 to 6 lbs., though some have been taken weighi...
-Hadji Khalfa
Hadji Khalfa , the surname of MUSTAPHA ben Abdallah, also known under the title of Katib Tchelebi (noble secretary), a Turkish historian, born at Constantinople, died there in 1658. His father was emp...
-Hadramaut
Hadramaut , a district of S. Arabia, lying along the shores of the Indian ocean. Its limits are not well defined, but it is bounded generally N. by the Dahna or great desert, N. E. by Oman, S. by the ...
-Hadrian
Hadrian , or Adrian (Publius AElius Hadri-anus), a Roman emperor, born in Rome, Jan. 24, A. D. 76, died July 10, 138. His father, a Roman senator, married the aunt of Trajan; and when he died, Trajan,...
-Hadrosaurus
Hadrosaurus , a gigantic extinct dinosaurian reptile, living on the shores and in the forests of the cretaceous epoch, abundant in the region of New Jersey, where its remains have been found. It attai...
-Haemoptysis
Haemoptysis , (Gr. blood, and a spitting), the spitting or raising of blood from the lungs. Haemoptysis may be a simple exudation from the mucous membrane without appreciable lesion, or may be c...
-Haemorrhage
Haemorrhage , (Gr. blood, and obs. to burst), an escape of blood from the vessels of the living body, called active or passive according as it is arterial or venous in character. Haemorrhage...
-Haemorrhoids
Haemorrhoids (Gr. blood, and to flow), or Piles, tumors situated near the anus, generally commencing by a varicose enlargement of the hemorrhoidal veins of the rectum, and frequently complicated ...
-Haeriem Haarlem, Or Hariem
Haeriem Haarlem, Or Hariem, a city of the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland, on the navigable river Spaarne, 3 m. from the sea, 10 m. W. of Amsterdam, and 17 m. N. N. E. of Leyden, with bo...
-Hagenau
Hagenau , (Fr. Haguenau), a city of Germany, in Alsace, on the Moder, in the midst of a large forest called the Hagenauer Wald, 16 m. N. by E. of Strasburg; pop. in 1871, 11,331. It is surrounded by a...
-Hagerstown
Hagerstown , a city and the capital of Wash- . ington co., Maryland, on the W. bank of An-tietam creek, 22 m. above its entrance into the Potomac, and at the intersection of the Cumberland Valley and ...
-Hagiographa
Hagiographa , (Gr. sacred, and to write), or Holy Writings (in Hebrew, Ketu-bim, writings), the name given by the Jews to their third division of the Old Testament Scriptures. There are various...
-Hague
Hague , The (Dutch, 's Gravenhage; Fr. La Haye; Ger. Der Haag), a city of the Netherlands, capital of the province of South Holland, about 2 m. from the sea, 31 m. S. W. of Amsterdam and 12 m. N. N. W...
-Hail
Hail , the aqueous vapor of the atmosphere congealed in icy masses, called hailstones, and precipitated upon the earth. Hailstones vary in size and internal structure, from the homogeneous masses one ...
-Hainan
Hainan , an island of China, in the China sea, between lat. 18 and 20 N., and Ion. 108 and 1110 E.; area, about 12,000 sq. m.; pop. about 1,500,000 Chinese, besides the tribes in the in...
-Hainaut
Hainaut , or Hainault (Flem. Henegouwen; Ger. Hennegau), a province of Belgium, bordering on France and the provinces of West and East Flanders, Brabant, and Namur; area, 1,437 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 8...
-Hair
Hair , an elongated, more or less cylindrical epidermic appendage, analogous to the feathers of birds and the scales of reptiles. Its essential structure consists of an assemblage of epidermic cells a...
-Hake
Hake , a name properly applied to fishes of the cod family, of the genus merlucius (Cuv.), and improperly in New England to gadoids of the genus phycis (Artedi). There is great confusion in the applic...
-Hake Lip
Hake Lip , a congenital fissure of the upper lip, on one or on both sides, giving to the mouth very much the appearance presented by the cleft upper lip of the hare. It is sometimes accompanied by a f...
-Hakodadi
Hakodadi , a city of Japan, in the province of Matsmai, near the S. end of the island of Yesso, on the N. side of the strait of Sangar about 42 m. N. E. of the city of Matsmai, and nearly in lat. 42&d...
-Halberstadt
Halberstadt , a town of Prussian Saxony, in the district and 28 m. S. W. of the city of Magdeburg, on the right bank of the Hol-zemme; pop. in 1871, 25,421. The principal public buildings are the Dom ...
-Haldane
Haldane ,.I. Robert, a Scottish philanthropist, born in 1764, died Dec. 12, 1842. Though heir to a large property, he had a passion for a seafaring life, and in 1780 entered the royal navy, in which h...
-Hale
Hale , a central county of Alabama, bounded W. by the Black Warrior river, and drained by its affluents; area, about 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,792, of whom 16,990 were colored. The surface is moder...
-Halevy
Halevy ,.L Jacqnes Francois Fromental Elie, a French composer, born in Paris, May 27, 1799, died in Nice, March 17, 1862. His parents were Jews, and placed their son under musical instruction at the c...
-Halibut
Halibut , a fish of the family planidoe and genus hippoglossus (Cuv.). The genus is characterized by a flat oblong body, compressed vertically; the eyes and colored surface are on the right side; the ...
-Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus , (originally called Zephyria), an ancient city of Caria in Asia Minor, on the Ceramic gulf. Its site is now occupied by the town of Boodroom or Budrun, 96 m. S. of Smyrna (pop. about 10...
-Halifax
Halifax ,.I. A S. county of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, bounded N. and E. by Staunton river, and intersected by the Dan; area, 960 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 27,828, of whom 16,266 were colored....
-Halifax (2)
Halifax , a city, port of entry, and the capital of Nova Scotia, Canada, and of Halifax co., situated near the middle of the S. E. coast of the province, on the W. side of a deep inlet of the Atlantic...
-Hall
Hall ,.I. A X. E. county of Georgia, intersected by the Chattahoochee river, and drained by the sources of the Oconee; area, 540 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 0,607, of whom 1,290 were colored. It is hilly, a...
-Hallam
Hallam ,.I. Henry, an English historian, born in Windsor in 1777, died in Penshurst, Kent, Jan. 21, 1859. His father was dean of Bristol, and he was educated at Eton and at Oxford, and studied law, b...
-Halle
Halle , a city of Prussian Saxony, on the right bank of the Saale, 20 m. N. W. of Leip-sic; pop. in 1871, 52,639. It consists of Halle proper with five suburbs, and of the two ancient towns of Glaucha...
-Halleck
Halleck , Fitz-Greene, an American poet, born at Guilford, Conn., July 8, 1790, died there, Nov. 17, 1867. He received his education at the grammar school of his native town, and became clerk in a sto...
-Hallowell
Hallowell , a city of Kennebec co.. Maine, on the W. bank of the Kennebec river, and on the Augusta division of the Maine Central railroad, 2 m. below Augusta, and 4 m. above Gardiner; pop. in 1860, 2...
-Halo
Halo , (Gr. a threshing floor, originally of a round shape), a term commonly used in meteorology to include all those phenomena in which a luminous ring, either colored or un-colored, is seen aroun...
-Ham
Ham , a town of France, in the department of Somme, G7 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. about 2,400. Its old castle, strengthened by modern works, has become a fortress of some importance, and has long been us...
-Hamadan
Hamadan , a town of Persia, in the province of Irak Ajemi, at the foot of Mt. Elwend, 175 m.W.S.W. of Teheran, on the site, it is generally supposed, of ancient Eebatana, but according to Rawlinson of...
-Hamah, Or Hamath
Hamah, Or Hamath (lleb., fortress or citadel), a city of northern Syria, situated on both sides of the Asi or Orontes, about 30 m. N. of Homs; pop. about 40,000, of whom about 10,000 are Greeks or fel...
-Hamburg
Hamburg ,.I. A free state of the German empire, comprising the city of Hamburg with its suburbs, the district of Geest, and the bailiwicks of Bergedorf and Ritzebuttel; area, 158 sq. m.; pop. in 1871,...
-Hameln
Hameln , a town of Prussia, in the province and 24 m. S. W. of the city of Hanover, on the Hamel and the Weser; pop. in 1871, 8,530. Over the Weser, which here forms an island, is a suspension bridge ...
-Hamilcar Barca, Or Bareas
Hamilcar Barca, Or Bareas a Carthaginian general, born shortly before the beginning of the first Punic war, fell in a battle in Spain, 229 B. C. The name Barca, which he had in common with many distin...
-Hamilton
Hamilton , the name of nine counties in the United States. I. A N. E. county of New York, drained by the head waters of Black, Hudson, Raquette, and Sacondaga rivers; area, 1,711 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,...
-Hamilton (2)
Hamilton , a town and village of Madison co., New York, on the Chenango river, 90 m. W. of Albany and 30 m. S. W. of Ltica; pop. of the town in 1870, 3,687; of the village, 1,529. The village is on th...
-Hamilton (3)
Hamilton , a city, port of entry, and the capital of Wentworth co., Ontario, Canada, situated at the S. W. extremity of Burlington bay, at the W. end of Lake Ontario, 36 m. S. S. W. of Toronto, and 42...
-Hamilton (4)
Hamilton ,.I. Sir William, a British antiquary, born in Scotland in 1730, died in London, April 6, 1803. He was of good family, and a foster brother of George III., but poor, beginning life, as he sai...
-Hamilton College
Hamilton College , an institution of learning at Clinton, Oneida co., N. Y., 9 m. S. of Utica. Its origin is due to the generosity of the Rev. Samuel Kirkland. who was a missionary for more than 40 ye...
-Hammer
Hammer , a tool for communicating force by impact. There are three varieties, those which are moved by the arm, those which are moved by their own gravity, and those which are moved by compressed stea...
-Hammerfest
Hammerfest , a seaport of Norway, in the bailiwick of Finmark, on the island of Kvaio, in lat. 70 40' N., Ion. 23 42' E., 57 m. S. W. of the North cape; pop. about 1,000. It is celebrated as...
-Hampden
Hampden , a S. W. county of Massachusetts, bordering on Connecticut, intersected by the Connecticut and drained by Westfield and Chic-opee rivers; area, 670 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 78,-409. It has a rou...
-Hampshire
Hampshire ,.I. A W. central county of Massachusetts, intersected by the Connecticut river, and drained by several mill streams, among which are the head waters of Chicopee and Westfield rivers; area, ...
-Hampton
Hampton , a town and the county seat of Elizabeth City co., Virginia, on the W. bank of Hampton river, a small inlet of Hampton roads, about 2 1/2 m. from Fortress Monroe, and 75 m. S. E. of Richmond;...
-Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads , an arm of Chesapeake bay, lying between Hampton and Norfolk, Va., forming the estuary of James river. It has a depth of from five to seven fathoms. The channel is commanded by Fortress...
-Hamster
Hamster , a rodent of the rat family, or muridoe, and the genus cricetus (Cuv.). The incisors are 2/2, and the cheek teeth 3/3-3/3, or 16 in all, as in the rats; there are internal cheek pouches, in w...
-Hanau
Hanau , a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau, at the junction of the Main and the Kinzig, 10 m. E. of Frankfort; pop. in 1871, 20,278. It contains an ancient castle, now the seat of the ...
-Hancock
Hancock , the name of ten counties in the United States. I. A S. E. county of Maine, bordering on the Atlantic, and bounded W. in part by Penobscot river and bay; area, 2,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,...
-Handel, Or Handel
Handel, Or Handel Georg Friedrich, a German composer, born in Halle, Feb. 23, 1685, died in London, April 13,1759. His father was the chamberlain and surgeon of a Saxon prince and also of the elector ...
-Hangchow, Or Hangchow-Foo
Hangchow, Or Hangchow-Foo a city of China, capital of the province of Chekiang, 2 m. from the Tsientang and about 40 m. from its mouth, 110 m. S. W. of Shanghai. It is situated on a plain at the S. te...
-Hankow
Hankow , a city of China, in the province of Hupeh, on the Yangtse-kiang, 470 m. W. of Shanghai; pop. estimated at 800,000. The river Han, which hero falls into the Yangtse, separates Hankow from Hany...
-Hannah More
Hannah More, an English authoress, born in Stapleton, Gloucestershire, Feb. 2, 1745, died in Clifton, Sept. 7, 18:3:5. She was educated at a seminary kept by her sisters in Bristol, in the direction o...
-Hannibal
Hannibal , a city of Marion co., Missouri, on the W. bank of the Mississippi, 132 m. above St. Louis, and 90 m. N. N. E. of Jefferson City; pop. in 1850, 2,020; in 1860, 6,505; in 1870, 10,125, of who...
-Hannibal (2)
Hannibal , or Annibal (in Punic, probably, favorite of Baal), a Carthaginian general and statesman, born in 247 B. C, died in Nico-media, Bithynia, in 183. He was the son of Hamilcar Barca, the Cart...
-Hanno
Hanno , a Carthaginian navigator of the 5th or 6th century B. C. He was commissioned by the government of Carthage to explore the western coast of Africa, and to plant colonies there. Setting sail acc...
-Hanover
Hanover , an E. county of Virginia, drained by North Anna and South Anna rivers, which unite on its N. E. border to form the Pamun-key; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,455, of whom 8,5G2 were color...
-Hanover (2)
Hanover , (Ger. Hannover). I. A N. W. province of Prussia, between lat. 51 17' and 53 51' N., and Ion. 6 40' and 11 32' E. It is bounded mainly by the North sea, the grand duchy of...
-Hans Christian Oersted
Hans Christian Oersted, a Danish natural philosopher, brother of the preceding, born at Rudkjoping, Aug. 14, 1777, died in Copenhagen, March 0, 1851. He was the son of a druggist. At the university of...
-Hans David Ludwig York Yon Wartenburg
Hans David Ludwig York Yon Wartenburg, count, a Prussian soldier, born in Potsdam, Sept. 26, 1759, died at Klein-Oels, Silesia, Oct. 4, 1830. He belonged to an old English family settled in Pomerania....
-Hans Gnido Veil Bulow
Hans Gnido Veil Bulow, a German pianist and composer, born at Dresden, Jan. 8, 1830. His father, Karl Eduard von Bulow (1807-'53), was a novelist and poet. The son commenced the study of music at an e...
-Hans Henrik Essex
Hans Henrik Essex, count, a Swedish general, born in Kaflas, West Gothland, in 1755, died July 28,1824. He was educated in the universities of Sweden, and obtained the favor of Gustavus III. by his at...
-Hans Holbein, Or Johaun
Hans Holbein, Or Johaun, called the Younger, a German painter, born in Augsburg or Grun-stadt between 1495 and 1498, died of the plague in London in 1554 or in 1543. He was the son of a painter of the...
-Hans Karl Friedrich Anton Diebitsch
Hans Karl Friedrich Anton Diebitsch, a Russian general, born in Silesia, May 13, 1785, died near Pultusk, Poland, June 10, 1831. His father, a Prussian and afterward a Russian officer, sent him in 179...
-Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League , (Old Ger.Hansa, a union), a commercial alliance of certain Germanic cities in the middle ages, for the protection of trade. In the early part of the 13th century society in northern...
-Hapsburg
Hapsburg , (Ger. Habsburg; originally, it is supposed, Habichtsburg or Hawk's Castle), a ruined castle of Switzerland, near Brugg, canton of Aargau, on the Wulpelsberg, on the right bank of the Aar. I...
-Haraforas, Or Alfocra
Haraforas, Or Alfocra a savage people living in Celebes, the Molucca islands, and the interior of Papua. In general appearance they resemble the Malays, but are darker in color, with hair not straight...
-Harbor Grace
Harbor Grace , a town and port of entry of Newfoundland, capital of a district of the same name, and the second town in population and importance in the colony, situated in the S. E. part of the islan...
-Hardecanute Hardacanute Harsicanute
Hardecanute Hardacanute Harsicanute, or Hardiknut, the last of the Danish dynasty of English kings, born about 1017, died in Lambeth, June 8, 1042. He was the son of Canute The Great by Emma, daughter...
-Hardeman
Hardeman ,.I. A N. W. county of Texas, separated from the Indian territory on the N. E. by the S. fork of Red river, and intersected by Pease river; area, 1,650 sq. m.; still unsettled. The surface is...
-Hardin
Hardin , the name of six counties in the United States. I. A S. E. county of Texas, bounded E. by Neches river, and watered by Pine Island bayou and Big Sandy river, all navigable streams; area, 1,832...
-Hardinge
Hardinge ,.I.' Henry, viscount, an English soldier, born in Wrotham, Kent, March 30, 1785, died at Southport, near Tunbridge Wells, Sept. 24, 1856. He entered the army in 1798, became lieutenant in 18...
-Hare
Hare , the name of the small rodents of the family leporidoe, and the genus lepus (Linn.), which includes also the rabbits. This has fewer species than most other families of rodents, and presents the...
-Harebell
Harebell , the common name in this country and England for a beautiful wild perennial plant, campanula rotundifolia. The genus campanula is a large and very ornamental one; the flowers are bell-shaped...
-Harem
Harem , (Arabic, el-harim, the sanctuary), a term applied to the holy cities, Mecca and Medina, which are jointly called the harems, and to the temple of Mecca, which is termed mesjid el-harim, the...
-Harflelr
Harflelr , a town of France, in the department of Seine-lnferieure, on the small river Lezarde, about 2 m. W. of the Seine, 4 m. N. E. of Havre, and 4 m. S. W. of Honfleur, with which it is occasional...
-Harlequin
Harlequin , (Ital. arlecchino; Fr. arlequin), a pantomimic character, transplanted from the Italian stage to other countries, traceable to the earliest times, and more immediately identified with the ...
-Harman Blemerhassett
Harman Blemerhassett, a victim of Aaron Burr's conspiracy, born in Hampshire, England, Oct. 8, 1764 or '65, died in the island of Guernsey, Feb. 1, 1831. He was of Irish descent, and was educated in t...
-Harmodius And Aristogiton
Harmodius And Aristogiton , two Athenians, commonly reckoned among the martyrs of liberty. Aristogiton had conceived a passion for Harmodius, a beautiful youth, in which Hipparchus, one of the Pisistr...
-Harmonica, Or Armonica
Harmonica, Or Armonica a musical instrument, in which the tone is produced by the vibration of bell-shaped glasses, caused by friction from the moistened finger. It was first contrived by Mr. Packerid...
-Harmony
Harmony , (Gr. agreement or concord), in music, the agreeable sensation produced on the ear by the simultaneous sounding of various accordant notes. The discussion of this subject in its more gener...
-Harms Claudius Marcellus
Harms Claudius Marcellus, a Roman general, born about 268 13. C, killed near Venu-sia, in Apulia, in 208. The family to which he belonged (a plebeian branch of the great Claudian gem) was of the highe...
-Harms Junius One Of The Assassins Of Caesar Brutus
Harms Junius One Of The Assassins Of Caesar Brutus, born in 85 B. 0., died in 42. His father, Marcus Junius Brutus, having been put to death by order of Pompey, he was adopted by his maternal uncle Qu...
-Harold I
Harold I., king of the Anglo-Saxons, sur-named Harefoot from his swiftness in running, died at Oxford, March 17, 1040. He was the second of three sons of Canute the Great, who had expressed the wish t...
-Harold II
Harold II., king of the Anglo-Saxons, and the last king of that lineage, second son of Godwin, earl of Wessex, killed in battle, Oct. 14, 1066. He was a leader in the armies of Edward the Confessor, a...
-Haroun Al-Rashid
Haroun Al-Rashid (Aaron the Just), fifth caliph of the dynasty of the Abbassides, born in Rei about A. D. 765, died in Tus early in the spring of S09. He was the grandson of Abu Jaffar, surnamed Al-Ma...
-Harp
Harp , (Sax. hearpa, Ger. Harfe), a musical stringed instrument of a triangular shape, the chords of which are distended in parallel directions from the upper limb to one of the sides, and are set in ...
-Harper And Brothers
Harper And Brothers , a firm of American printers and publishers, originally consisting of James, born in 1795, died in New York, March 17,1869; John, born in 1797; Joseph Wesley, usually called Wesle...
-Harper's Ferry
Harper's Ferry , a town of Jefferson co., West Virginia, on the Potomac river, which forms the boundary of the state with Maryland, and at the mouth of the Shenandoah, where the united streams force t...
-Harpies
Harpies , (Gr. from to snatch), in Greek mythology, fabulous monsters, said to have been the daughters of Neptune and Earth, or, according to Hesiod, of Thau-mas and Electra. In Homer they are ...
-Harpy
Harpy , in mythology. See Harpies. Harpy #1 Harpy , a bird of prey, of the subfamily aqui-linoe or eagles; the harpyia destructor (Cuv.) or thrasaetus harpyia (Linn.), and the crested, crowned, roya...
-Harris
Harris ,.I. A W. county of Georgia, separated from Alabama by the Chattahoochee, and drained by several small branches of that river; area, about 440 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,284, of whom 7,493 were c...
-Harrier
Harrier , a variety of the hound (canis sa-gax, Linn.), used in hare hunting. The ancient harrier (chien courant of the French) had a moderately long, broad muzzle; thick and rounded head; large, long...
-Harrisburg
Harrisburg , a city, county seat of Dauphin co., Pennsylvania, and capital of the state, situated on the E. bank of the Susquehanna river, here spanned by a public and a railroad bridge, 95 m. W. by N...
-Harrison
Harrison , the name of eight counties in the United States. I. A N. W. county of West Virginia, drained by the W. fork of Monongahela river; area, 440 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,-714, of whom 655 were c...
-Harrison Gray Otis
Harrison Gray Otis, an American statesman, nephew of James Otis, born in Boston, Oct. 8, 1705, died there, Oct. 28, 1S48. He graduated at Harvard college in 1783, studied law, and was admitted to the ...
-Harro Paul Harring
Harro Paul Harring, a German author, born at Ibensdorf, near Husum, in Schleswig, Aug. 28, 1798, died by his own hand in the island of Jersey, May 25, 1870. He was the son of a landed proprietor of Fr...
-Harrodsburg
Harrodsburg , a town and the capital of Mercer co., Kentucky, situated on a small branch of Salt river, 8 m. S. W. of the Kentucky river, and 30 m. S. of Frankfort; pop. in 1870, 2,205, of whom 1,101 ...
-Harrow, Or Harrow-On-The-Hill
Harrow, Or Harrow-On-The-Hill a village of Middlesex, England, 10 m. N. W. of London; pop. in 1871, 10,867. It contains an ancient parish church having a lofty tower and spire, places of worship for B...
-Hart
Hart ,.I. A N. E. county of Georgia, separated from South Carolina by the Savannah river, and watered by several of its small branches; area, about 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 6,783, of whom 1,942 were ...
-Hartford
Hartford , a N. county of Connecticut, bordering on Massachusetts, divided into two unequal parts by the Connecticut river, and watered by Farmington, Mill, Podunk, Scantic, and other rivers; area, 75...
-Hartford (2)
Hartford , a city in the town of the same name, seat of justice of Hartford co., and capital of Connecticut, the second city in the state in point of population, situated on the W. bank of the Connect...
-Hartford Convention
Hartford Convention , an assemblage of delegates from the New England states which met at Hartford, Dec. 15, 1814. The war between the United States and Great Britain, which began in 1812, was from th...
-Hartlepool
Hartlepool , a town, parliamentary borough, and seaport of Durham, England, on a small peninsula N. of the estuary of the Tees, 17 m. S. E. of Durham, with which it is connected by railway; pop. in 18...
-Hartley
Hartley ,.I. David, an English philosopher, born in Armley, Yorkshire, Aug. 30, 1705, died in Bath, Aug. 25, 1757. He was educated at Jesus college, Cambridge, of which ho became a fellow, was destine...
-Hartley Coleridge
Hartley Coleridge, the eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, born at Clevedon, near Bristol, Sept. 19, 1796, died at Rydal Water, Jan. 6, 1849. His birth was commemorated by his father in two sonnets...
-Hartz
Hartz , (Ger. Harz, or Harzgebirge), the most northwestern mountain range in Germany, between lat. 51 30' and 52 N., and Ion. 10 10' and 11 30' E. It separates the waters of the We...
-Harvard University
Harvard University , the oldest and the most amply endowed institution of learning in the United States, situated in Cambridge, 3 m. W. of Boston, Mass. Six years after the first settlement of this re...
-Harvest Fly
Harvest Fly , a hemipterous insect, of the division homoptera (from having the wing covers of the same texture throughout), of the family cicadadoe, and chiefly of the genus cicada (Oliv.), improperly...
-Harwich
Harwich , a seaport of Essex, England, situated on a point of land opposite the confluence of the Orwell and Stour, 66 m. N. E. of London; pop. in 1871, 6,107. The harbor is one of the best on the E. ...
-Hasdrubal
Hasdrubal , or Asdrubal (in Punic, probably, he whom Baal aids ), the name of a number of Carthaginian naval and military commanders, celebrated in the history of the three Punic wars, of whom the ...
-Hasse
Hasse ,.I. Friedrieh Christian August, a German historian, born at Rehfeld, near Herzberg, Jan. 4, 1773, died in Leipsic, Feb. 6, 1848. He was a professor at the military academy of Dresden and at the...
-Hassell Thacher Trall
Hassell Thacher Trall, an American physician, born in Vernon, Tolland co., Conn., Aug. 5, 1812. His parents removed to western New York in his childhood. He studied medicine, and for some time practis...
-Hastings
Hastings , a municipal and parliamentary borough of Sussex, England, 54 m. S. S. E. of London, with which it is connected by railway; pop. of the town in 1871, 29,289; of the borough, 33,335. Hastings...
-Hasting, Or Hastings
Hasting, Or Hastings a Scandinavian viking, or sea rover, born about 812, some say in Scandinavia, others in Normandy, others at Tran-quilla (modern Trancost) on the Seine. He attached himself to a ba...
-Hat
Hat , a covering for the head. From the most remote times man has made use of a head covering of some kind. The most ancient form probably is the cap, such as is seen in figures representing the godde...
-Hatti-Sherif
Hatti-Sherif , (Turkish, noble writing), any ordinance written by the sultan's hand, or which contains his paraf, or flourish, and the words, Let this my order be obeyed. Sometimes it is called hat...
-Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne , (Upper Garonne), a S. department of France, formed from the ancient provinces of Languedoc and Gascony, bordering on Spain and the departments of Tarn-et-Garonne, Tarn, Aude, Ariege, H...
-Haute-Loire
Haute-Loire , (Upper Loire), a S. E. department of France, in Languedoc, bordering on the departments of Puy-de-D6me, Loire, Ar-deche, Lozere, and Cantal; area, 1,916 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 308,732. Th...
-Haute-Marne
Haute-Marne , (Upper Marne), a N. E. department of France, formed chiefly from the ancient province of Champagne, bordering on the departments of Marne, Meuse, Vosges, Haute-Saone, Cote d'Or, and Aube...
-Haute-Saone
Haute-Saone , (Upper Saone), an E. department of France, in Franche-Comte, bordering on the territory of Belfort and the departments of Vosges, Doubs, Jura, Cote d'Or, and Haute-Marne; area, 2,002 sq....
-Haute-Savoie
Haute-Savoie , (Upper Savoy), an E. department of France, bordering on the lake of Geneva, Switzerland, and the departments of Savoie and Ain; area, 1,007 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 273,027. With the depar...
-Hauts Hampshire, Or Southampton
Hauts Hampshire, Or Southampton, a maritime county of England, including the isle of Wight, bordering on Berkshire, Surrey, Sussex, the English channel, Dorsetshire, and Wiltshire; area, 1,667 sq. m.;...
-Hauy
Hauy ,.I. Rene Just, a French mineralogist, born at St. Just, near Beauvais, Feb. 28, 1743, died in Paris, June 3, 1822. He was born of humble parents, but his love for religious music attracted the a...
-Havana
Havana (Span. La Habana, or San Cristobal de la Habana), a fortified maritime city, capital of the Spanish colony of Cuba, and of a district of the same name, ranking among the foremost seaports and c...
-Havel
Havel , a river of Germany, and the principal right branch of the Elbe. It rises in a small lake near Neu Strelitz in Mecklenburg, flows S., passing within a few miles of Berlin, to Potsdam, and thenc...
-Haverfordwest
Haverfordwest , (Welsh, Hwlfford), a parliamentary borough, town, and county in itself, of S. Wales, locally in Pembrokeshire, of which it is the capital, on the Cleddy, about 200 m. W. by N. of Londo...
-Haverhill
Haverhill , a city of Essex co., Massachusetts, on the N. bank of the Merrimack river, at the head of navigation, 18 m. from the sea, and 27 m. N. of Boston; pop. in 1850, 5,877; in 1860, 9,995; in 18...
-Havre
Havre , (Fr. Le Havre), a fortified seaport of Normandy, France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, situated on the S. shore of the English channel and on the right bank of the Seine, 108 m. direc...
-Hawaiian Islands, Or Sandwich Islands
Hawaiian Islands, Or Sandwich Islands the most northerly cluster of the Polynesian archipelago, constituting a kingdom, and consisting of 12 islands, in the North Pacific, between Mexico and China, ex...
-Hawfinch
Hawfinch , a conirostral bird, of the family fringillidoe and genus coccothraustes (Briss.). The common European hawfinch (C. vulgaris, Briss.) has a very large bill and head, like other grosbeaks; th...
-Hawick
Hawick , a town and borough of Roxburghshire, Scotland, on the Teviot, 40 m. S. E. of Edinburgh, with which it is connected by railway; pop. in 1871, 11,356. It is divided into nearly equal parts by t...
-Hawk
Hawk , a name indiscriminately applied to many birds of the falcon family, of the subfamilies accipitrinoe, buteoninoe, falconinoe, and milvinoe; indeed, to almost any bird of prey which is not a vult...
-Hawk Moth
Hawk Moth , the proper name of the second or crepuscular division of the order lepidoptera, corresponding to the old genus sphinx (Linn.), most conveniently divided into the sections of sphinxes, aege...
-Hawthorne
Hawthorne ,.I. Nathaniel, an American author, born in Salem, Mass., July 4, 1804, died at Plymouth, N. H., May 19, 1864. His ancestors, who came from England, had settled at Salem in the early part of...
-Hay Asthma Hay Cold, Or Hay Fever
Hay Asthma Hay Cold, Or Hay Fever, an affection first described by Dr. John Bostock in 1810, under the name catarrhus oesthus. The local symptoms denote subacute inflammation of the nostrils (coryza),...
-Hayduks
Hayduks , a class of Hungarians who were originally shepherds (Hung. hajdu), and from whom patriotic militia organizations subsequently received the name. The gallantry of the Hayduks was signally rew...
-Hayel, Or Hail
Hayel, Or Hail a city of Arabia, in Nedjed, capital of the sultanate of Shomer, situated in a plain between the mountain ranges Jebel Adja and Jebel Solma, lat. 27 44' N., Ion. 42 42' E., 24...
-Hayti, Or Haiti. I. An Island Of The West Indies
Hayti, Or Haiti. I. An Island Of The West Indies formerly called Hispaniola (Span. Es-panola), and afterward Santo Domingo. It is one of the Greater Antilles, and after Cuba the largest and most beaut...
-Haywood
I. A W. county of North Carolina, bordering on Tennessee, and watered by Big Pigeon river; area, about 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,921, of whom 515 were colored. It lies between the Blue Ridge and Iro...
-Hazard Arnold Potter
Hazard Arnold Potter, an American surgeon, born in Potter township, Ontario (now Yates) co., N. Y., Dec. 21, 1810, died at Geneva, N. Y., Dec. 2,1869. He graduated M. D. at Bow-doin college in 1835, a...
-Hazel
Hazel , the common name for shrubs or small trees of the genus corylus, which is by some botanists placed with the oak, chestnut, etc, in the order cupuliferoe, while others make it the type of a smal...
-Hazlitt
Hazlitt ,.I. William, an English author, born in Maidstone, April 10, 1778, died in London, Sept. 18, 1830. His father, a Unitarian clergyman, sent him to the Unitarian college at Hackney to be educat...
-Head
Head ,.I. Sir George, an English author, born near Rochester in 1782, died in London. May 2, 1855. He served as commissary in the British army during the war in the Peninsula, and also in Nova Scotia ...
-Heart
Heart , a hollow muscular organ, the centre of the circulatory apparatus, situated within the cavity of the chest, giving origin to the arteries and receiving the termination of the veins. In the huma...
-Heber
Heber ,.I. Reginald, an English bishop, born in Malpas, Cheshire, April 21, 1783, died in Trichinopoly, India. April 3, 1826. At the age of seven he had translated Phaedrus into English verse. In 1800...
-Hebrides
Hebrides , or Western Islands (the Ebudoe of Ptolemy and the 30 Hebudes of Pliny), the general name of the islands on the W. coast of Scotland, lying between lat. 55 26' and 58 32' N., and I...
-Hebron
Hebron , (originally Kirjath Arba; Arab. El-Khulil), a city of Palestine, 18 m. S. of Jerusalem; pop. about 5,000. Most of the inhabitants are Moslems; about 50 families are Jews; there are no residen...
-Hecataeus
Hecataeus , a Greek historian and geographer, born in Miletus about 550 B. C., died about 476. He visited Egypt and other provinces of the Persian empire, Libya, Greece, Italy, and other countries. On...
-Hecla, Or Hekla
Hecla, Or Hekla a volcanic mountain of Iceland, situated in the southwestern part of the island, in the district of Rangarvalla, 40 m. from the coast. Hecla rises to the height of 5,104 ft., to the ea...
-Hector Saint-John De Crevecoeur It
Hector Saint-John De Crevecoeur It, a French agriculturist and traveller, born at Caen in 1731, died at Sarcelles, near Paris, in 1813. He spent six years in England studying agricultural and politico...
-Hedge
Hedge , a fence of living plants, designed for protection or for ornament. Hedges are seldom over 5 or 6 ft. high, and are kept low and compact by annual trimming; where trees are set near together an...
-Hedgehog
Hedgehog , an insectivorous mammal, of the genus erinaceus (Linn.). The teeth are 36 in number, but have been differently divided by zoologists. F. Cuvier gives the following : incisors 3/1-3/1, canin...
-Hedjaz
Hedjaz , a dependency of the Turkish empire in Arabia, on the coast of the Red sea, bounded N. by the desert, E. by the desert, Shomer, and Nedjed, S. by Yemen, and W. by the Red sea, and its arm the ...
-Hegira
Hegira , (Arabic, hejrah, emigration, usually but incorrectly translated flight; the full expression is hejrat al-nabi, the migration of the prophet), the migration of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina....
-Heidelberg
Heidelberg , (Lat. Edelberga; anc. Myrti-letum), a city of Baden, on the left bank of the Neckar, 10 m. S. E. of Mannheim, and 31 m. N. N. E. of Carlsruhe; pop. in 1871, 19,988. It is chiefly celebrat...
-Heinrich Barth
Heinrich Barth, a German explorer and traveller, born in Hamburg, Feb. 16, 1821, died in Berlin, Nov. 25, 1865. He was educated at Hamburg and Berlin, travelled through Italy and Sicily, and in 1845 b...
-Heinrich Berghaus
Heinrich Berghaus, a German geographer, born at Cleves, May 3, 1797. In 1815 he served as a volunteer in the German army under Gen. Tauenzien in France, and made use of his observations during the cam...
-Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger, a Swiss theologian, born at Bremgarten, canton of Aargau, July 18,1504, died in Zurich, Sept. 17, 1575. He was the son of a priest, studied at Emmerich and Cologne, became a teache...
-Heinrich Christian Schumacher
Heinrich Christian Schumacher, a Danish astronomer, born at Bramstedt, Holstein, Sept. 3, 1780, died Dec. 28, 1850. He was educated at Kiel, Jena, Copenhagen, and Göttingen, resided from 1807 to 1810 ...
-Heinrich Friedrich Karl Stein
Heinrich Friedrich Karl Stein, baron, a German statesman, born at Nassau, Oct. 26, 1757, died at Frucht, near Nassau, June 29, 1831. He studied at Gottingen, and rose to distinction in the department ...
-Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine, a German poet and critic, of Jewish parentage, born in Dusseldorf, Dec. 12, 1799, or as Steinmann asserts in 1797, died in Paris, Feb. 17, 1850. His first poem was written on Napoleon'...
-Heinrich Karl Anton Mucke
Heinrich Karl Anton Mucke, a German painter, born in Breslau, April 9, 1806. He completed his studies in Berlin under Schadow, whom he accompanied to Düsseldorf, where he became in 1844 teacher of ana...
-Heinrich Karl Brugsch
Heinrich Karl Brugsch, a German Egyptologist, born in Berlin, Feb. 18, 1827. He early attracted the attention of Alexander von Humboldt and of the king of Prussia by his essays on Egyptology (1848-'50...
-Heinrich Kiepert
Heinrich Kiepert, a German geographer, born in Berlin, July 31, 1818. He studied under Ritter, explored Asia Minor in 1841-'2, and was director of the geographical institute at Weimar from 1845 till t...
-Heinrich Laube
Heinrich Laube, a German author, born at Sprottau, Prussian Silesia, Sept. 18, 1806. He completed his studies in Halle and Breslau, and was a teacher in Silesia till 1832, when he removed to Leipsic, ...
-Heinrich Leander Van Ess
Heinrich Leander Van Ess, a German Roman Catholic theologian, born at Warburg, Westphalia, Feb. 25, 1770, died in Affolterbach, Oct. 13, 1847. He entered the Benedictine order in 1793, and officiated ...
-Heinrich Leo
Heinrich Leo, a German historian, born in Rudolstadt, March 19, 1799. He was educated at Breslau and Jena, and went to Berlin in 1822, where he was an enthusiastic disciple of Hegel. In 1824 he publis...
-Heinrich Luden
Heinrich Luden, a German historian, born at Loxstedt, near Bremen, April 10, 1780, died in Jena, May 23, 1847. He studied theology, history, and philosophy at Gottingen. In 1806 he became extraordinar...
-Heinrich Magnus
Heinrich Magnus (.nstav, a German chemist, born in Berlin, May 2, 1802, died there, April 4, 1870. He graduated at the university of Berlin in 1827, where he became in 1834 extraordinary, and in 1845 ...
-Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann, a German traveller, born at Kalkhorst, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, in 1822. His father was poor, and placed him at the age of 14 in a grocer's store in Fürstenberg, where he remained fo...
-Heinrich Steffens
Heinrich Steffens, a German author, born in Stavanger, Norway, May 2, 1773, died in Berlin, Feb. 13, 1845. He studied theology and the natural sciences at Copenhagen, and afterward at Jena became a di...
-Heinrich Suso
Heinrich Suso, a German ascetic writer, also known as Brother Amandus, but whose real name was Von Berg, born in Ueberlingen, on Lake Constance, about 1300, died in Ulm, Jan. 25, 1365. He was educated...
-Heinrich Von Sybel
Heinrich Von Sybel, a German historian, born in Dusseldorf, Dec. 2, 1817. He studied in Berlin under Ranke, graduated in 1841 at Bonn, and was professor there in 1844-'5, then at Marburg till 1856, an...
-Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst
Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst, a German violinist and composer, born in Brunn in 1814, died in Nice, Oct. 8, 1865. He played in public at the age of 10, studied under Joseph Boehm of Vienna, and also under M...
-Heinrich Wilhelm Matthans Olbers
Heinrich Wilhelm Matthans Olbers, a German astronomer, born at Arbergen, near Bremen, Oct. 11, 1758, died in Bremen, March 2, 1840. He was a practising physician, and made his observations from an upp...
-Heinsius
Heinsius ,.I. Daniel, a Dutch philologist, born in Ghent, June 9, 1580, died in Leyden, Feb. 25, 1655. He was educated at the university of Leyden, where in his 25th year he succeeded Joseph Scaliger ...
-Heir
Heir , (Lat. hoeres), in law, one entitled by descent and right of blood to lands, tenements, or other hereditaments. There are two ways in law in which the title to real estate may pass, by purchase ...
-Helen
Helen , (Gr. Lat. Helena), in Greek legends, the wife of Menelaus, and the most beautiful woman of her time. Her parentage is variously assigned to Jupiter and Leda, the wife of King Tyndareus, to ...
-Helen Maria Williams
Helen Maria Williams, an English authoress, born in the north of England in 1762, died in Paris in December, 1827. She went to London at the age of 18, and in 1782 published Edwin and Elfrida, a poe...
-Helena
Helena , a town and the capital of Phillips co., Arkansas, on the right bank of the Mississippi river, about 100 m. E. by S. of Little Rock, and 80 m. helow Memphis, Tenn.; pop. in 1870, 2,249, of who...
-Heligoland
Heligoland , or Helgoland (holy land), an island in the North sea, belonging to Great Britain, 40 m. N. W. of the mouth of the Elbe; lat. of its lighthouse, 54 11' 36 N., Ion. 7 53' 12 E.;...
-Helios
Helios , (the Sol of the Romans), in Greek mythology, the god of the sun, the son of Hyperion and Thea, and the brother of Selene (Luna) and Eos (Aurora). Helios gave light both to gods and to men. He...
-Heliopolis
Heliopolis , (Gr., city of the sun; called in old Egyptian On or An and Ha-Ra, in Hebrew Bethshemesh, and by the modern inhabitants Matariyeh), one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, below the S. E....
-Heliotrope
Heliotrope , (heliotropium, Linn.), the name of annual or perennial plants belonging to the natural order boraginacece. H. curassavicum is a smooth annual found in Virginia, Illinois, and southward. H...
-Hellebore
Hellebore , in pharmacy, the roots of the various species of the genus helleborus, of the natural order ranunculaceoe, and of the vera-trum album and V. viride, natural order melan-thaceoe, now consid...
-Helmuth Karl Bernliard Von Moltke
Helmuth Karl Bernliard Von Moltke, count, a German general, born at Parchim, Mecklenburg, Oct. 26, 1800. His father was a Danish general, and he was educated in the cadets' academy at Copenhagen, and ...
-Heloise
Heloise , abbess of the Paraclete, born probably in Paris in 1101, died at the convent of the Paraclete, Champagne, May 16, 1164. Of her parentage nothing is certainly known. In 1116 she was living wi...
-Helots
Helots , (Gr. slaves of the Spartans, serfs bound to the soil, and tilling it for the benefit of the proprietors. The three classes in Sparta were the Spartans, the Pe-riOeci, and the helots. The ...
-Helsingfors
Helsingfors , a city of Russia, capital of the grand duchy of Finland, on the gulf of Finland, 180 m. W. by N. of St. Petersburg; pop. in 1870, 32,113. It was founded by Gus-tavus I. of Sweden in the ...
-Helveth
Helveth , an ancient people of Celtic origin, who in historical times occupied the country between the* Rhine, the lake of Constance, the Rhone, the lake of Geneva, and the Jura; that is, somewhat les...
-Heman Humphrey
Heman Humphrey, an American clergyman, born in Simsbury, Conn., March 26, 1779, died in Pittsfield, Mass., April 3, 1861. From the age of 16 he was engaged for several successive winters as a teacher ...
-Hemiptera
Hemiptera , an order of insects, including what are generally called bugs, harvest flies, tree hoppers, plant lice, etc. They are socking insects, having neither mandibles nor maxillae proper, but a h...
-Hemlock Spruce
Hemlock Spruce , the common name of the tree abies Canadensis, of the order coniferoe, which is quite as frequently called hemlock simply. The hemlock spruces mainly differ from the spruces proper in ...
-Hemp
Hemp , the common name of the plant cannabis sativa, of the order cannabineoe, which is by some botanists included in the nettle family (urticaceoe) as a suborder. The same name is applied to the fibr...
-Hemskerk, Or Heemskerk
Hemskerk, Or Heemskerk Martin van, a Dutch painter, born at the village of Heemskerk in 1498, died in Haarlem, Oct. 1, 1574. He was the son of a mason named Van Veen, who placed him under the instruct...
-Henbane
Henbane , (hyoscyamus, Tournefort), a somewhat rare but highly dangerous weed, belonging to the nightshades (solanaceoe), seen in waste places and on rubbish heaps, and on the sites of old houses; rem...
-Henderson
Henderson , the name of five counties in the United States. 1. A S. W. county of North Carolina, bordering on South Carolina, bounded S. by the Blue Ridge, and drained by French Broad river; area, 425...
-Hendrik Conscience
Hendrik Conscience, a Flemish novelist, born in Antwerp, Dec. 3, 1812. His father, a French marine speculator at Antwerp, allowed him to educate himself by eager but irregular reading. In 1829 he beca...
-Hendrik Van Brederode
Hendrik Van Brederode, count, a patriot of the Netherlands, a descendant of the old sovereign counts of Holland, born in Brussels in 1531, died at the castle of Hardenberg, in Germany, in 1568. He was...
-Hengist
Hengist , a Jutish prince, founder of the kingdom of Kent, who is said to have died about 488, but whose very existence is doubted by recent historians. He was a reputed descendant of Woden or Odin, a...
-Henna
Henna , the East Indian name for a shrub of the genus Lawsonia (Willdenow), belonging to the natural order lythraceoe, found in Asia and Africa. The genus consists of but a single species, L. alba, wh...
-Hennepin
Hennepin , a S. E. county of Minnesota, bounded E. by the Mississippi, N. W. by Crow river, and S. by the Minnesota; area, about 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 31,566. It has an undulating surface, covered...
-Henri Alexandre Wallon
Henri Alexandre Wallon, a French author, born in Valenciennes, Dec. 23, 1812. He studied at the normal school in Paris, and in 1840 was appointed a professor in the Sorbonne, teaching modern history a...
-Henri Alphonse Esquiros
Henri Alphonse Esquiros, a French author and politician, born in Paris in 1814. He published some poetry in 1834, and subsequently wrote in the socialist interest, and in 1840 was imprisoned for eight...
-Henri Baron Jomini
Henri Baron Jomini, a French military historian, born at Payerne, canton of Vaud, Switzerland, March 6, 1779, died at Pussy, near Paris, March 24, 1869. He joined the French army in 1804 with the rank...
-Henri Benjamin Constant De Rebecque
Henri Benjamin Constant De Rebecque, a French orator and author, born at Lausanne, Oct. 25, 1767, died in Paris, Dec. 10, 1830. He was descended from a family of French Protestant exiles, and his fath...
-Henri Bertini
Henri Bertini, a pianist and composer, born in London of French parentage, Oct. 28, 1798. His father and his brother were both skilful musicians, and young Bertini received from them a thorough traini...
-Henri Christophe
Henri Christophe, king of Hayti, born Oct. 6, 1767, died by his own hand, Oct. 8, 1820. The accounts of his youth are conflicting; according to some he was born in the island of Grenada; others say i...
-Henri Coiffier De Ruze Cinq-Mars
Henri Coiffier De Ruze Cinq-Mars, marquis, a favorite of King Louis XIII. of France, born in 1620, beheaded at Lyons, Sept. 12, 1642. His father, the marquis of Effiat, was indebted for his fortune to...
-Henri De La Tour Dauvergne Turenne
Henri De La Tour D'Auvergne Turenne, viscount de, a French soldier, born in Sedan, Sept. 11, 1611, killed near Sasbach, Germany, July 27, 1675. He was the second son of Henri de Bouillon, prince of Se...
-Henri De Schomberg
Henri De Schomberg, count, a French soldier, born in Paris in 1573 or 1575, died in Bordeaux, Nov. 17, 1632. He was descended from the German Schombergs. After holding various high offices he became i...
-Henri Gratien Bertrand
Henri Gratien Bertrand, count, a French soldier, born at Chateauroux, March 28, 1773, died there, Jan. 31, 1844. He early joined the corps of engineers, became a captain in 1795, and, after serving in...
-Henri Gregoire
Henri Gregoire, a French revolutionist, born at Veho, near Luneville, Dec. 4, 1750, died in Paris, May 28, 1831. He commenced active life as a parish priest, and being nominated by the clergy of Lorra...
-Henri Jacques Guillanme Clarke
Henri Jacques Guillanme Clarke, count d'Hunebourg, duke de Feltre, and marshal of France, born at Landrecies, Oct. 17, 1705, died at Neuviller, Oct. 28, 1818. He had attained the rank of brigadier gen...
-Henri Joseph Leon Baudrillart
Henri Joseph Leon Baudrillart, a French political economist, born in Paris, Nov. 28, 1821. He published essays on Voltaire (1844), Turgot (1846), and Madame de Stael (1850), and in 1853 a work on Jean...
-Henri Joseph Paixhans
Henri Joseph Paixhans, a French inventor, born in Metz, Jan. 22, 1783, died at his estate of Jouy-aux-Arches, near Metz, Aug. 19, 1854. He was educated at the polytechnic school, entered the artillery...
-Henri Joutel
Henri Joutel, a French explorer, born in Rouen about 1651. He was the son of a gardener, served in the army from an early age, and in 1684 joined La Salle's expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi....
-Henri Marie Dnerotay De Blainville
Henri Marie Dnerotay de Blainville, a French naturalist, born at Arques, near Dieppe in Normandy, Sept. 12, 1777, died in Paris, May 1, 1850. In 1794 or 1795 he entered the school of design at Rouen, ...
-Henri Masers De Latude
Henri Masers De Latude, a French prisoner of state, born near Montagnac, March 23,1725, died in Paris, Jan. 1, 1805. He entered the army while young, but in 1748 went to Paris to study mathematics. Be...
-Henri Milne-Edwards
Henri Milne-Edwards, a French naturalist, born in Bruges, Belgium, Oct. 23, 1800. His father was an Englishman. He studied medicine in Paris and took his degree there in 1823, but abandoned practice f...
-Henri Unis Charles Maret
Henri Unis Charles Maret, a French theolo-cnan, born at Meyrueis, Lozere. April 20 1805 He was ordained in 1830, appointed to charge in Pans in 1832, and in 1839 published Essai sur, le pantheisme soc...
-Henri Victor Regnault
Henri Victor Regnault, a French physicist, born in Aix-la-Chapelle, July 21, 1810. He studied at the polytechnic school of Paris from 1830 to 1832, and was professor at Lyons till 1840, when his Mémoi...
-Henrico
Henrico , a S. E. county of Virginia, bounded S.W. by James river, and N. E. by the Chicka-hominy; area, 291 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 66,179, of whom 31,031 were colored. The surface is diversified with ...
-Henrietta Anna
Henrietta Anna , duchess of Orleans, daughter of Charles I. of England and Queen Henrietta Maria, born in Exeter, June 16, 1644, died at St. Cloud, June 29, 1670. She was carried to France while an in...
-Henrietta Maria
Henrietta Maria , queen of England, born in Paris, Nov. 25, 1609, died at Colombes, near that city, Sept. 10, 1669. She was the youngest child of Henry IV. of France by his second wife, Maria de' Medi...
-Henriette Herz
Henriette Herz, a leader of Berlin society, born in that city, Sept. 5,1764, died there, Oct. 22, 1847. She was a daughter of Dr. Lemos, a physician of Portuguese-Jewish origin, and was barely 16 whe...
-Henry
Henry , the name of ten counties in the United States. I. A S. county of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, and drained by Smith's river, a tributary of the Dan; area, 358 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12...
-Henry Alexander Wise
Henry Alexander Wise, an American politician, born at Drummondtown, Accomack co., Va., Dec. 3, 1806. He graduated at Washington college, Pennsylvania, in 1825, studied law, and settled in Nashville, T...
-Henry Allen Edgeworth De Firmont
Henry Allen Edgeworth De Firmont, abbe, the last confessor of King Louis XVI. of France, cousin of Maria Edgeworth, born in Edgeworthstown, Ireland, in 1745, died in Mi-tau, Russia, May 22, 1807. His ...
-Henry An English Soldier Ireton
Henry An English Soldier Ireton, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell, born in Nottinghamshire in 1610, died in the camp before Limerick, Nov. 15, 1651. He graduated at Trinity college, Oxford, and commenced...
-Henry Augustus Ward
Henry Augustus Ward, an American naturalist, born in Rochester, N. Y., March 9, 1834. He was educated at Williams college and the Lawrence scientific school of Harvard university, and became assistant...
-Henry Balmyes
Henry Balmyes, a Scotch Protestant reformer, born at Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, in 1520, died in Edinburgh in 1579. He studied in Scotland and Germany. His open profession in 1542 of the Protestant faith c...
-Henry Barnard
Henry Barnard, LL. D., an American scholar and educator, born in Hartford, Conn., Jan. 24, 1811. He graduated at Yale college in 1830, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1835. From 1837 to 18...
-Henry Bennet
Henry Bennet, earl of Arlington, an Eng-glish statesman, born at Arlington, in Middlesex, in 1618, died July 28, 1685. Devoting himself to the cause of Charles L, he was appointed under-secretary of s...
-Henry Bessemer
Henry Bessemer, an English engineer, born in Bertfordshire in 1813. He early devoted himself to the improvement of machinery, and acquired celebrity about 20 years ago by his invention of a new practi...
-Henry Bidleman Bascom
Henry Bidleman Bascom, D. D., LL. D., an American clergyman, bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church South, born May 27, 1796, in Hancock, Delaware co., N. Y., died in Louisville, Sept. 8, 1850. Befo...
-Henry Bone
Henry Bone, an English enamel painter, born at Truro, in Cornwall, Feb. 6, 1755, died in London in December, 1834. He was brought up to the art of painting on china, and was afterward employed in Lond...
-Henry Boynton Smith
Henry Boynton Smith, an American clergyman, born in Portland, Me., Nov. 21, 1815. He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1834, was a tutor there in 1836-'7 and in 1840-'41, and studied theology at Andover...
-Henry Brooke
Henry Brooke, an Irish novelist and dramatist, born at Rantavan in 1706, died in Dublin, Oct. 10, 1783. A poem, Universal Beauty, introduced him to Swift and others, including the prince of Wales (...
-Henry Burden
Henry Burden, an American inventor, born at Dumblane, Scotland, April 20, 1791, died in Troy, N. Y., Jan. 19, 1871. He was the son of a farmer, studied mathematics, engineering, and drawing at Edinbur...
-Henry Castro
Henry Castro, a Texan pioneer, of Portuguese descent, born in France in 1786, died in Monterey, Mexico, in 1861. He was an officer of the Paris national guard in 1814, and after the overthrow of Napol...
-Henry Caswall
Henry Caswall, an English clergyman and author, born at Yateley, Hampshire, in 1810, died in January, 1871. He was the son of a clergyman, received his early education in England, and subsequently wen...
-Henry Charles Carey
Henry Charles Carey, an American political economist, son of Matthew Carey, born in Philadelphia, Dec. 15, 1793. He was educated as a bookseller, entering his father's store at the age of 8, and remai...
-Henry Clay
Henry Clay, an American statesman, born in Hanover co., near Richmond, Virginia, April 12, 1777, died in Washington, June 29, 1852. His father, who was a Baptist preacher, died in 1782, leaving a smal...
-Henry Colman
Henry Colman, an American clergyman and author, born in Boston, Sept. 12, 1785, died in London, Aug. 14, 1849. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1805, and was ordained minister of a Congregational ...
-Henry Compton
Henry Compton, an English prelate, born at Compton in 1632, died July 7, 1713. He was the youngest son of Spencer, second earl of Northampton, studied at Oxford, and after the restoration became a cor...
-Henry Cort
Henry Cort, an English inventor, born at Lancaster in 1740, died in 1800. He established himself as an iron merchant at Gosport, and afterward erected iron works at Fontley, near that town, where he e...
-Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau, an American author, born in Concord, Mass., July 12, 1817, died there, May 6, 1862. He graduated at Harvard college in 1837, and after teaching school for a short time became a la...
-Henry De Tonty
Henry De Tonty, an Italian explorer, died at Fort Louis, Mobile, in September, 1704. The son of Lorenzo Tonti, inventor of the tontine system of association, he entered the French army as a cadet, ser...
-Henry Dearborn
Henry Dearborn, an American general, born at Hampton, N. H., in March, 1751, died at Roxbury, Mass., June 6, 1829. He was a practising physician at Portsmouth when, on hearing of the battle of Lexingt...
-Henry Dodwell
Henry Dodwell, an Irish writer, born in Dublin about 1641, died at Shottesbrook, Berkshire, June 7, 1711. He graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, and settled in London in 1674. He was for about three...
-Henry Eckford
Henry Eckford, an American ship builder, born in Irvine, Scotland, March 12, 1775, died in Constantinople, Nov. 12, 1832. He served his apprenticeship in Quebec, and in 1796 removed to New York, where...
-Henry Edward Manning
Henry Edward Manning, an English Roman Catholic archbishop, born at Totteridge, Hertfordshire, July 15, 1808. He was educated as a member of the Anglican church at Harrow and Balliol college, Oxford, ...
-Henry Fothergill Chorley
Henry Fothergill Chorley, an English musical critic and author, born near Billinge, Lancashire, Dec. 15,1808, died in London, Feb. 10, 1872, In his boyhood he entered a mercantile establishment in Liv...
-Henry Francis Cary
Henry Francis Cary, an English clergyman and writer, born in Birmingham, Dec. 6, 1772, died in London, Aug. 14, 1844. He early distinguished himself by an Ode to Kosciusko and a volume of odes and s...
-Henry George Bohn
Henry George Bohn, an English publisher, of German parentage, born in London, Jan. 4, 1796. He commenced in 1845 the republication of rare standard works, selected from all the national literatures of...
-Henry Grattan
Henry Grattan, an Irish statesman and orator, born in Dublin, July 3, 1746, died in London, May 14, 1820. His father, a barrister and a Protestant, was for many years recorder of Dublin and also a mem...
-Henry Harbaugh
Henry Harbaugh, an American clergyman, born near Waynesborough, Pa., Oct. 28, 1817, died at Mercersburg, Pa., Dec. 28, 1867. In his youth he worked successively as a farmer, carpenter, miller, and tea...
-Henry Hart Milman
Henry Hart Milman, an English author, born in London, Feb. 10, 1791, died there, Sept. 24, 18G8. He was the youngest son of Sir Francis Milman, physician to George III., and was educated at Eton and a...
-Henry Home Kames
Henry Home Kames, lord, a Scottish jurist, born at Karnes, Berwickshire, in 1696, died Dec. 27, 1782. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and, after nearly 30 years' practice at the bar, w...
-Henry Howard Brownell
Henry Howard Brownell, an American author, born in Providence, R. I., Feb. 6, 1820, died in East Hartford, Conn., Oct. 31, 1872. He graduated at Washington (Trinity) college, Hartford, in 1841, and su...
-Henry Howard Surrey
Henry Howard Surrey, earl of, an English poet, born about 1516, beheaded on Tower hill, London, Jan. 21, 1547. He was the eldest son of Thomas Howard, third duke of Norfolk, and passed his youth at th...
-Henry Hudson
Henry Hudson, a British navigator and discoverer, born about the middle of the 16th century. He was first employed by a company of London merchants to search for the N. W. passage in 1607, when he sai...
-Henry Hunt
Henry Hunt, an English politician, born at Upavon, Wiltshire, Nov. 6, 1773, died at Al-resford, Hants, Feb. 13, 1835. He was a wealthy farmer, and in early life was noted for extreme loyalty, having i...
-Henry I
Henry I ., surnamed Beauclerc, the third English monarch of the Norman line, and first prince of that line of English birth, born at Selby, Yorkshire, in 1068, died near Rouen, Dec. 1, 1135. Having re...
-Henry I (2)
Henry I., the third French king of the Capetian dynasty, born about 1011, died Aug. 4, 1060. As early as 1027 he was associated in the government by Robert, his father, whom he succeeded in 1031, notw...
-Henry II
Henry II., tenth king of the Valois family, born in St. Germain-en-Laye, March 31, 1519, died in Paris, July 10, 1559. The only surviving son of Francis I. by his queen Claude of France, he succeeded ...
-Henry III
Henry III., son of John, king of England, and of Isabella of Angouleme, born Oct. 1, 1207, died at Westminster, Nov. 10, 1272. He became king Oct. 17, 1216, being then but nine years old. The desperat...
-Henry III (2)
Henry III., the last king of the Valois family, born in Fontainebleau, Sept. 19, 1551, died Aug. 2, 1589. He was the third son of Henry II., and the favorite of his mother, Catharine de' Medici, and b...
-Henry IV
Henry IV., founder of the royalty of the house of Lancaster, supposed to have been born at Bolingbroke, Lincolnshire, April 4, 1366, died in Westminster, March 20, 1413. He was the eldest son of John ...
-Henry IV (2)
Henry IV., the first French king of the house of Bourbon, born at the castle of Pau, Dec. 14, 1553, assassinated in Paris, May 14, 1G10. The son of Antoine de Bourbon and Jeanne d'Albret, queen of Nav...
-Henry Jams Raymond
Henry Jams Raymond, an American journalist, born in Lima, Livingston co., N. Y., Jan. 24, 1820, died in New York, June 18, 1869. He worked on his father's farm, at the age of 16 taught a country schoo...
-Henry John Temple Palmerston
Henry John Temple Palmerston, viscount, a British statesman, born in London, Oct. 20, 1784, died at Brockett Hall, Herts, Oct. 18, 1865. He succeeded to the title as third viscount (in the Irish peera...
-Henry Jones Ripley
Henry Jones Ripley, an American clergyman, born in Boston, Mass., June 28, 1798, died at Newton Centre, May 21, 1875. He graduated at Harvard college in 1816, studied theology at Andover, was ordained...
-Henry Kater
Henry Kater, an English mathematician, born in Bristol, April 16, 1777, died in London, April 26, 1835. In his youth he spent some time in a lawyer's office, but upon the death of his father in 1794 h...
-Henry Kirke White
Henry Kirke White, an English poet, born in Nottingham, March 21, 1785, died in Cambridge, Oct. 19, 1806. He was the son of a butcher, and assisted his father until his 14th year, but learned French a...
-Henry Knox
Henry Knox, an American general, born in Boston, July 25, 1750, died in Thomaston, Me., Oct. 25, 1806. He was of Scotch and Irish Presbyterian stock, and his father came from St. Eustatius, one of the...
-Henry Lee
Henry Lee, an American soldier, born in Westmoreland co., Va., Jan. 29, 1756, died at Cumberland island, Ga., March 25, 1818. His father was Henry Lee, first cousin of Richard Henry, Francis Lightfoot...
-Henry Lejeune
Henry Lejeune, an English painter, of Flemish descent, born in London about 1819. He was admitted as a student at the royal academy in 1834. In 1840 he exhibited his painting of Joseph interpreting t...
-Henry Lonpievhle Mansel
Henry Lonpievhle Mansel, an English author, born at Cos^rove, Northamptonshire, Oct. 6, 1820, died there, July 30, 1871. He was educated at Oxford, became a fellow of St. John's college in 1842, was o...
-Henry M Stanley
Henry M Stanley, an American traveller, born near Denbigh, Wales, in 1840. His original name was John Rowlands. At the age of three he was sent to the poorhouse at St. Asaph, where he remained till he...
-Henry Mackenzie
Henry Mackenzie, a Scottish author, born in Edinburgh in August, 1745, died there, Jan. 14, 1831. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, studied law there and in London, and became attorney f...
-Henry Meiggs
Henry Meiggs, an American merchant, born in Catskill, N. Y., in 1811. He began business as a contractor in Boston, removed thence to New York, made a fortune in the lumber business, and lost it in the...
-Henry Membertou
Henry Membertou, a Micmac sagamore and medicine man, born about 1500, died in 1611. He is said to have seen Cartier in his youth; lie received De Monts and his colonists, on their arrival in Acadia in...
-Henry More
Henry More, an English philosopher, horn in Grantham. Lincolnshire, Oct. 12, 1614, died in Cambridge, Sept. 1. 1687. Hestudiedat Eton and in 1631 removed to Christ's college Cam bridge, where he took ...
-Henry Morley
Henry Morley, an English author, born in London, Sept. 15, 1822. He was sent to a Moravian school at Neuwied on the Rhine, and graduated at King's college, London, where he established and edited the ...
-Henry Nelson Coleridge
Henry Nelson Coleridge, an English lawyer and author, nephew of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, born about 1800, died Jan. 26,1843. He was first a scholar at Eton, and became in due course a scholar and subs...
-Henry Norman Hudson
Henry Norman Hudson, an American essayist, born in Cornwall, Vt., Jan. 28, 1814. His early youth was passed on a farm; from his 18th to his 21st year he lived in Middlebury as an apprentice at the tra...
-Henry Of Beaufort
Henry Of Beaufort, an English prelate and statesman, born about 1370, died at Winchester, April 11,1447. He was a legitimatized son of John of Gaunt by his mistress, afterward his third wife, Lady Cat...
-Henry Philip Tappan
Henry Philip Tappan, an American clergyman, born at Rhinebeck, N. Y., April 23, 1805. He graduated at Union college in 1825, studied at the Auburn theological seminary, was for a year assistant pastor...
-Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell, an English composer, born in London in 1658, died Nov. 21, 1695. While a singing boy in the choir of the king's chapel he composed several anthems. At the age of 18 he was appointed org...
-Henry Richard Vassall Holland
Henry Richard Vassall Holland, baron, an English statesman, born at Winterslow house, Wiltshire, Nov. 21, 1773, died at Holland house, Kensington, Oct. 22, 1840. He was the only son of Stephen Fox, se...
-Henry Rowe Schoolcraft
Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an American author, born in Watervliet (now Guilderland), Albany co., N. Y., March 28, 1793, died in Washington, D. C, Dec. 10, 1864. He studied at Union college, and under Pro...
-Henry Sacheverell
Henry Sacheverell, an English clergyman, born in Marlborough, Wiltshire, about 1672, died in London, June 5, 1724. He was educated at Oxford, obtained a fellowship, received holy orders, and in 1705 w...
-Henry St. John Bolingbroke
Henry St. John Bolingbroke, viscount, an English statesman and author, born at Batter-sea, London, Oct. 1,1678, died Dec. 12, 1751. He was the son of Sir Henry St. John, bart., and of a daughter of th...
-Henry Stuart Darnley
Henry Stuart Darnley, lord, the second husband of Mary queen of Scots, born in England in 1546, killed near Edinburgh, Feb. 9, 1567. He was the son of the exiled earl of Lennox by Margaret Douglas, da...
-Henry The Hermit, Or Henry Of Lausanne
Henry The Hermit, Or Henry Of Lausanne founder of the sect of the Henricians, born probably in Italy, died at Clairvaux, France, in 1149. He lived at first as an anchorite, but about 1113 abandoned hi...
-Henry The Lion
Henry The Lion , duke of Saxony and Bavaria, born in 1129, died in Brunswick in 1195. Bis father, Henry the Haughty, had been outlawed and despoiled of his possessions for refusing to acknowledge the ...
-Henry The Navigator
Henry The Navigator , a Portuguese prince, born March 4,. 1394, died at Sagres, Nov. 13, 1460. He was the fourth son of King John I. of Portugal and Philippa, daughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancas...
-Henry Theodore Tickerman
Henry Theodore Tickerman, an American author, born in Boston, April 20, 1813, died in New York, Dec. 17, 1871. In 1833 and again in 1836 he went abroad, residing for some time in Italy and devoting hi...
-Henry Thomas Buckle
Henry Thomas Buckle, an English author, born at Lee, Kent, Nov. 24, 1821, died in Damascus, Syria, May 29,1862. He was educated at Dr. Halloway's school in Kentish Town. Upon the death of his father i...
-Henry Thomas Cockburn
Henry Thomas Cockburn, lord, a Scottish jurist, born near Edinburgh, Oct. 26, 1779, died April 26, 1854. In 1800 he entered the faculty of advocates, and attached himself to the whig party, although h...
-Henry Thomas Colebrooke
Henry Thomas Colebrooke, an English orientalist, born in London, June 15, 1765, died there in March, 1837. He was the son of Sir George Colebrooke, who in 1769 was appointed chairman of the board of d...
-Henry V
Henry V., son of the preceding, and second king of the Lancaster branch of the Plantagenets, born, it is supposed, in Monmouth, Aug. 9, 1388, died at Vincennes, France, Aug. 31, 1422. But little is kn...
-Henry VI
Henry VI., son of the preceding and of Catharine of France, and last monarch of the Lancastrian dynasty, born in Windsor, Dec. 6, 1421, believed to have been killed in the tower in May, 1471. His reig...
-Henry VII
Henry VII., founder of the Tudor dynasty of English kings, horn at Pembroke castle, in South Wales, July 26,1456, died at Richmond, April 21, 1509. On the death of Henry V., his widow, Catharine of Fr...
-Henry VIII
Henry VIII., second king of England of the Tudor dynasty, and second son of the preceding king and Elizabeth of York, born at Greenwich palace, June 28, 1491, ascended the throne April 22, 1509, died ...
-Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, an American poet, born in Portland, Me., Feb. 27, 1807. He is the son of Stephen Longfellow, an eminent lawyer in that city. At the age of 14 he entered Bowdoin college, wh...
-Henry Wager Halleck
Henry Wager Halleck, an American soldier, born at Waterville, N. Y., Jan. 15, 1815, died in Louisville, Ky., Jan. 9, 1872. He studied for a time at Union college, and entered the military academy at W...
-Henry Wheaton
Henry Wheaton, an American publicist, born in Providence, R. I., Nov. 27, 1785, died in Dorchester, Mass., March 11, 1848. He graduated at Brown university (then Rhode Island college) in 1802, studied...
-Henry Whitney Bellows
Henry Whitney Bellows, D. D., an American clergyman, horn in Boston, June 11, 1814. He was educated at Harvard college and the divinity school in Cambridge, where he completed his course in 1837. On J...
-Henry William Herbert
Henry William Herbert, an American author, born in London, April 7, 1807, died by his own hand in New York, May 17, 1858. He was a son of the Hon. and Rev. William Herbert, dean of Manchester, and gra...
-Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson, eighteenth vice president of the United States, born at Farmington, N. H., Feb. 16, 1812, died in Washington, D. C., Nov. 22, 1875. His original name was Jeremiah Jones Colbath, but at t...
-Henry Winter Davis
Henry Winter Davis, an American politician, born in Annapolis, Md., in 1817, died in Baltimore, Dec. 30, 1865. He graduated at Kenyon college in 1837, studied law at the university of Virginia, and se...
-Henry Wriothesley Southampton
Henry Wriothesley Southampton, third earl of, an English statesman, born Oct. 0, 1573, died in Holland, Nov. 10, 1624. When he was 20 years old Shakespeare dedicated to him his poem of Venus and Ado...
-Henry Yule
Henry Yule, an English author, born about 1810. He joined the army in India, became colonel of the royal engineers, Bengal, and now lives in London. His works include Fortification (1851); Narrat...
-Henryk Dembinsri
Henryk Dembinsri, a Polish general, born in the palatinate of Cracow, Jan. 16, 1791, died in Paris, June 13, 1864. His father, a zealous adherent of the anti-Russian party and of the liberal constitut...
-Hepatica
Hepatica , a genus of plants of the order ranunculaceoe, so closely allied to anemone that some botanists place it as a section of that genus. The common name is liver-leaf, and it is sometimes incorr...
-Heraclea
Heraclea , the name of several ancient Greek cities, the most important of which were: I. A city of Magna Graecia, in Lucania, near the Tarentine gulf, founded by a colony of Thurians and Tarentines a...
-Heraclitus
Heraclitus , a Greek philosopher who flourished at the close of the 6th century B. C. He was a native of Ephesus, and from his gloomy disposition was styled the weeping philosopher. In his youth he ...
-Heraclius
Heraclius , a Roman emperor of the East, born in Cappadocia about A. D. 575, died early in 641. He was the son of Heraclius, exarch of Africa, and first appeared in a public capacity in 610, when his ...
-Heraldry
Heraldry , the art or science of blazoning or describing in appropriate technical terms coats of arms, badges, and other heraldic and armorial insignia. The use of distinctive devices, both national a...
-Herat, Or Herant
Herat, Or Herant a city of Afghanistan, on the Heri, 360 m. W. of Cabool, and 190 m. S. E. of Meshed; pop. about 50,000. It is situated in a plain 2,500 ft. above the level of the sea, and is strongly...
-Herault
Herault , a S. department of France, in Languedoc, bordering on the Mediterranean, and on the departments of Gard, Aveyron, Tarn, and Aude; area, 2,3 93 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 429,878. The surface is m...
-Herbarium
Herbarium , a collection of dried plants, formerly called a hortus siccus. In collecting specimens, the whole plant, including root, is taken if not over 15 in. high, if possible selecting those which...
-Herbert Marsh
Herbert Marsh, an English author, born in London in 1757, died in Peterborough in 1839. He was educated at St. John's college, Cambridge. In 1783 he went to Germany, and resided in Gottingen, where he...
-Herbert Spencer
Herbert Spencer, an English philosopher, born in Derby, April 27,1820. His father was a teacher. Herbert was fond of keeping insects and watching their transformations, and for years the finding and r...
-Herbivora
Herbivora , (plant-eaters), an order of mammals, ungulate or hoofed, having molar teeth for grinding, and no clavicles. Owen divides them into: 1. Artiodactyls, or even-toed, with 19 dorso-lumbar vert...
-Herculaneum
Herculaneum , an ancient city of Campania, Italy, situated at the N. W. base of Mt. Vesuvius, about 5 m. S. E. of Naples, and entirely overwhelmed by an eruption of Vesuvius in A. D. 79. Its foundatio...
-Hercules
Hercules , (Gr. the most renowned of the mythical heroes of antiquity, son of Jupiter by Alemena, the granddaughter of Perseus. He was destined by Jupiter to occupy the throne of Perseus, but by th...
-Hereford
Hereford , a city and parliamentary and municipal borough of England, capital of Herefordshire, on the N. bank of the Wye, here crossed by a bridge of six arches, 136 m. by railway W. N. W. of London;...
-Herefordshire
Herefordshire , an inland county of England, on the E. border of Wales, almost circular in shape; area, 835 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 125,364. Its surface is diversified by hill and dale. It belongs wholl...
-Herisau
Herisau , a town of Switzerland, capital of the half canton of Appenzell Outer Rhodes, 7 m. N. W. of Appenzell, on the right bank of the Glatt, about 2,500 ft. above the sea, pop. in 1870, 9,736. It c...
-Herkimer
Herkimer , a N. E. county of New York, intersected by the Mohawk river, and also drained by several mill streams; area, 1,745 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 39,928. It has a hilly surface, in many places cover...
-Hermas
Hermas , an ecclesiastical writer of the 1st century, author of the book Pastor Hermoe. He is thought by some to be the Hernias mentioned by St. Paul in Rom. xvi. 14. The Hernias of the epistle is a s...
-Herman Melville
Herman Melville, an American author, born in New York, Aug. 1, 1819. At the age of 18 he shipped before the mast on a vessel bound for Liverpool, and in 1841 he embarked for the Pacific, as a sailor, ...
-Herman Willem Daendels
Herman Willem Daendels, a Dutch general, born at Hattem, Gelderland, Oct. 22, 1762, died on the Guinea coast, Africa, May 2, 1818. He took the patriotic side in the political strife of 1787, and on th...
-Hermann Boekhaaye
Hermann Boekhaaye, a Dutch physician, born at Voorhout, near Leyden, Dec. 31, 1668, died in Leyden, Sept. 23, 1738. His father was a clergyman, and he was destined for the same calling. He studied at ...
-Hermann Burmeister
Hermann Burmeister, a German naturalist, born at Stralsund, Jan. 15, 1807. He studied medicine at Greifswald and Halle, and in 1830 went to Berlin to qualify himself to be a teacher of natural history...
-Hermann Conring
Hermann Conring, a German philosopher and author, born at Norden, East Friesland, Nov. 9,1606, died at Helmstedt, Dec. 12, 1681. He was the son of a clergyman, studied at Leyden, and was professor of ...
-Hermann Gunther Grassmam
Hermann Gunther Grassmam, a German mathematician, born in Stettin, Prussia, April 15, 1809. His father was professor of mathematics in the gymnasium of Stettin and the author of several mathematical t...
-Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helmholtz
Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand Helmholtz, a German physicist and physiologist, born in Potsdam, Aug. 31, 1821. At the age of 17 he was admitted to the royal military school in Berlin, and commenced the stud...
-Hermann Ludwig Heinrich Von Puckler-Muskau
Hermann Ludwig Heinrich Von Puckler-Muskau, prince, a German author, born at Muskau, Lusatia, Oct. 30, 1785, died at Branitz, near Kottbus, Feb. 4, 1871. He studied in Leipsic, served in various armie...
-Hermann Ulrici
Hermann Ulrici, a German philosopher, born at Pförten, Lusatia, March 23, 1806. He was educated at Halle and Berlin, and practised law for some time, but in 1829 devoted himself to philosophical studi...
-Hermannstadt
Hermannstadt (Hung. Nagy-Szeben), a city of Transylvania, capital of the land of the Saxons, on the Zibin, 70 m. S. S. E. of Klau-senburg; pop. in 1869, 18,998, of whom 69 per cent. were Germans. It c...
-Hermaphrodite
Hermaphrodite , (Gr. Mercury, and Venus), an animal or plant uniting in itself the sexual characters of the male and female. The name is derived from the fable of the union into one of the bodi...
-Hermes Trismegistus
Hermes Trismegistus , a mythical person, the reputed author of a great variety of works that were probably written by Egyptian Neo-Platonists. The Egyptian god Thoth (the intellect) was identified by ...
-Hermopolis Magna
Hermopolis Magna , a city of ancient Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile, lat. 27 45' N. It was the capital under the Greek rulers of a nome on the borders of Middle and Upper Egypt, and is somet...
-Hermosillo
Hermosillo , an inland town of Mexico, in the state of Sonora, lat. 29 20' N., and Ion. 110 40' W., 40 m. S. W. of Ures; pop. about 14,000, about 3,000 of whom are Yaqui In- dians. It is sit...
-Hernan Or Hernando Cortes
Hernan Or Hernando Cortes, the conqueror of Mexico, born in Medellin, a small town of Estremadura, Spain, in 1485, died near Seville, Dec. 2, 1547. His father, Martin Cortes of Monroy, and his mother,...
-Hernia, Or Rupture
Hernia, Or Rupture the protrusion of any organ outside of its natural enclosing cavity, but, in common language, limited to the escape of the abdominal viscera. Until about the 18th century this disea...
-Herod
Herod , surnamed the Great, king of the Jews, son of Antipater, a noble Idumaean, born in Ascalon, Judea, about 72 B. 0., died in 4. When in 47 Julius Caesar appointed his father procurator of Judea, ...
-Herod Agrippa I
Herod Agrippa I., king of Judea and Chal-cis, son of Aristobulus, and grandson of Herod the Great, born in the year 10 B. C, died A. D. 44. He was a favorite of his grandfather, who after the death of...
-Herod Antipas
Herod Antipas , the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan, born in Jerusalem. His father gave the main parts of his kingdom to Archelaus, another son, and assigned to Antipas the tetrarchy ...
-Herodotus
Herodotus , a Greek historian, styled the father of history, born in Halictirnassus, Asia Minor, about 484 B. C, died probably in Thu-rii, Italy, about 420. The statement of Suidas that he belonged to...
-Heron
Heron , a wading bird of the family ardeidoe, and the old genus ardea (Linn.), including also the bitterns and egrets, treated under their own names. The bill is much longer than the head, rather slen...
-Herophilus
Herophilus , a Greek anatomist, born at Chalcedon in Bithynia, flourished about 300 B. 0. He lived at Alexandria, where he acquired great reputation both as a teacher and practitioner. He is generally...
-Herpetology
Herpetology , (Gr. , reptile or creeping thing, and discourse), the branch of zoology which treats of the structure and classification of reptiles. The present article will be confined to the la...
-Herrera
Herrera ,.I. Francisco de, the elder, a Spanish painter, born in Seville in 1576, died in Madrid in 1656. He was a pupil of Luis Fernandez. By the boldness and spirit of his drawing and the clearness ...
-Herring
Herring , the general name of the family clupeidoe of the malacopterous or soft-rayed abdominal fishes. The family has been divided by Valenciennes, according to the position of the teeth, size of the...
-Herschel
Herschel ,.I. Sir William, an English astronomer, born in Hanover, Nov. 15, 1738, died at Slough, near Windsor, Aug. 23, 1822. His father, a musician, educated him to his own profession, and at the ag...
-Hersfeld
Hersfeld , a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau, 10 m. N. N. E. of Ful-da, on the left bank of the Fulda; pop. in 1871, 6,434. It owes its origin to a Benedictine abbey which was founded...
-Hertford
Hertford , a X. E. county of North Carolina, bordering on Virginia, bounded E. by Chowan and Nottoway rivers, and intersected by the Meherrin, which unites with the Nottoway to form the Chowan; area, ...
-Hertfordshire, Or Herts
Hertfordshire, Or Herts an inland county of England, bordering on Cambridgeshire, Essex, Middlesex, Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire; area, 611 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 192,226. Its principal rivers are...
-Hertzen, Or Herzen
Hertzen, Or Herzen Alexander, a Russian author, born in Moscow, March 25, 1812, died in Paris, Jan. 21, 1870. He studied at the university of Moscow, where he and some of his associates were arrested ...
-Herzegovina, Or Hersek
Herzegovina, Or Hersek a province of European Turkey, forming the S. W. part of the vilayet of Bosnia, bounded N. by Turkish Croatia, W. by Dalmatia, S. by Montenegro and the gulf of Cattaro, and E. b...
-Hess
Hess,.I. Karl Ernst Christoph, a German engraver, born in Darmstadt in 1755, died July 25, 1828. He first made himself known by some plates after pictures by Rembrandt in the gallery at Dusseldorf, an...
-Hesiod
Hesiod , (Gr. one of the earliest Greek poets, of whose life nothing is known except that he dwelt at Ascra, on Mt. Helicon, whither his father had removed from Cyme, on the AEolic coast of Asia Mi...
-Hesse
Hesse , (Ger. Hessen). I. Or Hessia, a territory of Germany, inhabited in the time of the Roman empire by the Catti, an old Germanic tribe. Germanicus is said to have destroyed their principal town, M...
-Hesse-Cassel
Hesse-Cassel , (Ger. Kurhessen, Electoral Hesse), a former German electorate, incorporated with Prussia in 1866. At the time when it ceased to be an independent state it had an area of 3,701 sq. m., a...
-Hesse-Homburg
Hesse-Homburg , a former German land-graviate, consisting of the province of Hom-burg, which was surrounded by the territory of Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, and Frankfort, and of the more po...
-Hesse-Nassau
Hesse-Nassau , a province of Prussia, consisting of the former electorate of Hesse-Cassel, the former duchy of Nassau, and the former free city of Frankfort, all of which were annexed to Prussia in 18...
-Hessian Fly
Hessian Fly , a small gnat or midge, of the order diptera, family cecidomyiadoe or gall gnats, and genus cecidomyia (Latr.). It was called Hessian fly from the supposition that it was brought to this ...
-Hester Lynch Piozzi
Hester Lynch Piozzi, an English authoress, born at Bodvel, Carnarvonshire, Jan. 16,1740, died in Clifton, near Bristol, May 2, 1821. She was the daughter of John Salusbury, esq., and in 1763 married a...
-Hesychius
I. Saint, an Egyptian bishop, born about the middle of the 3d century, died in Alexandria in 311. He published an edition of the New Testament mentioned by St. Jerome, as well as a revised edition of ...
-Heterocercal
Heterocercal ,.All palaeozoic and most mesozoic fishes had a vertebrated tail, the vertebra) extending to its extremity, instead of stopping short at its commencement as in almost all existing fishes....
-Heyse
Heyse ,.I. Karl Wilhelm Ludwig, a German philologist, horn in Oldenburg, Oct. 15, 1797, died in Berlin, Nov. 25, 1855. He was for eight years a teacher in the family of Men-delssohn-Bartholdy, and sub...
-Hezekiah
Hezekiah , king of Judah, succeeded his father Ahaz about 727 B. C, when he was 25 years old, died about 698. Following the injunctions of the prophet Isaiah, on his accession he took measures to brea...
-Hibernation
Hibernation , (Lat. hibernare, to stay in winter quarters), generally understood as the condition of lethargy, in which many animals pass the cold season. The sources of their daily food being at this...
-Hibiscus
Hibiscus , the rose mallow, a genus of mal-vaceoe, the mallow family, which differs from the common representatives of that family in having its fruit a pod, which is five-celled, and at maturity spli...
-Hiccough
Hiccough , a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm, producing a shock in the thoracic and abdominal cavities, and accompanied by a convulsive inspiration in which the column of air is arrested by the...
-Hickman
Hickman ,.I. A W. central county of Tennessee, drained by Duck and Piney rivers; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,856, of whom 1,471 were colored. The surface is uneven, and the soil rich and well wa...
-Hickory
Hickory , (carya, Nuttall), the common name of several species of timber trees, with large compound leaves, having from 5 to 15, but usually not more than 11 leaflets. The hickories belong to the natu...
-Hidalgo
Hidalgo , a word applied in Spain to every noble man or woman, but strictly the title of the lowest order of nobility, constituting the hidalguia. Some writers derive the word from hijo del Goto, the ...
-Hie Hard De Charms
Hie Hard De Charms, an American clergyman and author, born in Philadelphia, Oct. 17, 1796, died there, March 20, 1864. In 1793 his father, a physician, of Huguenot descent, emigrated from England to A...
-Hiero
Hiero , or Hieron (Gr. I. Tyrant of Syracuse, succeeded his brother Gelon about 478 B. C, died in Catana in 467. After having made peace with his brother Polyzelus and Theron of Agrigentum, with wh...
-Hieroglyphics, Or Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphics, or Hieroglyphs (Gr. sacred, and to carve), picture writing, or figures representing animate beings or inanimate objects, and implying words or ideas. They have been found in all p...
-Hieronymus Karl Friedrich Von Muchhausen
Hieronymus Karl Friedrich Von Muchhausen, baron, a German soldier, born at Bodenwerder, Hanover, in 1720, died there in 1797. He served in bis youth as a cavalry officer in the Russian army, and passe...
-Hierophant
Hierophant , (Gr. from sacred, and to make known), the presiding priest in the Eleusinian mysteries, who conducted the ceremonies of initiation. He could be chosen only from the family of the...
-Higginson
Higginson ,.I. Francis, an English clergyman, born in 1587, died in Salem, Mass., Aug. 6, 1630. He was educated at Cambridge, England, and subsequently became rector of a parish in Leicester. Becoming...
-Highland
Highland ,.I. A W. county of Virginia, bordering on West Virginia, bounded N. W. by the principal ridge of the Alleghany mountains, and S. E. by the Shenandoah range; area, 425 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4...
-Highway
Highway , a place over which the public have a right of passage. It may be a footpath, a bridle path, a cart way, or a road wide enough for vehicles of any kind to pass each other; and for many purpos...
-Hilary
Hilary , a pope of Rome, successor of St. Leo I., born in Sardinia, died in 468. From the beginning of his priesthood he had been noted for his zeal for the faith and his hostility to heresy. At the ...
-Hildebrndt
Hildebrndt ,.I. Ferdinand Theodor, a German painter, born in Stettin; July 2, 1804. He studied under Wilhelm Schadow at Berlin, with whom in 1826 he went to Dusseldorf, and in 1830 to Italy, finally t...
-Hildegard, Or Hildegardis
Hildegard, Or Hildegardis Saint, born in 1098 at Bockelheim, in the diocese of Mentz, died at Rupertsberg, near Bingen, in 1180. Her father, who held the rank of count, intrusted her in her 8th year t...
-Hildesheim
Hildesheim , a town of Prussia, in the province and 18 m. S. E. of the city of Hanover; pop. in 1871, 20,532, including about G,500 Roman Catholics and 400 Jews. The construction of the town is irregu...
-Hillel
Hillel , a rabbi and president (nasi) of the sanhedrim of Jerusalem, who flourished in the latter half of the 1st century B. C. He is distinguished from other rabbis of the same name by the surname of...
-Hillhouse
Hillhouse ,.I. James, an American statesman, born in Montville, Conn., Oct. 21, 1754, died in New Haven, Dec. 29, 1832. He graduated at Yale college in 1773, of which institution he was treasurer from...
-Hillsborough
Hillsborough ,.I. A S. county of New Hampshire, bordering on Massachusetts, intersected in its E. part by the Merrimack river, and drained in the W. by the Contoo-cook; area 960 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, ...
-Hillsdale
Hillsdale , a S. county of Michigan, bounded S. by Ohio, and touching the N. E. extremity of Indiana; area, 555 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 31,084. It is drained by the head waters of St. Joseph's river of ...
-Hilo
Hilo , a seaport town on the E. side of the island of Hawaii, in a district of the same name; pop. in 1872, 4,220, native and foreign. It is the second town in size, after Honolulu, in the Hawaiian is...
-Himalaya Mountains
Himalaya Mountains , (Sanskrit, hima, snow, and alaya, abode), a mountain chain of Asia, bordering upon India on the north, and separating it from Thibet. It is limited on the east by the Brahmapootra...
-Himera
Himera ,.an ancient Greek city of northern Sicily, at the mouth of the river Himera, between Panormus and Cephaloedium. It is said to have been founded about the middle of the 7th century B. C. by a c...
-Himilco
Himilco , the name of several distinguished Carthaginians, the most eminent of whom were the following: I. A navigator, who lived in the 6th or 5th century B. C., and who was sent on a voyage of disco...
-Himyarites
Himyarites , and Himyaritie Language and Inscriptions. Ethnologically and linguistically considered, the term Himyaritic denotes the whole group of races and languages from the basin of the Euphrates,...
-Hincks
Hincks ,.I. Edward, an Irish archaeologist, born in Cork about 1792, died at Killyleagh, county Down, Dec. 3, 1866. He studied under his father, who was professor of Hebrew and head master of the clas...
-Hincmar
Hincmar , a Gallican prelate, born in Aqui-taine about 806, died in Epernay, Dec. 21, 882. He was brought up from childhood in the monastery of St. Denis, near Paris, where he became a monk under the ...
-Hindoo Koosh
Hindoo Koosh , (Pers. Hindu Kuh, Indian mountain), a range of mountains in central Asia, which was known to the ancients as the Indian Caucasus. Although the name more strictly belongs to the lofty sn...
-Hipparion
Hipparion , an extinct perissodactyl or uneven-toed mammal, belonging to the solidun-gulate (solid-hoofed or single-toed) division, which includes the horse and the ass, or the family equidoe. In its ...
-Hippias And Hipparchus
Hippias And Hipparchus , the sons and successors of Pisistratus, tyrant of Athens. According to an early popular opinion, Hippar-chus was the elder brother; according to Herodotus and Thueydides, Hipp...
-Hippocrates
Hippocrates , a Greek physician, called the father of medicine, horn in the island of Cos about 460 B. C, died in Larissa, Thessaly, between 375 and 351. He studied medicine with his father Heraclid...
-Hippodrome
Hippodrome , (Gr. horse, and a course), the course where the horse and chariot races of the ancient Greeks took place. The hippodrome was differently constructed according to the nature of the g...
-Hippolyte Adolphe Tade
Hippolyte Adolphe Tade, a French author, born in Vouziers, April 21, 1828. He was educated at the Bourbon college, was connected with the normal school of Paris for five years, and since 1864 has been...
-Hippolyte Andre Jean Baptiste Chelard
Hippolyte Andre Jean Baptiste Chelard, a French composer, born in Paris, Feb. 1, 1789, died in Weimar, Feb. 12, 1861. The son of a musician, he studied in Paris, Rome, and Naples, and his first comic ...
-Hippopotamis
Hippopotami's , (Gr. horse, and river), a pachydermatous animal, inhabiting Africa. It is generally called sea cow by the Cape colonists, a term which is usually applied in America to the manat...
-Hiram Mattison
Hiram Mattison, an American clergyman, born in Norway, N. Y., Feb. 11, 1811, died in Jersey City, N. J., Nov. 24, 1868. He entered the Methodist ministry in 1835, and in 1836 joined the Black River co...
-Hiram Paulding
Hiram Paulding, an American naval officer, born in Westchester co., N. Y., Dec. 11, 1797. He is a son of John Paulding, one of the captors of Major Andre. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1811, ...
-Hiram Powers
Hiram Powers, an American sculptor, born in Woodstock, Vt., July 29, 1805, died in Florence, Italy, June 27, 1873. He passed his youth on his father's farm, and emigrated with the family to Ohio; and ...
-Hiring
Hiring ,.One may hire a person or a thing, and the thing hired may be real estate or personal chattels. For the law of luring real estate, see Lease. In this article we shall treat only of the hiring ...
-Histology
Histology , (Gr. a web, and a discourse), the science which describes the anatomical elements and tissues of the body, according to their form and organization. If we take any organ of the body,...
-Hngues Felicite Robert De Lamennais
Hngues Felicite Robert De Lamennais, a French author, born in St. Malo, June 19, 1782, died in Paris, Feb. 27, 1854. His father, a wealthy ship owner engaged in commerce, had been ennobled by Louis XV...
-Hoadley
Hoadley ,.I. Benjamin, an English prelate, born at Westerham, Nov. 14, 1676, died in Chelsea, April 17, 1761. After leaving Cambridge he was lecturer of St. Mildred's and rector of a church in London,...
-Hoare
Hoare ,.I. William, an English painter, born about 1707, died in Bath in 1792. He painted portraits of Pitt, Grenville, Lord Chesterfield, the duke of Newcastle, etc, and several altar-pieces for chur...
-Hoboken
Hoboken , a city of Hudson co., New Jersey, on the Hudson river, opposite New York, with which it is connected by two steam ferries, and at the terminus of the Morris and Essex division of the Delawar...
-Hodge
Hodge ,.I. Charles, an American theologian, born in Philadelphia, Dec. 28,1797. He graduated at Princeton college in 1815, and at the theological seminary in 1819, and became assistant professor in th...
-Hoffmann
Hoffmann , Ernst Theodor Wilhelm (Amadeus), a German author, born in Konigsberg, Jan. 24, 1776, died in Berlin, July 24, 1822. He manifested an early taste for music and drawing, studied law at the un...
-Hog
Hog , (sus, Linn.), a well known pachydermatous animal, found throughout the world, and sufficiently characterized in the article Boar. Besides the common sus scrofa (Linn.), the hogs as a family have...
-Hogarth, Or More Properly Hogart
Hogarth, Or More Properly Hogart William, an English painter, born in London in 1697, or according to some authorities in 1698, died Oct. 26, 1764. His father, who was the son of a Westmoreland yeoman...
-Hoheinstaufen
Hoheinstaufen , the name of a German family of princes, which ruled the German empire, with short interruptions, from 1138 to 1254. The name is derived from a castle on Mount Staufen in Wurtemberg, bu...
-Hohenlinden
Hohenlinden , a village of Upper Bavaria, 20 m. E. of Munich, memorable for a battle fought Dec. 3, 1800, which resulted in a victory of the French general Moreau over the archduke John of Austria. Af...
-Hohenlohe
Hohenlohe , the name of a German princely family, claiming its descent from the dukes of Franconia, named from the territory of Hohen-lohe, originally a county, afterward a principality, mediatized in...
-Hohenzollern, Or Zolleru
Hohenzollern, Or Zolleru a princely family of Germany to which belongs the royal house of Prussia. The name is derived from the castle of Hohenzollern, in the district of Sigmarin-gen, on the Zollerbe...
-Holbach
Holbach , Paul Henri Thyry (or Dietrich) d', baron, a French philosopher, born at Heidels-heim, near Carlsruhe, in 1723, died in Paris, Jan. 21, 1780. He was taken to Paris when very young by his fath...
-Holland
Holland ,.I. A division of the Netherlands, comprising the present provinces of North and South Holland, which in the middle ages successively formed a part of the Frankish empire, of Lorraine, and of...
-Holly
Holly , the common name of several evergreen species of ilex, of the order aquifolia-ceoe. They have small axillary flowers, which when perfect are inclined to be solitary, but when sterile are in sma...
-Hollyhock
Hollyhock , (althoea rosea), an ornamental plant of the order malvaceoe, introduced into English gardens from Syria in 1573. In warm countries it is a perennial, but with us it is a biennial with larg...
-Holmes
Holmes ,.I. A N. W. county of Florida, bordering on Alabama, and intersected by the Choctawhatchee river; area, 396 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,572, of whom 137 were colored. Its surface is nearly level. ...
-Holstein
Holstein , (Lat. Holsatia), a former duchy of Denmark, and a state of the Germanic confederation, now part of Schleswig-Holstein, a province of Prussia. Of the history of Hol-stein until its union wit...
-Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance , a league formed by the emperors Alexander I. of Russia and Francis of Austria, and King Frederick William III. of Prussia, Sept. 26, 1815, after the second abdication of Napoleon, and ...
-Holy Spirit Plant
Holy Spirit Plant , a name which, as well as dove plant, has been given to a Central American orchid, peristeria elata, which has large, green, egg-shaped pseudo-bulbs, strongly ribbed leaves 3 ft. or...
-Holy Week
Holy Week , the last week of Lent, immediately preceding Easter Sunday. It is sometimes called Passion week, but that denomination is given in the Latin and Greek churches to the week preceding Palm S...
-Holyhead
Holyhead , (Welsh, Caer Gybi, fort of Gybi), a parliamentary borough, market town, and seaport of N. Wales, on a small island of the same name at the W. extremity of the county of Anglesea, 67 m. W. o...
-Holyoke
Holyoke , a city of Hampden co., Massachusetts, on the W. bank of the Connecticut river, 7 m. N. of Springfield and 80 m. W. by S. of Boston; pop. in 1850, 3,245; in 18G0, 4,997; in 1870, 10,733, of w...
-Homburg
Homburg , (Ger. also Homburg tor der Hohe, at the height), a town of Prussia, capital of the circle of Upper Taunus in the province of Hesse-Nassau, 9 m. N. N. W. of Frankfort; pop. in 1871, 8,626. It...
-Home, Or Hume
Home, Or Hume John, a Scottish author, born at Ancrum about 1722, died in Edinburgh, Sept. 5, 1808. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, and after a course of theological studies was licens...
-Homer
the supposed author of the Iliad and Odyssey, the earliest monuments of Greek literature. The several ancient biographies of Homer extant are either legendary or conjectural, and often contradictor...
-Homestead
Homestead , the place where one's dwelling is. By this is meant the home itself, with the outbuildings connected with it, and a portion of the land, as the garden, and it may be some fields, etc. From...
-Homicide
Homicide , in criminal law, the killing of one human being by another. By the common law, it is not homicide to kill an infant before its birth, the authorities declaring that if one purposely kills a...
-Homoeopathy
Homoeopathy , (Gr. like, and to be affected), a system of medicine first definitely propounded by Hahnemann. (See Hahnemann, Samuel.) Its cardinal principle, from which it derives its name, is ...
-Homoousians
Homoousians , (Gr. the same, and being, essence), in ecclesiastical history, a term which was originated in the 4th century to distinguish the Athanasian or orthodox party from the Arians, who ...
-Honduras
Honduras , a republic of Central America, lying between lat. 13 10' and 16 5' N, and Ion. 83 12' and 89 47' W., and bounded N. and E. by the Caribbean sea, S. by Nicaragua (from wh...
-Honey
Honey , the saccharine juices of plants, collected by bees from flowers, and deposited by them in the waxen cells of the comb. These juices undergo some modification in the honey bag of the bee; but t...
-Honey Dew
Honey Dew , a saccharine liquid found upon trees, and, when abundant, sprinkled upon the surface between them. This phenomenon has been the subject of much discussion; by some its origin is attributed...
-Honey Guide
Honey Guide , a bird of the cuckoo family, and genus indicator (Vieill.). The bill is short, broad at the base, with the culmcn curved; wings long and pointed, with the first quill nearly as long as t...
-Honey Locust
Honey Locust , the common name for Gle-ditschia triacanthos, a leguminous tree, also called three-thorned acacia, found in the greatest abundance in the southwestern states, and sparingly in the Atlan...
-Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle , the name of several kinds of twining and erect shrubs of the genus Lonicera, in the order capirifoliaceoe. They have tubular flowers, many of them possess fragrance, and most of them are...
-Honfleur
Honfleur , a seaport town of France, in the department of Calvados, on the S. bank of the estuary of the Seine, here 7 m. wide, and nearly opposite Havre; pop. in 1866, 9,946. It has a commodious port...
-Hong Kong
Hong Kong , (Red Harbor), or Hiang Kiang (Fragrant Streams), a British colony in China, comprising the island of Hong Kong and a part of the peninsula of Kooloon on the mainland opposite. The island l...
-Honolulu
Honolulu , the capital of the Hawaiian islands, on the S. side of the island of Oahu, in lat. 21 18' 12 N., Ion. 157 55' W.; pop. in 1872, 14,852. It covers the lower portion of Nuu-anu val...
-Honore Theodoric Paul Joseph Dalbert Luynes
Honore Theodoric Paul Joseph Dalbert Luynes, duke de, a French archaeologist, born in Paris, Dec. 15, 1802, died in Rome, Dec. 14, 1867. He was descended from the elder branch of the ancient family of...
-Honours
Honour's , the name of four popes and one antipope. I. Born in Capua toward the close of the 6th century, died in Rome, Oct. 12, 638. He was descended from a consular family, be-came in his youth a ca...
-Hood
Hood , a N. E. county of Texas, intersected by the Brazos river, and watered by numerous tributaries of that stream; area, 614 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,585, of whom 97 were colored. The surface is gre...
-Hoogly
Hoogly , a river of Bengal, British India, one of the deltoid mouths of the Ganges, formed by the junction, in lat. 23 25' N., Ion. 88 22' E., of three branches of the Ganges. Its course is ...
-Hoopoe
Hoopoe , a tenuirostral bird of the order pas-seres and family upupidoe. The family includes the subfamilies upupinoe or hoopoes, and epi-machinoe or plumed birds of New Zealand and Australia; the for...
-Hop
Hop , (Ger. Hopfen), hamulus lupulus, a plant which with cannabis, the hemp, composes the order cannabineoe; this is by some botanists regarded as a suborder of the nettle family, the urticaceoe. The ...
-Hop Tree
Hop Tree , (ptelea trifoliata), an American shrub of the rue family (rutacece), also called shrubby trefoil. It is a tall shrub, forming if kept trimmed to a single stem a tree 30 or 40 ft. high, and ...
-Hope
Hope ,.I. Thomas, an English author, born about 1770, died Feb. 3, 1831. He inherited a large fortune, and at the age of 18 started on a tour in Europe and the East. After an absence of eight years he...
-Hope And Company
Hope And Company , a firm of Amsterdam bankers, established in the 17th century by Henry Hope, a Scottish gentleman. One of the leading members of the house in the early part of this century, when it ...
-Hopkins
Hopkins ,.I. A N. E. county of Texas, bounded N. by the S. fork of Sulphur river, and drained by White Oak bayou and Lake fork of the Sabine; area, about 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,651, of whom 1,62...
-Hopkinson
Hopkinson ,.I. Francis, one of the signers of the American Declaration of Independence, born in Philadelphia in 1737, died May 9, 1791. He graduated at the college of Philadelphia, having been the fir...
-Hoppin
Hoppin ,.I. Augustus, an American artist, born in Providence, R. I., July 13, 1828. He graduated at Brown university in 1848, and was subsequently admitted to the bar of Rhode Island; but his love of ...
-Horace
Horace , (Quintus HoratiUs Flaccus), a Roman poet, born in Venusia, Apulia, Dec. 8, 65 B. C, died Nov. 27, 8 B. C His father was a freedman, collector, and proprietor of a farm, and though of servile ...
-Horace Benedict De Saussure
Horace Benedict De Saussure, a Swiss naturalist, born at Conches, near Geneva, Feb. 17, 1740, died in Geneva, Jan. 22, 1799. He studied botany under his father and his uncle Charles Bonnet, and under ...
-Horace Bixney
Horace Bixney, an American lawyer, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 4, 1780. He was long one of the leaders of the Philadelphia bar, and has published Reports of Cases in the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania ...
-Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley, an American journalist, born in Amherst, N. II., Feb. 3, 1811, died at Pleasantville, N. Y., Nov. 29,1872. His ancestors were Scotch-Irish. His father, Zaccheus Greeley, had settled on...
-Horace Green
Horace Green, an American physician, born at Chittenden, Vt., Dec. 24, 1802, died at Sing Sing, N. Y., Nov. 29, 1866. He graduated in medicine at Middlebury, Vt., in 1824, and practised in Rutland til...
-Horace Hayman Wilson
Horace Hayman Wilson, an English orientalist, born in London in 1786, died there, May 8, 1860. He studied medicine, and went to Calcutta in 1808 as assistant surgeon in the East India company's servic...
-Horace Mann
Horace Mann, an American educationist, born in Franklin, Mass., May 4,1796, died at Yellow Springs, Ohio, Aug. 2, 1859. His father was a farmer in limited circumstances, and the education of the son w...
-Horace Wells
Horace Wells, an American dentist, one of the claimants of the discovery of anaesthesia, born in Hartford, Windsor co., Vt., Jan. 21, 1815, died in New York, Jan. 24, 1848. In 1834-6 he studied and pr...
-Horae
Horae , (Gr. Lat. Horoe, hours), in classical mythology, the goddesses of the order of nature. In Homer they are the ministers of Zeus, guardians of the gates of Otympus, and rulers of the clouds a...
-Horatio Batch Hackett
Horatio Batch Hackett, an American Biblical scholar, born in Salisbury, Mass., Dec. 27,1808. He graduated at Amherst college in 1830, and studied theology at Andover, and afterward at Halle and Berlin...
-Horatio Greenough
Horatio Greenough, an American sculptor, born in Boston, Sept. 6, 1805, died at Somer-ville, near Boston, Dec. 18, 1852. A French sculptor named Binon, resident in Boston, was his first master; and he...
-Horatio Seymour
Horatio Seymour, an American statesman, born in Pompey, Onondaga co., N. Y., May 31, 1810. When he was nine years of age his parents removed to Utica. He was educated at the academies of Oxford and Ge...
-Horizontal Pendulum
Horizontal Pendulum, an instrument for measuring very weak attractive or repulsive forces; it can also be used for measuring slight changes of level, or minute variations in the dimensions of solid bo...
-Horn
Horn , a modification of the epidermis, presenting the same structure, whether in the nails of man, the claws of the carnivora and birds, the hoofs and horns of ruminants, the spines of the porcupine ...
-Horn (2)
Horn , a musical wind instrument, originally formed, as its name denotes, from the horn of an animal. The name includes a large family of instruments, many of which have fallen into disuse. The huntin...
-Horn, Or Hoorne
Horn, Or Hoorne Philip II. de Montmorency-Nivelle,. count of, a Flemish statesman, born in 1522, executed at Brussels, June 5, 1568. His father was descended from the noble French family of Montmorenc...
-Hornbeam
I. The common name of a genus of trees (carpinus) having wood of a horny texture, and the general appearance of the beech, the leaves resembling those of the beech or birch. The hornbeams are included...
-Hornbill
Hornbill , (buceros, Linn.), a genus of coni-rostral birds of Africa and the East Indies, of the family bucerotidoe. The principal genus buceros is characterized by an enormous bill, long, broad, curv...
-Hornblende
Hornblende , (amphibole of Hauy), a mineral species placed by Dana in the augite section of the anhydrous silicates. The chemical composition of hornblende was formerly represented by the general form...
-Horned Frog, Or Horned Toad
Horned Frog, Or Horned Toad an iguanian lizard of the genus phrynosoma (Wiegmann). In its general aspect it somewhat resembles a frog, and in its sluggishness a toad, hence the common names; but it is...
-Horner
Horner ,.I. Francis, a British statesman, born in Edinburgh, Aug. 12,1778, died in Pisa, Feb. 8, 1817. lie was educated at the high school and university of Edinburgh, studied for the bar, and was one...
-Hornet
Hornet , a stinging hymenopterous insect, of the family diplopvera and tribe of vespiarioe or wasps, under which title their family and generic characters will be given. The European hornet (vespa cra...
-Horrox, Or Horrocks
Horrox, Or Horrocks Jeremiah, an English astronomer, born at Toxteth, near Liverpool, about 1616, died there, Jan. 3, 1641. He was matriculated as a sizar at Emmanuel college, Cambridge, July 5, 1632,...
-Horse
Horse , a simple - hoofed, non-ruminating quadruped, constituting the soliped family of Cuvier's order of pachydermata, and, in Prof. Owen's system, the family solidungula, of the order perissodactyla...
-Horse Chestnut
Horse Chestnut , (oesculus, Linn.), a tree of the natural order sapindaceoe, comprising about a dozen species, of which the most common and best known is AE. hippocastanum (Linn.), a handsome tree, wi...
-Horse Power
Horse Power , in machinery, a measure by which the capacity of engines is rated, established by Boulton and Watt at 33,000 lbs. raised one foot high per minute. On this basis Watt reckoned the force o...
-Horse Radish
Horse Radish (cochlearia Armoracia, but by some botanists placed in nasturtium), a cruciferous plant having a root from an inch to 2 1/2 in. in diameter, and a stem 2 to 3 ft. high rising from the mid...
-Horse Shoe
Horse Shoe , a strip of iron bent around in the form of the hoof of the horse, and fastened upon the bottom of the same by nails driven through the outer corneous layer, and clinched upon the outside....
-Horsetail
Horsetail , the name of plants of the genus equisetum (Lat. equus, a horse, and seta, a bristle), which belongs to the great series of cryptogamous or flowerless plants. They have rush-like, hollow, j...
-Hortense Engenie Beauharnais
Hortense Engenie Beauharnais, wife of Louis Bonaparte and queen of Holland, born in Paris, April 10,1783, died at Arenenberg, Switzerland, Oct. 5,1837. She was the daughter of Alexandre Beauharnais an...
-Horticulture
Horticulture, the most perfect method of tilling the earth so as to produce the best results, whether the products are objects of utility or of beauty. It is difficult to define the line between horti...
-Horus
Horus, a god of the Egyptians, son of Osiris and Isis. He represented the rising sun. He pierces with a spear the serpent Apophis or Apap, the vapors of dawn. He avenges his father Osiris, whom Set or...
-Hospital
Hospital (Lat. hospitalia, apartments for guests), an institution for the reception and relief of the sick, wounded, or infirm. The word has undergone great changes of signification. The earliest know...
-Hot Springs
Hot Springs, a S. W. central county of Arkansas, intersected by Washita river; area in 1870, about 900 sq. m.; pop. 5,877, of whom 650 were colored. It has a hilly surface. The soil is very fertile in...
-Hotbed
Hotbed, in gardening, a bed of earth enclosed by a frame, which is covered by movable sashes, and heated from below by means of fermenting vegetable matter. In large establishments the hotbed is repla...
-Hottentots
Hottentots, a people of South Africa, including the original inhabitants of the territory now occupied by Cape Colony. Van Kie-beek, the founder of this colony in 1652, states that they called themsel...
-Houghton
Houghton, a N W. county of the upper peninsula of Michigan, bounded N. W. by Lake Superior, indented on the N. E. by Keweenaw bay, and drained by Sturgeon river and other streams; area, about 2,000 sq...
-Hound
Hound (canis sagax), the name of several varieties of large and powerful dogs hunting by scent, and trained to pursue the stag, the fox, the hare, and other animals, and even man. The progenitors of t...
-Hour
Hour (Gr. wpa; Lat. hora), a measure of time equal to 1/24 of a mean solar day, or this proportion of the period between sunrise and sunrise at the time of the equinoxes. Thus applied, it becomes a de...
-Houris
Houris, the black-eyed damsels of the Mohammedan paradise, formed of pure musk, and made by a peculiar creation perpetual virgins. They dwell in green gardens and pearl pavilions, among lotus and acac...
-House Of Brunswick
House Of Brunswick, one of the oldest families in Germany, a branch of which occupies the throne of Great Britain. The Brunswick territory, then forming a part of Saxony, was by Charlemagne united to ...
-House Of Guise
House Of Guise, a branch of the ducal family of Lorraine, which played a conspicuous part in the religious and civil wars of France in the 16th century. Its most celebrated members were the following....
-Houseleek
Houseleek (sempervivum, Linn.), a genus of plants of the natural order crassulacece, having thick succulent stems and leaves, the former frequently short, with the leaves so closely crowded upon them ...
-Houssa, Or Haussa
Houssa, Or Haussa, a country of central Africa, bounded N. by the Sahara, E. by Bor-noo, S. by Nufi, and W. by the Quorra. The people are negroes, and the Foolahs or Fella-tabs are the ruling race. Ba...
-Houssaye
I. Arsene, a French author, born at Bruyeres, near Laon, March 28,1815. While young he went to Paris, where his two novels, La couronne de bluets and La pecheresse, appeared in 1836. The friendship of...
-Houston
I. A central county of Georgia, bounded E. by the Ocmulgee river, which is navigable by steamboats, and drained by several of its affluents; area, 875 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,406, of whom 15,332 were...
-How To Get A Library
The American Cyclopaedia Is In Fact A Library In Itself. It is the knowledge of the centuries boiled down; the essence of all books crystallized. It stands, on the shelves ready to answer briefly ever...
-Howard
Howard, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. A central county of Maryland, bounded N. E. by the Patapsco river, and S. W. by the Patuxent; area, 225 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,150, of who...
-Howard Malcom
Howard Malcom, an American clergyman born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1799. lie entered Dickinson college in 1813, was licensed to preach in May, 1818, by a Baptist church in Itnladelphia, and entered P...
-Howard University
Howard University, an institution of learning in Washington, D. C, organized by a special act of congress in 1867, and named from Gen. O. O. Howard, one of its founders. It was designed to afford adva...
-Howe
Howe, the name of three British officers connected with American history, all of them sons of Emanuel Scrope Howe, Viscount Howe in the peerage of Ireland. I. George Angnstns, general, born in 1724, k...
-Howell Cobb
Howell Cobb, an American politician, born at Cherry Hill, Ga., Sept. 7, 1815, died in New York, Oct. 9, 1868. He graduated at Franklin college in 1834, and was admitted to the bar in 1836. In 1837 he ...
-Howitt
I. William, an English author, born at Heanor, Derbyshire, in 1795. His parents were members of the society of Friends, and in 1823 he married Mary Botham, also a member of the society. They made a pe...
-Huaca
Huaca, a Peruvian word, signifying something sacred, applied particularly to sepulchral mounds. Among the Peruvians all persons remarkable for their inventions, or for having in any way ameliorated th...
-Huancavelica
I. An inland department of Peru, occupying a portion of the valley bordered by the Eastern and Western Cordilleras S. E. of the department of Lima. The surface is intersected by numerous hills, and w...
-Huanco
I. An inland department of Peru, occupying a portion of the valley bordered by the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, N. of the department of Lima. The surface is irregular, being intersected by hills m...
-Hubbardton
Hubbardton, a town of Rutland co., Vermont, 48 m. S. W. of Montpelier; pop. in 1870, 606. It is noted for a battle between the British and Americans, July 7, 1777. The American army under Gen. St. Cla...
-Huber
I. Michael, a German scholar, born at Frontenhausen, Bavaria, in 1727, died in Leipsic, April 15, 1804. He resided in Paris for several years, and went to Leipsic in 1766, where he became a teacher of...
-Hudson
Hudson, a N. E. county of New Jersey, bounded E. by the Hudson river and New York bay, S. by the Kills, separating it from Staten island, S. W. and W. by Passaic river and Newark bay, and N. W. by the...
-Hudson Bay
Hudson Bay, an inland sea of British North America, between lat. 51 and 64 N., and Ion. 77 and 95 W. It is of irregular shape, 850 m. long N. and S., and 600 m. broad. Its S. extre...
-Hudson River
Hudson River, in New York, one of the most beautiful and important rivers in the United States. Its remote sources are in the Adirondack mountains, in the N. E. part of the state, more than 4,000 ft. ...
-Hue
Hue, a city of Asia, capital of the empire of Anam, and of the province of the same name, on the Hue roadstead, about 10 m. from the China sea; lat. 16 28' N., Ion. 107 32'E.; pop. estimated...
-Huelva
I. A S. W. province of Spain, forming the W. extremity of Andalusia, bordering on Portugal, the Atlantic, and the provinces of Cadiz, Seville, and Badajoz; area, 4,118 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 196,469. T...
-Huesca
I. A province of Spain, in Aragon, bordering on France and the provinces of Le-rida, Saragossa, and Navarre; area, 5,872 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 274,623. The N. part, which is covered by offsets of the ...
-Huger
I. Isaac, an American revolutionary general, born at Limerick plantation, S. C, March 19, 1742, died in Charleston in November, 1797. He was one of five patriot brothers active in the revolution. Thei...
-Hugh Boulter
Hugh Boulter, an English prelate, born in or near London, Jan. 4, 1671, died in London in September, 1742. After leaving Oxford he was successively chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, rector of ...
-Hugh Capet
Hugh Capet, king of France and the founder of the Capetian dynasty, born about 940, died Oct. 24, 996. When still a child he inherited from his father, Hugh the Great, the duchy of France and the coun...
-Hugh Clapperton
Hugh Clapperton, a traveller in Africa, born at Annan, Scotland, in 1788, died near Sackatoo, Africa, April 13, 1827. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to a shipmaster trading between Liverpool and ...
-Hugh Gough
Hugh Gough, viscount, a British general, born at Woodstown, Ireland, Nov. 3, 1779, died March 2, 1869. He entered the army in 1794, and, after serving against the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope and in...
-Hugh Latimer
Hugh Latimer, an English bishop and reformer, born at Thurcaston, Leicestershire, about 1490, burned at the stake in Oxford, Oct. 16, 1555. The son of a farmer, he was sent to the university of Cambri...
-Hugh Mcneile
Hugh Mcneile, an Irish clergyman, born at Ballycastle, county Antrim, about 1794. He graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, in 1815, and entered upon the study of law; but in 1820 he took orders, and f...
-Hugh Mercer
Hugh Mercer, an American revolutionary soldier, born in Scotland about 1720, died near Princeton, N. J., Jan. 12, 1777. He was educated as a physician, and served as a surgeon's assistant in the army ...
-Hugh Miller
Hugh Miller, a British geologist, born at Cromarty, on the E. coast of Scotland, Oct. 10, 1802, died at Portobello, near Edinburgh, Dec. 26, 1856. He belonged to that half Scandinavian population inha...
-Hugh Swinton Legare
Hugh Swinton Legare, an American statesman, born in Charleston, S. C, Jan. 2, 1797, died in Boston, June 20, 1843. On the father's side he was of French Huguenot stock; on the mother's Scottish. Inocu...
-Huguenots
Huguenots, a name of uncertain origin, first applied by the Roman Catholics of France to all partisans of the reformation, but subsequently restricted to the Calvinists. Some derive it from one of the...
-Hulin, Or Hullin, Pierre Augustin
Hulin, Or Hullin, Pierre Augustin, count, a French general, born in Paris, Sept. 6, 1758, died Jan. 9, 1841. He enlisted in the army when scarcely 13 years old, entered the regiment of French guards, ...
-Hull, Or Kingston-Npon-Hnll
Hull, Or Kingston-Npon-Hnll, a municipal and parliamentary borough and seaport of England, in the East riding of Yorkshire, on the river Hull, at its mouth in the Humber, 34 m. S. E. of York, ...
-Humboldt
I. A N. W. central county of Iowa, intersected by the Des Moines river and its W. branch; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,596. It has an undulating surface and a fertile soil. There are quarries of ...
-Humboldt River
Humboldt River, a stream which rises in the N. E. part of Nevada in Elko county, flows first W. by S., then bends N., and afterward flowing S. S. W. loses itself after a winding course of about 300 ...
-Humming Bird
Humming Bird, the common name of a large family (trochilidae) of beautiful slender-billed birds, found in America and its adjacent islands. There are three subfamilies, grypinae or wedge-tailed hummin...
-Humphrey Ditton
Humphrey Ditton, an English mathematician, born in Salisbury, May 29, 1675, died Oct. 15, 1715. He studied theology, and was for some years a dissenting clergyman, but subsequently devoted himself to ...
-Humphrey Prideaux
Humphrey Prideaux, an English clergyman, born at Padstow, Cornwall, May 3, 1648, died in Norwich, Nov. 1, 1724. He graduated B. A. at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1672. Appointed by the university to edi...
-Hums Homs, Or Hems (Anc
Hums Homs, Or Hems (Anc. Emesa or Emissa), a fortified city of Syria, 90 m. N. by E. of Damascus, about 1 m. from the river Aasy or Orontes; pop. about 30,000, including 7,000 Greek Christians. It is ...
-Humus
Humus (Lat. humus, the soil), vegetable mould, or the product of the decay of vegetable matter. When portions of a decayed stump or the decayed matter of peat is digested in a weak solution of caustic...
-Huns
Huns (Lat. Hunni), a people of northern Asia who in the '5th century invaded and conquered a great part of Europe. Of their origin little is known with certainty. Under the name of Chuni they were kno...
-Hunfalvy
I. Pal, a Hungarian philologist, born at Nagy-Szalok, March 12, 1810. He became in 1842 professor of jurisprudence at Kasmark, was a member of the Hungarian diet of 1848-9, and has since lived in Pest...
-Hungary
Hungary (Hung. Magyarorszag, Magyar land; Ger. Ungarn), a country of Europe, formerly an independent kingdom, subsequently united with Austria, from 1849 to 1867 a crown-land or province of the latter...
-Hunger
Hunger, the sensation by which the necessity for food is made known to the system, referred to the stomach, but indicating the wants of the system at large; impelling us to supply the waste of the tis...
-Hunt
Hunt, a N. E. county of Texas, drained by the head streams of the Sabine river and by the S. fork of the Sulphur; area, 935 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,291, of whom 1,078 were colored. It has a rolling a...
-Hunterdon
Hunterdon, a W. county of New Jersey, separated from Pennsylvania on the W. by Delaware river, bounded N. W. by the Mus-conetcong, E. in part by the Lamington, and drained by branches of Raritan river...
-Huntingdon
Huntingdon, a S. central county of Pennsylvania, drained by the Juniata river and its tributaries; area, 730 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 31,251. It has a very diversified surface, occupied in part by mounta...
-Huntingdonshire
Huntingdonshire, an inland county of England, bordering on Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, and Bedfordshire; area, 359 sq. m., being the smallest county of England except Rutland and Middlesex; pop....
-Huntington
Huntington, a N. E. county of Indiana, drained by Wabash and Salamonie rivers; area, 384 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,036. The surface is slightly uneven and the soil fertile. The Wabash and Erie canal, a...
-Huntsville
I. A city and the capital of Madison co., Alabama, on the Memphis and Charleston railroad, about 10 m. N. of the Tennessee river, and 165 m. N. of Montgomery; pop. in 1870, 4,907, of whom 2,375 were c...
-Huron
I. A N. county of Ohio, drained by Huron and Vermilion rivers; area, 455 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 28,532. It has a nearly level surface, and an excellent sandy soil. The Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, ...
-Hurrar Harar, Or Adari
Hurrar Harar, Or Adari, a small country, with an important town of the same name, in E. Africa, lat. 9 20' N., Ion. 42 17' E., 165 m. S. S. W. of Zeylah on the gulf of Aden; pop. estimated a...
-Hurricane
Hurricane (Span, huracari), a word of undetermined origin, signifying a violent storm of wind and rain, generally accompanied with intense displays of lightning and thunder. Although this term was ori...
-Hurtleberry Whortleberry, Or Huckleberry
Hurtleberry Whortleberry, Or Huckleberry, the name of plants and their fruit of the genera Gaylussacia and vaccinium, constituting a suborder of the ericaceoe or heath family. The form huckleberry is ...
-Husband And Wife
The laws which govern the marital relation, and determine the mutual rights and obligations of the parties, are among the most important of all laws; and it is to be regretted that in the United State...
-Hussites
Hussites, the name of the followers of John Huss in Bohemia, who, on his death in 1415, organized as a sect, making the offering of the cup to the laity in the sacrament of the eucha-rist the badge of...
-Huygens
Huygens (incorrectly Huyghens), Christian, a Dutch natural philosopher, born at the Hague, April 14, 1629, died there, July 8, 1695. He was the second son of Constantine Huygens, secretary and counsel...
-Hyacinth
Hyacinth, a genus of liliaceae, containing several species, the most important of which is hyacinthus orientalis, a native of the Levant. This has an onion-like bulb, which throws up long, narrow-chan...
-Hyaena
Hyaena, a digitigrade carnivorous mammal, most numerous in Africa, but found also in southern and middle Asia, where the genus has probably spread while following the track of armies and caravans. Zoo...
-Hybrid
Hybrid (Gr. ), an animal or plant produced by the sexual union of individuals belonging to two different species. As a rule, in nature sexual union takes place only between individuals of the same s...
-Hyde Clarke
Hyde Clarke, an English engineer and author, born in London, Dec. 14, 1815. He is the son of an engineer, and devoted himself to the same profession and the literature relating to it, and to statistic...
-Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali, sultan of Mysore, born in Dina-velli, Mysore, about 1718, died Dec. 7,1782. He was of Arabian descent, and son of a petty chief. Entering the service of the rajah of Mysore in 1749, he rose...
-Hyderabad
I. A native state of the Dec-can, India, called also the Nizam's Dominions, lying between lat. 15 and 21 30' N., and Ion. 74 40' and 81 30' E., bounded N. by Berar, N. E. by the Ce...
-Hydrangea
Hydrangea (Gr. water, and a vase), a genus of shrubby plants, to which the name was applied for no obvious reason, belonging to the natural order saxifragacem, and natives of Asia and of North Am...
-Hydraulic Ram
Hydraulic Ram, a machine for raising water by employing its own momentum, acquired by a fall, a portion of the water only being raised. The accompanying diagram, fig. 1, will serve to explain its acti...
-Hydrochloric Acid, Or Chlorohydrie Acid
Hydrochloric Acid, Or Chlorohydrie Acid, a gaseous compound of one equivalent of chlorine and one of hydrogen (HC1), of combining proportion 36'5, long known in its aqueous solution by the names of mu...
-Hydrocyanic Acid, Or Prussic Acid
Hydrocyanic Acid, Or Prussic Acid (HCN= HCy; chemical equivalent 27), was first obtained in its aqueous solution by Scheele in 1782, who described it correctly as consisting of hydrogen, carbon, and n...
-Hydrogen
Hydrogen (Gr. water, and to produce), an elementary gaseous body, named from its property of forming water by combining with oxygen. Its symbol is H; chemical equivalent 1; weight compared with ai...
-Hydrography
Hydrography, is the science which, by representation of the figure of the bottom of the ocean and its tributaries by means of soundings, by observations of tides and currents, and by investigations of...
-Hydroids
Hydroids, the lowest order of acalephs or jelly fishes, including, according to Agassiz, two distinct forms, one resembling polyps, the other like the jelly fishes, there being every possible gradatio...
-Hydromechanics
Hydromechanics, that branch of natural philosophy which treats of the mechanics of liquids, or of their laws of equilibrium and of motion. It includes the consideration of those molecular properties o...
-Hydrometer, Or Areometer
Hydrometer, Or Areometer, an instrument for determining the specific gravity of liquids. It generally consists of some buoyant body, as hollow glass or copper, weighted at the bottom and supporting a ...
-Hydropathy
Hydropathy (Gr. water, and affection or disease), a system of treatment of diseases mainly or exclusively by the use of water and of the known hygienic agencies. Hygienic management in some form,...
-Hydrophobia
Hydrophobia (Gr. water, and fear; Lat. rabies canina, canine madness), a rare but well marked disease in the human subject, characterized by excessive nervous excitement, the secretion of an unus...
-Hygiene
Hygiene (Gr. healthy), the science and art of preserving health, by the appropriate nourishment of the body and the proper regulation of its surrounding conditions. The first subject of importance i...
-Hygrometry
Hygrometry (Gr. moist, and measure), the method of determining the amount of moisture in bodies, more especially in atmospheric air. A hygrometer is an instrument used for this purpose; and a hyg...
-Hypatia
Hypatia, a Neo-Platonic philosopher, born in Alexandria about 370, killed in 415. She was the daughter of Theon, a distinguished mathematician and astronomer. She went to Athens near the close of the ...
-Hyperboreans
Hyperboreans (from Gr. beyond, and the north wind), a legendary race, placed by the Greeks in the remote regions of the north. They first appear in Hesiod and in the traditions connected with the...
-Hyperides
Hyperides, one of the ten famous Attic orators, born probably about 395 B. C, died in AEgina in 322. He was a pupil of Plato in philosophy, of Isocrates in oratory, began his career as an advocate, an...
-Hypertrophy
Hypertrophy (Gr. over, and nourishment), an excess of growth of a part without degeneration or alteration in the structure; the exact opposite to atrophy. Hypertrophy may depend on the excess of ...
-Hypochondriasis
Hypochondriasis (Gr. under, and cartilage), a disease generally classed among neuroses, characterized by derangement of various organic functions, and accompanied by an habitual sadness, often b...
-Hyposulphates
Hyposulphates, and Hyposolphites, compounds, the one of hyposulphuric and the other of hyposulphurous acid, with bases. Of these salts the only one of much interest is the hyposulphite of soda, which ...
-Hyrax
Hyrax, a small pachyderm, coming nearest to the rhinoceros family, but looking much like a diminutive hare, and in some respects seeming to form one of the connecting links with the rodents, constitut...
-Hyrcania
Hyrcania, an ancient country of Asia, comprising the western portion of the mountain region between the S. E. shores of the Caspian (sometimes called the Hyrcanian sea) and the river Arius (now Heri-r...
-Hyrcanus
I. John, a Jewish high priest, died in 106 (or according to some in 105) B. C. He succeeded his father Simon Maccabaeus in the high priesthood as one of the Asmo-nean rulers of Judea, 135 B. C. In tha...
-Hysteria
Hysteria (Gr. womb), a disease characterized by great excitability of the nervous system, especially of the sensory ganglia, without necessary structural lesion, and manifested by disordered states ...
-I
I (Flavius Anicius Justinia-nus), surnamed the Great, a Byzantine emperor, born at Tauresium, a village near Sardica (now Sophia), in Bulgaria, in 482 or 483, died Nov. 14, 565. He was the son of a po...
-I Nited Brethren, Or The Vnitas Fratum Morivians
I Nited Brethren, Or The Vnitas Fratum Morivians, a church of evangelical Christians, historically and ecclesiastically distinct from the society of the United Brethren in Christ, with whom they are...
-I. Douglas William Jerrold
I. Douglas William Jerrold, an English author, born in London, Jan. 3, 1803, died there, June 8,1857. His father was manager of a theatre in Sheerness, but Jerrold himself manifested a dislike for the...
-I. Franciscus Junius
I. Franciscus Junius (Francois du Jon), a Protestant theologian, born in Bourges, France, in 1545, died in Leyden in 1602. He was designed for the law, but having embraced the doctrines of the reforma...
-Iamblichus
Iamblichus, a Neo-Platonic philosopher, born in Chalcis, Coele-Syria, flourished in the first half of the 4th century A. D. He was a pupil of Anatolius and Porphyry, and after the death of the latter ...
-Iberia
I. The ancient Greek name of Spain. The aboriginal Iberi, from whom the name was derived, seem to have occupied the entire peninsula from the strait of Gibraltar to the Pyrenees, until the date of the...
-Ibex
Ibex, a species of wild goat, inhabiting the mountainous regions of Switzerland, the Pyrenees, the Caucasus, and Abyssinia. The generic characters are given in the article Goat. The common ibex or ste...
-Ibis
Ibis, a wading bird of the family tantalidae, including the genera ibis (Moehr.) and geronti-cus (Wagl.); the genus tantalus (Linn.) will be noticed under Wood Ibis. The genus ibis is characterized by...
-Ibn Batuta
Ibn Batuta, Mohammed ibn Abdallah, a Moorish traveller and theologian, born at Tangier in 1302, died about 1378. He made extensive journeys between 1325 and 1353 over Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Chi...
-Ibrahim Pasha
Ibrahim Pasha, an Egyptian viceroy, the son, or according to some the adopted son, of Mehemet Ali, born at Kavala, a village of Rou-melia, in 1789, died in Cairo, Nov. 9, 1848. His youth, from his 16t...
-Ice
Ice, water or other fluid solidified by freezing. Various liquids become partially solid at low temperatures, but this is commonly owing to the water of which they are in part composed; and none of th...
-Ice Plant
Ice Plant (mesembryanthemum crystalli-num, Linn.), the common name of a plant originally brought from the Canary islands and Greece. In the Canaries it used to be largely cultivated in order to procur...
-Icebergs
Icebergs, and Ice Islands, floating masses of ice gathered on the coast of polar regions, and set adrift by force of winds and currents. Many icebergs are produced from glaciers, which, thrust down fr...
-Iceland
Iceland, a large island in the North Atlantic ocean, subject to the Danish crown, geographically belonging to the western hemisphere, about 160 m. E. of Greenland, 600 m. W. of Norway, 500 m. N. W. of...
-Iceland Moss
Iceland Moss (cetraria Islandica, Acha-rius), a lichen common in the north of Europe and America. It consists of a tuft of deeply divided and dentate-ciliate margined, leaf-like, cartilaginous fronds,...
-Ichabod Nichols
Ichabod Nichols, an American clergyman, born in Portsmouth, N. H., July 5, 1784, died in Cambridge, Mass., Jan. 2, 1859. He graduated at Harvard college in 1802, and from 1805 to 1809 was tutor there ...
-Ichabod Smith Spencer
Ichabod Smith Spencer, an American clergyman, born at Rupert, Vt., Feb. 23, 1708, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 23, 1854. He graduated at Union college in 1822, and was principal of the grammar school...
-Ichneumon
Ichneumon (Gr. to track), a viverrine carnivorous animal, of the genus herpestes (Illiger). The cheek teeth are 6/6-6/6; the body is long and the legs short; head small and pointed; ears short and ...
-Ichneumon Fly
Ichneumon Fly, an extensive tribe of the pupivorous family of hymenopterous insects, of great importance in the economy of nature on account of their destruction of insects injurious to vegetation, an...
-Ichthyology
Ichthyology (Gr. a fish, and discourse), the branch of zoology which treats of fishes, the lowest of the great divisions of the vertebrate animals. The class of fishes cannot be said to have been...
-Ichthyosaurus
Ichthyosaurus (Gr. fish, and lizard), a gigantic fossil marine reptile, belonging to the order enaliosaurians of Conybeare. The body was fish-like in form, with a large head, neck of equal width ...
-Iconoclasts
Iconoclasts (Gr. from an image, and to break), in ecclesiastical history, the violent opponents of the veneration of images in the 8th and 9th centuries. The use of images which led to the icon...
-Ida
Ida, a W. county of Iowa, drained by branches of Little Sioux river; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 226. Grain, potatoes, and sorghum are the principal crops; cattle raising is carried on to a consid...
-Ida Marie Luise Sophie Friederike Gustave Hahn-Hahn
Ida Marie Luise Sophie Friederike Gustave Hahn-Hahn, countess, a German authoress, born at Tressow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, June 22,1805. Her father, Count Karl Friedrich von Hahn-Neuhaus (born 1782), w...
-Ida Pfeiffer
Ida Pfeiffer, a German traveller, born in Vienna, Oct. 15,1797, died there, Oct. 27, 1858. Her maiden name was Reyer. The extended journeys through which she became celebrated did not begin until she ...
-Ida Von Duringsfeld
Ida Von Duringsfeld, a German authoress, born at Militsch, Lower Silesia, Nov. 12, 1815. She early became proficient in modern languages and literature, and in music, and commenced her literary career...
-Idaho
Idaho, a territory of the United States, situated between lat. 42 and 49 N., and Ion. 1110 and 117 10' W., bounded N. by British Columbia, E. by Montana and Wyoming, S. by Utah and Neva...
-Idiocy, Or Idiotey
Idiocy, Or Idiotey, a term now used to express a condition of mental imbecility, though this idea was not originally contained in the root from which it is derived. The idiot among the Greeks was pr...
-Ignace Xavicr Morand Hommaire De Hell
Ignace Xavicr Morand Hommaire De Hell, a French traveller, born at Altkirch, Nov. 24, 1812, died in Ispahan, Persia, Aug. 29, 1848. He studied at the college of Dijon and at the school of mines in St....
-Ignacy Krasicki
Ignacy Krasicki, a Polish prelate, surnamed the Voltaire of Poland, born at Dubiecko, Ga-licia, Feb. 3, 1734, died in Berlin, March 14, 1801. His ancestors had been renowned as scholars and warriors. ...
-Ignaz Knoblecher
Ignaz Knoblecher, a German traveller, born in Carniola, July 6, 1819, died at Gon-dokoro, Africa, April 13, 1858. He was educated at the Propaganda in Rome with a view to devoting himself to the Afric...
-Ignaz Moscheles
Ignaz Moscheles, a German composer, born of Jewish parents in Prague, May 30, 1704, died March 10,1870. At eight years of age he received musical instruction from F. D. Weber. In three years he became...
-Ignis Fatuus
Ignis Fatuus (a flickering light seen at night over the surface of marshy grounds or graveyards. Sometimes it moves quietly along, resembling the light of a lantern carried in the hand; and again it a...
-Iguana
Iguana (a lizard constituting the type of the family iguanidae. The family characters are: a body covered with horny scales, without bony plates or tubercles, not disposed in circular imbricated serie...
-Iguanodon
Iguanodon (a gigantic fossil saurian reptile, discovered by Dr. Mantell in the Wealden formation of Great Britain in 1822, and so named from the teeth resembling in shape those of the iguana. The teet...
-Iieatii, Or Heather
Iieatii, Or Heather , the common name of plants of the genus erica, which contains about 400 species, besides numerous varieties produced by cultivation. The greater number of species of heath are nat...
-Ile De La Reunion
Ile De La Reunion, an island in the Indian ocean, belonging to France, between lat. 20 50' and 21 24' S., and lon. 52 56' and 53 34' E., 120 W. S. W. of Mauritius and about 410 m. ...
-Iliyats, Or Eeliauts
Iliyats, Or Eeliauts, a nomadic tribe of Persia, Kkiva, and Turkistan. The name Iliyat is the plural of iel (eel), a tribe, equivalent to the Arabic kabilali. The Iliyats are mostly of Turkish, Arabic...
-Ille-Et-Vilaine
Ille-Et-Vilaine (a N. W. department of France, in Brittany, bounded N. by the English channel, and bordering on the departments of Manche, Mayenne, Loire-Inferieure, Morbi-han, and C6tes-du-Nord; area...
-Illinois
Illinois (a tribe of North American Indians, of the Algonquin family, comprising the Peo-rias, Moingwenas, Kaskaskias, Tamaroas, and Cahokias. At an early period, aided perhaps by the Delawares on the...
-Illinois (2)
Illinois (one of the interior states of the American Union, the eighth admitted under the federal constitution, and now the fourth in population. It is situated between lat. 36 59' and 42 30...
-Illuminati
Illuminati (Lat., the enlightened), a name supposed to have been given to the newly baptized in the early Christian church, because a lighted taper was put into their hands as a symbol of enlightenmen...
-Illyria
Illyria (anc. Illyricum and Illyris; Ger. Illyrieri), a name anciently applied to all the countries on the east coast of the Adriatic, the adjacent islands, and western Macedonia, inhabited by the Ill...
-Immaculate Conception
Immaculate Conception (a doctrine of the Roman Catholic church which teaches that the Virgin Mary was in her conception exempt from all stain of original sin. Though this belief had been held in the e...
-Immanuel Bekker
Immanuel Bekker, a German philologist, born in Berlin, May 21, 1785, died there, June 7, 1871. He studied at Halle under F. A. Wolf, and afterward in the royal library at . Paris (1810-'12), having in...
-Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant, a German metaphysician, born in Konigsberg, April 22, 1724, died there, Feb. 12, 1804. He was of Scotch descent; his grandfather probably emigrated from Scotland near the close of the 1...
-Immortelles
Immortelles (a name given by the French to those flowers which from their papery nature do not wither on drying, known in this country as everlasting flowers, and are furnished by plants in widely d...
-Impeachment
Impeachment (Fr. empechement, hindrance, obstruction), the accusation and prosecution, in a legislative body, of a person for.treason or other high crimes. By the law of England, any member of the hou...
-Ims Of Court
Ims Of Court, colleges in London, in which students of law reside and pursue their studies. In England at a very early date the science of law was taught in the metropolis in certain buildings in the ...
-In All The Higher Animals The Teeth Are Developed Directly From The Mucous Membrane Dentition
In All The Higher Animals The Teeth Are Developed Directly From The Mucous Membrane Dentition, and are therefore, like hair, nails, feathers, etc, appendages of the skin, and form no part of the true ...
-In Botany Iris
In Botany Iris, the generic name of a number of beautiful plants belonging to the natural order iridacece. The plants of this order are endogenous, having a creeping rootstock (rhizoma), or else a fla...
-In Law Court
In Law Court, an institution having a twofold object, viz.: the conservation of public order by the suppression of violence and crime, and the adjudication of disputes on civil matters between the ind...
-In Law License
may be simply and well defined as a permission. Thus, a permission to upon the land or enter the house of him who gives it, the permission accorded by a belligerent power to its own subjects or to tho...
-Increase Allen Lapham
Increase Allen Lapham, an American physicist, born at Palmyra, N. Y., March 7, 1811. He was engaged as a civil engineer on the Welland canal, in Canada, and afterward on the canal around the falls of ...
-Independence
Independence (a N. county of Arkansas, bounded E. by Black river, and traversed from N. W. to S. E. by White river; area, 1,050 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 14,566, of whom 908 were colored. It has a very un...
-Independents
Independents (a Protestant sect which arose in England in the 16th century. The Puritan element, which began to appear within the Anglican church so early as the reign of Henry VIII. and of Edward VI....
-Independent Order Of Odd Fellows
Independent Order Of Odd Fellows, a secret charitable society, existing chiefly in Great Britain and the United States. I. Manchester Unitv From societies of mechanics and laborers which existed in ...
-Index Liekorum
Index Liekorum (a catalogue of books censured by the supreme authority in the Roman Catholic church as prejudicial to faith and good morals. This catalogue is twofold: that of books absolutely forbidd...
-India
India (Religions and Religions Literature of. In the present state of uncertainty in regard to their chronological order, it seems advisable to treat the comparatively few monuments of the literature ...
-India, Or Hindustan
India, Or Hindustan (Hindu, and stan or sthan, settled habitation), a country of Asia, consisting in the widest sense of the great southern peninsula of that continent, and the adjacent territories S....
-Indian Archipelago, Or Malay Archipelago
Indian Archipelago, Or Malay Archipelago, a vast aggregation of insular groups S. E. of the continent of Asia, lying between the China sea, the Indian ocean, and the Pacific. In the widest sense it in...
-Indian Cucumber
Indian Cucumber (a name given to Medeola Virginica, a common and striking plant of the lily family, which is found in May and June in rich damp woods from Canada to Florida. The remarkably white tuber...
-Indian Hemp
I. A variety of hemp produced in India, formerly supposed to be a distinct species, and called cannabis Indica. (See Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinum). Hemp, vol. viii., p. 632.) II. An American ...
-Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean (the third in size of the oceans of the world. It is bounded N. by Asia, N. E. by the Malay peninsula and the Sunda islands, E. by Australia and the meridian of Cape Leeuwen on the S. W. ...
-Indian Rice
Indian Rice, also called water rice, Minnesota rice, and water oats (zizania aquatica, the generic name being the ancient Greek one for some wild grain), an annual aquatic grass, with stems from 3 to ...
-Indian Shot
Indian Shot (a popular name for species of canna, especially C. Indica, which was for a long time the only one generally cultivated. Canna (from the Celtic cann, a cane) was formerly placed in the sam...
-Indian Territory
Indian Territory (an unorganized portion of the United States, situated between lat. 33 35' and 37 N., and Ion. 94 20' and 103 W.; length E. and W. along the N. border 470 m., and ...
-Indiana
Indiana (one of the interior states of the American Union, and the sixth admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 37 47' and 41 46' N., and Ion. 84 49' and 88...
-Indianapolis
Indianapolis (the capital and largest city of Indiana, seat of justice of Marion co., situated near the centre of the state, on the W. fork of White river, 100 m. N. W. of Cincinnati and 165 m. S. S. ...
-Indianola
Indianola (a town and the capital of Calhoun co., Texas, port of entry of the district of Saluria, on the W. shore of Matagorda bay, 140 m. S. by E. of Austin, and 120 m. S. W. of Galveston; pop. in 1...
-Indians Of California
The Indians of Lower California, at the time of the discovery of the peninsula, comprised two families, the Waikur on the south and the Cochimi on the north. Those of Upper California were of several ...
-Indictment
Indictment (said to be derived, through the French enditement, enditer, from the Latin in-dicare, to point out, or, as some suppose, from indicere and indictus), a written accusation of an offence, pr...
-Indigo
Indigo (a vegetable dyestuff, known to the ancients by the name of indicum, from its being brought into Europe from India. The same name appears to have been applied to India ink also, but in this cas...
-Indigo Bird
Indigo Bird (cyanospiza cyanea, Baird), a North American finch, of a blue color, tinged with ultramarine on the head, throat, and middle of breast, and elsewhere with verdigris green; lores and angle ...
-Indium
Indium (a rare metal discovered in 1863 by Professors Reich and Richter of Freiberg, Saxony, by means of spectrum analysis, and so named from two indigo-colored lines in the more refrangible part of t...
-Indo-China, Or The Indo-Chinese Peninsula
Indo-China, Or The Indo-Chinese Peninsula, the name given to the southeastern portion of Asia, bounded N. by Thibet and China, E. by the gulf of Tonquin and the China sea, S. and S. W. by the China se...
-Indo-Chinese Races
Indo-Chinese Races (etc. between Siam and Anam, in the dominions of China, Siam, Anam, and Burmah. (See the separate articles on the political divisions.) Indo-Chinese Races And Languages. The nations...
-Indore
I. A native state of India, constituting the dominions of the Mahratta chief, the maharajah Holkar, and consisting of several isolated tracts scattered over a large part of central India; aggregate ar...
-Indre
Indre (a central department of France, formed chiefly from the old province of Berry, bordering on Loir-et-Cher, Cher, Creuse, Haute-Vienne, Vienne, and Indre-et-Loire; area, 2,624 sq. m.; pop. in 187...
-Indre-Et-Loire
Indre-Et-Loire (a central department of France, in the old province of Touraine, bordering on Sarthe, Loir-et-Cher, Indre, Vienne, and Maine-et-Loire; area, 2,361 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 317,027. It is ...
-Indus
Indus (or Sinde (Sans. Sindhu, river; Pers. Ab-Sind), a river of Asia, rising on the N. side of the Himalaya, in Thibet, and discharging into the Arabian sea. Its three remotest feeders are the Senge-...
-Indulgence
Indulgence (Lat. indulgere, to yield, to grant), in the Roman Catholic church, the remission of the temporal penalty to be undergone by the sinner, after his sin has been forgiven in confession. The t...
-Industrial Exhibitions
Industrial Exhibitions, public competitive displays of products for the encouragement of arts and manufactures, local, national, and international. The first industrial exhibition was held in Paris in...
-Ines De Castro
Ines De Castro, wife of the crown prince Dom Pedro of Portugal, assassinated in 1355. She was a daughter of Dom Pedro Fernandez de Castro, a descendant of the royal house of Castile, and a maid of hon...
-Infallibility
Infallibility (later Lat. infallibilis, not liable to be deceived, from in, privative, and falli, to be deceived, to err), a doctrine of the Roman Catholic church, which attributes to that church as ...
-Infant
All persons are called infants, by the common law of England and America, until the age of 21, though in Vermont, Maryland, Illinois, and perhaps some other states, by statute, women are of full age, ...
-Infant Schools
Pestalozzi was the first teacher of modern times who systematized infant instruction, and in the early part of the present century his system, improved and developed by later writers, reached its culm...
-Infantry
Infantry, the foot soldiers of an army. The term is comparatively modern, having been first used by the Spaniards in the wars with the Moors, to designate the body guard of a royal prince or infante. ...
-Inflammation
Inflammation (a process which occurs in the progress of many diseases, and which is also produced by wounds and the presence of foreign bodies acting as irritants. There has always been considerable ...
-Information
Information (in law, a written charge or accusation made against an alleged offender, stating some violation of law, before a court of competent jurisdiction to try the same. This process has taken ...
-Ingersoll
Ingersoll (a town of Oxford co., Ontario, Canada, on the Thames river and the Great Western railway, 85 m. W. S. W. of Toronto; pop. in 1871, 4,022. It has a large export trade in lumber and agricultu...
-Ingham
Ingham (a S. county of the S. peninsula of Michigan, drained by the head waters of Grand river and by several smaller streams; area, 560 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 25,268. It has a nearly level surface, ti...
-Ini Dorus
I. Of Charax, a geographer in the early part of the 1st century. He was the author of a work in which the Greek and Roman world and the Parthian empire were described. There are several quotations in ...
-Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones, an English architect, born in London about 1572, died July 21, 1652. He was of humble origin, and in early life is said to have been apprenticed to a joiner; but manifesting a strong incl...
-Injunction, A Prohibitory Writ
Courts of equity grant relief by injunction in those cases in which, but for their interposition, an equitable right would be infringed. In such cases courts of law can afford no remedy, for they cann...
-Ink
Ink, the name given to a variety of preparations designed for producing colored letters in writing or printing. IN of the ancients appears to have been similar to the solid Chinese or India ink - a co...
-Inkberry
Inkberry, the popular name of ilex glabra, a shrub now placed in the same genus with the holly, but formerly known as prinos glaber. It is slender and rather graceful, usually 2 to 4 ft. high, but som...
-Inkerman
Inkerman, a Russian village in the south of the Crimea, on the site of a ruined city, supposed to be the Ctenos mentioned by Strabo, at the head of the harbor of Sebastopol, and 35 m. S. S. W. of Simf...
-Inn
Inn (anc. CEnus), a river of central Europe, one of the principal tributaries of the Danube. It rises in the Swiss canton of Grisons out of the small lake of Longhino, W. of Mount Ber-nina, at an elev...
-Innkeeper
Public policy imposes upon an innkeeper a heavy responsibility. (See Bailment.) He is liable as an insurer of the property of his guests within his charge, against everything but the act of God or the...
-Innocent
Innocent, the name of 13 popes, of whom the following are the most important. I. Saint, born in Albano, died March 12, or, according to Baronius, July 28, 417. He succeeded Anas-tasius L, April 27, 40...
-Innspruck
Innspruck (Ger. Innsbruck), a city of Austria, capital of Tyrol, on both sides of the Inn, near its junction with the Sill, 245 m. W. S. W. of Vienna; pop. in 1869, 16,810. The name, meaning Inn bridg...
-Inoculation
Inoculation, the transmission of a disease from one individual to another by means of a morbific matter taken from the body of the first and introduced into the system of the second. The morbific matt...
-Inquisition, Or Holy Office
Inquisition, Or Holy Office, a tribunal established in various Roman Catholic countries to search out and to try persons accused of heresy, as well as certain other offences against morality or the ca...
-Insanity
Insanity (Lat. insanitas, from in, privative, and sanitas, health or soundness), unsoundness of mind. The term is usually applied to acquired unsoundness in contradistinction to that which is congenit...
-Insects
Insects, six-footed articulated animals, the most beautiful, most active, and most highly organized of the invertebrata, in which, anatomically considered, they bear a remarkable analogy to birds amon...
-Insect Fertilization
It has long been a matter of common observation that many plants, with their stamens and pistils in separate flowers, whether monoecious or dioecious, depend upon insects for their fertilization; the ...
-Insectivorous Plants
In the article Dio-n^ea the structure of the Venus's fly-trap has been described, and the recent discoveries in relation to its action have been briefly stated. The leaves of the dionea present a beau...
-Insurance
Insurance, in law, a contract whereby an insurer engages, for a consideration which is called a premium, to insure a certain party against loss of or injury to certain property by certain perils. The ...
-Interdict
Interdict, in the Roman Catholic church, an ecclesiastical censure, or penalty forbidding public worship and the administration of the sacraments to certain persons or in certain places. Generally spe...
-Interlaken, Or Interlaehen
Interlaken, Or Interlaehen, a village of Switzerland, in the canton and 26 m. S. E. of the city of Bern; pop. about 1,400. It is celebrated for its'charming situation near the left bank of the Aar, in...
-International Association
International Association, an association of trades unions, designed for the mutual defence of working men's interests in all countries. It originated at the time of the Polish insurrection of 1863. T...
-Intestine
Intestine, the portion of the digestive apparatus situated below the stomach, divided into the small and large intestines. The former includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; the latter the caecum, ...
-Inverness
Inverness (formerly Innerness), a borough and seaport of Scotland, capital of Inverness-shire, situated on both sides of the river Ness, a mile from its estuary and 9 m. above the junction of the latt...
-Inverness-Shire
Inverness-Shire, a county of Scotland, stretching diagonally across the mainland from sea to sea, between lat. 56 40' and 57 40' N., and including on the west the island of Skye, several sma...
-Invertebrata
Invertebrata, a negative terra in zoology, employed by Lamarck to designate animals destitute of a vertebral column or backbone. Exclusive of the protozoa, these constitute three out of the four great...
-Investiture
Investiture, the public delivery of a feud or fief by a lord to his vassal. Blackstone says: Investitures, in their original rise, were probably intended to demonstrate, in conquered countries, the ...
-Inyo
Inyo, a S. E. county of California, bounded E. by Nevada and W. by the Sierra Nevada mountains; area, 4,680 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,956, of whom 29 were Chinese. The Sierra Nevada here embraces severa...
-Iodine
Iodine (Gr. violet-colored), an elementary substance named from the color of its vapor, existing in various marine plants, the water of many mineral springs and of the ocean, the bittern of salt wo...
-Iona, Or Icolmkill
Iona, Or Icolmkill, called also I or Hy, a small island of the inner Hebrides, situated in lat. 56 22' N, Ion. 6 25' W., 9 m. S. W. of Staffa, and separated from the island of Mull by a chan...
-Ionia
Ionia, in ancient geography, a country on the W. coast of Asia Minor, lying mainly between the river Hermus on the north and the Maeander on the south, and including the islands of Chios and Samos. Th...
-Ionian Islands
Ionian Islands, the collective name of seven islands belonging to Greece, six of which are in the Ionian sea (a name applied from ancient times to the part of the Mediterranean between the W. coast of...
-Ionians, Or Laones
Ionians, Or Laones (Gr. and an ancient maritime race of Greek descent, having their chief seat in western Asia Minor and the adjacent islands. The name was extended to cover countries further west...
-Iowa
Iowa, one of the interior states of the American Union, and the 16th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 40 20' and 43 30' N., and Ion. 90 12' and 96 38'...
-Iowa (2)
I. A S. W. county of Wisconsin, bounded N. by Wisconsin river, and drained by the branches of the Pekatonica; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 24,544. The surface is irregular and thinly timbered. Lead...
-Iowa City
Iowa City, the capital of Johnson co., Iowa, and from 1839 to 1857 the seat of the territorial and state government, situated on the left bank of the Iowa river (here navigable by steamboats), 80 m. f...









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