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The American Cyclopaedia Vol6 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol6

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopædia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopædia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Ipecacuaniia
Ipecacuaniia, a name given by the aborigines of Brazil to various roots which possess emetic properties. The root thus designated in the pharmacopoeias does not appear to be one of these, but of the c...
-Iphicrates
Iphicrates, an Athenian general in the first half of the 4th century B. C. At the battle of Cnidus he captured one of the Spartan trier-archs. In 393 he commanded the Athenian auxiliaries at the battl...
-Iphigenia
Iphigenia, a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra, or, according to some authorities, of Theseus and Helena. Agamemnon, having once killed a stag in the grove of Diana, sought to appease the offende...
-Ippolito Rosellini
Ippolito Rosellini, an Italian Egyptologist, born in Pisa, Aug. 13, 1800, died in Florence, June 4, 1843. In 1824 he was appointed professor of oriental languages in the university of Pisa. He became ...
-Ipswich
Ipswich, a town of Essex co., Massachusetts, on both sides of Ipswich river, at its mouth, and on the Eastern railroad, 25 m. N. N E. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 3,720. The river, which is here crossed b...
-Irah Chase
Irah Chase, D. D., an American clergyman, born at Stratton, Vt., Oct, 5, 1793, died at Newtonville, Mass., in November, 1804. He was educated at Middlebury college and An-dover theological seminary, a...
-Irak-Arabi, Or Irak-I-Arabi
Irak-Arabi, Or Irak-I-Arabi, the Arabic name, and a common designation among orientalists, for the S. E. portion of Asiatic Turkey, and some adjoining territory to the east. It corresponds to ancient ...
-Iranic Races And Languages
The Iranic or Persian races form a branch of the Aryan or Indo-European family. They inhabit a territory in the immediate vicinity and west of the Indic races or Aryans proper. The first traces of the...
-Irawadi, Or Airavati Irrawaddy
Irawadi, Or Airavati Irrawaddy ( great river, or elephantine river), the principal stream in India E. of the Brahmapootra. It rises on the confines of Thibet and Burmah, at the E. extremity of the...
-Iredell
Iredell, a W. county of North Carolina, partly bounded W. by Catawba river, and drained by branches of the Yadkin; area, 695 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,931, of whom 4,643 were colored. It has an uneven ...
-Ireland
Ireland, a European island, forming part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, situated between lat. 51 26' and 55 21' N., and Ion. 5 20' and 10 26' W. It is bounded ...
-Irene
Irene, a Byzantine empress, bora of obscure parentage in Athens about 752, died on the isle of Lesbos, Aug. 15, 803. She was an orphan, and 17 years old when her beauty and genius attracted the attent...
-Iridium
Iridium (Lat. iris, rainbow), a metal so named from the colors exhibited by its solutions; symbol, Ir; chemical equivalent, 98.56. It was discovered by Descotils in 1803, and by Smithson Tennant in 18...
-Irkutsk
I. A government of Asiatic Russia, in the S. part of E. Siberia, bordering on Mongolia; area, 271,875 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 365,810. The continuations of the Altai mountains form its S. boundary. The ...
-Iron
Iron, one of the elementary substances, possessing when pure the following characters: specific gravity, 8.1393 (Percy); hardness, 4.5; crystalline form, isometric; color, silver-gray; lustre, metalli...
-Iron Manufacture
Since the reduction of iron from its ores is an operation of simple character, requiring merely that the ore shall be in contact with burning fuel in an enclosed space, or in the midst of the fire, it...
-Iron Mountain
Iron Mountain, a remarkable deposit of specular iron ore on the S. E. border of Washington co., Missouri, about 40 m. S. W. of St. Genevieve, the nearest point on the Mississippi. The locality is conn...
-Iron Ores
The term iron ore is limited to oxides of iron, either as such or in combination with water or carbonic acid. Other compounds of iron, as for example the sulphide, are not adapted for iron making. The...
-Iron-Clad Ships, Or Armored Ships
Iron-Clad Ships, Or Armored Ships, vessels covered or plated with iron for the purpose of rendering them impenetrable to the fire of artillery. The idea of strengthening the sides of ships so as to en...
-Ironton
Ironton, a city and the county seat of Lawrence co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, 142 m. above Cincinnati, and 100 m. S. by E. of Columbus; pop. in 1860, 3,691; in 1870, 5,686. It is built above the highe...
-Iroquois, Or Six Nations
Iroquois, Or Six Nations, a confederation of Indians formerly occupying central New York, and exercising controlling influence over all surrounding tribes. They consisted when first known to the Frenc...
-Irrigation
Irrigation, the watering of lands by currents distributed over or near the surface, and also by temporarily flooding them. It is one of the oldest of arts, was practised by the ancient Egyptians, Arab...
-Irvin Mcdowell
Irvin Mcdowell, an American soldier, born in Franklin co., Ohio, Oct. 15, 1818. He attended for some time a military school in France, graduated at West Point in 1838, and from 1841 to 1845 was employ...
-Isaac Adolphe Cremieux
Isaac Adolphe Cremieux, a French lawyer and statesman, born of Jewish parents at Nimes, April 30, 1796. He studied law, and was admitted to the bar of his native town in 1817. Having acquired a consid...
-Isaac Backus
Isaac Backus, an American Baptist clergyman, born at Norwich, Conn., in 1724, died Nov. 20, 1806. He left the Congregational church for the Separatists, derisively styled New Lights, a secession fro...
-Isaac Barre
Isaac Barre, a British soldier and statesman, born in Dublin in 1726, died July 1, 1802. He received his education at Dublin university and afterward studied law in London, but entered the array, was ...
-Isaac Barrow
Isaac Barrow, an English divine and mathematician, born in London in October, 1630, died there, May 4, 1(577. He was the nephew of Isaac Barrow, bishop of Sodor and Man, and the son of Thomas Harrow, ...
-Isaac Butt
Isaac Butt, an Irish lawyer, politician, and author, born at Glenfin, county Donegal, Ireland, in 1813. He was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, where he obtained a scholarship in 1832, graduated i...
-Isaac Chauncey
Isaac Chauncey, an American naval officer, horn at Black Rock, Conn., Feb. 20, 1772, died in Washington, Jan. 27, 1840. He commenced his career in the merchant service, in which he became distinguishe...
-Isaac Dalby
Isaac Dalby, an English mathematician, born in Gloucestershire in 1744, died at Farn-ham, Surrey, Oct. 14, 1824. He was intended by his friends for a cloth worker, but, having fitted himself by the ai...
-Isaac De Beausobre
Isaac De Beausobre, a French Protestant theologian, born at Niort in Poitou in 1859, died in Berlin in 1738. He studied theology at the academy of Saumur, and was ordained by the synod of Loudun in 16...
-Isaac Disraeli
Isaac Disraeli, an English author, born near Enfield in May, 1766, died Jan. 19, 1848, His father removed to England in 1748 from Venice, whither his Hebrew ancestors had fled in the 15th century from...
-Isaac Fletcher Redfield
Isaac Fletcher Redfield, an American jurist, born in Weathersfield, Vt., April 10, 1804. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1825, studied law, and practised at Derby and afterward at Windsor, Vt. Fr...
-Isaac Hayne
Isaac Hayne, an American revolutionary officer, born in South Carolina, Sept. 23, 1745, executed in Charleston, S. C, Aug. 4, 1781. In 1780 he was a senator in the state legislature. On the invasion o...
-Isaac Hull
Isaac Hull, an American naval officer, born at Derby, Conn., March 9, 1775, died in Philadelphia, Feb. 3, 1843. He commenced his career in the merchant service, and was commissioned as lieutenant in t...
-Isaac Israel Hayes
Isaac Israel Hayes, an American explorer, born in Chester co., Pa., March 5, 1832. He was educated in Philadelphia, graduated M. D. at the university of Pennsylvania in April, 1853, and in May was app...
-Isaac Jogues
Isaac Jogues, a French Jesuit missionary, born in Orleans, Jan. 10, 1607, killed by the Mohawks at Caughnawaga, N. Y., Oct. 18, 1646. He entered the Jesuit novitiate at Rouen in 1624, spent some years...
-Isaac Mckeever
Isaac Mckeever, an American naval officer, born in Pennsylvania in April, 1793, died in Norfolk, Va., April 1, 1856. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1809, was made a lieutenant in 1814, and com...
-Isaac Shelby
Isaac Shelby, an American officer, born near Hagerstown, Md., Dec. 11, 1750, died in Lincoln co., Ky., July 18, 1826. He removed to the west in 1771, and in 1774 served as a lieutenant in an expeditio...
-Isaac Tailor
Isaac Tailor, an English author, born at Lavenham, Suffolk, Aug. 17, 1787, died at Stanford Rivers, Essex, June 28, 1865. His father, Isaac Taylor, originally a line engraver, became a dissenting mini...
-Isaac Thomas Hecker
Isaac Thomas Hecker, an American clergyman, born in New York, Dec. 18, 1819. He became connected in 1843 with the Brook Farm association at West Roxbury, Mass., and subsequently spent some time with t...
-Isaac Watts
Isaac Watts, an English clergyman, born in Southampton, July 17, 1674, died in London, Nov. 25,1748. He was educated in his father's boarding school and at a dissenting academy in London under the Rev...
-Isaak August Dorner
Isaak August Dorner, a German theologian, born near Tuttlingen, Wurtemberg, June 20, 1809. He is the son of a Lutheran clergyman, studied at Tubingen, and became a professor there in 1838. He removed ...
-Isaar Collins
Isaar Collins, an American printer and publisher, born in Delaware, Feb. 16, 1746, died at Burlington, N. J., March 21, 1817. His father emigrated to the United States from Bristol, England. Collins s...
-Isabella Graham
Isabella Graham, a Scottish philanthropist, born in Lanarkshire, July 29, 1742, died in New York, July 27, 1814. Her maiden name was Marshall. In 1705 she married Dr. John Graham, an army surgeon, and...
-Isabella I
Isabella I.the Catholie, queen of Castile and Leon, born in Madrigal, Old Castile, April 23,1451, died Nov. 26,1504. She was the daughter of John II. of Castile by his second wife, Isabella of Portuga...
-Isabella II
(Maria Isabel Luisa), ex-queen of Spain, born in Madrid, Oct. 10, 1830. She is the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII. and his fourth wife, Maria Christina. The question of her succession to the throne ...
-Isabelle Agnete Charriere, Or Charrieres, Or Saint-Hyacinthe De
Charriere, Or Charrieres, Isabelle Agnete Dc Saint-Hyacinthe De, a French authoress, born at Utrecht, Holland, about 1740, died near Neuf-chatel, Switzerland, Dec. 27, 1805. She was the daughter of a ...
-Isabet
I. Jean Baptiste, a French miniature painter, born in Nancy, April 11, 1767, died April 18, 1855. s He studied historical painting under David, but commenced his career by making portraits in crayons....
-Isabey
I. Jean Baptiste, a French miniature painter, born in Nancy, April 11, 1767, died April 18, 1855. He studied historical painting under David, but commenced his career by making portraits in crayons. A...
-Isaeus
Isaeus, one of the ten Attic orators, born at Chalcis, flourished in the first half of the 4th century B. C. He went at an early age to Athens, was instructed in oratory by Lysias and Isocrates, compo...
-Isaiah
Isaiah, the first of the great Hebrew prophets, son of Amoz, flourished under Kings Uz-ziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, from about 760 to 700 B. C. Ahaz was consoled by his prophecies when King Rezin...
-Isaiah Thomas
Isaiah Thomas, an American printer, born in Boston in 1749, died in Worcester, April 4, 1831. He commenced business as a printer in Newburyport in 1767. In 1770 he removed to Boston and established th...
-Isanti
Isanti, an E. county of Minnesota, intersected by St. Francis or Rum river; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,035. The surface is somewhat diversified. Timber is found along the river banks. The chief...
-Isar
Isar (anc. Isarus), a river of Germany, a tributary of the S. or right bank of the Danube, about 200 m. long. It rises in Tyrol about 6 m. N. E. of Innspruck, passes for about 80 m. through a wild and...
-Isauria
Isauria, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, bounded by Phrygia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Pisidia, containing few towns, and known to the ancients chiefly by the marauding excursions of the ...
-Ischia
Ischia (anc. AEnaria and Inarime), an island of Italy, in the Mediterranean, at the N. entrance of the bay of Naples; area, 26 sq. m.; pop. about 25,000. Its coasts are steep and rocky. Near its centr...
-Isere
Isere, a S. E. department of France, in Dauphiny, bounded W. and N. by the Rhone, which separates it from the departments of Loire, Rhone, and Ain, and on the E. and S. bordering on Savoie, Hautes - A...
-Isernia
Isernia (anc. AEsemia), a town of southern Italy, in the province and 24 m. W. of the city of Campobasso, at the foot of the Apennines, and near the source of the Volturno; pop. about 7,500. It is sur...
-Isis
Isis, the principal goddess of the Egyptians, the wife of Osiris, and the mother of Horus, with whom she formed the most popular triad in Egyptian mythology. (See Osiris.) She was adored as the great ...
-Isidore Severin Justin Tailor
Isidore Severin Justin Tailor, baron, a French author of English origin, born in Brussels, Aug. 15, 1789. After studying art he served several years in the French army, reaching the rank of major, and...
-Isinglass
Isinglass (perhaps from icing glass; Ger. Hausenblase, sturgeon's bladder, isinglass), a kind of edible gelatine, which consists of the dried air bags, sounds, or swimming bladders of fishes. It was k...
-Islands Of Lerins
Islands Of Lerins, a group belonging to France, in the Mediterranean, included in the department of Var, consisting of the fortified St. Honorat (anc. Lerina or Planasid), and Ste. Marguerite (anc. Le...
-Islay, Or Isla
Islay, Or Isla, an island of Scotland, the southernmost of the Hebrides, 15 m. from the coast of Argyleshire, to which it belongs; length 24 m., breadth 17 m.; area, 154,000 acres, of which 20,000 are...
-Isle Of Pines
See Pines. Isle Of Pines #1 I. An island (Sp. isla de Finos) in the Caribbean sea, 33 m. off the S. W. extremity of Cuba; length 43 m., greatest breadth 35 m.; area, 1,200 sq. m.; pop. about 2,000. ...
-Isle Of Portland
Isle Of Portland, a peninsula and parish of Dorsetshire, England, projecting into the English channel, 3 m. S. of Weymouth, about half way between Portsmouth and Plymouth, and 50 m. S. W. of Southampt...
-Isle Of Thanet
Isle Of Thanet, an island of England, on the N. coast of Kent, separated from the mainland by branches of the river Stour called the Stour-wantsome, the Mele-stream, and the Nether-gong-wantsome; leng...
-Isle Of Wight
Isle Of Wight, a S. E. county of Virginia, bounded N. E. by the estuary of James river, and S. W. by the Blackwater; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,320, of whom 3,446 were colored. The surface is g...
-Isle Royale
Isle Royale, an island in Lake Superior, forming part of Keweenaw co., Michigan, 55 m. N. W. of Keweenaw point, 15 m. from the Canada shore, intersected by the 48th parallel and the 89th meridian; len...
-Isles Of Shoals
Isles Of Shoals, a group of islets in the Atlantic ocean, 10 m. S. E. of Portsmouth, N. H.; pop. in 1850, 131; in 1860, 152; in 1870, 94. Their names are Appledore or Hog island, Haley's or Smutty Nos...
-Ismail Pasha, Or Ismail I
Ismail Pasha, Or Ismail I., khedive of Egypt, born in Cairo in 1830. He is a son of Ibrahim Pasha, and his mother was a Circassian woman. He was educated in Paris, and returning to Egypt soon after hi...
-Ismail, Or Ismail-Tutchkov
Ismail, Or Ismail-Tutchkov, a town of Rou-mania, in Moldavia, situated on the Kilia, the N. arm of the Danube, 36 m. E. by S. of Ga-latz and 135 m. S. S. E. of Jassy; pop. in 1866, 20,869. It contains...
-Isocrates
Isocrates, an Athenian orator, born in 436 B. C, died in 338. His father, Theodorus, was a rich musical instrument maker of Athens, and gave his son the best education attainable in the city. Tisias, ...
-Isomerism
Isomerism (Gr. equal, and part), a term used in chemistry to express the relation existing between those substances which, while they possess the same ultimate composition, exhibit essentially dif...
-Isomorphism
Isomorphism (Gr. equal, and form), in chemistry, the property possessed by certain bodies of replacing each other in compounds without causing in these an essential change of crystalline form. Th...
-Ispahan, Or Isfahan
Ispahan, Or Isfahan (anc. Aspadana), a city of Persia, of which it was formerly the capital, in the province of Irak-Ajemi, 210 m. S. of Teheran, in lat. 32 39'N, Ion. 51 44' E.; pop. probab...
-Israel Putnam
Israel Putnam, an American soldier, born in the part of Salem now constituting the town of Danvers, Mass., Jan. 7,1718, died in Brooklyn, Conn., May 19, 1790. He was the 11th in a family of 12 childre...
-Israelites Hebrews, Or Jews (Heb
Israelites Hebrews, Or Jews (Heb. Ibrim, Benei Yisrael, Yehudim), a people of Semitic race, whose ancestors appear at the very dawn of history on the banks of the Euphrates, Jordan, and Nile, and whos...
-Issue
I. In law, used in deeds and wills to signify descendants. When employed in a deed, the term has a definite meaning. It is always construed to be a word of purchase, designating persons in being, and ...
-Isthmian Games
Isthmian Games, one of the four great national festivals of Greece, celebrated on the isthmus of Corinth in April or May of every alternate year, in the second and fourth years of each Olympiad. The s...
-Istria
Istria (anc. Histria), a peninsula and mar-graviate of Austria, on the N. E. coast of the Adriatic; area, including the Quarnero islands, 1,907 sq. m.; pop. about 255,000. It now forms, conjointly wit...
-Italian Patriots Attilio And Emilio Bandiera
Italian Patriots Attilio And Emilio Bandiera, born respectively in 1817 and 1819, executed at Cosenza, July 25, 1844. They were lieutenants in the Austrian navy, and were the sons of an Austrian vice ...
-Italic Races And Languages
In one sense all the various races that occupied the Italian peninsula in ancient times belong to the Italic group; in a more exact classification, only those races and languages are comprised in this...
-Italy
Italy, a kingdom of southern Europe, comprising the Italian peninsula and the islands of Sardinia and Sicily, between lat. 36 38' and 46 40' N, and Ion. 6 30' and 18 33'E. The isla...
-Itch, Or Scabies
Itch, Or Scabies, a parasitic disease of the skin. There is no doubt that the true character of scabies was known among the ancient Greeks and Romans, but the animal was supposed to be a louse. Avenzo...
-Ithaca
Ithaca, a village in the town of the same name, capital of Tompkins co., New York, situated on both sides of the Cayuga inlet, 1 1/2 m. from the head or S. end of Cayuga lake, and 142 m. W. by S. of A...
-Itzaes
Itzaes, a powerful Indian family of Central America, who at the time of the conquest inhabited the islands and shores of Lake Itza or Peten in Guatemala. They spoke a dialect of the language of the Ma...
-Ivan Fedoroviteh Paskevitch
Ivan Fedoroviteh Paskevitch, prince of Warsaw, a Russian soldier, born in Poltava, May 19, 1782, died in Warsaw, Feb. 1, 1856. He was educated at St. Petersburg, became a page of the emperor Paul, and...
-Ivory
Ivory, the osseous substance which composes the tusk of the elephant, and which is a peculiar modification of dentine. In commerce it is customary to include in the term the tusks of the hippopotamus,...
-Ivy
Ivy, a common name, from the Anglo-Saxon, for species of the genus hedera (Celtic hedra, a cord) of the araliacece, a family which is closely related to the umbelliferce, but different in the structur...
-Izaak Wilton
Izaak Wilton, an English author, horn in Stafford, Aug. 9, 1593, died in Winchester, Dec. 15, 1683. He was a sempster or haberdasher in London, retired from business in 1644 with a moderate competency...
-Izalco
Izalco, a volcano of the republic and 36 m. N. W. of the city of San Salvador, in lat. 13 15' N, Ion. 89 44' W. It is one of the most curious volcanoes, and except Jorullo in Mexico the only...
-Jabiru
Jabiru, a large wading bird of the stork family, found in South America and Africa, of the genus mycteria (Linn.). The bill is about a foot and a half long, and strong, resembling that of the stork ex...
-Jacamar
Jacamar, a diurnal fissirostral bird of the kingfisher family, and subfamily galbulince, comprising the two genera galbiila (Mohr.) and jacamerops (Cuv.) The plumage is brilliant, green predominating,...
-Jacana
Jacana, a wading bird of the family palame-deidce, and subfamily parrinae, of which the principal genus is parra (Linn.), found in the warmer parts of America, Asia, and Africa. The bill is long, slen...
-Jackal
Jackal, a species of wild dog, living in troops in the warmer parts of Asia and Africa, gener-| ally placed in the genus cants of authors, but raised to a genus of its own (sacalius) by Hamilton Smith...
-Jackdaw
Jackdaw, a European conirostral bird of the crow family, and genus corvus (C. monedula, Linn.). The form is more compact and graceful than that of any other British corvine bird; of about the size of ...
-Jackson
Jackson, the name of 20 counties in the United States. I. A W. county of West Virginia, separated from Ohio by the Ohio river, and drained by Sandy and Big Mill creeks; area, 480 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,...
-Jackson (2)
Jackson, a city and the county seat of Jackson co., Michigan, on both banks of Grand river, near its source, 74 m. TV. of Detroit and 36 m. S. by E. of Lansing; pop. in 1850, 2,363; in 1860, 4,799; in...
-Jackson (3)
Andrew, seventh president of the United States, born in the Waxhaw settlement, N.C., March 15, 1767, died at the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tenn., June 8, 1845. His parents, who were Scotch-Irish, e...
-Jacksonville
I. The county seat of Duval co., Florida, port of entry of the district of St. John's, and the largest city of the state, situated on the right bank of St. John's river, 25 m. from its mouth, and at t...
-Jacob
Jacob, the third and last of the Hebrew patriarchs, son of Isaac and Rebekah, and younger twin brother of Esau. Even in his mother's womb he and Esau struggled together, and he was called Jacob (Ya'ak...
-Jacob Barker
Jacob Barker, an American financier, born at Swan Island, Kennebec county, Maine, Dec. 7, 1779, died in Philadelphia, Dec. 26, 1871. He was of a Quaker family of Nantucket, and connected on the mother...
-Jacob Bigelow
Jacob Bigelow, M. D., LL. D., an American physician and writer, born in Sudbury, Mass., in 1787. He graduated at Harvard university in 1806, and commenced practice in Boston in 1810. He early became k...
-Jacob Bryant
Jacob Bryant, an English writer, born at Ptymouth in 1715, died at Cypenham, near Windsor, Nov. 14,1804. He graduated at Cambridge in 1740, and was tutor to the marquis of Blandford, subsequently duke...
-Jacob Collamer
Jacob Collamer, an American senator, born at Troy, N. Y., in 1792, died at Woodstock, Vt., Nov. 9, 1865. He was a son of Samuel Collamer, who was a native of Scituate, Mass., and a soldier of the revo...
-Jacob Dolson Cox
Jacob Dolson Cox, an American lawyer and soldier, born in Montreal, Canada, Oct. 27, 1828. His parents, who had been temporarily in Canada, were residents of New York city, where he studied law for a ...
-Jacob Duche
Jacob Duche, an American clergyman, born in Philadelphia in 1739, died there in January, 1798. He graduated at the college of Philadelphia in 1757, and completed his education at Cambridge, England. I...
-Jacob Jones
Jacob Jones, an American naval officer, born near Smyrna, Kent co., Del., in 1770, died in Philadelphia in August, 1850. After studying medicine, he received in April, 1799, a midshipman's warrant, an...
-Jacob Knapp
Jacob Knapp, an American clergyman, born in Otsego co., N. Y., Dec. 7, 1799, died in Rockford, 111., March 2, 1874. He entered the theological institution at Hamilton, N. Y., in 1821, and began active...
-Jacob Leisler
Jacob Leisler, an American adventurer, born in Frankfort, Germany, executed in New York, May 16, 1691. He came to America in 1660 as a soldier in the service of the Dutch West India company. Leaving t...
-Jacob Moleschott
Jacob Moleschott, a German physiologist, burn in Bois-le-Duc, Holland, Aug. 9, 1822. He took his degree at Heidelberg in 1845, practised medicine at Utrecht till 1847, and afterward lectured at the un...
-Jacob Perkins
Jacob Perkins, an American inventor, born in Newburyport, Mass., July 9, 1766, died in London, July 30, 1849. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith, and invented a new method of plating shoe buckles. When...
-Jacob Whitman Bailey
Jacob Whitman Bailey, an American naturalist, born at Ware, Mass., April 29, 1811, died at West Point, N. Y., Feb. 27, 1857. He graduated at the West Point military academy in 1832, and was appointed ...
-Jacobaean Lily
Jacobaean Lily (amaryllis formosissima), a bulbous-rooted plant from tropical America. Its large bulb is covered with a dark skin and has a long flattened neck; planted out in the flower border in May...
-Jacobi
I. Friedrich Heinrich, a German philosopher, born in Dusseldorf, Jan. 25, 1743, died in Munich, March 10, 1819. In his 18th year he was sent to Geneva to complete his mercantile apprenticeship, and du...
-Jacobins
Jacobins, the most celebrated of the clubs of the first French revolution. Its origin is traced to a society established a few days after the opening of the states general at Versailles, in May, 1789,...
-Jacobites
I. A Christian sect in the East, particularly in Syria and Mesopotamia. They derive their name from Jacobus Baradaeus, bishop of Edessa, who in the 6th century established a permanent ecclesiastical o...
-Jacobus Van Lennep
Jacobus Van Lennep, a Dutch novelist, born in Amsterdam, March 25, 1802, died Aug. 26, 1868. He was educated at Leyden, and produced his literary works while practising law. He is called by his countr...
-Jacopo Or Giaeomo Cavedone
Jacopo Or Giaeomo Cavedone, an Italian painter, born at Sassuolo, Modena, in 1577, died in Bologna in 1660. Escaping from a home made unendurable to him by his father's violence, he became page to a n...
-Jacopo Sadoleto
Jacopo Sadoleto, an Italian ecclesiastic, born in Modena, July 14, 1477, died in Rome, Oct. 18, 1547. In 1502 he went to Rome, became attached to the household of Cardinal Oliverio Carafa, and was ord...
-Jacqnes Angnste De Lat. Thuanus (Thou)
Jacqnes Angnste De Lat. Thuanus (Thou), a French historian, born in Paris, Oct. 8, 1553, died May 7, 1617. He was the son of a first president of the parliament of Paris, studied law at home and in It...
-Jacqnes Boucher De Crevecceur De Perthes
Jacqnes Boucher De Crevecceur De Perthes, a French archaeologist and author, born at Rethel, department of the Ardennes, Sept. 10, 1788, died in Amiens in August, 1868. He belonged to an old family, a...
-Jacqnes Offenbach
Jacqnes Offenbach, a French composer, born of German-Jewish parents in Cologne, June 21, 1819. He was a student at the Paris conservatory from 1835 to 1837, and began his career as a player upon the v...
-Jacqnes Rene Hebert
Jacqnes Rene Hebert, a French revolutionist, known also under the assumed name of Pere Duchesne, born in Alengon in 1755, executed in Paris, March 24, 1794. Of low parentage and education, he went whe...
-Jacqueline Of Bavaria
Jacqueline Of Bavaria, countess of Hai-naut, Holland, Zealand, and Friesland, born in 1400, died in 1436. She was the only daughter and heir of William VI. of Bavaria, count of Holland and Hainaut, an...
-Jacquerie
Jacquerie, a French servile insurrection of the 14th century, called after its leader, Guil-laume Caillet, or Charlet, of Clermont, who assumed the name Jacques Bonhomme, which the barons had long der...
-Jacques Achille Leroy De Saint-Arnaud
Jacques Achille Leroy De Saint-Arnaud, a French soldier, born in Paris, Aug. 20, 1801, died at sea, Sept. 29, 1854. His family, whose name was simply Leroy, belonged to the middle classes. He was educ...
-Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law Lauriston
Jacques Alexandre Bernard Law Lauriston, marquis de, a French soldier, born in Pondi-cherry, India, Feb. 1, 1708, died in Paris, June 10, 1828. At the military school of Paris he was intimate with Bon...
-Jacques Antoiiic Marie Deliniers
Jacques Antoiiic Marie Deliniers, viceroy of Buenos Ayres, born at Niort in France, Feb. 6, 1756, shot at Buenos Ayres in 1810. He entered the Spanish navy, attained the rank of captain, and during th...
-Jacques Aymar-Vernay
Jacques Aymar-Vernay, a French peasant of Dauphiny, a pretended diviner, born at St. Veran, Sept. 8,1662; time of death unknown. He was originally a mason, but early abandoned that occupation, and beg...
-Jacques Babinet
Jacques Babinet, a French physicist, born at Lusignan, March 5,1794, died in October, 1872, He was educated at the polytechnic school, taught mathematics, physics, and meteorology, and became a member...
-Jacques Basnage De Beauval
Jacques Basnage De Beauval, a French author and diplomatist, born in Rouen in 1653, died at the 11 ague in 1722 or 1723. He received an excellent theological and classical education, was Protestant mi...
-Jacques Benigne Bossuet
Jacques Benigne Bossuet, a French prelate, born at Dijon, Sept. 27, 1627, died in Paris, April 12, 1704. He came of a family of lawyers, received his early education at the Jesuit college of Dijon, an...
-Jacques Bridaine
Jacques Bridaine, a French preacher and missionary, born at Chuslan, March 21, 1701, died at Roquemaure, Dec. 22, 1767. He studied for the priesthood in the Jesuit college at Avignon, and the seminary...
-Jacques Callot
Jacques Callot, a French painter and engraver, born at Nancy about 1593, died there in March, 1635. His father, Jean Oallot, who was herald at arms of the duchy of Lorraine, opposed the passion for ar...
-Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier, a French navigator, born at Saint Malo, Dec. 31, 1494, died about 1555. Under the auspices of Francis I., he was intrusted with the command of an expedition to explore the western hem...
-Jacques Cathelineaii
Jacques Cathelineaii, generalissimo of the Vendeans in the revolt of 1793 against the revolutionary government of France, born at Pin-en-Mauges, in Anjou, Jan. 5, 1759, died at St. Florent, July 11, 1...
-Jacques Clement
Jacques Clement, a French regicide, born in Champagne about 1505, killed at St. Cloud, Aug. 1, 1589. He was a monk, and was selected at the suggestion of Bourgoing, prior of the convent of the Jacobin...
-Jacques Coeur
Jacques Coeur, a French merchant and royal treasurer, born at Bourges near the end of the 14th century, died in the island of Scio, Nov. 25, 1456. He was at first one of the masters of the mint at Bou...
-Jacques Cujas (Cujacius)
Jacques Cujas (Cujacius), a French jurist, born in Toulouse about 1522, died in Bourges, Oct. 4,1590. He was the son of a tanner, and was educated at the university of Toulouse; spent several years in...
-Jacques Davy Duperron
Jacques Davy Duperron, a French cardinal, born in St. Lo, Normandy, Nov. 15, 1556, died in Paris, Sept. 5, 1618. He received his education in Switzerland, whither his father, who had given up the prac...
-Jacques Delille
Jacques Delille, a French poet, born at Aigue-Perse, Auvergne, June 22, 1738, died in Paris, May 1, 1813. He was a natural son of a lawyer named Montanier, became known in 1769 by his translation of V...
-Jacques Gravier
Jacques Gravier, a French missionary in America, died in 1708. Soon after his arrival in Canada, in 1684, he was sent to the Illinois region, where he followed up the labors of Mar-quette and Allouez ...
-Jacques Henri Bernardin De Saint-Pierre
Jacques Henri Bernardin De Saint-Pierre, a French author, born in Havre, Jan. 19, 1737, died at Éragny-sur-Oise, Jan. 21, 1814. He was educated by a priest at Caen, and went with his uncle to Martiniq...
-Jacques Jasmin
Jacques Jasmin, a French Provencal poet, often called the barber poet and the last of the troubadours, born in Agen, March 6,1798, died there, Oct. 4,1864. He was the child of a hunchbacked tailor and...
-Jacques Joseph Champollioin - Figeac
Jacques Joseph Champollioin - Figeac, a French archaeologist, born at Figeae in 1778, died in the palace of Fontaineblcau, May 9, 1867. He was at first librarian of the public library and professor of...
-Jacques Julien Ronton De La Billardiere
Jacques Julien Ronton De La Billardiere, a French naturalist, born in Alencon, Oct. 23, 1755, died in Paris, Jan. 8, 1834. In 1786 he was sent on a scientific mission to Syria and Palestine, explored ...
-Jacques Marquette
Jacques Marquette, a French explorer, born in Laon, France, in 1637, died May 18, 1675. At the age of 17 he entered the society of Jesus, and in 1666 sailed for Canada as a missionary. He spent about ...
-Jacques Mathieu Delpech
Jacques Mathieu Delpech, a French surgeon, born in Toulouse about 1775, murdered in Montpellier, Oct. 29, 1832. In 1793 he joined the army of the Pyrenees as an assistant in the medical corps, and aft...
-Jacques Matter
Jacques Matter, a French philosopher and historian, born at Alt-Eckendorf, Alsace, May 31, 1791, died in Strasburg, June 23, 1864. He was intended for the legal profession, and after studying under pr...
-Jacques Paul Migne
Jacques Paul Migne, a French editor, born at Saint-Flour, Cantal, in 1800. He was ordained priest in 1824, and in 1833 founded in Paris the journal L'Univers religieux. This he sold in 1836, and conce...
-Jaen
I. A province of Spain, in Andalusia, bordering on New Castile, Murcia, Granada, and Cordova; area, 5,184 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 392,100. The N. part is entirely filled with the ridges of the Sierra Mo...
-Jaeqnes Laffitte
Jaeqnes Laffitte, a French banker, born in Bayonne, Oct. 24, 1767, died in Paris, May 26, 1844. He was the son of a poor carpenter, but received a fair education. In 1788 he went to Paris, was admitte...
-Jaeqnes Lonis David
Jaeqnes Lonis David, a French painter, born in Paris, Aug. 31, 1748, died in Brussels, Dec. 29, 1825. His taste for painting was fostered by his uncle Buron, the architect, and developed in the studio...
-Jaffa, Or Yafa
Jaffa, Or Yafa (anc. Joppa; in the Hebrew Scriptures, Japho), a town and port of Palestine, 35 m. N. W. of Jerusalem; pop. about 10,000, of whom 4,500 are Moslems, 5,000 Christians, and about 500 fore...
-Jaffnapatam, Or Jaffna
Jaffnapatam, Or Jaffna. I. A peninsular district of Ceylon, on the N. W. coast, of irregular shape; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. about 220,000. It is traversed by two long and narrow lagoons, and the surfac...
-Jagellon
Jagellon, a Polish royal family, founded by Jagello or Jagiello, a pagan grand duke of Lithuania, who embraced Christianity and became king of Poland under the name of Ladis-las II., consequent upon h...
-Jaguar
Jaguar (felis onca, Linn.), the largest of the American carnivora; from its size, strength, and ferocity it is often called the South American tiger. It inhabits the warmer parts of America, from Para...
-Jaime Lneio Balmes
Jaime Lneio Balmes, a Spanish theologian and philosopher, born at Vich, Catalonia, Aug. 28, 1810, died there, July 9, 1848. He was ordained in 1832, and was for a time professor at the university of C...
-Jains, Or Jainas
Jains, Or Jainas, a religious sect of India, once dominant in the Deccan, now scattered over the whole peninsula. Their faith is a mixture of Brahmanism and Buddhism, and various accounts are given of...
-Jakob Leonard Chodzko
Jakob Leonard Chodzko, a Polish scholar, born at Oborek, in the neighborhood of Wilna, Nov. 6,1800. He studied at Molodeczno, where he enjoyed the friendship of Zan, and at Wilna, under the guidance o...
-Jakob Venedey
Jakob Venedey, a German author, born in Cologne, May 24, 1805, died near Badenweiler, Feb. 8, 1871. He studied at Bonn and Heidelberg, and was employed in his father's law office at Cologne till 1832,...
-Jalap
Jalap, a well known purgative drug, first introduced into England from Mexico in 1609. The plant grows wild near the city of Jalapa, and was known to the Mexicans as purga de Jalapa; that city being t...
-Jalapa
Jalapa, a town of Mexico, in the state of Vera Cruz, 140 m. E. of the city of Mexico; pop. about 10,000. It is situated on the slope of the Cerro Macuiltepec, 4,500 ft. above the sea, and many of the ...
-Jalisco
Jalisco, a maritime state of Mexico, bordering on Sinaloa, Durango, Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Michoacan, Colima, and the Pacific; area, 48,967 sq. m.; pop, in 1869, 924,580. This state, which in colonial...
-Jamaica
Jamaica (Indian Xaimaca, island of springs), one of the Greater Antilles, and the largest and richest of the British West India islands, in the Caribbean sea, 89 m. S. of Cuba, 118 W. S. W. of Hayti, ...
-James
James, a S. E. county of Tennessee, bordering on Georgia, and bounded N. W. by the Tennessee river, formed since the census of 1870; area, about 200 sq. m. The surface is somewhat mountainous; the soi...
-James Andrew Broun Ramsay Dalhousie
James Andrew Broun Ramsay Dalhousie, marquis of, a British statesman, born at Dalhousie, near Edinburgh, Scotland, April 22, 1812, died there, Dec. 19, 1860. The earl of Dalhousie, his father, was gen...
-James Augustus Grant
James Augustus Grant, a British traveller, born in Nairn, Scotland, in 1827. He was educated at Marischal college, Aberdeen. In 1845 he received an appointment in the Indian army, took part in both si...
-James Barron
James Barron, an American naval officer, born in Virginia in 1768, died April 21, 1851. He served under his father, James Barron (died 1787), who held the rank of commodore in the Virginia navy during...
-James Barry
James Barry, an Irish painter, born in Cork, Oct. 11, 1741, died in London, Feb. 22, 1806. He studied in Dublin, and in Italy under the patronage of Burke. After his return to England in 1770 he paint...
-James Beattie
James Beattie, a Scottish poet, born in Kincardineshire, Oct. 25, 1735, died in Aberdeen, Aug. 18, 1803. He obtained a scholarship at Marischal college, Aberdeen, and in 1758 became one of the masters...
-James Biddle
James Biddle, an officer of the United States navy, born in Philadelphia in February, 1783, died there, Oct. 1, 1848. He entered the navy as midshipman in February, 1800. During the war with Tripoli h...
-James Bogardus
James Bogardus, an American inventor, born at Catskill, N. Y.. March 14, 1800. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a watchmaker, and soon became not only an expert in that art, but a good die-sinke...
-James Boswell
James Boswell, the biographer of Samuel Johnson, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 29, 1740, died in London, June 19, 1795. His father, as judge of the court' of session, bore the title of Lord Auchinleck, afte...
-James Brindley
James Brindley, an English mechanic and engineer, born in Derbyshire in 1716, died at Turnhurst, Sept. 27, 1772. He was apprenticed to a millwright at the age of 17. After entering upon business he de...
-James Bruce
James Bruce, a Scottish traveller, born at Kinnaird, Dec. 14, 1730, died there, April, 27, 1794. He was educated at London, Harrow, and Edinburgh, and intended for the profession of law; but finding t...
-James Buchanan
James Buchanan, fifteenth president of the United States, born at Stony Batter, Franklin co., Penn., April 22, 1791, died at Lancaster, Penn., June 1, 1868. His father emigrated to the United States f...
-James Butler Ormond
James Butler Ormond, duke of, lord lieutenant of Ireland, born in London in 1010, died at Kingston hall in Dorsetshire, July 21, 1088. He was educated by Archbishop Abbot as a ward of King James, and ...
-James Caird
James Caird, a Scottish agriculturist, born at Stranraer, county of Wigton, in 1816. He was educated at Edinburgh, leased a farm from the earl of Galloway, and in 1849 published a treatise on High Fa...
-James Caldwell
James Caldwell, an American clergyman, born in Charlotte co., Va., in April, 1734, killed at Elizabethtown, N. J., Nov. 24, 1781. He graduated at the college of New Jersey in 1759, and in 1762 became ...
-James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell, an English physicist, born in Edinburgh in 1831. He was educated at the academy and university of Edinburgh and Trinity college, Cambridge, graduating at the last institution in 1...
-James Clinton
James Clinton, an American soldier, the fourth son of Charles and father of De Witt Clinton, born in Ulster co., N. Y., Aug. 9,1736, died at Little Britain, Orange co., Dec. 22,1812. After receiving a...
-James Cook
James Cook, an English navigator, born at Marton, Yorkshire, Oct. 27, 1728, killed at the Sandwich islands, Feb. 14, 1779. His father was a farm laborer; and in his 13th year the future navigator was ...
-James Cragie Robertson
James Cragie Robertson, a British clergyman, born in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1813. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1834, took orders in the English church, in 1846 became vicar of Beaksb...
-James Craig Watson
James Craig Watson, an American astronomer, born in Middlesex (now Elgin) co., Canada West, Jan. 28,1838. His father emigrated from Northumberland co., Pa., to Canada, and thence to Michigan. He gradu...
-James Crichton
James Crichton, commonly called the admirable Orichton, born probably in the castle of Cluny, in Scotland, Aug. 19, 1560, died in Mantua, July 3, 1583. His father was lord advocate of Scotland, and ...
-James Davis Knowles
James Davis Knowles, an American clergyman, born in Providence, R. I., in July, 1798, died in Newton, Mass., May 9, 1838. His father, a respectable mechanic of Providence, apprenticed him at the age o...
-James Deane
James Deane, an American physician, born in Coleraine, Mass., Feb. 14, 1801, died in Greenfield, June 8, 1858. He removed to Greenfield in 1822, where, after writing in a public office four years, he ...
-James Douglas Morton
James Douglas Morton, earl of, regent of Scotland, born in Dalkeith in 1530, executed in Edinburgh, June 3,1581. He was a younger of the great family of Angus, but in 1553 succeeded to the estates and...
-James Duport
James Duport, an English scholar, born in Cambridge in 1606, died July 17, 1679. He received his early education at Westminster school. In 1622 he entered Trinity college, Cambridge, and devoted himse...
-James Edward Murdoch
James Edward Murdoch, an American actor, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 25, 1811. He first appeared on the stage in the Arch street theatre, subsequently played in various southern cities, and in June, 18...
-James Edward Oglethorpe
James Edward Oglethorpe, founder of the colony of Georgia, born in London, Dec. 21, 1688, died at Cranham hall, Essex, June 30, 1785. He was commissioned an officer in the queen's guards in 1714, and ...
-James F. W. Johnston
James F. W. Johnston, a Scottish chemist and agricultural writer, born in Paisley about 1796, died in Durham, England, Sept. 18, 1855. When a young man he supported himself by preparing students for t...
-James Fenimore Cooper
James Fenimore Cooper, an American novelist, born at Burlington, N. J., Sept. 15, 1789, died at Cooperstown, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1851. His father was Judge William Cooper, a man of great energy and high ...
-James Fitz-James Berwick
James Fitz-James Berwick, duke of, an English and French soldier, born in 1670, killed at Philippsburg, June 12, 1734. He was an illegitimate son of James II. by Arabella Churchill, sister of the duke...
-James Francis Edward Stuart
James Francis Edward Stuart, called the chevalier of St. George, a pretender to the throne of England, son of James II., born in London, June 10, 1688, died in Rome, Jan. 2, 1766. His legitimacy was s...
-James Freeman Clarke
James Freeman Clarke, D. D., an American clergyman, born in Hanover, N. II., April 4, 1810. He graduated at Harvard college in 1829, and at the Cambridge divinity school in 1833; was pastor of the Uni...
-James G Birney
James G Birney., an American politician, born in Danville, Ky., Feb. 4, 1792, died at Perth Amboy, N. J., Nov. 25, 1857. He graduated at the college of New Jersey in 1812, studied law, and removed ear...
-James Gates Percival
James Gates Percival, an American poet, born at Berlin, Conn., Sept. 15, 1795, died at Hazel Green, Wis., May 2, 1856. At the age of 14 he wrote a burlesque poem on the times. He graduated in 1815 at ...
-James Gordon Bennett
James Gordon Bennett, an American journalist, founder and proprietor of the New York Herald, born at New Mill, Keith, in Banffshire, Scotland, Sept. 1, 1795, died in New York, June 1, 1872. He remai...
-James Graham Monttrose
James Graham Monttrose, marquis of, a Scotch soldier, born at the family estate of Auld Montrose in the autumn of 1612, hanged at Edinburgh, May 21, 1650. At the age of 14, on the death of his father,...
-James Grahame
James Grahame, a Scottish poet, born in Glasgow, April 22, 1765, died near that city, Nov. 30, 1811. He was educated at the university of Glasgow, went to Edinburgh, and became a writer to the signet ...
-James Grant
James Grant, a British journalist, born in Elgin, Scotland, in 1806. He started the Elgin Courier in 1827, and removed to London in 1834, where he soon formed a connection with the Morning Advert...
-James H Rigg
James H Rigg, an English clergyman born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1821. He entered the Wesley an ministry in 1845, and soon exerted great influence. In 1852 he published a series of papers entitled W...
-James Hadley
James Hadley, an American scholar, born in Fairfield, Herkimer co., N. Y., March 30, 1821, died in New Haven, Conn., Nov. 14, 1872. When nine years old he was accidentally lamed for life, and devoted ...
-James Hall
James Hall, an American geologist and palaeontologist, born at Hingham, Mass., of English parents, Sept. 12, 1811. Destined at first for the medical profession, he soon turned his attention to natural...
-James Hamilton
James Hamilton, an American statesman, born in Charleston, S. C, May 8,1780, drowned at sea near the coast of Texas, Nov. 15, 1857. He was educated for the bar, but entered the army and served as a ma...
-James Hamilton Hammond
James Hamilton Hammond, an American statesman, born at Newberry, S. C, Nov. 15, 1807, died at Beach Island, S. C, Nov. 13, 1864. His father, Elisha Hammond, a native of Massachusetts, became in 1802 p...
-James Hammond Trumbull
James Hammond Trumbull, an American philologist, born in Stonington, Conn., Dec. 20, 1821. He entered Yale college in 1838. He was assistant secretary of the state of Connecticut, 1847-52 and 1858-'61...
-James Harris
James Harris, an English philologist, born in Salisbury, July 20, 1709, died Dec. 22, 1780. He was educated at Oxford as gentleman commoner, and thence passed as a student of law to Lincoln's Inn. His...
-James Harrington
James Harrington, an English political writer, born at Upton, Northamptonshire, in January, 1611, died in Westminster, Sept. 11, 1677. He entered Trinity college, Oxford, in 1629, and after leaving th...
-James Henley Thornwell
James Henley Thornwell, an American clergyman, born in Marlborough district, S. C, in 1811, died in Charlotte, N. C, Aug. 1, 1862. He graduated at the South Carolina college in 1829, studied theology,...
-James Henry Hackett
James Henry Hackett, an American actor, born in New York, March 15, 1800, died at Jamaica, L. I., Dec. 28, 1871. He entered Columbia college in 1815, but remained only a year. In 1817 he began the stu...
-James Hepburn Bothwell
James Hepburn Bothwell, fourth earl of, the third husband of Mary, queen of Scots, born about 1526, died at Malmo, on the coast of Sweden, in 1576. He occupied an influential position in the parliamen...
-James Hogg
James Hogg, better known as the Ettrick Shepherd, a Scottish author, born in the parish of Ettrick, on the river of that name, in Selkirkshire, Jan. 25, 1772 (according to his own statement, although ...
-James Holman
James Holman, known as the blind traveller, born in England about 1787, died in London in July, 1857. He entered the royal navy in 1798, and nine years afterward received a commission as lieutenant....
-James I
James I.king of Scotland, and third monarch of the Stuart dynasty, born in Dunfermline about 1394, assassinated in Perth, Feb. 21, 1437. He was the son of Robert III. and An-nabella Drummond. He becam...
-James II
James II.king of Scotland, only son of the preceding and of Joanna Beaufort, born in 1430, killed in 1460. Being but a child when he became king, his mother was appointed to take charge of his person ...
-James III
James III, king of Scotland, son of the preceding and of Mary of Gueldres, born in 1453, murdered in 1488. He was crowned at Kelso monastery, and as his mother was a woman of vigorous capacity, it was...
-James IV
James IV.king of Scotland, son of the preceding and of Margaret of Denmark, born March 17, 1472, slain at the battle of Flodden, Sept. 9,1513. He was crowned at Scone, June 26, 1488. His government wa...
-James Ivory
James Ivory, a Scottish mathematician, born in Dundee in 1765, died near London, Sept 21, 1842. He completed his professional course in theology at the university of St. Andrews in 1786, after which h...
-James Jackson Jarves
James Jackson Jarves, an American author, born in Boston, Mass., Aug. 20, 1818. On account of ill health he went to the Hawaiian islands in 1838, was for some years United States consul at Honolulu, w...
-James Kilbourne
James Kilbourne, an American pioneer, born in New Britain, Conn., Oct. 19, 1770, died in Worthington, 0., April 9, 1850. He was successively employed as an apprentice, clerk, merchant, and manufacture...
-James Kirke Paulding
James Kirke Paulding, an American author, born at Nine Partners, Dutchess co., N. Y., Aug. 22, 1779, died at Hyde Park in the same county, April 6, 1860. After a village school education and a course ...
-James Knox Polk
James Knox Polk, the eleventh president of the United States, born in Mecklenburg co., N. C, Nov. 2, 1795, died in Nashville, Tenn., June 15, 1849. His ancestors, whose name was originally Pollock, em...
-James Lawrence
James Lawrence, an American naval officer, born in Burlington, N. J., Oct. 1, 1781, died of wounds received in action, June 5, 1813. He entered the navy as a midshipman Sept. 4, 1798; in 1800 he was m...
-James Longstreet
James Longstreet, an American soldier, born in South Carolina about 1820. He was taken to Alabama in his childhood, graduated at West Point in 1842, and was assigned to the infantry. He served in the ...
-James Lonis Petigru
James Lonis Petigru, an American lawyer, born in Abbeville district, S. 0., about 1789, died in Charleston, S. C, March 9, 1863. He graduated at the South Carolina college in 1809, a few years later w...
-James Macpherson
James Macpherson, a Scottish author, born in Ruthven, Inverness-shire, in 1738, died at his seat of Belleville, Feb. 17, 1796. He completed his education at King's college, Aberdeen, and is supposed t...
-James Madison (2)
James Madison, fourth president of the United States, born at King George, Va., March 16, 1751, died at his seat of Montpelier, near Orange Court House, Va., June 28, 1836. His father was James Madiso...
-James Manning
James Manning, an American clergyman, born in Elizabethtown, N. J., Oct. 22, 1738, died in Providence, R. I., July 29. 1791. He graduated at Princeton college in 1762, became pastor of a Baptist churc...
-James Marion Sims
James Marion Sims, an American surgeon, born in Lancaster district, S. C, Jan. 25, 1813. He graduated at the South Carolina college in 1832, and studied medicine in Charleston and at the Jefferson med...
-James Marsh
James Marsh, an American scholar, born in Hartford, Vt,, July 19, 1794, died in Colchester, Vt., July 3, 1842. His early life was passed on his father's farm. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1817...
-James Mccosii
James Mccosii, a Scottish metaphysician, born in Ayrshire in 1811. He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh; and while a student at Edinburgh he wrote an essay on the Stoic philoso...
-James Miller
James Miller, an American general, born in Peterborough, N.H., April 25, 1776, died in Temple, X. II., July 7, 1851. He was educated for the bar, but in 1808 entered the army as major. In May, 1813, h...
-James Monroe
James Monroe, fifth president of the United States, born in Westmoreland co., Va., April 28, 1758, died in New York, July 4, 1831. His father was Spence Monroe, a planter, descended from Capt. Monroe,...
-James Montgomery
James Montgomery, a British poet, born in Irvine, Ayrshire, Nov. 4, 1771, died near Sheffield, April 30, 1854. His father was a Moravian preacher, and James, being intended for the same office, was se...
-James Murdock
James Murdock, an American clergyman, bom in Westbrook, Conn., Fob. 16, 177(5, died in Columbus, Miss., Aug. 10, 1850. He graduated at Yale college in 1707, was ordained as a Congregational minister i...
-James Northcote
James Northcote, an English painter, born in Plymouth, Oct. 22, 1746, died July 13, 1831. He was the son of a watchmaker, with whom he served an apprenticeship, and subsequently devoted himself to pai...
-James Orton
James Orton, an American naturalist, born at Seneca Falls, N. Y., April 21, 1830. He graduated at Williams college in 1855, and at the Andover theological seminary in 1858, and, after travelling in Eu...
-James Otis
James Otis, an American orator, born at Great Marshes, now called West Barnstable, Mass., Feb. 5, 1725, died in Andover, May 23, 1783. He graduated at Harvard college in 1743, studied law in Boston, w...
-James P Espy
James P Espy., an American meteorologist, born in Washington co., Pa., May 9, 1785, died in Cincinnati, O., Jan. 24, 1860. He early manifested a fondness for meteorological science, and after some yea...
-James Prescott Joule
James Prescott Joule, an English natural philosopher, born at Salford, Dec. 24, 1818. At the age of 15 he became the pupil of Dr. John Dalton, the author of the atomic theory, who trained him in the a...
-James Radcliffe Derwektwater
James Radcliffe Derwektwater, third earl of, a leader in the English rebellion of 1715, born in 1689, beheaded Feb. 24,1716. He belonged to an ancient Catholic family in Northumberland, was educated a...
-James Rennell
James Rennell, an English geographer, born near Chudleigh, Devonshire, Nov. 3, 1742, died in London, March 29, 1830. He entered the navy, served in India, became engineer in the East India company's s...
-James Rent
James Rent, an American jurist, born in Philippi, Putnam co., N. Y., July 31, 1763, died in New York, Dec. 12, 1847. His grandfather, the Rev. Elisha Kent, whose family was early established at Suffol...
-James River
James River, the largest stream which has its whole course in the state of Virginia. It is formed near the W. border of the state, on the border of Alleghany and Botetourt cos., by the union of Jackso...
-James Rivington
James Rivington, a royalist printer of New York during the revolution, born in London about 1724, died in New York in July, 1802. Early in life he was a bookseller in London, and acquired a fortune, w...
-James Robinson Planche
James Robinson Planche, an English author, born in London, Feb. 27, 1796. In 1818 he produced successfully at Drury Lane theatre a burlesque entitled Amoroso, King of Little Britain. In 1826 he trav...
-James Roosevelt Bayley
James Roosevelt Bayley, an American archbishop, grandson of Richard Bayley, M. D., born in New York, Aug. 23, 1814. He is a graduate of Washington (now Trinity) college, Hartford, and was for some tim...
-James Rumsey
James Rumsey, an American inventor, born at Bohemia Manor, Cecil co., Md., about 1743, died in London, England, Dec. 23, 1792. In September, 1784, he exhibited on the Potomac, in the presence of Gen. ...
-James Scott Monmouth
James Scott Monmouth, duke of, supposed son of Charles II., king of Great Britain, born in Rotterdam, April 9, 1649, executed in London, July 15, 1685. His mother was Lucy Walters, who was at first mi...
-James Sharp
James Sharp, a Scottish prelate, born in the castle of Banff in May, 1618, assassina-ted on Magus Muir, near St. Andrews, May 3, 1679. He was educated for the church in the university of Aberdeen, and...
-James Sheridan Knowles
James Sheridan Knowles, a British dramatist, born in Cork, Ireland, in 1784, died at Torquay, England, Nov. 30, 1862. He was the son of James Knowles, a teacher of elocution, and author of a Pronoun...
-James Sheridan Muspratt
James Sheridan Muspratt, a British chemist, born in Dublin, March 8, 1821, died in Liverpool in November, 1871. He removed at an early age to Liverpool, where his father established a large chemical m...
-James Shirley
James Shirley, an English dramatist, born in London about 1594, died Oct. 29, 1666. He graduated at Catharine hall, Cambridge, took orders, and was appointed to a living in Hertfordshire, which he soo...
-James Silk Buckingham
James Silk Buckingham, an English traveller and author, born at Flushing, near Falmouth, in 1786, died in London, June 30, 1855. He was educated for the church, but went to sea, and was for several ye...
-James Smithson
James Smithson, an English physicist, founder of the Smithsonian institution, born about 1765, died in Genoa, June 27, 1829. He was a natural son of Hugh, third duke of Northumberland, and Mrs. Elizab...
-James Strong
James Strong, an American author, born in New York, Aug. 14, 1822. He graduated at Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn., in 1844, and in 1844-'6 was a teacher in the Troy conference academy, Poultne...
-James Stuart
James Stuart, sometimes called Athenian Stuart, an English antiquary, born in London in 1713, died Feb. 2, 1788. In early life, till about 1742, he painted fans. He then went to Rome, where he studied...
-James Thacher
James Thacher, an American physician, born in Barnstable, Mass., Feb. 14, 1754, died in Plymouth, May 26, 1844. On the breaking out of the revolution he was appointed surgeon's mate to Dr. John Warren...
-James Thomas Brudenell Cardigan
James Thomas Brudenell Cardigan, seventh earl of, a British general, born at Hambleton, Oct. 16, 1797, died at Deene Park, Northamptonshire, March 28, 1868. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, a...
-James Thomson
James Thomson, a British poet, born at Ed-nam, Roxburghshire, Scotland, Sept. 11, 1700, died at Kew Lane, near Richmond, Aug. 27, 1748. He was the son of a clergyman, and passed six years at the unive...
-James Topham Brady
James Topham Brady, an American lawyer, born in New York city, April 9, 1815, died there, Feb. 9,1869. His father emigrated from Ireland in 1812, and after teaching a classical school for some years b...
-James Usher
James Usher, an Irish prelate, born in Dublin, Jan. 4, 1580, died in Reigate, Surrey, March 21, 1656. He was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, was ordained priest in 1601, and soon after was appoin...
-James V
James V.king of Scotland, son of the preceding and of Margaret Tudor, born in Linlithgow, April 10, 1512, died in Falkland, Dec. 13, 1542. He was crowned at Scone, and his mother became regent. His mi...
-James Wadsworth
James Wadsworth, an American philanthropist, born in Durham, Conn., April 20, 1768, died in Geneseo, N. Y., June 8, 1844. He graduated at Yale college in 1787, and in 1790 removed with his brother to ...
-James Wilkinson
James Wilkinson, an American soldier, born in Maryland in 1757, died near the city of Mexico, Dec. 28, 1825. He studied medicine and began practice, but in 1775 joined a rifle company before Boston, a...
-James Wilson Grimes
James Wilson Grimes, an American statesman, born in Deering, N. II., Oct. 20, 1816, died in Burlington, Iowa, Feb. 7, 1873. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1836, and removed to Burlington, where ...
-James Wolfe
James Wolfe, an English general, born at Westerham, Kent, Jan. 2, 1726, killed before Quebec, Sept. 13, 1759. He entered the army as a second lieutenant at the age of 15, and took part in the battles ...
-Jamestown
Jamestown, a village of Chautauqua co., New York, at the outlet of Chautauqua lake and on the Atlantic and Great Western, and the Dunkirk, Alleghany Valley, and Pittsburgh railroads, 55 m. S. S. W. of...
-Jami
Jami (Abderrahman ben Ahmed), a Persian poet, born A. D. 1414, died in 1492. He derived his surname Jami from Jam, the place of his birth in Khorasan. After excelling in other studies, he applied hims...
-Jan Baptista Van Helmont
Jan Baptista Van Helmont,'a Flemish physician, born in Brussels in 1577, died near Vil-voorden, Dec. 30, 1644. He was educated at the university of Louvain with a view to the church, but refused to ta...
-Jan De Witt
Jan De Witt, a Dutch statesman, born in Dort in 1625, murdered at the Hague, Aug. 20, 1672. From his father, who had been a member of the states and a conspicuous opponent of the house of Orange, he ...
-Jan Henryk Dombrowski
Jan Henryk Dombrowski, a Polish general, born at Pierszowice, Aug. 29, 1755, died at Winagora, June 16, 1818. He entered the army under Prince Albert of Saxony in 1770, where he rose to the superior g...
-Jan Jacob Van Oosterzee
Jan Jacob Van Oosterzee, a Dutch theologian, born in Rotterdam in 1807. He was educated at the university of Utrecht, studied theology, and entered the ministry of the Reformed church. He became pasto...
-Jan Kollar
Jan Kollar, a Slavic scholar and poet, born in N. W. Hungary in 1793, died in Vienna, Jan. 29, 1852. He studied at Presburg and Jena, took orders, and in 1819 became preacher to an evangelical congreg...
-Jan Mazeppa
Jan Mazeppa, hetman of the Cossacks, born about 1645, died in Bender, Turkey, Sept. 22, 1709. He was the son of a Polish gentleman in Podolia, and became page at the court of John Casimir, king of Pol...
-Jan Van Olden Barneveldt
Jan Van Olden Barneveldt, grand pensionary of Holland, born at Amersfoort, Sept. 14, 1547, beheaded at the Hague, May 13, 1619. After studying law and divinity five years he began to practise law at t...
-Jane Austen
Jane Austen, an English novelist, born at Steventon, in Hampshire, Dec. 16, 1775, died in Winchester, July 18, 1817. She was educated by her father, who was rector of Steven-ton. It is not known at wh...
-Jane Mccrea
Jane Mccrea, an American woman, born at Lamington, N. J., in 1754, killed near Fort Edward, Washington co., N. Y., July 27,1777. She was the daughter of a Scotch Presbyterian clergyman settled in New ...
-Janesville
Janesville, a city and the county seat of Rock co., Wisconsin, in the S. part of the state, situated on both sides of Rock river, and at the intersection of the Wisconsin division of the Chicago and N...
-Janina, Or Yanina
Janina, Or Yanina, a city of Albania, European Turkey, capital of a vilayet of the same name (pop. 400,000, chiefly Greeks), on a small peninsula on the bank of the lake of Janina, 85 m. W. by N. of L...
-Janizaries
Janizaries, a body of Turkish infantry now extinct. The name is derived from yeniskeri, or yeni and askari, new troops. They were first assembled in 1329 by Sultan Orkhan, but were not regularly or...
-Janos John Hunniades (Hunyady)
Janos John Hunniades (Hunyady), a Hungarian general and statesman, born toward the close of the 14th century, died in 1456. His birth and youth are wrapped in legendary obscurity, as is the origin of ...
-Jansenius
Jansenius (Jansen), Cornelius, a Dutch theologian, born at Akoi, near Leerdam, Oct. 28, 1585, died in Ypres, May 6,1638. He studied theology at the university of Louvain, which unwaveringly adhered to...
-Japan
Japan (called by the natives Dai Nippon or Dai Nihoii), an empire consisting of a group of islands lying off the E. coast of Asia, between lat. 23 and 50 N., and Ion. 122 and 153 E...
-Japan Clover
Japan Clover (Lespedeza striata), a plant indigenous to China and Japan, a few specimens of which were noticed by botanists in the southern states before 1860, but which has since spread with such vig...
-Japanning
Japanning, the process of ornamenting wood, leather, paper, or metal by covering it with a brilliant hard varnish, in which are often introduced gilt or colored designs. The art is supposed to have be...
-Japheth
Japheth, one of the three sons of Noah, by most critics regarded as the eldest. It is said of him (Gen. ix. 27): God shall enlarge Ja-pheth, and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan shall ...
-Jared Sparks
Jared Sparks, an American historian, born at Willington, Conn., May 10, 1789, died in Cambridge, Mass., March 14, 1866. He graduated at Harvard college in 1815, studied theology at Cambridge, and for ...
-Jarvis
I. Abraham, an American bishop, born in Norwalk, Conn., May 5, 1739, died May 3, 1813. He graduated at Yale college in 1761, was ordained deacon in London in February, 1764, and priest a few weeks lat...
-Jasmine, Or Jessamine
I. The name of shrubs, sometimes twining, of the genus jasminum, which with three other genera some botanists place in the order jasminaceae, while others regard it as belonging to the olive family. T...
-Jasper
Jasper, a variety of the quartz family occurring in the form of rocky masses, which often make up the greater portion of hills of considerable size. It is of various shades of red, yellow, brown, and ...
-Jasper Frank Cropsey
Jasper Frank Cropsey, an American artist, born at Westfield, Richmond co., N. Y., Feb. 18, 1823. About the age of 14 he commenced the study of architecture, which at the end of five years he was oblig...
-Jassy, Or Yassy
Jassy, Or Yassy (Roum. Yash), a town of Rou-mania, capital of Moldavia, on the Bakhlui, a tributary of the Pruth, 205 m. N N. E. of Bucharest; pop. about 90,000, of whom 35,000 are Jews. It is built p...
-Jats, Or Jauts
Jats, Or Jauts, a race inhabiting India, principally the N. W. portion, between the Indus and Ganges. They have been variously regarded as descendants of the Getae, Dacians, Sacae, Indo-Scythians, Yue...
-Jaundice
Jaundice ( Fr. jaunisse, from jaune, yellow), a morbid affection known by the yellowness of the eyes, skin, and urine, the color of the skin sometimes becoming yellowish green or brown, the stools bei...
-Java
Java, an island of the Indian archipelago, the most important colonial possession of the Netherlands in the East Indies, and the most fertile and prosperous tropical island in the world, situated betw...
-Jaxartes
Jaxartes, the ancient name of the Sir Darya, a river of central Asia. The Naryn, its main upper branch, rises, according to Fedchen-ko's map (Petermanrts Mittheilungen, June, 1874), in Russian Turkist...
-Jay
Jay, the popular name of many conirostral birds of the crow family, and subfamily garru-linae, inhabiting Europe, Asia and its archipelago, and America. One of the handsomest of the genera is cyanura ...
-Jazyges
Jazyges, a tribe belonging to the numerous nationalities comprehended during the earlier period of the Roman empire under the name of Sarmatians, who dwelt originally on the northern shores of the Bla...
-Jcles Mires
Jcles Mires, a French speculator, born of Jewish parentage in Bordeaux, Dec. 9, 1809, died near Marseilles, June 6, 1871. He settled in Paris as a broker, and became director of a gas company. In conj...
-Jean Allarmet Brogni
Jean Allarmet Brogni, cardinal de, a Roman prelate, born at Brogni, Savoy, in 1342, died in Rome, Feb. 16, 1426. He was a swineherd in his youth, and was successively made bishop of Viviers and of Ost...
-Jean Antoine Chaptal
Jean Antoine Chaptal, count de Chanteloup, a French chemist and statesman, born at No-garet, Lozere, June 5, 1750, died in Paris, July 30, 1832. During his medical studies and practice he devoted much...
-Jean Antoine Houdon
Jean Antoine Houdon, a French sculptor, born in Versailles, March 20, 1741, died in Paris, July 15, 1828. Having gained the first prize for sculpture in the royal academy at Paris, he passed ten year...
-Jean Antoine Watteau
Jean Antoine Watteau, a French painter, born in Valenciennes, Oct. 10,1684, died at Nogentsur-Marne, near Paris, July 18, 1721. He early attempted landscapes, though he received but little instruction...
-Jean Auguste Henri Leys
Jean Auguste Henri Leys, a Belgian painter, born in Antwerp, Feb. 18, 1815, died there, Aug. 26, 1869. When 15 years old he entered the studio of his brother-in-law Ferdinand de Braekeleer. In 1833 hi...
-Jean Baptist Drouet
Jean Baptist Drouet?, a French revolutionist, born at Sainte-Menehould, in Champagne, Jan. 8, 1763, died in Macon, April 11, 1824. After serving seven years as a common soldier, he returned to his nat...
-Jean Baptiste Adolphe Charras
Jean Baptiste Adolphe Charras, a French officer and military writer, born at Pfalzburg, in the department of Meurthe, June 7, 1810, died in Basel, Switzerland, Jan. 23, 1865. He was early imbued with ...
-Jean Baptiste Alphonse Karr
Jean Baptiste Alphonse Karr, a French author, born in Paris, Nov. 24,1808. He studied and taught in the Bourbon college, Paris, afterward attached himself to the staff of the Figaro, and in 1832 publi...
-Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce Elie De Beaumont
Jean Baptiste Armand Louis Leonce Elie De Beaumont, a French geologist, born at Canon, Calvados, Sept. 25, 1798. In 1821 he undertook, by order of the government, a series of metallurgical exploration...
-Jean Baptiste Audebert
Jean Baptiste Audebert, a French painter and naturalist, born at Rochefort in 1759, died in 1800. He studied painting in Paris, and became distinguished for his miniature?. Having been employed to pai...
-Jean Baptiste Biot
Jean Baptiste Biot, a French savant, born in Paris, April 21, 1774, died Feb. 2, 1862. He served for some time in the artillery, entered the polytechnic school in 1794, became a professor in the centr...
-Jean Baptiste Carrier
Jean Baptiste Carrier, a French revolutionist, born near Aurillac in 1756, executed in Paris, Dec. 16, 1794. Taking his seat in the national convention in 1792, he supported the establishment of the r...
-Jean Baptiste Clootz
Jean Baptiste Clootz, baron, known under the name of Anacharsis Clootz, a French revolutionist, born near Cleves, Prussia, June 24, 1755, guillotined in Paris, March 24, 1794. He was educated in Paris...
-Jean Baptiste De Regis
Jean Baptiste De Regis, a French geographer, born at Istres in Provence about 1665, died in China about 1737. He was a Jesuit, and was sent to China as a missionary about 1700. His scientific attainme...
-Jean Baptiste Douville
Jean Baptiste Douville, a French traveller and naturalist, born at Hambie, Feb. 15, 1794, disappeared in the wilds of South America about 1833. He travelled in Europe, South America, and Asia, landing...
-Jean Baptiste Drouet Derlon
Jean Baptiste Drouet D'Erlon,, count, a French general, born in Rheims. July 29, 1765, died in Paris, Jan. 25, 1844. He entered the army as a private in 1782, was discharged in 1787, reentered it as a...
-Jean Baptiste George Marie Bory De Saint Vincent
Jean Baptiste George Marie Bory De Saint Vincent, a French naturalist, born at Agen in 1780, died in Paris, Dec. 22, 1846. He visited Mauritius and Bourbon in 1800, explored St. Helena and various oth...
-Jean Baptiste Greuze
Jean Baptiste Greuze, a French painter, born at Tournus, Burgundy, in 1726, died in Paris, March 21, 1805. He began as a portrait painter; failing in which, he devoted himself to pictures of genre. Hi...
-Jean Baptiste Honore Raymond Capefigue
Jean Baptiste Honore Raymond Capefigue, a French historian, born in Marseilles in 1802, died in Paris in December, 1872. He early became a journalist in Paris and a prolific writer on historical subje...
-Jean Baptiste Jnles Bernadotte
Jean Baptiste Jnles Bernadotte, marshal of the French empire and king of Sweden and Norway, born at Pau, Jan. 26, 1764, died in Stockholm, March 8, 1844. He was the son of a lawyer, and was educated f...
-Jean Baptiste Joseph Diendonne Boussingault
Jean Baptiste Joseph Diendonne Boussingault, a French chemist, born in Paris, Feb. 2, 1802. He was educated in the mining academy at Saint-Etienne, and afterward employed by an English company to dire...
-Jean Baptiste Jourdan
Jean Baptiste Jourdan, count, a French general, born in Limoges, April 29, 1762, died in Paris, Nov. 23, 1833. He enlisted in the army when scarcely 16 years old, served five years in America under Co...
-Jean Baptiste La Salle
Jean Baptiste La Salle, founder of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, born in Rheims, April 30, 1651, died in Rouen, April 7, 1719. He was appointed a canon of the cathedral of Rheims in 1669, ...
-Jean Baptiste Labat
Jean Baptiste Labat, a French missionary and historian, born in Paris in 1663, died there, Jan. 6, 1738. He entered the order of the Dominicans, taught philosophy at Nancy, afterward devoted himself t...
-Jean Baptiste Lemoine Bienville
Jean Baptiste Lemoine Bienville, sieur de, French governor of Louisiana, born in Montreal, Feb. 23, 1680, died in France in 1768. He was son of Charles Lemoine, and the third of four brothers (Ibervil...
-Jean Baptiste Louis Gresset
Jean Baptiste Louis Gresset, a French author, born in Amiens in 1709, died in 1777. He was educated at a college of the Jesuits, and at the age of 16 entered the order as a novice. In 1733 he publishe...
-Jean Baptiste Louis Gros
Jean Baptiste Louis Gros, baron, a French diplomatist, born at Ivry-sur-Seine, Feb. 8, 1793. He entered the diplomatic service in 1823, was made a baron in 1829, and became secretary of legation in Me...
-Jean Baptiste Louvet De Couvray
Jean Baptiste Louvet De Couvray, a French revolutionist, born in Paris, June 11,1760, died Aug. 25, 1797. During his youth he was employed in a bookseller's shop, and acquired a knowledge of literatur...
-Jean Baptiste Massillon
Jean Baptiste Massillon, a French prelate, born at Hyeres, Provence, June 24, 1663, died Sept. 18, 1742. He studied with brilliant success under the Oratorians in his native city, and entered their co...
-Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine De Monet De Lamarck
Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine De Monet De Lamarck, a French naturalist, born at Barentin, Picardy, Aug. 1, 1744, died in Paris, Dec. 18, 1829. He was a younger son of a noble family, formerly of Bearn,...
-Jean Baptiste Pitra
Jean Baptiste Pitra, a French cardinal, born at Champforgueil, near Autun, Aug. 31, 1812. He studied at Autun, was ordained priest, taught rhetoric there for some time, became a member of the Benedict...
-Jean Baptiste Rousseau
Jean Baptiste Rousseau, a French poet, born in Paris, April 6, 1670, died in Brussels, March 17, 1741. His first play was performed in 1694 with little success, and his last, Le capri-cieux, in 1700, ...
-Jean Baptiste Say
Jean Baptiste Say, a French political economist, born in Lyons, Jan. 5, 1767, died in Paris, Nov. 16, 1832. After being engaged in commercial pursuits, he became connected with the Courrier de Provenc...
-Jean Baptiste Seraphin Joseph De Villele
Jean Baptiste Seraphin Joseph De Villele, count, a French statesman, born in Toulouse, Aug. 14,1773, died there, March 13,1854. He entered the navy, married in the island of Bourbon (Reunion), became ...
-Jean Baptiste Tavernier
Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a French traveller, born in Paris in 1605, died in Copenhagen in 1689. He early explored many countries, served occasionally as a soldier, and made six journeys to western Asi...
-Jean Baptiste Vuillaume
Jean Baptiste Vuillaume, a French violin maker, born at Mirecourt, Yosges, Oct. 7, 1798, died in Paris in 1874. His great-grandfather worked under Antonio Stradivari, and his grandfather was celebrate...
-Jean Baptlste Joseph Delambre
Jean Baptlste Joseph Delambre, a French astronomer, born in Amiens, Sept. 19, 1749, died in Paris, Aug. 19, 1822. He was a pupil of Delille at the college in his native town, where he distinguished hi...
-Jean Barthelemy Haureau
Jean Barthelemy Haureau, a French author, born in Paris, Nov. 9, 1812. He received a college education, and became a journalist at Le Mans. After the revolution of 1848 he was appointed keeper of manu...
-Jean Bethencourt
Jean Bethencourt, seigneur de, a French navigator, born in Normandy, died in 1425. He was chamberlain of Charles VI. of France, and having been ruined in the Anglo-French wars, he organized in 1402, w...
-Jean Bodin
Jean Bodin, a French publicist, born at An-gers in 1530, died at Laon in 1596. After studying law at Toulouse, he repaired to Paris, and devoted himself to politics. His first work was a Methodm ad fa...
-Jean Bsiptiste Bessieres
Jean Bsiptiste Bessieres, duke of Istria, a French soldier, born at Praissac, Aug. 5, 1768, killed near Lutzen, May 1, 1813. He entered the service in 171)0, and after the victory of Roveredo, Sept. 4...
-Jean Buridan
Jean Buridan, a French philosopher of the 14th century, born at Bethune, in Artois. He studied at the university of Paris, of which he became rector in 1347. He was a disciple of Occam, and his best w...
-Jean Calas
Jean Calas, a French Protestant, born in 1698, executed at Toulouse, March 9, 1762. He was a merchant of Toulouse, his wife an English woman of French extraction. One evening in October, 1761, after t...
-Jean Cavalier
Jean Cavalier, a leader of the Camisards or insurgent Protestants in the Cevennes, born at Ribaute, in Languedoc, about 1679, died at Chelsea, near London, in May, 1740. The son of a poor peasant, he ...
-Jean Chapelain
Jean Chapelain, a French poet, born in Paris, Dec. 4, 1595, died there, Feb. 22, 1074. His father wished him to adopt his own pro-fession of notary: but his mother, who had known Ronsard, roused his l...
-Jean Chappe Dauterociie
Jean Chappe D'Auterociie, a French astronomer, born at Mauriac, Auvergne, in 1722, died in California, Aug. 1, 1769. He was a priest, but giving his whole attention to astronomy, he became one of the ...
-Jean Charles Borda
Jean Charles Borda, a French mathematician, born at Dax, May 4, 1733, died in Paris, Feb. 20, 1799.. He served as a young man both in the army and navy, and gave much study to the principles of projec...
-Jean Charles Leonard Simonde De Sismondi
Jean Charles Leonard Simonde De Sismondi, a French historian, born in Geneva, May 9,1773, died there, June 25, 1842. He was the son of a Protestant clergyman, and of remote Italian descent. After comp...
-Jean Chatel
Jean Chatel, a French fanatic, born in Paris about 1575, executed Dec. 29, 1594. He was the son of a rich shopkeeper, and studied divinity under the Jesuits, and philosophy in the university of Paris....
-Jean Civiale
Jean Civiale, a French surgeon, the originator of the modern operation of lithotrity, born near Thiezac. Auvergne, in 1792, died in Paris, June 13, 186T. At a very early age, while a pupil of Dupuytre...
-Jean Darcet
Jean Darcet, a French chemist, born at Donazit about 1727, died in Paris, Feb. 13, 1801. Although his parents had destined him for the bar, he studied chemistry, spent a fortune in the pursuit of his ...
-Jean De Brebeuf
Jean De Brebeuf, a French Jesuit missionary in Canada, born at Bayeux, March 25, 1593, killed in the Huron country, March 16, 1649. He came to America with Champlain in 1626, and proceeded to the Huro...
-Jean De Carro
Jean De Carro, a German physician, born in Geneva, Aug. 8, 1770, died at Carlsbad, March 12, 1857. Taking up his abode in Vienna in 1795, he became celebrated by his efforts in spreading Jenner's sys...
-Jean De La Bruyere
See La. Bruyere. Jean De La Bruyere #1 Jean De La Bruyere, a French moralist, born in Paris about 1644, died in Versailles, May 11, 1696. At the recommendation of Bossuet he was appointed teacher of...
-Jean De La Fontaine
Jean De La Fontaine, a French fabulist, born in Chateau-Thierry, July 8, 1621, died in Paris, April 13,1695. He received an irregular education, partly at home, partly at the college of Rheiins, and i...
-Jean De Labadie
Jean De Labadie, a French mystic, born at Bourg-en-Guienne in February, 1G10, died in Altona, Holstein, Feb. 13, 1674. He was educated at the Jesuits' college of Bordeaux, and was for some time a memb...
-Jean Denis Lanjuinais
Jean Denis Lanjuinais, count, a French statesman, born in Rennes, March 12, 1753, died in Paris, Jan. 13, 1827. When scarcely 22 years of age he won by public competition the professorship of ecclesia...
-Jean Dominique Auguste Ingres
Jean Dominique Auguste' Ingres, a French historical painter, born in Montauban, Sept. 15, 1781, died in Paris, Jan. 14, 1867. In the school of David he made such rapid progress that by the age of 20 h...
-Jean Dunois
Jean Dunois, comte de, a French soldier, born Nov. 23, 1402, died Nov. 28, 1468. The natural son of Louis, duke of Orleans, brother of Charles VI., he early gained warlike distinction under the appell...
-Jean Eticnne Montucla
Jean Eticnne Montucla, a French mathematician, born in Lyons, Sept. 5, 1725, died in Versailles, Dec. 18, 1799. After studying at the Jesuits' college of Lyons and the law school of Toulouse, he went ...
-Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol
Jean Etienne Dominique Esquirol, a French physician and philanthropist, born in Toulouse, Jan. 4, 1772, died Dec, 12, 1840. He was studying at Paris when the revolution broke out, and led him to enter...
-Jean Etienne Marie Portalis
Jean Etienne Marie Portalis, a French statesman, born at Beausset, Provence, April 1, 1745, died in Paris, Aug. 25,1807. He was an advocate at Aix, published a celebrated memorial On the Validity of...
-Jean Francois Casimir Delavigne
Jean Francois Casimir Delavigne, a French lyric and dramatic poet, born in Havre, April 4, 1793, died in Lyons, Dec. 11, 1843. He was the son of a merchant, and at first a laborious rather than brilli...
-Jean Francois Champollion Le Jeune
Jean Francois Champollion Le Jeune, a French Egyptologist, brother of the preceding, born at Figeae, Dec. 23, 1791, died in Paris, March 4, 1832. He studied so diligently under the direction of his br...
-Jean Francois De Galaup La Perouse
Jean Francois De Galaup La Perouse, count de, a French navigator, born at Guo, near Albi, Languedoc, Aug. 22, 1741, perished probably by shipwreck at Vanikoro, an island in the South Pacific, in 1788 ...
-Jean Francois De La Harpe
Jean Francois De La Harpe, a French critic, horn in Paris, Nov. 20, 1739, died there, Feb. 11, 1803. His father died when he was nine years old, and he was admitted as a free scholar to the Harcourt c...
-Jean Francois Marmontel
Jean Francois Marmontel, a French author, born at Bort, Limousin, July 11, 1723, died at Ableville, near Evreux, Dec. 31,1799. Of humble birth, he was educated gratuitously under the Jesuits of Mauria...
-Jean Francois Paul De Gondi Retz
Jean Francois Paul De Gondi Retz, cardinal de, a French politician, born at Montmirail in 1614, died in Paris, Aug. 24, 1679. He was a younger son of Philippe Emmanuel de Gondi, the general of the gal...
-Jean Francois Regnard
Jean Francois Regnard, a French dramatist, born in Paris in February, 1655, died Sept. 4, 1709. He inherited great wealth and led a roving life. In Bologna he fell in love with a lady whom he made the...
-Jean Frederic Plielypeaox Maurepas
Jean Frederic Plielypeaox Maurepas, count, a French statesman, born July 9, 1701, died Nov. 21, 1781. He was grandson of the chancellor Pontchartrain, and at the age of 14 succeeded his father as secr...
-Jean Gabriel Joseph Albert Chasteler
Jean Gabriel Joseph Albert Chasteler, marquis de, an Austrian general, born in the castle of Mulbaes, in Hainaut, Jan. 22, 1763, died in Venice, March 10, 1825. He was descended from the ducal family ...
-Jean Gilbert Victor Fialin Persigny
Jean Gilbert Victor Fialin Persigny, duke de, a French politician, born in the department of Loire, Jan. 11,1808, died in Nice, Jan. 13,1872. His family being in reduced circumstances, he enlisted in ...
-Jean Guillanme Hyde De Neuville
Jean Guillanme Hyde De Neuville, baron, a French politician of Scottish descent, born at La Charite-sur-Loire, Jan. 24, 1776, died in Paris, May 28, 1857. He was one of the most active agents of the B...
-Jean Hardouin
Jean Hardouin, a French Jesuit, born in Quimper, Brittany, in 1646, died in Paris, Sept. 3, 1729. He entered the order of Jesuits, and after teaching rhetoric for some time, went to Paris to finish hi...
-Jean Henri Merle Daubigne
Jean Henri Merle D'Aubigne, a Swiss clergyman and historian, born at Eaux Vives, near Geneva, Aug. 16, 1794, died in Geneva, Oct. 21, 1872. He was descended from a distinguished Huguenot family which ...
-Jean Herman Lestocq
Jean Herman Lestocq, count, a physician and favorite of Elizabeth of Russia, born in Celle, Hanover, about 1695, died in Livonia, June 23, 1767. He was the son of a French Protestant surgeon, studied ...
-Jean Hippolyte De Villemessant
Jean Hippolyte De Villemessant, a French journalist, born in Rouen, April 22, 1812. He is a son of Col. Cartier and Mlle, de Villemessant, whose name he assumed. In 1830 he married and engaged in busi...
-Jean IV. (De Montfort)
Jean IV. (De Montfort), duke of Brittanv, born in 1293, died in Ilennebon, Sept. 26, 1345. He was the son of Duke Arthur II., and succeeded his brother Jean III. in 1341. The latter had bequeathed the...
-Jean Ingelow
Jean Ingelow, an English poetess, born in Boston, Lincolnshire, in 1830. Her father was a banker, and a man of superior intellectual culture; her mother is of Scotch descent. As a child Jean was excee...
-Jean Jacqnes Dessalines
Jean Jacqnes Dessalines, emperor of Hayti, born in W. Africa about 1760, killed Oct. 17, 1806. He was brought to Hayti as a slave, and adopted the name of his master. The repeal, Sept. 24, 1791, of th...
-Jean Jacques Barthelemy
Jean Jacques Barthelemy, a French archaeologist and author, born at Cassis, Jan. 20, 1716, died in Paris, April 30, 1795. He was educated for the church, and retained the title and cost nine of an abb...
-Jean Jacques Burlamaqui
Jean Jacques Burlamaqui, a Swiss writer upon law, born in Geneva, July 24, 1694, died April 3, 1748. His education was directed by his father, a learned man and secretary of the republic. Before he wa...
-Jean Jacques Marie Cyprien Victor Coste
Jean Jacques Marie Cyprien Victor Coste, a French naturalist, born at Castries, May 10, 1807. He is noted for his researches in embryology, and for his efforts in behalf of the propagation of fishes i...
-Jean Jacques Pradier
Jean Jacques Pradier, a French sculptor, born in Geneva, May 23, 1792, died near Paris, June 4, 1852. He belonged to a family which had left France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, was sen...
-Jean Jacques Regis De Cambaceres
Jean Jacques Regis De Cambaceres, a French statesman, born at Montpellier, Oct. 18, 1753, died in Paris, March 8, 1824. He was educated for the bar, and at the opening of the revolution was sent as me...
-Jean Jacques Rousseau
Jean Jacques Rousseau, a French author, born in Geneva, June 28, 1712, died at Erme-nonville, near Paris, July 2, 1778. He was descended from a family of Paris booksellers and Protestant refugees. His...
-Jean Joinville
Jean Joinville, sire de, a French chronicler, born in the chateau of Joinville, Champagne, about 1224, died about 1319. He was of an illustrious family, and early became seneschal to Thibaut IV., king...
-Jean Lafitte
Jean Lafitte, a corsair, privateer, or smuggler of Louisiana and the gulf of Mexico, born in France, either at St. Malo, Marseilles, or Bordeaux, about 1780, died, according to some accounts, at sea i...
-Jean Lambert Tallien
Jean Lambert Tallien, a French revolutionist, born in Paris in 1769, died there in November, 1820. He was the son of the house steward of the marquis de Bercy, who gave him the means of a classical ed...
-Jean Lames
Jean Lames, duke of Montebello, a marshal of France, born at Lectoure, Guienne, April 11, 1769, died in Vienna, May 31, 1809. He was apprenticed at 15 years of age to a dyer, but in 1792 entered the a...
-Jean Le Clerc
Jean Le Clerc. See Le Clerc. Jean Le Clerc #1 Jean Le Clerc, a Protestant theologian, of French descent, born in Geneva, March 19, 1657, died in Amsterdam, Jan. 8, 1736. His ancestors had taken refu...
-Jean Louis Anne Madeleine Lefebvre De Cheveris
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-Jean Louis Armand De Quatrefages De Breu
Jean Louis Armand De Quatrefages De Breu, a French naturalist, born near Valleraugue,' department of Gard, Feb. 10, 1810. He graduated doctor in medicine and science at Stras-burg in 1829, published p...
-Jean Louis Baudelocque
Jean Louis Baudelocque, a French surgeon and accoucheur, born at Heilly, department of the Somme, in 1746, died May 1, 1810. He went to Paris at an early age, studied anatomy, surgery, and obstetrics,...
-Jean Louis Delolme
Jean Louis Delolme, a, Swiss author, born in the city of Geneva in 1740, died in the canton of Schwytz, July 16, 1806. Having published a pamphlet which gave umbrage to the authorities of his native c...
-Jean Louis Guez Balzac
Jean Louis Guez Balzac, seigneur de, a French writer, born in Angouleme in 1594, died at Balzac, Feb. 18, 1654. His father, a nobleman of Languedoc, and a favorite of Henry IV., assumed the name of De...
-Jean Luzac
Jean Luzac, a Dutch philologist, born in Leyden, Aug. 2, 1746, killed by an explosion of gunpowder in the port of Leyden, Jan. 12, 1807. He was of a French Protestant family, was educated for the bar ...
-Jean Mabillon
Jean Mabillon, a French author, born at St. Pierre-du-Mont, Champagne, Nov. 23, 1632, died in Paris, Dec. 27,1707. Having joined the Benedictines of St. Maur, he was chosen to assist Dom Jean d'Achery...
-Jean Mace
Jean Mace, a French author, born in Paris, April 22, 1815. He studied and taught at the Stanislas college, and subsequently was professor in other institutions. He was for some time in the army, until...
-Jean Marie Collot Dherbois
Jean Marie Collot D'Herbois, a French revolutionist, born in Paris about 1750, died in Cayenne, Jan. 8, 1796. His name was originally Collot, but having become an actor he adopted the additional name ...
-Jean Marie Gaspard Itard
Jean Marie Gaspard Itard, a French surgeon, born at Oraison, Provence, in 1775, died in Paris, July 5, 1838. At 18 he was appointed by the revolutionary committee surgeon of the military hospital of T...
-Jean Nicolas Billaud-Varenne
Jean Nicolas Billaud-Varenne, a French revolutionist, born at La Rochelle, April 23, 1756, died in Hayti, June 3, 1819. He was an advocate of Paris, and at the beginning of the revolution became consp...
-Jean Parisot De La Valette
See Valette. Jean Parisot De La Valette #1 Jean Parisot De La Valette, a grand master of the knights of Malta, born in 1494, died in Malta, Aug. 21, 1568. He belonged to an eminent family of Toulous...
-Jean Paul Marat
Jean Paul Marat, a French revolutionist, born of Protestant parents at Baudry, near Neufchatel, Switzerland, May 24, 1744, assas-sinated in Paris, July 13, 1793. He was educated as a phvsician; but th...
-Jean Pecquet
Jean Pecquet, a French anatomist, born in Dieppe about 1620, died in February, 1674. He studied at Montpellier, and while still a student made the most important anatomical discovery of his life, name...
-Jean Philibert Damiron
Jean Philibert Damiron, a French eclectic philosopher, born at Belleville, May 10, 1794, died in Paris, Jan. 11, 1862. A pupil of the normal school, he taught literature and philosophy in provincial c...
-Jean Picard
Jean Picard, a French astronomer, born in La Fleche, July 21, 1620, died in 1682. He assisted Gassendi in observing the solar eclipse of Aug. 25, 1645, was appointed in 1655 his successor in the chair...
-Jean Pierre Boyer
Jean Pierre Boyer, a mulatto general and president of Hayti, born in Port-au-Prince in February, 1776, died in Paris, July 9, 1850. He was educated in France, and on his return to Hayti joined the rev...
-Jean Pierre Brissot
Jean Pierre Brissot, a Girondist leader, sur-named De Warville after the village of Ouar-ville, near Chartres, where he was born, Jan. 14, 1754, died by the guillotine, Oct. 31, 1793. He had abandoned...
-Jean Pierre Gnillanme Pauthier
Jean Pierre Gnillanme Pauthier, a French sinologue, born in Besancon, Oct. 4,1801. His principal works are: Description Mstorique et geographique de la Chine (2 vols., Paris, 1837-'53); Quatre livres ...
-Jean Racine
Jean Racine, a French dramatist, born at La Ferté-Milon, Île-de-France, Dec. 21, 1639, died in Paris, April 22, 1699. He studied at the college of Beauvais, at Port Royal, and at the college of Harcou...
-Jean Rapp
Jean Rapp, a French general, born in Colmar in April, 1772, died in Paris, Nov. 8, 1821. He entered the French army as a private in 1788, distinguished himself during the wars of the revolution, and w...
-Jean Ribault
Jean Ribault, a French navigator, born in Dieppe, killed in Florida in 1565. When Admiral Coligni had obtained from Charles IX. a patent authorizing him to send an expedition to Florida, two vessels u...
-Jean Siffrein Maury
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-Jean Svlvain Bailly
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-Jean Victor Audouin
Jean Victor Audouin, a French entomologist, born in Paris, April 27, 1797, died Nov. 9, 1841. He married the daughter of Alexandre Brongniart, with whom and with Dumas he established in 1824 the Annat...
-Jean Victor Moreau
Jean Victor Moreau, a French general, born at Morlaix, Aug. 11, 1763, died at Laun, Bohemia, Sept. 2, 1813. He studied law at Rennes, and in 1787 was made provost of the school. He supported the parli...
-Jean Victor Poncelet
Jean Victor Poncelet, a French geometrician, born in Metz, July 1, 1788, died in December, 1867. He studied at the polytechnic school, and served as a lieutenant of engineers in the Russian campaign o...
-Jeanne Antoinette Poisson Pompadour
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson Pompadour, marchioness de, mistress of Louis XV., born in Paris, Dec. 29, 1721, died in Versailles, April 15, 1764. She was the natural daughter of a butcher. Her mother gave...
-Jeanne De Luz De St. Remy Lamotte-Valois
Jeanne De Luz De St. Remy Lamotte-Valois, countess de, a French adventuress, born in Champagne about 1756, died in London, Aug. 23, 1791. After marrying a count de Lamotte, who was a spendthrift, she ...
-Jeanne Franchise Fremiot Chantal
Jeanne Franchise Fremiot Chantal, baroness de, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born at Dijon in 1572, died at Moulins in 1641. She was the daughter of a president of the Dijon parliament, and ea...
-Jeanne Francoise Julie Adelaide Recamier
Jeanne Francoise Julie Adelaide Recamier, a French leader of society, born in Lyons, Dec. 4, 1777, died in Paris, May 11, 1849. Her father was M. Bernard, a banker, connected with the postal service; ...
-Jeanne Lonise Henriette Genest Campan
Jeanne Lonise Henriette Genest Campan, a French teacher, born in Paris, Oct. 6, 1752, died at Nantes in .1822. She was appointed reader to the daughters of Louis XV. when only 15 years old, and after ...
-Jeanne Marie Bouvier De La Motte Guyon
Jeanne Marie Bouvier De La Motte Guyon, a French mystical writer, born in Montargis, April 13, 1648, died in Blois, June 9, 1717. She was the daughter of Claude Bouvier, seigneur de La Motte Vergouvil...
-Jeanne Marie Ignaee Therese Chimay
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-Jebail, Or Jebeil
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-Jebel Shomer
See Shomer. Jebel Shomer #1 Jebel Shomer, an inland division of Arabia, between lat. 25 40' and 32 N, and Ion. 37 20' and 47 20' E., bounded N bythe Syrian desert, N. E. by Irak ...
-Jedburgh
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-Jeddah, Or Djeddah Jiddah
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-Jedidiah Buxton
Jedidiah Buxton, an English calculator, born at Elmton, Derbyshire, in 1705, died about 1775. He could not write, but possessed great facility in performing mental arithmetical calculations. He seemed...
-Jefferson
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-Jefferson C Davis
Jefferson C Davis, an American soldier, born in Clark co., Indiana, March 2, 1828. At the beginning of the Mexican war he enlisted in Col. Lane's Indiana regiment, and was promoted in 1848 to second l...
-Jefferson City
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-Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis, an American soldier and statesman, born June 3, 1808, in that part of Christian co., Ky., which now forms Todd county. Soon after his birth his father removed to Mississippi, and sett...
-Jeffersonia
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-Jeffersonville
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-Jeffries Wyman
Jeffries Wyman, an American comparative anatomist, born in Chelmsford, Mass., Aug. 11, 1814, died in Bethlehem, N. II., Sept. 4, 1874. His father, Rufus Wyman, was the first physician of the McLean as...
-Jehoshaphat
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-Jehovah
Jehovah (Yehovah), the Hebrew name of the Supreme Being. The pronunciation and derivation of this name are matters of controversy. The Jews of later periods, either from religious awe, or from a misun...
-Jehudi Ashmun
Jehudi Ashmun, agent of the American colonization society, born in Champlain, N. Y., in April, 1794, died in New Haven, Conn., Aug. 25, 1828. He graduated at Burlington college in 1816, and after prep...
-Jelf
I. Richard William, an English clergyman, born in London in 1798, died in Oxford, Sept. 19, 1871. He graduated at Oxford in 1820, was elected fellow of Oriel college, and became tutor. In 1826 he was ...
-Jelly Fish
Jelly Fish, the popular name of the aca-lephan class of radiated animals, or medusae including the orders hydroidae, discophorae, and ctenophorae. The body is transparent and jelly-like, disk-shaped, ...
-Jemmapes, Or Gemappe
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-Jena
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-Jequitinhonha
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-Jerboa
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-Jeremiah
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-Jeremiah Day
Jeremiah Day, president of Yale college, born in New Preston, Conn., Aug. 3, 1773, died in New Haven, Aug. 22, 1867. He entered Yale college in 1789, but on account of infirm health was not able to go...
-Jeremiah Mason
Jeremiah Mason, an American lawyer, born in Lebanon, Conn., April 27, 1768, died in Boston, Oct. 14, 1848. His father, Col. Jeremiah Mason, was an officer in the revolutionary armv, and commanded a co...
-Jeremy Belknap
Jeremy Belknap, D. D., an American clergyman and historian, born in Boston, June 4, 1744, died there, June 20,1798. He graduated at Harvard college in 1762, and, after teaching school four years, was ...
-Jeremy Bentham
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-Jeremy Collier
Jeremy Collier, an English nonjuring clergyman, born at Stow Qui, Cambridgeshire, Sept. 23, 1650, died in London, April 26, 1726. He was educated at Caius college, Cambridge, and became successively c...
-Jeremy Taylor
Jeremy Taylor, an English theologian, born in Cambridge in 1613, died at Lisburn, Ireland, Aug. 13, 1667. His father was a barber and surgeon, and he was educated as a sizar at Cambridge, but obtained...
-Jerez (Or Xerez) De La Frontera (Anc. Asta Regia)
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-Jericho
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-Jeroboam
I. Founder of the kingdom of Israel, son of Nebat, of the tribe of Ephraim, died about 953 B. C. He was selected by Solomon to be a superintendent of the public works at Jerusalem. Informed by the pro...
-Jerome Girolamo Cardano (Cardan)
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-Jerome Of Prague
Jerome Of Prague, a Bohemian religious reformer, born in Prague about 1375, burned at Constance, May 30,1416. After graduating at Prague he visited the universities of Cologne, Heidelberg, Paris, and ...
-Jerome Petion Or Pethion (De Villeveuve)
Jerome Petion Or Pethion (De Villeveuve), a French revolutionist, born in Chartres in 1753, died near St. Emilion, Gironde, in June, 1794. He was a lawyer at Chartres, and in 1789 was elected deputy t...
-Jeronimo Lobo
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-Jersey
Jersey, a W. county of Illinois, bounded W. by Illinois river, and separated from Missouri on the S. by the Mississippi; area, 352 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,054. The surface is diversified with prairie...
-Jersey City
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-Jerusalem
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-Jerusalem Cherry
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-Jesse Ames Spencer
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-Jesse Buel
Jesse Buel, an American agriculturist, born at Coventry, Conn., Jan. 4, 1778, died at Danbury, Oct. 6, 1839. He learned the trade of a printer, and in 1813 went to Albany, N. Y., and established the ...
-Jesse Duncan Elliott
Jesse Duncan Elliott, an American naval officer, born in Maryland, July 14, 1782, died in Philadelphia, Dec. 18, 1845. He entered the service as a midshipman in April, 1804, and was promoted to a lieu...
-Jesse L Williams
Jesse L Williams, an American civil engineer, born in Stokes co., N. C, May 6, 1807. His family removed to Cincinnati in 1814. He was one of the engineers detailed to make the preliminary survey for t...
-Jesse Lee
Jesse Lee, the Apostle of Methodism in New England, born in Prince George co., Va., March 12, 1758, died in Baltimore, Sept. 12, 1816. At the age of 19 he removed to North Carolina, and in 1779 he ...
-Jesuits, Or Society Of Jesus
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-Jesus Christ
Jesus Christ the Greek form of the Hebrew Jeshua or Joshua, help of Jehovah, saviour; the Greek translation of the Hebrew Messiah, the anointed), the founder of the Christian religion, born in Bet...
-Jeypoor
I. A Rajpoot native state of India, between lat. 25 40' and 27 37' N, and Ion. 75 8' and 77 20' E.; area, 15,000 sq. m.; pop. about 1,500,000. The surface is level excepting N. and...
-Jhansi
Jhansia town of India, in the Northwest Provinces, capital of a small state of the same name, annexed to the British possessions in 1854,120 S. S. E. of Agra. It is a walled town, having a circuit of ...
-Jhylum Jailum, Or Jelum
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-Jnan Alvarez Y Mendizabal
Jnan Alvarez Y Mendizabal, a Spanish financier, born in Cadiz about 1790, died in Madrid, Nov. 3, 1853. He was the son of a trader of Jewish descent named Mendez, and in 1808 obtained employment in th...
-Jnan Diaz De Solis
Jnan Diaz De Solis, a Spanish navigator, born in the latter half of the 15th century, killed in South America in 1516. In conjunction with Yanez Pinzon, he discovered Yucatan in 1506. In 1508 they uni...
-Jnles Angnste Armand Marie Polignac
Jnles Angnste Armand Marie Polignac, prince de, a French statesman, born in Versailles, May 14, 1780, died in Paris, March 2, 1847^ He was a son of the duchess de Polignac, the favorite of Marie Antoi...
-Jnles Bastide
Jnles Bastide, a French publicist and politician, born in Paris, Nov. 22, 1800. The son of a man of business, he became a timber merchant after having studied law, and participated in many revolutiona...
-Jnles Oppert
Jnles Oppert, a French orientalist, born in Hamburg, of Jewish parents, July 9, 1825. He received a classical education, studied law at Heidelberg, and Sanskrit and Arabic at Bonn. He next studied the...
-Jnlien Joseph Virey
Jnlien Joseph Virey, a French physician, born at Hortes, Champagne, in November, 1775, died in Paris, March 29, 1846. He was educated at Langres, and studied in the hospital of Val de Grace at Paris, ...
-Joab
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-Joachim Heinrieh Campe
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-Joachim Lelewel
Joachim Lelewel, a Polish historian, born in Warsaw, March 20, 1786, died in Brussels, May 29, 1861. He studied history at Wilna, and was appointed professor of history at Kre-menetz in Volhynia, and ...
-Joachim Murat
Joachim Murat, a French soldier, and king of Naples, born at La Bastide-Fortuniere, near Cahors, March 25, 1771, executed in Calabria, in the night of Oct. 13-14, 1815. He was the son of an innkeeper,...
-Joachimisthal
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-Joan Baptiste Carpeaux
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-Joan Mariana
Joan Mariana, a Spanish historian, born in Talavera in 1536, died in Toledo, Feb. 6, 1623. He was educated at the university of Alcala, and when 17 years of age joined the society of Jesus. In 1561 he...
-Joan Of Arc
Joan Of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc), known as La Pucelle and the Maid of Orleans, a French heroine, born at Domremy (now called from her Domremy-la-Pucelle), in Lorraine, about 1411, burned at the stake in R...
-Joanna
I. Queen of Naples, daughter of Charles, duke of Calabria, and granddaughter of Robert of Anjou, born about 1327, put to death at the fortress of Muro, in the province of Ba-silicata, May 22, 1382. An...
-Joanna Baillie
Joanna Baillie, a Scottish poet, born at Both well, Lanarkshire, in 1702, died at Hamp-stead, near London, Feb. 23, 1851. Her father, a Presbyterian clergyman, who afterward became professor of divini...
-Joanna Southcott
Joanna Southcott, an English religious enthusiast, born at Gittisham, Devonshire, about 1750, died in London, Dec. 27, 1814. Until nearly 40 years of age she was a domestic servant, and for some years...
-Joao Carlos Saldanha Oliveira E Daun
Joao Carlos Saldanha Oliveira E Daun, duke of, a Portuguese statesman, born in Lisbon, Nov. 17, 1791. His mother was a daughter of Pombal. He studied at Coimbra, and at an early age was a member of th...
-Joao De Castro
Joao De Castro, a Portuguese naval hero and explorer, born in Lisbon in February, 1500, died in Goa, June 6, 1548. He belonged to an ancient family, and early became proficient in mathematics, having ...
-Joaqnin Baldomero Espartero
Joaqnin Baldomero Espartero, duke de la Vitoria, a Spanish soldier, born at Granatula, near Ciudad Real, Feb. 27, 1792. He is the son of a wheelwright, and was intended for the church, but in 1808 ent...
-Joaqnin Miller
Joaqnin Miller, an American poet, whose real name is Cincinnatus Heine Miller, born in Indiana. Nov. 10, 1841. When he was about 11 years old his father emigrated to Lane county, Oregon, whence the bo...
-Job's Tears
Job's Tears, the fruit of a grass which has long been in use in Catholic countries for the beads of rosaries. This grass, coix lachryma, is a native of the East Indies, and was formerly treated as a g...
-Jobann Georg Von Zimmermann
Jobann Georg Von Zimmermann, a Swiss author, born at Brugg, canton of Bern, Dec. 8, 1728, died in Hanover, Oct. 7, 1795. He was educated at the university of Göttingen, pursuing under the direction of...
-Jodah Peter Benjamin
Jodah Peter Benjamin, an American lawyer and senator, born in Santo Domingo in 1812, of Jewish parents, who emigrated to Savannah in 1816. He entered Yale college in 1825, but left without graduating....
-Joel
Joel, the second of the twelve Hebrew minor prophets, son of Pethuel. By some critics he is supposed to have prophesied in the reign of Uzziah, between about 800 and 780 B. C.; while according to Cred...
-Joel Barlow
Joel Barlow, an American poet and politician, born at Reading, Conn., in 1755, died near Cracow, Poland, Dec. 22, 1812. He was educated at Dartmouth and Yale colleges, and during his latter vacations ...
-Joel Mtnsell
Joel Mtnsell, an American printer, born in Northfield, Mass., April 14, 1808. He went to Albany in 1827, edited and published the Albany Minerva in 1828, and was publisher and editor of the New Y...
-Joel Roberts Poinsett
Joel Roberts Poinsett, an American statesman, born in Charleston, S. C, March 2,1779, died in Statesburg, S. C, in December, 1851. He studied medicine and the natural sciences at the university of Edi...
-Joel T. Hart
Joel T. Hart, an American sculptor, born in Clark co., Ky., about 1810. His education was restricted to a quarter's schooling, but he read diligently all the books that he could obtain. In 1830 he ent...
-Joel Tyler Headley
Joel Tyler Headley, an American author, born in Walton, Delaware co., N. Y., Dec. 30, 1814. He graduated at Union college in 1839, studied at Auburn theological seminary, and was pastor for two years ...
-Johan Baner
Johan Baner, a Swedish general, born near Stockholm, June 23, 1595, died in Halberstadt, May 10, 1641. His father, one of the councillors of Charles IX., gave that king some offence, and was executed ...
-Johann (Popularly Known As Pomeranus Or Dr Bugenhagen
Johann (Popularly Known As Pomeranus Or Dr Bugenhagen. Pommer), a German reformer, born at Wollin, near Stettin, June 24, 1485, died in Wittenberg, April 20, 1558. He was principal of the Treptow scho...
-Johann Albrecht Bengel
Johann Albrecht Bengel, a German theologian, born at Winnenden, Wi'irtemberg, June 24, 1087, died December 2, 1752. He distinguished himself at Tubingen as a Greek scholar, early exhibited a predilect...
-Johann August Wilhelm Neander
Johann August Wilhelm Neander, a German church historian, born in Gottingen, Jan. 17, 1789, died in Berlin, July 14, 1850. His original name was David Mendel. His father was I a Jewish peddler; his mo...
-Johann Baptist Baltzer
Johann Baptist Baltzer, a German Roman Catholic theologian, bora at Andernach, July 16, 1808, died in Bonn, Oct. 1, 1871. He left the university of Bonn in 1827, was ordained in Cologne in 1829, recei...
-Johann Bernhard Basedow
Johann Bernhard Basedow, a German reformer of education, born in Hamburg in September, 1723, died in Magdeburg, July 25, 1790. He was the son of a wig maker, and a pupil in the Hamburg gymnasium, wher...
-Johann Christoph Friedrich Von Schiller
Johann Christoph Friedrich Von Schiller, a German poet, born at Marbach, Würtemberg, Nov. 10, 1759, died in Weimar, May 9, 1805. He attended a Latin school at Ludwigsburg, to which town his parents ha...
-Johann Elert Bode
Johann Elert Bode, a German astronomer, born in Hamburg, Jan. 19,1747, died in Berlin, Nov. 23, 1826. While a boy he made a telescope for himself, and converted his father's garret into an observatory...
-Johann Franz Encke
Johann Franz Encke, a German astronomer, born in Hamburg, Sept. 23, 1791, died in Span-dau, Aug. 26, 1865. He studied under Gauss at the university of Gottingen, served in the Hanseatic legion against...
-Johann Friedrich Blimenbath
Johann Friedrich Blimenbath, a German naturalist, born at Gotha, May 11, 1752, died in Gottingen, Jan. 22, 1840. His father wr.s a teacher. His love of science was first kindled when he was only 10 ye...
-Johann Friedrich Cartheiser
Johann Friedrich Cartheiser, a German physician and naturalist, born at Hayn, Sept. 29, 1704, died at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, June 22, 1777. He studied medicine first at Jena and afterward at Halle, wh...
-Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach
Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach, a German surgeon, born in Konigsberg, Feb. 1, 1792, died in Berlin, Nov. 11, 1847. He was the son of a professor of theology, and at first devoted himself to that study, ...
-Johann Friedrich Herbart
Johann Friedrich Herbart, a German philosopher, born in Oldenburg, May 4, 1776, died in Gottingen, Aug. 14, 1841. At an early age ho acquired a knowledge of the philosophical systems of Wolf and Kant,...
-Johann Friedrich Schulte
Johann Friedrich Schulte, a German theologian, born at Wlnterberg, Westphalia, April 23, 1827. He graduated at the university of Berlin in 1851, and practised law in Berlin, Arns-berg, and Bonn. In 18...
-Johann Gaspar Spirzheim
Johann Gaspar Spirzheim, a German phrenologist, born at Longwich, near Treves, Dec. 31, 1776, died in Boston, Mass., Nov. 10, 1832. In 1795 the French invasion interrupted his studies at the universit...
-Johann Georg Busch
Johann Georg Busch, a German philanthropist and writer on statistics and commerce, born at Alten-Weding in Hanover, Jan. 8, 1728, died Aug. 5, 1800. He was educated at Hamburg and Gottingen, and in 17...
-Johann Georg Kohl
Johann Georg Kohl, a German traveller and author, born in Bremen, April 28, 1808. He was educated at Gottingen, Heidelberg, and Munich, and after serving five years as a private tutor in Courland, a v...
-Johann Gerhard Oncken
Johann Gerhard Oncken, a German missionary, born at Varel, Oldenburg, about 1800. During his early life he was a domestic servant. After reaching manhood he visited England, where he married, and subs...
-Johann Gottfried Eichhorn
Johann Gottfried Eichhorn, a German scholar, born at Doren-zimmern, in the principality of Hohenlohe-Oehringen. Oct. 16, 1752, died in Gottingen, June 25,1827. He studied theology at Gottingen, in 177...
-Johann Gottfried Jakob Hermann
Johann Gottfried Jakob Hermann, a German philologist, born in Leipsic, Nov. 28,1772, died Dec. 31, 1848. After studying law and philology at Leipsic and Jena, he began to lecture on ancient literature...
-Johann Gottfried Kinkel
Johann Gottfried Kinkel, a German poet and patriot, born at Oberkassel, Aug. 11, 1815. The son of a clergyman, he studied theology and afterward philosophy, and particularly the history of art, holdin...
-Johann Gottfried Ludwig Kosegarten
Johann Gottfried Ludwig Kosegarten, a German orientalist, son of the poet Ludwig Theo-bul Kosegarten, born in Altenkirchen, Sept. 10, 1792, died in Greifswald, Aug. 18, 1860. He went to Paris in 1812 ...
-Johann Gottfried Von Herder
Johann Gottfried Von Herder, a German author, born at Mohrungen, Aug. 25, 1744, died in Weimar, Dec. 18, 1803. He was the son of a schoolmaster and chorister, and became the amanuensis of a clergyman ...
-Johann Gottlieb Buhle
Johann Gottlieb Buhle, a German philosopher, born in Brunswick in 1763, died in 1821. When only 18 years old he delivered a course of lectures on the history and literature of philosophy; and at the a...
-Johann Gustav Droysen
Johann Gustav Droysen, a German historian, born at Treptow, Pomerania, July 6, 1808. He studied at Stettin and at Berlin, and between 1829 and 1840 was a teacher at a gymnasium in the latter city, and...
-Johann Gutenberg, Or Henne
Johann Gutenberg, Or Henne, the reputed inventor of printing, born in Mentz, Germany, about 1400, died there, Feb. 24, 1468. His father's name was Gensfleisch or Gansfleisch, Gutenberg being the name ...
-Johann Halbig
Johann Halbig, a German sculptor, born at Donnersdorf, Bavaria, July 13, 1814. He was educated in the academy of Munich, and became professor of statuary there. Since 1835 he has executed the group of...
-Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke
Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke, a German author, born in Magdeburg, March 22, 1771, died at Biberstein, Switzerland, June 27, 1848. He escaped from the gymnasium in 1788 to join a company of strollin...
-Johann Heinrich Hottinger
Johann Heinrich Hottinger, a Swiss philologist, born in Zurich, March 10, 1620, drowned June 5, 1667. He studied at Groningen, and afterward at Leyden. In 1642 he became professor of church history in...
-Johann Heinrich Madler
Johann Heinrich Madler, a German astronomer, born in Berlin, May 29, 1794, died in Hanover, March 14, 1874. He gained a high reputation as teacher in the principal normal schools in Berlin. In 1829, i...
-Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, a Swiss teacher, born in Zurich, Jan. 12, 1746, died in Brugg, Feb. 17, 1827. He was naturally feeble, and grew up awkward and clumsy, His education was meagre, especially ...
-Johann Heinrich Voss
Johann Heinrich Voss, a German scholar, born at Sommersdorf, Mecklenburg, Feb. 20, 1751, died in Heidelberg in March, 1826. He became in 1769 a private tutor, and in 1772 went to Gottingen as associat...
-Johann Heinrich Wichern
Johann Heinrich Wichern, a German philanthropist, born in Hamburg, April 21, 1808. He studied theology at Göttingen and Berlin. In 1833 he founded at Horn, near Hamburg, a reformatory for vagrant chil...
-Johann Heinrieh Von Dannecker
Johann Heinrieh Von Dannecker, a German sculptor, born at Waldenbuch, near Stuttgart, Oct. 15, 1758, died in Stuttgart, Dec. 8, 1841. His father was groom to the duke of Wiirtem-berg, and Dannecker gr...
-Johann Heiurich Lambert
Johann Heiurich Lambert, a German philosopher, born in Muhlhausen, Alsace, Aug. 29, 1728, died in Berlin, Sept. 25, 1777. He was the son of a poor tailor, and was chiefly self-educated. He was at firs...
-Johann Jacoby
Johann Jacoby, a German publicist of Jewish descent, born in Konigsberg, May 1, 1805. He studied medicine at Konigsberg, Berlin, and Heidelberg, and became a distinguished physician in his native city...
-Johann Jakob Dillenius
Johann Jakob Dillenius, a German botanist, born in Darmstadt in 1687, died in Oxford, April 2, 1747. His grandfather was called Dill and his father Dillen, which the son Latinized into Dillenius. He s...
-Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse
Johann Jakob Wilhelm Heinse, a German author, born at Langewiesen, Schwarzburg-Son-dershausen, about 1749, died in Mentz, July 22, 1803. His first publication was a very free translation of Petronius ...
-Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, a German archaeologist, born in Stendal, Prussia, Dec. 9, 1717, murdered in Trieste, June 8, 1768. He was the son of a poor shoemaker, and struggled with adversity while pu...
-Johann Karl August Musics
Johann Karl August Musics, a German author, born in Jena in 1735, died in Weimar, Oct. 28, 1787. He studied theology, and was a candidate for a rural parish, but his services were declined on account ...
-Johann Karl Eduard Buschmam
Johann Karl Eduard Buschmam, a German philologist, born in Magdeburg, Feb. 14, 1805. He studied in Berlin under Bockh, Wolf, and Hegel, and at Gottingen under Bopp. In 1827-'8 he was a tutor in Mexico...
-Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz
Johann Karl Friedrich Rosenkranz, a German philosopher, born in Magdeburg, April 23, 1805. He graduated at Halle in 1828, and was professor there from 1831 to 1833, and subsequently at Königsberg. He ...
-Johann Kaspar Blintschli
Johann Kaspar Blintschli, a German jurist and statesman, born in Zurich, Switzerland, March 7, 1808. He studied under Savigny at Berlin and under Niebuhr at Bonn, where he graduated in 1829. He was em...
-Johann Kaspar Lavater
Johann Kaspar Lavater, a Swiss mystic and physiognomist, born in Zurich, Nov. 15, 1741, died there, Jan. 2, 1801. He was the son of a physician, a timid, sensitive, imaginative boy, with an aversion t...
-Johann Konrad Dippel
Johann Konrad Dippel, a German mystic and rationalist, born at the castle of Frankenstein, Hesse, Aug. 10, 1073, died at Berleburg, April 25, 1734. He was the son of a elergyman, and at an early age s...
-Johann Ludwig Burckhardt
Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, a Swiss traveller, born in Lausanne, Nov. 24, 1784, died in Cairo, Oct. 17, 1817. After studying at Leipsic and Gottingen, he went to England in July, 1806, where an introduc...
-Johann Ludwig Heiberg
Johann Ludwig Heiberg, a Danish author, born in Copenhagen, Dec. 14, 1791, died there, Aug. 25, 1860. He entered the university in his native city in 1809 to study medicine, but in 1814 gave that up a...
-Johann Ludwig Uhland
Johann Ludwig Uhland, a German poet, born in Tubingen, April 26, 1787, died there, Nov. 13, 1862. He graduated in law at Tubingen in 1810, and from 1812 to 1814 practised at Stuttgart in connection wi...
-Johann Martin Lappenberg
Johann Martin Lappenberg, a German historian, born in Hamburg, July 30, 1794, died Nov. 28, 1865. The son of a physician, he was sent to study medicine at Edinburgh, but applied himself to historical ...
-Johann Mcolaus Von Hontheim
Johann Mcolaus Von Hontheim, a German jurisconsult, born in Treves, Jan. 27, 1701, died at Montquintin in Luxemburg, Sept. 2, 1790. He was educated at the Jesuit school in Treves, studied jurisprudenc...
-Johann Nepomnk Huber
Johann Nepomnk Huber, a German theologian, born in Munich, Aug. 18, 1830. He graduated at the university of Munich in 1854, and became professor in 1859. His Philosophie der Kirchenvater (Munich, 1859...
-Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Johann Nepomuk Hummel, a German composer, born in Presburg, Hungary, Nov. 17, 1778, died at Weimar, Oct. 17,1837. At seven years of age he showed so much talent that Mozart assumed the direction of hi...
-Johann Nikolai Madvig
Johann Nikolai Madvig, a Danish philologist, born at Svanike, in the island of Bornholm, Aug. 7, 1804. He completed his education at the university of Copenhagen, where in 1829 he was appointed profes...
-Johann Paul Friedrich Richter
Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, popularly known as Jean Paul, a German author, born at Wunsiedel, near Baireuth, March 21, 1763, died in Baireuth, Nov. 14, 1825. He studied in the gymnasium at Hof and ...
-Johann Peter Laage
Johann Peter Laage, a German theologian, born at Sonnborn, near Elberfeld, April 10, 1802. Of humble origin, he seized occasional advantages for study, spent a year and a half at the gymnasium of Duss...
-Johann Reinhold Patkul
Johann Reinhold Patkul, a Livonian patriot, born in a prison at Stockholm about 1660, executed at Kazimierz, near Posen, Oct. 10, 1707. He first served as a captain in the Swedish army. In 1689 he was...
-Johann Reuchlin (Hellenized Into Capnio)
Johann Reuchlin (Hellenized Into Capnio), a German scholar, born in Pforzheim in 1455 (Feb. 22, according to Geiger), died in Stuttgart, June 30, 1522. On account of the sweetness of his voice he was ...
-Johann Salomo Semler
Johann Salomo Semler, a German theologian, born in Saalfeld, Dec. 18, 1725, died in Halle, March 14, 1791. He studied at Halle, and in 1750 became editor of the Coburger Zeitung, in 1751 professor of ...
-Johann Samuel Ersch
Johann Samuel Ersch, a German cyclopaedist, born at Glogau, in Prussian Silesia, June 23, 1766, died in Halle, Jan. 16, 1828. He was educated in the universities of Halle and Jena, and was afterward c...
-Johann Tauler
Johann Tauler, a German mystic, born probably in Strasburg in 1290, died there, June 16, 1361. At the age of 18 he renounced a fortune to enter the Dominican cloister. After studying the scholastic th...
-Johann Tserclaes Tilly
Johann Tserclaes Tilly, count, a German soldier, born in the castle of Tilly, Brabant, in February, 1559, died in Ingolstadt, April 20 (O. S.), 1632. He was educated at a college of Jesuits, first ser...
-Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe, a German author, born in Frankfort-on-the-Main, Aug. 28, 1749, died in Weimar, March 22, 1832. His father, Johann Kaspar Goethe, the son of a tailor of Frankfort, had raise...
-Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms, a German pianist and composer, born in Hamburg, March 7,1833, where his father was a player on the double bass. He was placed at the age of 12 under the instruction of Edward Marxsen,...
-Johannes Cantacuzenus
Johannes Cantacuzenus, a Byzantine emperor and historian, born in Constantinople in the beginning of the 14th century. During the reign of Andronicus II. he was great domestic, or first lord of the...
-Johannes Capistranus
Johannes Capistranus, an Italian monk, born at Capistrano, in the Abruzzi, June 24, 1386, died near Belgrade, Oct. 23, 1456. Having acquired distinction as a jurisconsult, he was employed in the servi...
-Johannes Carsten Von Hauch
Johannes Carsten Von Hauch, a Danish poet, born in Frederikshald, Norway, May 12, 1791, died in Rome, March 4, 1872. He graduated at the university of Christiania in 1821, travelled in France and Ital...
-Johannes Cassianus
Johannes Cassianus, a founder of monastic institutions, believed to have been born about 350, and to have died in Marseilles about 433. According to other accounts, he was a native of Greece, born abo...
-Johannes Dumichen
Johannes Dumichen, a German Egyptologist, born at Wissholz, Silesia, Oct. 15, 1833. He studied at the university of Berlin, went several times to Egypt, and each time made valuable discoveries relatin...
-Johannes Hendrik Scholten
Johannes Hendrik Scholten, a Dutch theologian, born at Vleuten, near Utrecht, Aug. 17, 1811. He was minister at Meerkerk from 1838 to 1840, and afterward professor of theology at the Athenaeum of Fran...
-Johannes Muller
Johannes Muller, a German physiologist, born in Coblentz, July 14, 1801, died in Berlin, April 28, 1858. He was the son of a poor shoemaker, and was about to be apprenticed to a saddler when his talen...
-Johannes Scherr
Johannes Scherr, a German author, born at Hohenrechberg, Würtemberg, Oct. 3, 1817. He graduated at Tübingen in 1840, and with his brother Thomas Ignaz, a prominent educator, conducted a school at Wint...
-Johannes Von Miller
Johannes Von Miller, a Swiss historian, born in Schaffhausen, Jan. 3, 1752, died in Cassel, May 29, 1809. He completed his studies at Gottingen, where Schlozer diverted his attention from theol...
-Johaun Kepler
A German astronomer, born at Magstatt, near Weil, Wurtemberg, Dec. 27, 1571, died in Ratisbon, Nov. 15, 1630. He was a sickly child, and during his whole life suffered periodically from fevers and oth...
-John
John, the name of 23 popes, of whom the following are the most important. I. John I., Saint, born in Siena about 470, died in Rome, May 27, 526. He was a cardinal priest when he succeeded Hormisdas, A...
-John (2)
John, king of England, third sovereign of the house of Plantagenet, and fourth son of Henry II. and Eleanor of Aquitaine, born in Oxford, Dec. 24, 1166, died Oct. 19, 1216. The surname of Lackland (Sa...
-John (3)
John (Johann Nepomuk Maria Joseph), king of Saxony, born in Dresden, Dec. 12, 1801, died there, Oct. 29,1873. He was the youngest son of Duke Maximilian of Saxony and the princess Carolina of Parma. A...
-John Adams Dix
John Adams Dix, an American soldier and politician, born in Boscawen, X. II., July 24, 1798. During the war of 1812-15 he served on the frontier with the rank of ensign and as adjutant of a battalion....
-John Amos Comenius
John Amos Comenius, a Czech, whose real name was Komensky, remarkable for his early attempts at reforming education, born at Kom-na in Moravia, March 28, 1592, died in Holland, Nov. 15, 1671. He studi...
-John Angell James
John Angell James, an English clergyman, born at Blandford, June 6, 1785, died in Birmingham, Oct. 1,1859. He was apprenticed to a draper, but was subsequently placed in the dissenting college at Gosp...
-John Anthony Quitman
John Anthony Quitman, an American politician, born in Rhinebeck, Dutchess co., N. Y., Sept. 1, 1799, died in Natchez, Miss., July 17, 1858. He studied law in Ohio, and in 1821 settled in Natchez, Miss...
-John Arthur Roebuck
John Arthur Roebuck, an English politician, born at Madras in December, 1802. From 1815 to 1824 he resided in Canada, and in 1832 he was admitted as a barrister in London. In the same year he was elec...
-John Augusta
John Augusta, a Bohemian theologian, born in Prague in 1500, died Jan. 13, 1575. He studied theology at the school of Waclaw Ko-randa. On the death of this master Augusta went to Wittenberg, and enter...
-John Augustus Originally Suter (Sutter)
John Augustus Originally Suter (Sutter), an American pioneer, born at Kandern, Baden,. Feb. 15, 1803. He graduated at Bern, Switzerland, as a military officer, and in 1834 emigrated to America, where ...
-John Augustus Roebling
John Augustus Roebling, an American engineer, born in Mühlhausen, Prussia, June 12, 1806, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., July 22, 1869. He was educated at the polytechnic school in Berlin, and emigrated to ...
-John Aylmer
John Aylmer, bishop of London, born at Tilney in Norfolk in 1521, died June 3, 1594. He was sent to Cambridge by the marquis of Dorset, afterward duke of Suffolk, but graduated in divinity at Oxford, ...
-John Ayrton Paris
John Ayrton Paris, an English physician, born in Cambridge, Ang. 7, 1785, died in London, Dec. 24, 1856. He graduated M. D. at Oaius college, Cambridge, in 1808, and in the same year engaged in the pr...
-John B. Hood
John B. Hood, an American soldier, born in Bath co., Ky., about 1830. He graduated at West Point in 1853, and was mainly engaged in frontier service in Texas till 1859. He was severely wounded in an e...
-John Bacon
John Bacon, an English sculptor, born at South wark, Nov. 24, 1740, died Aug. 7, 1799. He was apprenticed at an early age to a porcelain manufacturer, in whose employment he learned the art of paintin...
-John Baptist Purcell
John Baptist Purcell, an American archbishop, born in Mallow, Ireland, Feb. 26, 1800. He came to the United States at an early age, began his theological studies in Mount St. Mary's college, Emmettsbu...
-John Barbour
John Barbour, a Scottish poet and historian, born in Aberdeen about 1320, died about 1396. Little is known of his early life. He was appointed archdeacon of Aberdeen by David II. in 1356. He made two ...
-John Barclay
John Barclay, a Scottish anatomist, born in Perthshire in 1760, died in Edinburgh in 1826. He studied divinity at the united college of St. Andrews, was licensed as a preacher, visited Edinburgh as tu...
-John Barry
John Barry, an American naval officer, born at Tacumshane, county Wexford, Ireland, in 1745, died in Philadelphia, Sept. 13, 1803. He settled in Philadelphia about 1760, and acquired wealth as master ...
-John Bedford
John Bedford, Duke of, an English soldier and statesman, born about 1389, died in Rouen, France, Sept. 14, 1435. He was the third son of Henry IV. of England and of Mary de Bo-hun, daughter of the ear...
-John Bell
John Bell, a Scottish physician and traveller, born at Antermony, in the west of Scotland, in 1691, died July 1, 1780. At the age of 23 he received the degree of M. D., and went to St. Petersburg, whe...
-John Bell (2)
John Bell, an American lawyer and statesman, born near Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 18, 1797, died at Cumberland Iron Works, Tenn., Sept. 10, 1869. He was the son of a farmer in moderate circumstances, who ...
-John Benbow
John Benbow, an English admiral, born at Newport in 1650, died in Jamaica, Nov. 4, 1702. He was reared in the merchant service, and in a trip to the Mediterranean in 1686 he fought so desperately agai...
-John Berry Mcferrin
John Berry Mcferrin, an American clergyman, born in Rutherford co., Tenn., June 15, 1807. He received a common school education, and in 1826 joined the Tennessee conference of the Methodist Episcopal ...
-John Biddle
John Biddle, an English theologian, called the father of English Unitarians, born at Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, in 1615, died in London, Sept. 22, 1662. He was the son of a tradesman, was e...
-John Bigelow
John Bigelow, an American journalist and author, born at Maiden, Ulster county, N. Y., Nov. 25, 1817. He graduated at Union college in 1835, was admitted to the bar in New York city in 1839, became co...
-John Bodyier
John Bodyier, an American jurist, born at Codognan, France, in 1787, died in Philadelphia, Nov. 18, 1851. He was of a Quaker family, which emigrated to this country and settled in Philadelphia when he...
-John Boydell
John Boydell, an English engraver and print publisher, born Jan. 19, 1719, died in London in December, 1804. He was educated for the church, but apprenticed himself in 1740 for seven years to a London...
-John Bradshaw
John Bradshaw, president of the court which tried Charles I., born about 1590, died in 1659. He was made chief justice of Chester in 1647, and sergeant in 1648; and on Jan. 10, 1649, the commissioners...
-John Bradstreet
John Bradstreet, an English general, born in 1711, died in New York, Sept. 25, 1774. When a young officer he was ordered to join the British forces in America, and spent the remainder of his life ther...
-John Braham
John Braham, an English tenor singer, born of Jewish parents in London about 1774, died there, Feb. 17, 1856. He first appeared on the stage at the age of 12 years, and for more than half a century en...
-John Bright
John Bright, an English statesman, born at Greenbank, near Rochdale, Lancashire, Nov. 16, 1811. He is a member of the society of Friends, and head of a firm of cotton spinners and manufacturers in Roc...
-John Brougham
John Brougham, an Irish actor and playwright, born in Dublin, May 9, 1810. He was intended for the medical profession, but the prospect of a government clerkship took him to London, where, being disap...
-John Brown (2)
John Brown, a Scottish physician, founder of the Brunonian system, born in Berwickshire in 1735, died in London, Oct. 7, 1788. He was the son of a poor farmer, and was early apprenticed to a weaver; ...
-John Brown (3)
John Brown, an American officer, born at Sandisfield, Berkshire co., Mass., Oct. 19, 1744, died Oct. 19, 1780. He graduated at Yale college in 1771, and officiated as king's attorney at Caughnawaga, N...
-John Brown (4)
John Brown, an American abolitionist, born in Torrington, Conn., May 9, 1800, hanged at Charlestown, Va., Dec. 2, 1859. He was fifth in descent from Peter Brown, who landed at Plymouth, Mass., from th...
-John Bull
John Bull, the familiar name given to the English, not only by others but by themselves. It is generally used in a humorous sense, and is not always considered disparaging. The English seem to regard ...
-John Bulwer
John Bulwer, an English physician of the 17th century, author of several works on dactylology. Although he was not himself an instructor of deaf mutes, he was the first in England to indicate the prop...
-John Bunyan
John Bunyan, an English preacher, born at Elstow, near Bedford, in 1628, died in London, Aug. 81, 1688. His father was a tinker, and brought up his son to the same trade, giving him a very imperfect e...
-John Byng
John Byng, a British admiral, born in 1704, executed at Portsmouth, March 14, 1757. In 1756, Minorca being menaced by the French, Admiral Byng was appointed commander of a squadron consisting of 10 sh...
-John Byron
John Byron, an English admiral, born Nov. 8, 1723, died April 10, 1786. He was a midshipman on board the Wager, one of Lord Anson's circumnavigating squadron, was cast away on a desolate island off th...
-John Cabell Breckenridge
John Cabell Breckenridge, an American politician and soldier, born near Lexington, Ky., Jan. 21,1821. He was educated at Centre college, Danville, studied law at the Transylvania institute, and settle...
-John Cade
John Cade, known as Jack Cade, an English insurgent, born in Ireland, died July 11, 1450. He assumed the name of Mortimer, pretending to be a cousin of the dispossessed heir to the throne, the duke of...
-John Caius
John Caius, an English physician, founder of Caius college, Cambridge university, born at Norwich, Oct. 6, 1510, died in Cambridge, July 29, 1573. His name was Kaye or Key, which he Latinized into Cai...
-John Caldwell Calhoun
John Caldwell Calhoun, an American statesman, born in the Calhoun settlement, district of Abbeville, S. C, March 18, 1782, died at Washington, March 31,1850. His grandfather, James Calhoun, emigrated ...
-John Call Dalton
John Call Dalton, an American physiologist, born at Chelmsford, Mass., Feb. 2, 1825. He graduated in arts at Harvard college in 1844, and in medicine in 1847. He first attracted attention as an origin...
-John Calvin
John Calvin, one of the leaders of the reformation, born at Noyon, in northern France, July 10, 1509, died in Geneva, May 27, 1564. His father, Gerard Chauvin, or Cauvin (sometimes written Caulvin), w...
-John Cameron
John Cameron, a Scottish theologian, born at Glasgow about 1579, died at Montauban, France, about 1625. He was educated at the university of Glasgow, where at the age of 19 he lectured upon the Greek ...
-John Campbell
John Campbell, a political and historical writer, born in Edinburgh, March 8, 1708, died in London, Dec. 28, 1775. His parents removed to Windsor in his childhood. He was intended for the law, but bec...
-John Canton
John Canton, an English savant, born at Stroud, Gloucestershire, July 31, 1718, died March, 22, 1772. In March, 1737, he went to London, where he engaged as an assistant in the school in Spital square...
-John Carroll
John Carroll, an American prelate, born at Upper Marlborough, Md., in 1735, died Dec. 3, 1815. He was educated in the colleges of St. Omer and Liege, at the latter of which he was ordained a priest, a...
-John Carteret Granville
John Carteret Granville, earl, an English statesman, born in Bedfordshire, April 22, 1690, died Jan. 2, 1763. He was educated at Westminster school and at Oxford, and as Baron Carteret took his seat i...
-John Cartwright
John Cartwright, an English political reformer, elder brother of the preceding, born at Marnham in 1740, died Sept. 23, 1824. At the age of 18 he entered the navy, but at 35 was still a lieutenant. Me...
-John Cassin
John Cassin, an American ornithologist, born near Chester, Penn., Sept. 6, 1813, died Jan. 10, 1869. In 1834 he took up his residence in Philadelphia, and, excepting a few years partially given to mer...
-John Champe
John Champe, an American soldier, born in Loudon co., Va., in 1752, died in Kentucky near the close of the 18th century. He was selected from Gen. Lee's regiment, by request of Washington, to go to Ne...
-John Charles Peters
John Charles Peters, an American physician, born in New York, July 6, 1819. He studied in the medical department of Columbia college, and at Leipsic, Berlin, and Vienna, and began practice in New York...
-John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom, a bishop, doctor, and saint of the eastern church, born in Antioch, according to the best authorities, Jan. 14, 347, died Sept. 14, 407. His name was only John, the appellation Chryso...
-John Churchill Marlborough
John Churchill Marlborough, duke of, a British general, born at Ashe, in Devonshire, June 24, 1650, died in London, June 1G, 1722. He was the son of Sir Winston Churchill, a royalist of some note, who...
-John Clare
John Clare, an English poet, born at Help-stone, July 13, 1793, died at Northampton, May 19, 1864. He was the son of a poor farmer, and enjoyed very few advantages of early education, He began to writ...
-John Clarke
John Clarke, one of the founders of Rhode Island, born in England, Oct. 8, 1609, died at Newport, April 20,1676. He was a physician in London, and came to Massachusetts soon after its first settlement...
-John Clerk
John Clerk, a British naval tactician, born at Eldin, Scotland, about 1730, died in 1812. He was a country squire who studied naval science, and is said to have disclosed in 1771) his discovery of a n...
-John Coivolly
John Coivolly, an English physician and author, born at Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, in 1795, died at Han well, March 5, 1866. He graduated at the university of Edinburgh in 1821; was professor of medi...
-John Coleridge Patteson
John Coleridge Patteson, an English missionary bishop, born in London, April 1, 1827, killed by Melanesians near Santa Cruz, Sept. 20, 1871. He was educated at Balliol college, Oxford, was a fellow of...
-John Colet
John Colet, an English clergyman, born in London in 1466, died there, Sept. 16, 1519. He completed his education at Oxford, and afterward visited France and Italy. On returning to England he was ordai...
-John Conington
John Conington, an English author, born at Fishtoft, near Boston, Aug. 10, 1825, died there, Oct. 25, 1869. He knew his letters when he was fourteen months old, and could read for his own amusement at...
-John Cotton
John Cotton, one of the first ministers of Boston, Mass., born in Derby, Eng., Dec. 4, 1585, died in Boston, Dec. 23, 1652. In 1598 he entered Trinity college, Cambridge, and was afterward fellow of E...
-John Crookshanks King
John Crookshanks King, an American sculptor, born at Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland, Oct. 11, 1806. He was educated as a practical machinist, emigrated to the United States in 1829, and was employed f...
-John Culpeper
John Culpeper, an early political leader of the provinces of North and South Carolina, was a refugee from the southern or Clarendon colony, and in 1678 was the head of an insurrection in the northern ...
-John D. Gilmary Shea
John D. Gilmary Shea, an American author, born in New York, July 22, 1824. He was educated at the grammar school of Columbia college, and was admitted to the bar, but devoted himself to literature. He...
-John D. Godman
John D. Godman, an American naturalist, born in Annapolis, Md., Dec. 20, 1794, died in Germantown, Pa., April 17, 1830. He was apprenticed to a printer in Baltimore, but at the age of 20 enlisted in t...
-John Dalton
John Dalton, an English chemist, author of the atomic theory, and of that of the constitution of mixed gases, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth, in Cumberland, Sept. 5, 1766, died in Manchester, J...
-John Davenport
John Davenport, first minister at New Haven, Conn., born in Coventry, England, in 1598, died in Boston, Mass., March 15, 1670. He was educated at Oxford, and became an eminent preacher among the Purit...
-John Davis
John Davis, an English navigator, born at Sandridge, Devonshire, died Dec. 27, 1605. He distinguished himself by three voyages between 1585 and 1587 for the discovery of the northwest passage. In 1585...
-John De Kalb
John De Kalb, baron, a general in the American army of the revolution, born in Alsace about 1732, died near Camden, S. C, Aug. 19, 1780. He was trained in the French army, and in 1762 visited the Angl...
-John Dee
John Dee, an English astrologer, born in London, July 13, 1527, died at Mortlake in 1608. He was educated at St. John's college, Cambridge, and attained much proficiency in science. After a short tour...
-John Dempster
John Dempster, an American clergyman, born in Florida, Fulton co., N. Y., Jan. 2, 1794, died at Evanston, 111., Nov. 28, 1863. His father, the Rev. James Dempster, though educated at the university of...
-John Denison Baldwin
John Denison Baldwin, an American journalist and archaeologist, born at North Stoning-ton, Conn., Sept. 28,1809. At the age of 14 he was thrown entirely upon his own exertions. He fitted himself in th...
-John Denison Russ
John Denison Russ, an American physician, born at Chebacco (now Essex), Mass., Sept. 1, 1801. He graduated at Yale college in 1823, studied medicine at home and in Europe, and began to practise in New...
-John Dennis
John Dennis, an English writer, born in London in 1657, died Jan. 6, 1734. He was the son of a saddler, but was sent to Harrow school and Cambridge university, where he remained eight years, taking hi...
-John Dickins
John Dickins, an American clergyman, born in London, Aug. 24,1747, died in Philadelphia, Sept. 27, 1798. He studied at Eton, emigrated to America before the revolution, and was one of the prominent fo...
-John Dickinson
John Dickinson, an American statesman, born in Maryland, Nov. 13, 1732, died in Wilmington, Delaware, Feb. 14, 1808. He studied law in Philadelphia, and subsequently at the Temple, London, and on retu...
-John Donne
John Donne, an English poet, born in London in 1573, died there, March 31, 1631. He was of a Roman Catholic family, studied at Oxford and Cambridge, and was designed for the law, but relinquished it i...
-John Downes
John Downes, an American naval officer, born in Canton, Mass., in 1786, died in Charles-town, Aug. 11, 1855. He entered the navy as a midshipman in June, 1802, and was in the frigate New York during t...
-John Dryden
John Dryden, an English poet, born in the parish of Aldwinckle All Saints, Northamptonshire, Aug. 9, 1631, died May 1, 1700. He belonged to a respectable Puritan family, and his father was a magistrat...
-John Duer
John Duer, an American jurist, born in Albany, N. Y., Oct. 7, 1782, died on Staten island, Aug. 8, 1858. He was the son of Col. William Duer of the revolutionary army, and on his mother's side a grand...
-John Dundas Cochrane
John Dundas Cochrane, a British traveller, nephew of Archibald, ninth earl of Dundonald, born about 1780, died in South America, Aug. 12, 1825. He entered the British navy at the age of 10, and rose t...
-John Duns Scotus
John Duns Scotus, a scholastic theologian of the 13th century, born probably in Dunse, Berwickshire, Scotland, about 1270, died in Cologne in 1308. He was educated at Oxford, entered the order of St. ...
-John Dunton
John Dunton, an English bookseller and author, born in Graffham, Huntingdonshire, May 4, 1659, died in 1733. He was apprenticed to a bookseller in London, engaged in business for himself, came to New ...
-John Eager Howard
John Eager Howard, an American revolutionary soldier, born in Baltimore co., Md., June 4, 1752, died Oct, 12, 1827. In 1776 he commanded a company in the flying camp under Gen. Mercer, which took part...
-John Edwards
John Edwards, an English divine, born in Hertford, Feb. 26, 1637, died in Cambridge, April 16, 1716. He graduated at Cambridge in 1661, and took charge of Trinity church there, thence removed successi...
-John Elliotson
John Elliotson, an English physician and physiologist, born in London about 1790, died there, July 29, 1868. He was educated at Jesus college, Cambridge, studied medicine and surgery in Edinburgh, and...
-John Ellis Wool
John Ellis Wool, an American soldier, born in Newburgh, N. Y., in 1789, died in Troy, N. Y., Nov. 10, 1869. He was first a bookseller in Troy, then commenced the study of law, and in 1812 was commissi...
-John Elwes
John Elwes, an English miser, born in South-wark about 1714, died Nov. 26, 1789. His own family name was Meggot, but he exchanged it for that of his uncle, Sir Harvey El-wes, from whom he received a l...
-John Endicott
John Endicott, governor of Massachusetts, born in Dorchester, England, in 1589, died in Boston, Mass., March 15, 1665. He was sent out by the Massachusetts Company to carry on the. plantation at N...
-John England
John England, first Roman Catholic bishop of Charleston, S. C, born in Cork, Ireland, Sept. 23, 1786, died in Charleston, April 11, 1842. He entered the college of Carlow in 1803, and while there foun...
-John Ericsson
John Ericsson, a Swedish engineer and physicist, born in the province of Wermeland in 1803. In 1814 he was appointed a cadet in the engineers, and in 1816 was employed as a leveller on the grand ship ...
-John Evelyn
John Evelyn, an English author, born in Wotton, Surrey, Oct. 31, 1620, died there, Feb. 27, 1706. He was educated at Balliol college, Oxford, studied law, and served for a short time in 1641 as a volu...
-John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais, an English painter, born in Southampton, June 8, 1829. When nine years old he gained a medal from the so-ciety of arts, and was placed in Mr. Sass's preparatory school of art in ...
-John Fletcher Hurst
John Fletcher Hurst, an American clergyman, born near Salem, Md., Aug. 17, 1834. He graduated at Dickinson college in 1853, taught ancient languages two years at Ashland, N. Y., went to Germany and st...
-John Frederick Daniell
John Frederick Daniell, an English physicist, born in London, March 12, 1790, died there, March 13, 1845. He was a pupil of Brande, and afterward began business as a sugar refiner. In 1816 he founded,...
-John Frederick Denisoii Maurice
John Frederick Denisoii Maurice, an English clergyman, born in 1805, died in London, April 1, 1872. He was the son of a Unitarian minister, and was sent at an early age to Trinity college, Cambridge, ...
-John Frederick Kensett
John Frederick Kensett, an American artist, born in Cheshire, Conn., March 22, 1818, died in New York, Dec. 16, 1872. He studied engraving under his uncle Alfred Daggett of New-York, and for several y...
-John Frederick Lewis
John Frederick Lewis, an English painter, born in London, July 14, 1805. He early attracted attention by representations of wild animals both in water colors and oils, and between 1830 and 1850 made l...
-John Ft Pemberton
John Ft Pemberton, an American soldier, born in Philadelphia in 1817. He graduated at West Point in 1837, became first lieutenant of artillery in 1842, was aide-de-camp to Gen. Worth during the Mexica...
-John George Children
John George Children, an English electrician, born at Ferox Hall, Tunbridge, May 18, 1777, died Jan. 1, 1852. He was educated at Cambridge for the church, but his wife dying, he travelled for some tim...
-John George Lambton Durham
John George Lambton Durham, earl of, an English statesman, born at Lambton Castle, county of Durham, April 12, 1792, died at Cowes, Isle of Wight, July 28, 1840. He was educated at Eton, served a shor...
-John Gibson Lockhart
John Gibson Lockhart, a Scottish author, born at Cambusnethan, Lanarkshire, in 1794, died at Abbotsford, Nov. 25, 1854. He was educated at the university of Glasgow, and having obtained an exhibition ...
-John Godfrey Saxe
John Godfrey Saxe, an American author, born in Highgate, Franklin co., Vt., June 2, 1816. He graduated at Middlebury college in 1839, was admitted to the bar at St. Albans in 1843, and practised in hi...
-John Gorham Palfrey
John Gorham Palfrey, an American author, born in Boston, May 2,1796. He graduated at Harvard college in 1815, studied theology, and in June, 1818, was ordained minister of the Congregational church in...
-John Gould
John Gould, an English naturalist, born in Lyme, Dorsetshire, Sept. 14, 1804. Between the ages of 14 and 20 he resided at the royal gardens at Windsor, studying the habits of birds and collecting spec...
-John Gower
John Gower, an English poet, born, according to tradition, in Yorkshire, though some authorities make him a native of Kent or of Wales, about 1325, died in 1408. He was a gentleman of considerable est...
-John Graham Lough
John Graham Lough, an English sculptor, born at Greenhead, Northumberland, in 1804. He is the son of a small farmer, and in childhood taught himself drawing and modelling. He went to London, and in 18...
-John Graham, Viscount Dundee And Lord Graham Of Claverhouse
John Graham, Viscount Dundee And Lord Graham of Claverhouse, a Scottish soldier, born near Dundee in 1643, killed at the battle of Killiecrankie, July 17, 1089. Educated at the university of St. Andre...
-John Greenleaf Whittier
John Greenleaf Whittier, an American poet, born in Haverhill, Mass., Dec. 17, 1807. His parents belonged to the society of Friends, of which he is also a member. He worked on the farm till his 20th ye...
-John Gross Barnard
John Gross Barnard, an American military engineer, brother of President F. A. P. Barnard, born in Berkshire county, Mass., May 19, 1815. He graduated at West Point in 1833, and was assigned to the eng...
-John Hall
John Hall, an American clergyman, born in the county Armagh, Ireland, July 31, 1829. He entered Belfast college when he was only 13 years old, and, notwithstanding his extreme youth, was repeatedly He...
-John Hampden
John Hampden, an English statesman, born in London in 1594, died at Thame, Oxfordshire, June 24, 1643. He was the son of William Hampden, a member of Queen Elizabeth's parliament, and Elizabeth Cromwe...
-John Hancock
John Hancock, an American statesman, born in Quiney, Mass., Jan. 12,1737, died there, Oct. 8, 1793. He graduated at Harvard college in 1754, and shortly after entered the counting house of an uncle, o...
-John Harrison
John Harrison, an English mechanician, born at Faulby, Yorkshire, in 1693, died in London in 1776. He was the son of a carpenter, and in his youth worked in his father's shop. A taste for mechanical p...
-John Hart
John Hart, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, born in Hopewell township, N. J., in 1708, died there in 1780. He was the son of a farmer, and spent the greater part of his life on his own far...
-John Harvard
John Harvard, the founder of Harvard college, born in England, probably in Middlesex, died in Charlestown, Mass., Sept. 24,1638. He was educated at the university of Cambridge, and having emigrated to...
-John Hawkesworth
John Hawkesworth, an English author, born in London in 1715 or 1719, died Nov. 17, 1773. He was apprenticed to a clockmaker, and afterward seems to have passed some time in an attorney's office. In 17...
-John Henley
John Henley, an English clergyman, better known as Orator Henley, born at Melton Mowbray, Aug. 3, 1092, died Oct. 4, 1750. He entered St. John's college, Cambridge, at the age of 17, and while an un...
-John Henry Hobart
John Henry Hobart, an American bishop, born in Philadelphia, Sept. 14, 1775, died in Auburn, N. Y., Sept. 10, 1830. He graduated at Princeton college in 1793, and entered a counting house, which he so...
-John Henry Hopkins
John Henry Hopkins, an American bishop, born in Dublin, Jan. 30, 1792, died at Rock Point, Vt., Jan. 9, 1868. He came to America with his parents in 1800, and was intended for the law; but after recei...
-John Hill Burton
John Hill Burton, a Scottish author, born in Aberdeen, Aug. 22,1809. He was educated at Marischal college, Aberdeen, and began the practice of law, which he soon abandoned for literature. To the Wes...
-John Holmes
John Holmes, a Canadian author, born at Windsor, Vt., in 1799, died at Lorette, near Quebec, in 1852. He was preparing to enter the ministry of the Wesleyan church, when he embraced the Roman Catholic...
-John Home Tooke
John Home Tooke, an English politician, born in Westminster, June 25, 1736, died at Wimbledon, March 18, 1812. He was the son of John Home, a poulterer, was educated at Cambridge, became an usher in a...
-John Hooper
John Hooper, an English prelate, born in Somersetshire about 1495, executed in Gloucester, Feb. 9, 1555. He was educated at Oxford, and became a Cistercian monk. Returning to Oxford, ho embraced the d...
-John Howard
John Howard, an English philanthropist, born in Enfield, Sept. 2, 1726, died in Kherson, Russia, Jan. 20, 1790. At 16 years of age he was apprenticed to a grocer in London; but upon the death of his f...
-John Howard Payne
John Howard Payne, an American dramatist, born in New York, June 9, 1792, died in Tunis, April 10, 1852. At 13 years of age, while a clerk in a counting house in New York, he edited the Thespian Mir...
-John Howe
John Howe, an English clergyman, born at Loughborough, Leicestershire, May 17,1630, died in London, April 2, 1705. He graduated at Christ's college, Cambridge, became pastor of a nonconformist church ...
-John Hughes
John Hughes, an American archbishop, born near Clogher, county Tyrone, Ireland, in 1797, died in New York, Jan. 3, 1864. He was, to use his own words in his well known letter to Mayor Harper, the son...
-John Hughes Bennett
John Hughes Bennett, an English physician, born in London, Aug. 31, 1812. He studied surgery under William Sedgwick and medicine in the university of Edinburgh, where he took his degree in 1837, recei...
-John Humphrey Noyes
John Humphrey Noyes, an American perfectionist, born in Brattleboro, Vt., Sept. 3, 1811. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1830, and began to study law; but his attention be-ing turned to religion...
-John Hunter
John Hunter, a British surgeon and physiologist, born at Long Calderwood, Lanarkshire, July 14, 1728, died in London, Oct. 16, 1793. He was the son of a farmer, and the youngest of ten children. At 17...
-John Huss
John Huss, a Bohemian religious reformer, born about 1373, burned at Constance, July 6, 1415. His surname was derived from his place of birth, Hussinetz, near the border of Bavaria. He studied first i...
-John Hutchinson
John Hutchinson, an English Puritan revolutionist, born in Nottinghamshire about 1616, died in Sandown castle, Kent, Sept. 11, 1664. He was a man of family and of good education, and was married at Ri...
-John II
John II.surnamed le Bon (the Good, or rather the Gallant), king of France, the second of the Valois family, born about 1319, died in London in 1364. Succeeding his father Philip VI. in 1350, he indulg...
-John II Casimir
John II Casimir, king of Poland, born March 21, 1609, died in Nevers, France, Dec. 16, 1672. He was a younger son of Sigismund III., of the house of Vasa, by an Austrian princess, who was baffled in h...
-John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski, king of Poland, born in the circle of Zloczow, then belonging to the palatinate of Belz, in 1629, or according to some in 1624, died June 17,1696. His father, Jacob Sobieski, castel...
-John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor, a merchant of the city of New York, born at Walldorf, near Heidelberg, July 17, 1763, died in New York, March 29, 1848. He was the youngest of the four sons of a peasant, and his boy...
-John James Audubon
John James Audubon, an American ornithologist, born on a plantation in Louisiana, May 4, 1780, died in New York, Jan. 27, 1851. He was the son of an officer in the French navy. When very young he show...
-John Jamieson
John Jamieson, a Scottish clergyman, born in Glasgow, March 3, 1759, died in Edinburgh, July 12, 1838. He was the son of a Secession minister settled in Glasgow, and was educated at the university of ...
-John Jay I
John Jay I., an American statesman, first chief justice of the United States, born in New York, Dec. 12, 1745, died at Bedford, Westchester co., N. Y., May 17, 1829. He was descended from Augustus Jay...
-John Jeffries
John Jeffries, an American physician, born in Boston, Feb. 5, 1744, died there, Sept. 16, 1819. He graduated at Harvard college in 1763, subsequently attended the medical schools of London, and in 176...
-John Jewel, Or Jewell
Jewel, Or Jewell, John, an English bishop, born at Buden, Devonshire, May 24, 1522, died at Monkton Farleigh, Wiltshire, Sept. 22,1571. He finished his education at Oxford, became tutor there, and lab...
-John Jordon Crittenden
John Jordon Crittenden, an American statesman, born in Woodford co., Kv., Sept. 10, 1787, died near Frankfort, July 26, 1863. His father, a major in the revolutionary war, was of Welsh descent, and hi...
-John Jortin
John Jortin, an English divine and author, born in London in 1698, died in Kensington, Sept. 5, 1770. He graduated at Cambridge in 1719, and was presented by his college with a living in Cambridgeshir...
-John Joseph Mechi
John Joseph Mechi, an English agriculturist, born in London, May 22, 1802. His father, an Italian, was member of the English .royal household. The son became a clerk in a mercantile house, speculated ...
-John Keats
John Keats, an English poet, born in London in 1795 or 1796, died in Rome, Feb. 27, 1821. He was sent at an early age with his two brothers to a school in Enfield, where he remained until his 15th yea...
-John Keble
John Keble, an English poet, born near Fairford, Gloucestershire, April 25, 1792, died at Bournemouth, Hampshire, March 29, 1866. He graduated at Oriel college, Oxford, in 1810, obtaining a double fir...
-John Kitto
John Kitto, an English Biblical scholar, born in Plymouth, Dec. 4, 1804, died in Cann-statt, Germany, Nov. 25, 1854. He was the son of a mason, and when about 12 years old was rendered incurably deaf ...
-John Knox
John Knox, a Scottish religious reformer, born at Gilford, Haddingtonshire, or at Giffordgate, a suburb of Haddington, in 1505, died in Edinburgh, Nov. 24, 1572. After receiving his preliminary educat...
-John Lambert
John Lambert, an English general, born in Kirkby-Malhamdale, in the West riding of Yorkshire, Sept. 7, 1619, died in the island of Guernsey in 1692. He was educated for the bar, but at the outbreak of...
-John Lamgan
John Lamgan, an Irish clergyman, born in Cashel in 1758, died at Finglas, near Dublin, July 7, 1828. About the age of 16 he entered the Irish college at Rome, where he took orders and received the deg...
-John Langdon
John Langdon, an American statesman, born in Portsmouth, N. II., in 1739, died there, Sept. 18, 1819. He received a common school education, and entered a counting house. In 1774 he participated in th...
-John Langhorne
John Langhorne, an English poet, born at Kirkby-Stephen, Westmoreland, in March, 1735, died in Wells, Somersetshire, April 1, 1779. He took orders, and went to Cambridge, where he supported himself by...
-John Law
John Law, of Lauriston, a British financier, born in Edinburgh in April, 1671, died in Venice, May 21, 1729. He received an excellent education, and manifested at an early age a talent for finance, bu...
-John Lawrance
John Lawrance, an American statesman, born in Cornwall, England, in 1750, died in New York in November, 1810. He emigrated to America in 1767, settled in the city of New York, was admitted to the bar ...
-John Lawrence Smith
John Lawrence Smith, an American chemist and mineralogist, born near Charleston, S. C, Dec. 16, 1818. He graduated at the university of Virginia and at the medical college of South Carolina, and for t...
-John Lawson
John Lawson, an American surveyor and historian, of Scottish birth. He began his surveys in 1700, but fell a victim to the jealousy of the Indians, who confounded the surveyor of their territory with ...
-John Ledyard
John Ledyard, an American traveller, born in Groton, Conn., in 1751, died in Cairo, Egypt, Jan. 17,1789. He lost his father in early childhood, and after an ineffectual attempt to pursue the study of ...
-John Leech
John Leech, an English artist, born in London about 1817, died Oct. 29, 1864. He was educated at the Charterhouse, and soon after the establishment of Punch brought himself into notice by his humoro...
-John Leland
John Leland, an English Presbyterian divine, born in Wigan, Lancashire, in 1691, died in Dublin, Jan. 16, 1766. He passed his life as pastor of a Presbyterian congregation in Dublin, and received the ...
-John Lesley
John Lesley, a Scottish prelate, born Sept. 29, 1527, died in Brussels, May 31, 1596. He was the illegitimate child of a priest. He graduated at King's college, Aberdeen, became a canon of the cathedr...
-John Leyden
John Leyden, a Scottish author, born at Denholm, Roxburghshire, Sept. 8, 1775, died in Batavia, Aug. 28, 1811. He studied at the university of Edinburgh, and was ordained in 1798; but not attaining an...
-John Lightfoot
John Lightfoot, an English clergyman, born in Stoke-upon-Trent, March 29, 1602, died in Ely, Dec. 6,1675. He was educated at Christ's college, Cambridge, and became chaplain to Sir Rowland Cotton, a c...
-John Lilburne
John Lilburne, an English agitator, born at Thickney Puncharden, Durham, in 1618, died in 1057. He was apprenticed at 12 years of age to a clothier in London, from whom as well as from his father he i...
-John Lindley
John Lindley, an English botanist, born at Catton, near Norwich, Feb. 5, 1799, died near London, Nov. 1, 1865. His father cultivated a large nursery garden in Catton. At an early age the son published...
-John Lingard
John Lingard, an English historian, born in Winchester, Feb. 5, 1771, died at Hornby, near Lancaster, July 13, 1851. His parents were Roman Catholics, and in humble circumstances. The friendship of Bi...
-John Liston
John Liston, an English actor, born in London in 1776, died March 22, 1846. He was educated at Dr. Barrow's school, Soho, and subsequently became second master in the grammar school of St. Martin's, L...
-John Lloyd Stephens
John Lloyd Stephens, an American author, born in Shrewsbury, N. J., Nov. 28, 1805, died in New York, Oct. 10,1852. He graduated at Columbia college in 1822, studied law, and practised in New York. Aft...
-John Locke
John Locke, an English philosopher, born at Wrington, Somersetshire, Aug. 29, 1632, died at Oates, a country seat in Essex, Oct. 28, 1704. The moderate inheritance of his family was considerably reduc...
-John Logan
John Logan, a Scottish author, born near Edinburgh in 1748, died in London, Dec. 28, 1788. He completed his education at the university of Edinburgh, and was nominated a minister at Leith in 1773. In ...
-John London Macadam
John London Macadam, a Scottish engineer, born at Ayr, Sept. 21, 1756, died at Moffat, Dumfriesshire, Nov. 26, 1836. On the death of his father in 1770 he was sent to his uncle William Macadam in New ...
-John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley, an American historian, born in Dorchester, Mass., April 15,1814. He graduated at Harvard college in 1831, and spent a year at each of the universities of Got-tingen and Berlin, a...
-John Louis Dussek
John Louis Dussek, a Bohemian composer and pianist, born at Czaslau, Feb. 9, 1761, died in Paris, March 20, 1812. His father, John Joseph Dussek, was organist and choir master at Czaslau, and he had l...
-John Macgregor
John Macgregor, a British statistician, born at Stornoway, Ross-shire, in 1797, died in Boulogne, April 23, 1857. At an early age he was placed in a commercial house in Canada. On his return to Englan...
-John Manley
John Manley, an American naval commander, born at Torbay, Devonshire, Eng., in 1734, died in Boston, Feb. 12, 1793. He settled at Marblehead, Mass., and was master of a merchantman. At the outbreak of...
-John Marbeck
John Marbeck, an English composer, born early in the 16th century, died about 1585. He was one of the earliest composers of the reformed church of England. About 1544 there were formed at Windsor asso...
-John Marshall
John Marshall, an American jurist bom in Fauquier co., Va., Sept. 2-1, 1755. died in Philadelphia, July 6, 1835. He was the eldest of 15 children of Col. Thomas Marshall, who signalized himself during...
-John Martin
John Martin, an English painter, born at Ilayden Bridge, Northumberland, July 19, 1789, died in Douglas, Isle of Man, Feb. 9, 1854. He was apprenticed to a coach maker to learn heraldic painting, and ...
-John Mason
John Mason, major of the forces of Connecticut colony, born in England in 1600, died in Norwich, Conn., in 1072. He served in the Netherlands as a volunteer under Sir Thomas Fairfax, and about 1630 em...
-John Mason Good
John Mason Good, an English physician and author, born at Epping, Essex, May 25, 1764, died in January, 1827. He began his medical education as apprentice to a surgeon at Gosport, afterward studied at...
-John Mason Neale
John Mason Neale, an English clergyman, born in London, Jan. 24, 1818, died at East Grinstead, Sussex, Aug. 6,1866. He graduated in 1840 at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he had taken the members' ...
-John Mason Peck
John Mason Peck, an American clergyman, born in Litchfield, Conn., Oct. 31,1789, died at Rockspring, 111., March 15,1858. He received a limited education, and in 1811 removed to Greene co., N. Y. He w...
-John Mcallister Schofield
John Mcallister Schofield, an American soldier, born in Chautauqua co., N. Y., Sept. 29, 1831. He graduated at West Point in 1853, and in 1860 became professor of physics in the Washington university ...
-John Mcclintock
John Mcclintock, an American clergvman, born in Philadelphia, Oct. 27, 1814, died at Madison, N. J., March 4, 1870. He graduated at the university of Pennsylvania in 1835, and entered the itinerant mi...
-John Mccloskey
John Mccloskey, an American archbishop, born in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 20, 1810. He graduated at Mount St. Mary's college, Em-mettsburg, Md., and studied theology in the seminary there. Having receive...
-John Mchale
John Mchale, an Irish archbishop, born at Tubbernavine, county Mayo, in 1790. He studied at Maynooth college, and in 1814 was ordained priest, and appointed professor of dogmatic theology. While there...
-John Mclean
John Mclean, an American jurist, born in Morris co., N. J., March 11, 1785, died in Cincinnati, April 4, 1861. In 1789 his father, a poor man with a large family, removed to Morganstown, Va., thence t...
-John Mcvickar
John Mcvickar, an American clergyman, born in New York, Aug. 10, 1787, died there, Oct. 29, 1868. He graduated at Columbia college in 1804, and spent some time in England with his father. He entered t...
-John Melntosh
An American soldier, born in Mcintosh co., Ga., about 1755, died Nov. 12, 1826. He was an officer of the Georgia line in 1775, and as lieutenant colonel defended the fort at Sunbury, in Liberty co., w...
-John Middleton Clayton
John Middleton Clayton, an American statesman, born in Sussex co., Delaware, July 24, 1796, died at Dover, Nov. 9, 1850. He graduated at Yale college in 1815, and soon after began the practice of law ...
-John Milner
John Milner, an English Roman Catholic author, born in London in October, 1752, died in Wolverhampton, April 9, 1826. He was educated at Edgbaston and Louai, and in 1779 was stationed at Winchester. H...
-John Milton
John Milton, an English poet, born in London, Dec. 9, 1608, died there, Nov. 8, 1674. His father had been disinherited at an early age for abandoning the Catholic faith, adopted the profession of scri...
-John Minor Botts
John Minor Botts, an American politician, born in Dumfries, Prince William co., Va., Sept. 16, 1802, died in Culpeper co., Jan. 7, 1869. After practising law a few years in Richmond, he settled on a f...
-John Mitchel
John Mitchel, an Irish revolutionist, born at Dungiven, county Derry, Nov. 3, 1815. His father was a Unitarian clergyman. He graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, in 1836, studied law, and practised f...
-John Mitchell Kemble
John Mitchell Kemble, an English historian, eldest son of Charles Kemble, born in London in 1807, died in Dublin, March 26, 1857. He was educated by Dr. Richardson, author of the English Dictionary,...
-John Miuray
John Miuray, an American clergyman, born in Alton, Hampshire, England, Dec. 10, 1741, died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 3, 1815. Under the influence of Wesley and Whitefield he became a convert to Methodis...
-John Murray
John Murray, a Scottish physician, born in Edinburgh in 1778, died there, June 22, 1820. He began his career as an apothecary in his native city, and subsequently became eminent as a lecturer on natur...
-John Murray Carnochan
John Murray Carnochan, an American surgeon, born in Savannah, Ga., in 1817. His father, who was a Scotchman, sent him when a boy to Edinburgh. After graduating in the high school and university of tha...
-John Napier
John Napier, laird of Merchiston, the inventor of logarithms, born at Merchiston castle, near Edinburgh, in 1550, died there, April 4, 1617. In 1562 he entered St. Salvator's college in the university...
-John Neal
John Neal, an American author, born in Falmouth mow Portland), Me., Aug. 25, 1793. His parents were members of the society of Friends, with which he also was connected until the age of 25, when, princ...
-John Nepomucen, Or John Of Nepomnk
John Nepomucen, Or John Of Nepomnk, a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born at Nepo-muk or Pomuk, Bohemia, about 1330, died in Prague in 1383 or 1393. He graduated at the university of Prague, and ...
-John Newland Maffitt
John Newland Maffitt, an American clergyman, born in Dublin, Ireland, Dec. 28, 1794, died in Mobile, Ala., May 28, 1850. He became a preacher in the Wesleyan connection in Ireland, and early gave prom...
-John Newton
John Newton, an English clergyman, born in London, July 24, 1725, died there, Dec. 31, 1807. While a boy he accompanied his father, who was master of a ship, to the Mediterranean, and subsequently mad...
-John Norris
John Norris, an English clergyman, born at Collingborne-Kingston, Wiltshire, in 1657, died at Bemerton in 1711. He graduated at Exeter college, Oxford, in 1680, and became a disciple of Malebranche. H...
-John Of Gaunt
John Of Gaunt (or Ghent), duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III., born in Ghent in 1340, died Feb. 3, 1399. He distinguished himself for valor in the wars of his brother the Black Prince in Fran...
-John Of Leyden
John Of Leyden, a Dutch fanatic, born about 1510, put to death in Munster, Westphalia, in January, 1536. His true name was John Boccold or Bockelson, and he was the son of a magistrate of the Hague, a...
-John Of Salisbury
John Of Salisbury, called also Johannes Parvus (John the Little), an English scholastic philosopher, born in the old town of Salisbury (Old Sarum) about 1120, died in Chartres, France, Oct. 25, 1180. ...
-John Of Swabia, Or John The Parricide
John Of Swabia, Or John The Parricide, a German prince, born in 1289, died in 1313 or 1368. He was a son of Duke Rudolph of Swabia and nephew of the emperor Albert I., the son and successor of Rudolph...
-John Or Basil Bessarion
John or Basil Bessarion, a Greek scholar, born in Trebizond in 1389 or 1395, died in Ravenna, Nov. 19, 1472. He passed many years in a monastery, became a prominent reviver of literature, and was titu...
-John Overton Choules
John Overton Choules, D. D., an American clergyman, born in Bristol, Eng., Feb. 5, 1801, died in New York, Jan. 5, 185(5. His parents were members of the Wesleyan connection; but he united with the Ba...
-John Owen
John Owen, an English divine, born at Stad-ham, Oxfordshire, in 1616, died at Ealing, near London, Aug. 24, 1683. At the age of 12 he was entered at Queen's college, Oxford, receiving his bachelor's d...
-John Panl Jones
John Panl Jones, an American naval officer, born at Arbigland, on Solway firth, Scotland, July 6, 1747, died in Paris, July 18, 1792. His name was John Paul, that of Jones having been assumed in after...
-John Parker Hale
John Parker Hale, an American statesman, born in Rochester, N. XL, March 31, 1800, died in Dover, N. H., Nov. 19, 1873. He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1827, and took up his residence at Dover, whe...
-John Payne Collier
John Payne Collier, an English author and commentator on Shakespeare, born in London in 1789. He studied law, and was for several years parliamentary reporter for the Morning Chronicle newspaper. He...
-John Pendleton Kennedy
John Pendleton Kennedy, an American author, born in Baltimore, Oct. 25, 1795, died in Newport, R. I., Aug. 18, 1870. He graduated at Baltimore college in 1812, and in 1816 was admitted to the practice...
-John Peter Lesley
John Peter Lesley, an American geologist, born in Philadelphia, Sept. 17, 1819. He graduated at the university of Pensylvania in 1838, and from 1839 to 1841 was engaged on the geological survey of tha...
-John Phillip
John Phillip, a Scottish painter, born in Aberdeen in May, 1817, died in London, Feb. 27, 1867. He studied at the royal academy in London, was a portrait painter in Edinburgh, removed to London in 184...
-John Pierpont
John Pierpont, an American poet, born in Litchfield, Conn., April 6, 1785, died in Med-ford, Mass., Aug. 27, 1866. He graduated at Yale college in 1804, and in 1805 went to South Carolina as a private...
-John Pinkerton
John Pinkerton, a Scottish author, born in Edinburgh in February, 1758, died in Paris, March 10, 1826. He was intended for the law, but settled in London in 1780 as a literary man. He published Rimes...
-John Playfair
John Playfair, a Scottish natural philosopher, born at Benvie, Forfarshire, March 10, 1748, died in Edinburgh, July 19, 1819. He was sent at the age of 14 to the university of St. Andrews to be educat...
-John Pond
John Pond, an English astronomer, born about 1767, died at Blackheath, Sept. 7, 1836. He studied under Wales, who had been astronomer to Capt. Cook's expedition, and at Trinity college, Cambridge. Set...
-John Poole
John Poole, an English dramatist, born about 1786, died near London, Feb. 5, 1872. He wrote Hamlet Travestie (1810); Romeo and Juliet Travestie (1812); The Hole in the Wall, a farce (1813); Wh...
-John Pope
John Pope, an American soldier, born at Kaskaskia, 111., March 12,1823. He graduated at West Point in 1842, and was made brevet second lieutenant of topographical engineers. In 1842-'4 he served in Fl...
-John Prentiss Kewley Henshaw
John Prentiss Kewley Henshaw, an American bishop, born at Middletown, Conn., June 13, 1792, died at Frederick, Md., July 20, 1852. He entered Middlebury college, Vermont, when he was 12 years old, and...
-John Price Durbin
John Price Durbin, D. D., an American clergyman, born in Bourbon co., Ky., in 1800. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a cabinet maker, and a few years later entered the itinerant ministry of the ...
-John Pye Smith
John Pye Smith, an English clergyman, born in Sheffield, May 25, 1774, died in Guildford, Surrey, Feb. 5, 1851. In his 22d year he entered the Independent academy at Rotherham, and in 1800 was chosen ...
-John Pym
John Pym, an English patriot, born at Bry-more, Somersetshire, in 1584, died in London, Dec. 8, 1643. He was of a good family, and was educated at Pembroke college, Oxford, but left without taking his...
-John Ray
John Ray (or Wray, as he at one time spelled his name), an English naturalist, born near Braintree, Essex, in 1628, died in 1705. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, became a fellow in 1649, p...
-John Rennie
John Rennie, a British engineer, born at Phantassie, Haddingtonshire, June 7, 1761, died in London, Oct. 16, 1821. He learned the trade of a millwright, studied mathematics two years, settled in Londo...
-John Robinson
John Robinson, an English clergyman, born in 1575, died in Leyden, March 1, 1625. He was educated at Cambridge, and held for a time a benefice near Yarmouth in Norfolk, but in 1602 became pastor of a ...
-John Robison
John Robison, a Scottish writer on natural philosophy, born at Boghall, Stirlingshire, in 1739, died in Edinburgh, Jan. 80, 1805. He graduated in 1756 at the university of Glasgow, and in 1758 went to...
-John Rodgers
John Rodgers, an American naval officer, born in Harford co., Md., in 1771, died in Philadelphia, Aug. 4, 1838. He entered the navy as a lieutenant, March 9, 1798, and as executive officer of the frig...
-John Rogers
John Rogers, an English clergyman, born about 1500, burned at Smithfield, Feb. 4, 1555. He was educated at Cambridge, entered into holy orders there, and was chaplain to the English factory at Antwerp...
-John Romeyn Brodhead
John Romeyn Brodhead, an American historian, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 2, 1814, died in New York, May 6, 1873. He graduated at Rutgers college in 1831, studied law, practised for two years in New Yor...
-John Ross Browne
John Ross Browne, an American traveller and author, born in Ireland in 1817. While he was a child his father emigrated to America and settled in Kentucky. Young Browne, having learned stenography, wen...
-John Rritton
John Rritton, an English antiquary, born at Kington St. Michael, Wiltshire, July 7,1771, died in London, Jan. 1, 1857 He was apprenticed to a London wine merchant, with whom he remained six years. For...
-John Ruskin
John Ruskin, an English author, born in London in February, 1819. He is the son of a London merchant, from whom he inherited a large fortune, and graduated in 1842 at Christ Church college, Oxford, ha...
-John Russell
John Russell, earl, an English statesman, third son of the sixth duke of Bedford, born in London, Aug. 18, 1792. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, went abroad in 1809, and travelled in S...
-John Russell Bartlett
John Russell Bartlett, an American author, born in Providence, R. I., Oct. 23, 1805. He was early placed in a banking house, and was for six years cashier of the Globe bank at Providence. While there ...
-John Russell Hind
John Russell Hind, an English astronomer, born in Nottingham, May 12, 1823. He was educated for a tradesman, but in 1840 entered the office of a civil engineer in London. Through the influence of Prof...
-John Ryland
John Ryland, an English clergyman, born in Northampton, Jan. 29, 1753, died in Bristol, May 25, 1825. He was the son of the Rev. John Collett Ryland, Baptist pastor at Northampton and afterward princi...
-John Scott Eldon
John Scott Eldon, earl of, lord chancellor of England, born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, June 4, 1751, died in London, Jan. 13, 1838. He became a fellow of University college, Oxford, in 1767, in 1771 gain...
-John Scott Russell
John Scott Russell, a British engineer, born in the vale of Clyde, Scotland, in 1808. He graduated at the university of Glasgow in 1824, and was employed as an engineer till 1832, when he became lectu...
-John Scudder
John Scudder, an American missionary, born in New Brunswick, N. J., Sept. 3, 1793, died at Wynberg, Cape of Good Hope, Jan. 13, 1855. He graduated at Princeton in 1813, studied medicine, and settled i...
-John Sedgwick
John Sedgwick, an American soldier, born in Cornwall, Conn., Sept. 13, 1813, killed at Spottsylvania Court House, Va., May 9, 1864. He graduated at West Point in 1837, was appointed second lieutenant ...
-John Seely Hart
John Seely Hart, an American author, born at Stockbridge, Mass., Jan. 28, 1810. His family removed to Pennsylvania, finally settling near Wilkesbarre. He graduated at Princeton, N. J., in 1830, and af...
-John Selden
John Selden, an English author, born at Salvington, Sussex, Dec. 16, 1584, died in London, Nov. 30, 1654. He was educated at Oxford, was called to the bar, and became known as the great dictator of l...
-John Seotus Erigena
John Seotus Erigena, a scholastic philosopher, born near the beginning of the 9th century, in one of the British isles, probably Ireland. It is probable that he died about 880, but whether in France o...
-John Sharp
John Sharp, an English prelate, grandfather of Granville Sharp, born in Bradford, Yorkshire, Feb. 16, 1644, died in Bath, Feb. 2, 1714. He entered Christ's college, Cambridge, in 1660, was ordained in...
-John Singleton Copley
John Singleton Copley, an American painter, born in Boston, July 3,1737, died in London in September, 1815. Without the aid of instructors, and before seeing any tolerable picture, he painted pieces w...
-John Singleton Copley Lyndhurst
John Singleton Copley Lyndhurst, baron, a British statesman, born in Boston, Mass., May 21, 1772, died Oct. 12, 1863. He was a son of the artist Copley, went with his mother and sisters to England in ...
-John Slidell
John Slidell, an American politician, born in the city of New York in 1793, died in London, July 29, 1871. He graduated at Columbia college in 1810 and entered commercial life, but was not successful,...
-John Smeaton
John Smeaton, an English civil engineer, born at Austhorpe, near Leeds, May 28, 1724, died there, Oct. 28, 1792. Before he reached his 15th year he had made mechanical inventions and discoveries. He b...
-John Smith
John Smith, the founder of Virginia, born at Willoughby, Lincolnshire, England, in January, 1579, died in London, June 21, 1631. When young he took part in the wars in the Netherlands, and after four ...
-John Spotswood
John Spotswood, a Scottish prelate, born in Edinburghshire in 15G5, died in London, Nov. 20, 1(339. He graduated at the university of Glasgow at the age of 1G, and at 20 succeeded his father as minist...
-John Starr
John Starr, an American soldier, born at Londonderry, N. II., Aug. 28, 1728, died at Manchester, N. II., May 8, 1822. In 1752, while on a hunting expedition, he was captured by the St. Francis Indians...
-John Sterling
John Sterling, a British author, born at Karnes castle, isle of Bute, July 20, 1806, died at Ventnor, isle of Wight, Sept. 18, 1844. He was educated at Glasgow and Cambridge universities, in 1827 went...
-John Strong Newberry
John Strong Newberry, an American geologist, born at New Windsor, Conn., Dec. 22, 1822. His father in 1824 emigrated to Ohio, where he founded the town of Cuyahoga Falls. He graduated at the Western R...
-John Stuart Blackie
John Stuart Blackie, a Scottish author, born at Glasgow in July, 1809. He is the son of a banker, studied in Scotland, Germany, and Italy, and was professor of Latin literature in Ma-rischal college, ...
-John Sullivan Dwight
John Sullivan Dwight, an American author and critic, born in Boston, Mass., May 13, 1813. He graduated at Harvard college in 1832, and studied theology in the divinity school at Cambridge. In 1840 he ...
-John The Baptist
John The Baptist, the forerunner and relative of Christ, son of the priest Zacharias and Elizabeth, and cousin of the Virgin Mary, born at Juttah or at Hebron about 5 B. C, beheaded about the end of A...
-John The Evangelist
John The Evangelist, one of the apostles, son of the fisherman Zebedee and Salome, born in Bethsaida, on the lake of Galilee, died about A. D. 100. He followed the occupation of his parents, was proba...
-John The Fearless
John The Fearless, duke of Burgundy, born about 1370, assassinated Sept. 10, 1419. He was the son of Philip the Bold, whom he succeeded in 1404, and took immediate measures to secure for himself the i...
-John Thornton Kirkland
John Thornton Kirkland, an American clergyman, born at Little Falls, N. Y., in 1770, died in Boston, April 26, 1840. He was the son of Samuel Kirkland, a famous missionary among the Indians, graduated...
-John Tillotson
John Tillotson, an English prelate, born at Sowerby, near Halifax, in 1630, died in London, Nov. 22, 1694. His father was a strict Calvinist. At an early age- Tillotson became a student at Cambridge, ...
-John Times
John Times, an English author, born in London, Aug. 17, 1801, died there in March, 1875. In 1821 he became amanuensis to Sir Richard Phillips, publisher of the Monthly Magazine, to which he contribu...
-John Todd
John Todd, an American clergyman, born in Rutland, Vt., Oct. 9, 1800, died in Pittsfield, Mass., Aug. 24, 1873. He graduated at Yale college in 1822, spent four years at the Ando-ver theological semin...
-John Toland
John Toland, a British author, born near Londonderry, Ireland, in 1669 or 1670, died at Putney, near London, March 11, 1722. He studied three years at the University of Glasgow, received the degree of...
-John Torrey
John Torrey, an American botanist and chemist, born in New York, Aug. 15, 1796, died there, March 10, 1873. He graduated at the New York college of physicians and surgeons in 1818. While a student the...
-John Townsend Trowbridge
John Townsend Trowbridge, an American author, born in Ogden, Monroe co., N. Y., Sept. 18, 1827. At the age of 20 he went to Boston, connected himself with the public press, and became known as a write...
-John Tyler
John Tyler, tenth president of the United States, born in Charles City co., Va., March 29, 1790, died in Richmond, Jan. 17,1862. He was the second son of John Tyler, who was a prominent revolutionary ...
-John Tyndall
John Tyndall, a British natural philosopher, born at Leighlin Bridge, county Carlow, Ireland, Aug. 21, 1820. Under the guidance of his father, he received a strict religious training, and early became...
-John Vanderlyn
John Vanderlyn, an American painter, born in Kingston, Ulster co., N. Y., in October, 1776, died there, Sept. 23, 1852. Removing to New York at the age of 16, he received instruction in painting from ...
-John Walker
John Walker, an English lexicographer, born at Colney-Hatch, Middlesex, March 18, 1732, died in London, Aug. 1, 1807. He was successively a merchant, actor, and teacher. In 1769 he began to teach elo...
-John Wallis
John Wallis, an English mathematician, born at Ashford, Kent, Nov. 23, 1616, died Oct. 28, 1703. He was educated at Cambridge, took holy orders in 1640, and in 1641 became chaplain to Sir William Darl...
-John Wesley Etheridge
John Wesley Etheridge, an English clergyman, born at Youngwoods, Isle of Wight, Feb. 24, 1804, died May 24, 1866. After a careful education, chiefly under his father's direction, he entered upon the w...
-John Wesley Powell
John Wesley Powell, an American geologist, born at Mt. Morris, N. Y., March 24, 1834. In 1842 the family removed to Wisconsin, where he received a common school education, and at the age of 16 became ...
-John Wheelwright
John Wheelwright, an American clergyman, born in Lincolnshire, England, in 1594, died in Salisbury, N. H., Nov. 15, 1679. He was a graduate of Cambridge, and for some years a clergyman of the establis...
-John Whitaker
John Whitaker, an English clergyman, born in Manchester about 1735, died at Ruan-Langhorne, Cornwall, Oct. 30, 1808. He was educated at Oxford, and became a fellow of Corpus Christi college. In 1771 h...
-John Whitght
John Whitght, an English prelate, born in Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, in 1530, died at Lambeth, Feb. 29, 1604. He was educated at Pembroke hall, Cambridge, under Ridley. After the accession of Elizab...
-John Wilkes
John Wilkes, an English politician, born in London, Oct. 17, 1727, died there, Dec. 27, 1797. He was the son of a rich distiller, and was educated at Hertford and Aylesbury, and afterward studied at L...
-John Wilkins
John Wilkins, an English prelate, born in 1614, died in London, Nov. 19,1672. He signed the Solemn League and Covenant, formed with Wallis and others in London a club which was the nucleus of the r...
-John Williams
John Williams, an American clergyman, known as the redeemed captive, born in Roxbury, Mass., Dec. 10, 1644, died in Deerfield, Mass., June 12, 1729. He became pastor of the church in Deerfield in 1...
-John William Dawson
John William Dawson, a Canadian geologist and naturalist, born in Pictou, Nova Scotia, in October, 1820. He completed his studies at the university of Edinburgh, and on his return home devoted himself...
-John William De Forest
John William De Forest, an American author, born in Derby, Conn., March 31, 1826. At the age of 20 he made a voyage to the Levant, where he remained nearly two years, residing chiefly in Syria. On his...
-John William Donaldson
John William Donaldson, an English scholar, born in London, June 10, 1811, died there, Feb. 10, 1861. He was educated at the university of London and at Trinity college, Cambridge, where he graduated ...
-John Williamson Nevin
John Williamson Nevin, an American clergyman, born in Franklin co., Pa., Feb. 20, 1803. He graduated at Union college in 1821, studied theology at Princeton, and continued there afterward as assistant...
-John Wilmot Rochester
John Wilmot Rochester, second earl of, a wit of the court of Charles II., born at Ditch-ley, Oxfordshire, in 1647 or 1648, died July 26, 1680. He travelled in France and Italy, and in 1665-'6 served a...
-John Wilson Croker
John Wilson Croker, a British statesman and author, born in Galway, Ireland, Dec. 20, 1780, died at Hampton, near London, Aug. 10, 1857. He was educated at Trinity college, Dublin, where in 1800 he re...
-John Winebrenner
John Winebrenner, an American clergyman, born in Frederick co., Md., March 25,1797, died in Harrisburg, Pa., Sept. 12, 1860. He was originally a minister of the German Reformed church, having charge o...
-John Witherspoon
John Witherspoon, a signer of the American Declaration of Independence, born in the parish of Yester, Haddingtonshire, Scotland, Feb. 5, 1722, died near Princeton, N. J., Sept. 15, 1794. He was educat...
-John Woollim
John Woollim, an American Quaker preacher, born in Northampton, Burlington co., N. J., in 1720, died in York, England, in 1773. At the age of 21 he became a speaker in the meetings of the society of F...
-John Worth Edmonds
John Worth Edmonds, an American lawyer, born in Hudson, N. Y., March 13, 1799. He graduated at Union college in 1816, was admitted to the bar in 1819, and in 1820 commenced the practice of his profess...
-Johnson
Johnson, the name of eleven counties in the United States. I. An E. central county of Georgia, bounded W. by the Oconee river, and drained by the Great Ohoopee; area, about 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2...
-Johnson (2)
I. Sir William, baronet, a British general and colonial officer, born at Warren-town, county Down, Ireland, in 1715, died near Johnstown, N. Y., July 11, 1774. He was a younger son of Christopher John...
-Johnston Blakely
Johnston Blakely, an officer of the United States navy, born in Ireland in October, 1781, lost at sea in 1814. His parents settled in North Carolina while he was very young. He was educated in the uni...
-Joint Tenants
Joint Tenants, persons to whom a single estate is granted jointly by the same deed or will, and without any exclusive restrictions or explanatory words. The grant can take effect in such a case only b...
-Joint-Stock Company
This name usually designates a partnership in which the capital is distributed by shares among a large number of partners. They assume in certain respects a corporate form, but possess legally none of...
-Joliann Adam Mohler
Joliann Adam Mohler, a German theologian, born at Igersheim, Wurtemberg, May 6, 1796, died in Munich, April 12, 1838. He studied at Mergentheini, Ellwnngen, and Tubingen, was ordained priest of the Ro...
-Joliet
Joliet, a city and the county seat of Will co., Illinois, situated on both sides of the Des Plaines river, 35 m. S. W. of Chicago; pop. in 1850, 2,659; in 1860, 7,102; in 1870, 7,263. The Illinois and...
-Jolliet, Or Joliet, Louis
Jolliet, Or Joliet, Louis, one of the early explorers of the Mississippi, born in Quebec in 1645, died in 1700. His father was the smith of the settlement, but placed his son at the Jesuit college, wh...
-Jonah
Jonah, the fifth of the minor Hebrew prophets, son of Amittai, born in Gath-hepher, in the tribe of Zebulun, prophesied in the kingdom of Israel under Jeroboam II. The book called after him relates th...
-Jonas Chickering
Jonas Chickering, an American pianoforte manufacturer, born at New Ipswich, N. II., April 5, 1798, died in Boston, Dec. 8, 1853. He was put to the trade of a cabinetmaker, but early evinced great fond...
-Jonathan Edwards
Jonathan Edwards, an American divine and metaphysician, born at East Windsor, Conn., Oct. 5, 1703., died at Princeton, N. J., March 22, 1758. He was an only son, with ten sisters, four of whom were ol...
-Jonathan Mayhew
Jonathan Mayhew, an American clergyman, born in Martha's Vineyard, Mass., Oct. 8,' 1720, died in Boston, July 9, 1766. He graduated at Harvard college in 1744, and in 1747 was ordained minister of the...
-Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright
Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright, an American clergyman, born in Liverpool, England, Feb. 24, 1792, died in New York, Sept. 21, 1854. His mother was a daughter of the Rev. Dr. Jonathan Mayhew of Boston. In ...
-Jonathan Pereira
Jonathan Pereira, an English pharmacologist, born in London, May 22, 1804, died there, Jan. 20, 1853. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a surgeon and apothecary, and in March, 1823, received a li...
-Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift, a British author, born in Dublin, Nov. 30, 1667, died there, Oct, 19, 1745. He was of purely English descent; his father, dying before the birth of his son, left his family in dependen...
-Jones
Jones, the name of five counties in the United States. I. A S. E. county of North Carolina, drained by Trent river; area, 380 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,002, of whom 2,656 were colored. It has a level an...
-Jonkoping
I. A 8. province or Ian of Sweden, bordering on Ostergothland, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Halland, and Elfsborg; area, 4,298 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 181,788. It is traversed by several mountains, and is watered...
-Joodpoor, Or Marwar
I. The largest of the native Rajpoot states of India, between lat. 24 36' and 27 40' N., and Ion. 70 4' and 75 23' E.; area, about 36,000 sq. m.; pop. estimated at 1,800,000, chief...
-Jordan
Jordan (Heb. ha-Yarden, the descender, now called by the Arabians of Palestine esh-Sheriah, or Sheriat el-Kebir, the great watering place), the only large river in Palestine, and one of the few perenn...
-Jorge Juan Y Santacilia
Jorge Juan Y Santacilia, known as Don Jorge Juan, a Spanish explorer, born at Ori-huela, Valencia, in 1712, died in Cadiz, June 21, 1774. He crossed the Atlantic in 1733 as commander of a frail polacc...
-Jorgen Jorgenson
Jorgen Jorgenson, a Danish adventurer, born in Copenhagen in 1779, died in New South Wales about 1830. He belonged to the celebrated family of watchmakers named Jur-gensen, was apprenticed at 14 years...
-Jornandes, Or According To The Oldest Mss. Jordanes
Jornandes, Or According To The Oldest Mss. Jordanes, a Gothic historian, who lived about the middle of the 6th century. He was at first one of the notaries or rather secretaries of the king of the Ala...
-Jorullo
Jorullo, a volcano of Mexico, in the state of Michoacan, 160 m. W. by S. of the city of Mexico. It rises from the plain of Mal-pais, which forms a part of a plaform having a mean elevation of 2,500 ft...
-Jose Antonio Paez
Jose Antonio Paez, a Venezuelan soldier, born near Acarigua, province of Barinas, June 13, 1790, died in New York, May 6, 1873. At the age of 18 he became overseer of a cattle estate. In 1810 he joine...
-Jose Canga-Arguelles
Jose Canga-Arguelles, a Spanish statesman, born in Asturias in 1770, died in 1843. He was deputy from Valencia to the cortes of 1812. After the revolution of 1820 he was appointed finance minister. Wh...
-Jose De Cadahalso, Or Cadalso
Cadahalso, Or Cadalso, Jose De, a Spanish author, born in Cadiz, Oct. 8,1741, died at Gibraltar, Feb. 27, 1782. He entered the army, distinguished himself in the war against Portugal, and afterward de...
-Jose De San Martin
Jose De San Martin, an Argentine general, born at Yapeyú, Feb. 25, 1778, died in Boulogne, France, Aug. 17, 1850. He received a military education in Spain, served with distinction at Baylen, and beca...
-Jose Francisco Barrundia
Jose Francisco Barrundia, a Central American statesman, born in Guatemala about 1780, died in New York, Aug. 4, 1854. Many members of his family had acquired eminence in the service of Spain, but he e...
-Jose Francisco Correa De Serra
Jose Francisco Correa De Serra, a Portuguese naturalist, born atJSerpa in Alemtejo in 1750, died at the baths of Rainha in 1823. He was educated in Rome and Naples, was admitted to holy orders, return...
-Jose Francisco De Isla
Jose Francisco De Isla, a Spanish author, born in Segovia in 1703, died in Bologna in 1781. He early became famous as a Jesuit preacher and a satirical poet. His first works were directed against an e...
-Jose Maria Morelos
Jose Maria Morelos, a Mexican revolutionist, born in 1780, shot in the city of Mexico, Dec. 22, 1815. He was curate of Nucupetaro in Valladolid, and in October, 1810, joined the insurgent chief Hidalg...
-Jose Miguel Infante
Jose Miguel Infante, a Chilian statesman, born in Santiago in 1778, died April 9, 1844. He was one of the earliest leaders of the revolution of 1810, which ended in the independence of Chili; contribu...
-Jose Palafox Y Melzi
Jose Palafox Y Melzi, a Spanish patriot, born in Aragon in 1780, died in Paris, Feb. 16, 1847. At an early age he became an officer of the royal body guard, and as such accompanied Ferdinand VII. to B...
-Jose Tomas Boves
Jose Tomas Boves, a Spanish American military adventurer, born in Spain, killed at Urica, Venezuela, Dec. 5, 1814. While employed as a naval officer on the northern coast of South America he was tried...
-Jose Zorrilla ¥ Moral
Jose Zorrilla ¥ Moral, a Spanish poet, born in Valladolid, Feb. 21, 1817. He was educated in the seminary of the nobles at Madrid, studied law at Toledo and Valladolid, but devoted himself exclusively...
-Josef Eotvos
Josef Eotvos, baron, a Hungarian author and statesman, born in Buda, Sept. 3, 1813, died in Pesth, Feb. 2,1871. His education was completed at the university of Pesth, and at the age of 17 he commence...
-Joseph
Joseph, son of Jacob and Rachel, having a younger brother Benjamin and ten elder half brothers. He was envied by his brethren on account of his father's partiality toward him; and their aversion was i...
-Joseph Antoine Joachim Ceritti
Joseph Antoine Joachim Ceritti, a French author, born in Turin, June 13, 1738, died in Paris, Feb. 3, 1792. He became a member of the society of Jesus and a professor in its college at Lyons, where so...
-Joseph Bartlett
Joseph Bartlett, an American wit, poet, and adventurer, born in Plymouth, Mass., about 1763, died in Boston, Oct. 27, 1827. He graduated at Harvard college in 1782, and began the study of law at Salem...
-Joseph Benson
Joseph Benson, an English clergyman, born at Melmerby, Cumberland, Jan. 25, 1748, died Feb. 16, 1821. He was educated for the established church, but at the age of 16 was converted under the influence...
-Joseph Berington
Joseph Berington, an English author, born in Shropshire in 1744, died at Buckland in Berkshire, Dec. 1, 1827. He belonged to a Roman Catholic family, was educated at St. Omer, and after 20 years' mini...
-Joseph Billlngs
Joseph Billlngs, an English navigator in the service of Russia, lived at the end of the 18th century. He accompanied Cook in his last voyage, and was intrusted with the astronomical department. In 178...
-Joseph Black
Joseph Black, a Scottish chemist, born in Bordeaux, France, in 1728, died in Edinburgh, Nov. 26, 1799. He was educated at Belfast, Glasgow, and Edinburgh, studied medicine, was a pupil and assistant o...
-Joseph Blanco White
Joseph Blanco White, an English author, born in Seville, Spain, July 11, 1775, died in Liverpool, May 20, 1841. His grandfather, an Irishman, settled in Seville, became a successful merchant, and was ...
-Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte, successively king of Naples and of Spain, eldest brother of Napoleon I., born at Corte, Corsica, Jan. 7, 1768, died in Florence, July 28,1844. The grand duke of Tuscany having recomm...
-Joseph Br Amah
Joseph Br Amah, an English engineer, born at Stainborough, Yorkshire, April 13, 1749, died Dec. 9, 1814. He showed at an early age a remarkable mechanical ingenuity, was apprenticed to a carpenter, an...
-Joseph Butler
Joseph Butler, an English theologian, born at Wantage, Berkshire, May 18, 1692, died in Bath, June 16, 1752. He was educated in the Presbyterian communion, and in 1713 addressed a series of letters to...
-Joseph Cambon
Joseph Cambon, a French revolutionist, born at Montpellier, June 17, 1754, died in Brussels, Feb. 15, 1820. He was engaged in commercial pursuits when the revolution broke out. Upon the flight of Loui...
-Joseph Dalton Hooker
Joseph Dalton Hooker, an English botanist, son of Sir William Jackson Hooker, born in Glasgow in 1817. Having taken his degree in medicine, he devoted himself especially to botany. In 1839 he went as ...
-Joseph Dennie
Joseph Dennie, an American author and journalist, born in Boston, Aug. 30, 1768, died in Philadelphia, Jan. 7, 1812. He graduated at Harvard college in 1790, and studied law at Charlestown, N. H., whe...
-Joseph Eceleston Johnston
Joseph Eceleston Johnston, an American soldier, born in Prince Edward co., Va., in February, 1807. He graduated at West Point in 1829, and served mainly in garrison duty till 1834, and afterward in th...
-Joseph Ememoser
Joseph Ememoser, a German physiologist, born at Hintersee, in the Tyrol, Nov. 15,1787, died at Egern, Upper Bavaria, Sept. 19, 1854. In early life he was a sbepherd, but his love of learning induced s...
-Joseph Emerson Worcester
Joseph Emerson Worcester, an American lexicographer, born in Bedford, N. H., Aug. 24, 1784, died in Cambridge, Mass., Oct. 27, 1865. He graduated at Yale college in 1811,. and for several years taught...
-Joseph Ernest Renan
Joseph Ernest Renan, a French philologist, born at Tréguier, department of Côtes-du-Nord, Feb. 27, 1823. He was destined for the church, studied Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac in Paris, and in 1847 obtain...
-Joseph Francis Oscar I
Joseph Francis Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, born in Paris, July 4, 1799, died in Stockholm, July 8, 1859. He was a son of the French general Bernadotte, afterward king of Sweden, his mother be...
-Joseph Francois Dupleix
Joseph Francois Dupleix, marquis, a French soldier and statesman, born at Landrecies, Jan. 1, 1697, died in Paris, Nov. 10, 1764. In 1720 he was sent as an agent to Pondicherry, and in 1730 was appoin...
-Joseph Francois Lafitau
Joseph Francois Lafitau, a French missionary, born at Bordeaux in 1G70, died there, July 3, 1746. He entered the society of Jesus at an early age, and, after distinguishing himself by his taste for li...
-Joseph Frederick Wallet Des Barres
Joseph Frederick Wallet Des Barres, an English soldier and hydrographer, born in 1722, died in Halifax, N. 8., Oct. 24, 1824. He was descended from a French family which emigrated to England after the...
-Joseph George Strossmayer
Joseph George Strossmayer, a Croato-Slavo-nian prelate, born in Eszek, Feb. 4, 1815. He was educated at Pesth, Vienna, and Padua, and became bishop of the united sees of Bosnia and Sirmia, May 20, 185...
-Joseph Hall
Joseph Hall, an English author, born at Ashby dela Zouch, July 1,1574, died at Higham, Sept. 8, 1656. He was educated at Cambridge, took orders, and became dean of Worcester in 1617, bishop of Exeter ...
-Joseph Hamilton Known As Jo Daviess (Daviess)
Joseph Hamilton Known As Jo Daviess (Daviess), an American lawyer and soldier, born in Bedford co., Va., in 1774, killed at the battle of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 1811. In 1779 his parents emigrated to Ken...
-Joseph Hawley
Joseph Hawley, an American revolutionist, born in Northampton, Mass., in 1724, died March 10,1788. He graduated at Yale college, and practised law at Northampton. At the time of the disputes between G...
-Joseph Haydn
Joseph Haydn, a German composer, born at Rohrau, Lower Austria, March 31, 1732, died in Vienna, May 31, 1809. He was the eldest of the 20 children (by two mothers) of Matthias Haydn, a wheelwright. In...
-Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry, an American physicist, born in Albany, N. Y., Dec. 17, 1797. He received a common school education, and after a course of study in the Albany academy, in 1826 he was appointed professor ...
-Joseph Hooker
Joseph Hooker, an American soldier, born at Hadley, Mass., in 1815. He graduated at West Point in 1837, served in the Florida war and in the war with Mexico, and was successively brevetted as captain,...
-Joseph Hormayr
Joseph Hormayr, baron, a Tyrolese patriot and historian, born in Innspruck, Jan. 20,1781, died in Munich, Nov. 5, 1848. He entered the Austrian military service in 1797, served in the Tyrolese militia...
-Joseph Hubert Reinkens
Joseph Hubert Reinkens, a German theologian, born at Burtscheid, near Aix-la-Chapelle, March 1, 1821. He studied theology at Bonn, was ordained a priest of the Roman Catholic church, and became lectur...
-Joseph Hume
Joseph Hume, a British statesman, born in Montrose, Scotland, in January, 1777, died in Burnley hall, Norfolk, Feb. 20,1855. At about the age of nine he lost his father, the master of a small vessel, ...
-Joseph Hyrtl
Joseph Hyrtl, an Austrian anatomist, born at Eisenstadt, Hungary, Dec. 7, 1811. He studied at Vienna, became in 1837 professor of anatomy at Prague, and was recalled to Vienna in 1845 in the same capa...
-Joseph I
Joseph I.emperor of Germany, of the house of Hapsburg, eldest son of Leopold I. by his third wife, born July 26, 1678, died April 17, 1711. He was crowned king of Hungary in 1687, of Rome in 1690, and...
-Joseph II
Joseph II.emperor of Germany, elder son of Francis I. and Maria Theresa, born March 13, 1741, died Feb. 20, 1790. When Joseph was born, his mother confided him and her rights under the pragmatic sanct...
-Joseph Ignace Guillotin
Joseph Ignace Guillotin, a French physician, born in Saintes, May 28, 1738, died in Paris, May 2G, 1814. He studied under Antoine Petit, graduated as doctor in medicine in 1770 at Rheims, and became p...
-Joseph Jacotot
Joseph Jacotot, a French educator, born in Dijon, March 4, 1770, died in Paris, July 30, 1840. When scarcely 19 he became professor of Latin and Greek literature at Dijon. He enlisted in 1792, was ele...
-Joseph Jellachich De Buzim
Joseph Jellachich De Buzim, baron, an Austrian general, born in Peterwardein, Oct. 16,1801, died in Agram, May 19,1859. He was a colonel at the commencement of the Hungarian revolution in 1848, when h...
-Joseph Jerome Le Francais De Lalande
Joseph Jerome Le Francais De Lalande, a French astronomer, born in Bourg-en-Bresse, July 11, 1732, died in Paris, April 4, 1807. His family name was Le Francais, but he assumed that of Lalande at the ...
-Joseph Joachim
Joseph Joachim, a German violinist, born of Jewish parents at Kittsee, near Presburg, Hungary, July 15, 1831. He received his first instruction on the violin from Helmes-berger and Bohm at the Vienna ...
-Joseph John Gurney
Joseph John Gurney, an English philanthropist, born at Earlham hall, near Norwich, Aug. 2, 1788, died there, Jan. 4, 1S47. He was educated at Oxford under a private tutor, without becoming connected w...
-Joseph Lancaster
Joseph Lancaster, an English educator, born in London in 1771 or 1778, died in New York, Oct. 24, 1838. In 1798 he opened a school for poor children in Southwark on the principle of mutual instruction...
-Joseph Leidy
Joseph Leidy, an American naturalist, born in Philadelphia, Sept. 9, 1823. In 1844 he graduated M. D. at the university of Pennsylvania, and began the practice of medicine; but he soon devoted himself...
-Joseph Louis Lagrange
Joseph Louis Lagrange, count de, a French geometrician, born in Turin, of French parents, Jan. 25, 1736, died in Paris, April 10, 1813. His first publication was a letter to C. J. Fagna-no, June 23, 1...
-Joseph Mallord William Turner
Joseph Mallord William Turner, an English painter, born in London, April 23, 1775,. died in Chelsea, Dec. 19, 1851. His father was a hairdresser in Maiden lane, Covent Garden, and in this neighborhood...
-Joseph Maria Von Radowitz
Joseph Maria Von Radowitz, a Prussian statesman, born at Blankenburg, Brunswick, Feb. 6, 1797, died in Berlin, Dec. 25, 1853. His ancestors had emigrated from Hungary. He was instructed by his mother ...
-Joseph Marie Dessaix
Joseph Marie Dessaix, a French general, born in Thonon, Savoy, Sept. 24, 1764, died Oct. 26, 1834. He studied medicine at Turin and commenced practice in Paris, but returned to Savoy in 1791, organize...
-Joseph Marie Jacquard
Joseph Marie Jacquard, a French mechanician, born in Lyons, July 7, 1752, died at Oullins, Aug. 7, 1834. His parents were weavers, and his father, having become the proprietor of a loom, was enabled t...
-Joseph Marie Vien
Joseph Marie Vien, a French painter, born in Montpellier, June 18, 1716, died in Paris, March 27, 1809. His Plague of the Israelites in the Time of David gained him the grand prize of the French ac...
-Joseph Medill
Joseph Medill, an American journalist, born in New Brunswick, near the border of Maine, April 6, 1823. His parents, who were Scotch-Irish, removed to Massillon, 0., in 1832, where Joseph passed the ne...
-Joseph Mery
Joseph Mery, a French author, born at Les Aigalades, near Marseilles, Jan. 21, 1798, died in Paris, June 17, 1866. He was diMiiissed from a seminary for reading Voltaire, and from a law school on acco...
-Joseph Michaud
Joseph Michaud, a French author, born at Albens, Savoy, June 19, 1767, died in Passv, Sept. 30, 1839. In 1791 he published a Voyage littjraire to Mont Blanc and the adjoining regions, followed by an o...
-Joseph Nicephore Mepce
Joseph Nicephore Mepce, a French chemist, one of the inventors of photographv, born in Chalon-sur-Sa6ne, March 7, 1765, died July 5, 1 333. After serving in the army for one year, he was obliged by se...
-Joseph Norman Lockyer
Joseph Norman Lockyer, an English astronomer, born in Rugby, May 17, 1836. He was educated in private schools and on the continent, and in 1857 received an appointment in the war office, into which in...
-Joseph Octave Plessis
Joseph Octave Plessis, a Canadian bishop, born in Montreal, March 3, 1762, died in Quebec, Dec. 4, 1825. He was ordained priest in Quebec March 11, 1786, and became secretary to the bishop and rector ...
-Joseph Othmar Von Rauscher
Joseph Othmar Von Rauscher, an Austrian cardinal, born in Vienna, Oct. 6, 1797, died in November, 1875. He became successively professor of canon law and church history at Salzburg, rector of the orie...
-Joseph Parrish Thompson
Joseph Parrish Thompson, an American clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Aug. 7, 1819. He graduated at Yale college in 1838, studied theology at Andover and New Haven, and was ordained pastor of the Chap...
-Joseph Pitton De Tournefort
Joseph Pitton De Tournefort, a French bot-lanist, born in Aix, June 5, 1656, died in Paris near the close of 1708. After extensive studies and explorations he became in 1683 professor at the Jardin de...
-Joseph Priestley
Joseph Priestley, an English philosopher, born at Fieldhead, Yorkshire, March 13, 1733, died in Northumberland, Pa., Feb. 6, 1804. He was the son of a cloth dresser, and was instructed in the classics...
-Joseph Reed
Joseph Reed, an American patriot, born in Trenton, N. J., Aug. 27, 1741, died in Philadelphia, March 5, 1785. He graduated at the college of New Jersey in 1757. In 1763 he went to England, where he st...
-Joseph Ritson
Joseph Ritson, an English antiquary, born in Stockton, Oct. 2, 1752, died Sept. 23, 1803. He was a lawyer, but devoted himself chiefly to literary pursuits. His numerous writings are marked by great a...
-Joseph Rodman Drake
Joseph Rodman Drake, an American poet, born in New York, Aug. 7, 1795, died there, Sept. 21, 1820. He lost his father in early life, and with three sisters struggled against adversity. He studied medi...
-Joseph Saxton
Joseph Saxton, an American inventor, born at Huntingdon, Pa., March 22, 1799, died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 26, 1873. In his youth he constructed a printing press and issued a small newspaper. At the...
-Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon church, or church of Latter Day Saints, born at Sharon, Vt., Dec. 23, 1805, killed at Carthage, 111., June 27, 1814. His parents, of Scotch descent, early removed t...
-Joseph Strutt
Joseph Strutt, an English antiquary, born in Springfield, Essex, Oct. 27, 1742, died in London, Oct. 16, 1802. He studied painting and engraving, afterward engaged in antiquarian researches in the Bri...
-Joseph Thayendanega (Brant)
Joseph Thayendanega (Brant), a Mohawk chief, born in Ohio about 1742, died on his estate at the head of Lake Ontario, Canada, Nov. 24, 1807. Having taken a part in the campaign of Lake George in 1755,...
-Joseph Tinker Buckingham
Joseph Tinker Buckingham, an American journalist, born at Windham, Conn., Dec. 21, 1779, died in Cambridge, Mass., April 11,1861. His father, Nehemiah Tinker, exhausted his whole property in aiding th...
-Joseph Von Hammer-Purgstall
Joseph Von Hammer-Purgstall, a German orientalist, born in Gratz, Styria, June 9, 1774, died in Vienna, Nov. 24,1856. He studied the Arabic, Persian, and Turkish languages at the oriental academy of V...
-Joseph Wenzel Radetzky
Joseph Wenzel Radetzky, count, an Austrian general, born at Trzebnitz, Bohemia, Nov. 2, 1766, died in Milan, Jan. 5, 1858. He was in active service from 1784, and in 1805 was made a major general. He ...
-Joseph Wolff
Joseph Wolff, a clergyman of the church of England, of Jewish parentage, born at Weilersbach, near Bamberg, Germany, in 1795, died at Isle Brewers, Somersetshire, May 2, 1862. He studied at Munich, We...
-Josephe Jeanne De Lorraine Marie Antoinette
Josephe Jeanne De Lorraine Marie Antoinette, queen of France, born in Vienna, Nov. 2, 1755, executed in Paris, Oct. 16, 1793. She was the youngest daughter of the emperor Francis I. (who died in 1765)...
-Joshua
Joshua, the successor of Moses in the command of the Israelites. He was the son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim. He gained the victory over the Amalekites at Rephidim, accompanied Moses to Mt. Sinai, ...
-Joshua Barney
Joshua Barney, an American naval officer, born in Baltimore, July 6, 1759, died in Pittsburgh, Perm., Dec. 1, 1818. When the war of the revolution began he was appointed master's mate in the sloop of ...
-Joshua Bates
Joshua Bates, an English banker, born at Weymouth, Mass., in 1788, died in London, Sept. 24, 18G4. At the age of 15 he entered the counting-house of William R. Gray in Boston, and bv his remarkable ca...
-Joshua Leavitt
Joshua Leavitt, an American journalist, born in Heath, Mass., Sept. 8, 1794, died in Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 16, 1873. He graduated at Yale college in 1810, and, after teaching in Wethersfield, Conn., s...
-Joshua Marshman
Joshua Marshman, an English missionary, born at Westbury-Leigh, Wiltshire, in 1767, died in Serampore, India, Dec. 5, 1837. In 1799 he was sent out to Serampore by the Baptist missionary society. He a...
-Joshua Soule
Joshua Soule, an American clergyman, born in Bristol, Me., Aug, 1, 1781, died in Nashville, Tenn., March 6, 1867. He was licensed to preach in 1798, joined the Methodist conference in 1799, was ordain...
-Joshua Toulmin
Joshua Toulmin, an English clergyman, born in London, May 11,1740, died in Birmingham, July 23, 1815. He was educated at a dissenting academy, and became pastor of a dissenting congregation in Colyton...
-Josiah
Josiah, king of Judah, son of King Amon, succeeded to the throne about 640 B. C, at the age of eight, and died about 609. Unlike his immediate predecessors, he did right in the sight of the Lord, and ...
-Josiah Bartlett
Josiah Bartlett, M. D., an American patriot and statesman, born at Amesbury, Mass., in November, 1729, died May 19, 1795. He commenced the practice of medicine in 1750 at Kingston, and established a r...
-Josiah Clark Nott
Josiah Clark Nott, an American ethnologist, born in Columbia, S. C, March 31, 1804, died in Mobile, March 31, 1873. He graduated at the South Carolina college in 1824, took the degree of M. D. in Phil...
-Josiah Gilbert Holland
Josiah Gilbert Holland, an American author, born in Belchertown, Mass., July 24, 1819. Having studied medicine and practised for three years, and afterward edited a literary journal for a few months i...
-Josiah Ticker
Josiah Ticker, a British clergyman, born at Laugharne, Carmarthenshire, in 1711, died in Gloucester, Nov. 4, 1799. He was educated at Oxford, took orders, and in 1749 became rector of St. Stephen's, B...
-Josiah Wedgwood
Josiah Wedgwood, an English potter, born in Burslem, Staffordshire, July 12, 1730, died at Etruria, near Newcastle-under-Lyme, Jan. 3, 1795. He received but little education, and about the age of 10 w...
-Josquin Des Pres, Or Depres (Jodocus Pra-Tensis)
Josquin Des Pres, Or Depres (Jodocus Pra-Tensis), a French composer, born in Hainaut, Belgium, about 1450, died at Conde, France, Aug. 27, 1531. Though known to musicians as Josquin, this was only his...
-Jouann Heinrich Merck
Jouann Heinrich Merck, a German scholar, born in Darmstadt, April 11, 1741, died June 27. 1791. He officiated in various public functions in his native town, translated Addison's Cato and other work...
-Jovian
Jovian (Flavius Claudius Jovianus), Roman emperor, died in February, 364, after a reign of seven months. The son of Varronia-nus, one of the greatest generals of his age, he was captain of the body gu...
-Jowf, Or Djowf
Jowf, Or Djowf (Arab., belly), a province of the sultanate of Jebel Shomer, Arabia, between lat, 29 and 30 N., and lon. 39 and 41 E.; area, about 700 sq. m.; pop. about 40,000. It ...
-Jozef Bem
Jozef Bem, a Polish general, born at Tar-now, Galicia, in 1795, died at Aleppo, Dec. 10, 1850. At an early age he entered the corps of cadets at Warsaw, and received his military training at the artil...
-Jozef Chlopicki
Jozef Chlopicki, a Polish general and dictator, born in March, 1772, died at Krzeszowice, Sept. 30, 1854. At an early age he entered the military service, and distinguished himself in the war for inde...
-Jozef Dobrovsky
Jozef Dobrovsky, a Slavic scholar, born near Raab, Hungary, Aug. 17, 1753, died in BrUnn, Moravia, Jan. 6,1829. He early applied himself to the study of the German language, and acquired afterward sti...
-Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski
Jozef Ignacy Kraszewski, a Polish author, of Lithuanian origin, born in Warsaw in 1812. He studied at the university of Wilna, and was under arrest from 1831 to 1834 on account of his revolutionary sy...
-Jr Dma Richard Henry
Jr Dma Richard Henry, an American author and lawyer, son of the preceding, born in Cambridge, Mass., Aug. 1, 1815. He graduated at Harvard college in 1837. Having been compelled by an affection of the...
-Juan Antonio Melendez Valdez
Juan Antonio Melendez Valdez, a Spanish poet, born at Ribera del Fresno, March 11, 1754, died in Montpellier, France, May 24, 1817. He was educated at Salamanca, where he became professor of belles-le...
-Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch
Juan Eugenio Hartzenbusch, a Spanish author, born in Madrid, Sept. 6,1806. His father was a German carpenter. He was educated by the Jesuits and intended for the church, but, becoming interested in li...
-Juan Fernandez
Juan Fernandez, an island in the South Pacific ocean, in lat. 33 38' S., lon. 78 46' W., about 420 m. W. of Valparaiso, belonging to Chili. It is of irregular form, about 12 m. in length fro...
-Juan Francisco Maria De La Salud Donoso Cortes
Juan Francisco Maria De La Salud Donoso Cortes, marquis de Valdegamas, a Spanish statesman and author, born at Valle de la Sarena, in Estremadura, May 6, 1809, died in Paris, May 3, 1853. At the age o...
-Juan Lopez Do Padilla
Juan Lopez Do Padilla, a Spanish patriot, born about 1490, executed at Villalar, April 24,1521. He was one of the foremost to complain of the grievances to which the Castilians were subjected under th...
-Juan Luis Vives
Juan Luis Vives, a Spanish scholar, born in Valencia in March, 1492, died in Bruges, Flanders, May 6,1540. He studied in Paris and at the university of Louvain, where he early became professor of bell...
-Juan Pablo Bonet
Juan Pablo Bonet, a Spanish instructor of the deaf and dumb, held by some authors to have been the inventor of their first alphabet and means of communication, born in Aragon in the latter part of the...
-Juan Ponce De Leon
Juan Ponce De Leon, a Spanish discoverer, born in Leon about 1460, died in Cuba in 1521. He distinguished himself in several campaigns against the Moors of Granada, and, accompanying Columbus on his s...
-Juan Prim
Juan Prim, count of Reus and marquis de los Castillejos, a Spanish general, born in Reus, Catalonia, Dec. 6, 1814, died in Madrid, Dec. 30, 1870. He early entered the army and the cortes, and in 1843 ...
-Juba I
Juba I.king of Numidia, son of Hiempsal (who had been restored to the throne by Pom-pey), died by his own hand in 46 B. C. Juba succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, and in the conflict ...
-Jubal A Early
Jubal A Early., a general of the Confederate States, born in Virginia about 1815. He graduated at West Point in 1837, and was appointed a lieutenant of artillery, but soon resigned, studied and practi...
-Jubilee
Jubilee, a festive twelvemonth of the ancient Hebrews, celebrated every 50th year, and inaugurated by the blowing of trumpets (yobel.) According to the Mosaic law every 7th year as well as every 7th d...
-Judah
Judah (Heb. Yehuddh) the fourth of the sons of Jacob by Leah. The tribe named after him was the most numerous of the tribes of Israel. On the conquest of Palestine it received all the land bounded by ...
-Judas Iscariot
Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve apostles, and the betrayer of Christ. As to his surname Iscariot (Gr. , there are many theories; the most probable is, that it is merely the Greek form of writing t...
-Judas Tree
The tradition that Judas hanged himself upon a species of cercis (the oriental name for the tree) has kept his name attached to the three or four species comprised in the genus. In America the genus i...
-Jude
Jude (Gr. Saint, surnamed Thaddeus, or Lebbeus, one of the apostles, a relative of Jesus, probably a son of Alpheus and a brother of James the Less. No circumstances of his life are related. Accord...
-Judgment
Judgment, in law, a solemn determination of a question, declared by a court of record. The language used in a judgment is, that it is considered by the court, etc, the theory being that the function...
-Judith
Judith, daughter of Merari of the tribe of Reuben, widow of Manasseh, celebrated for her deliverance of her native city Bethulia when besieged by the Assyrian general Holo-fernes. Mourning the death o...
-Judson
I. Adoniram, an American missionary, born in Maiden, Mass., Aug. 9, 1788, died at sea, April 12, 1850. He was the son of the Rev. Adoniram Judson, a Congregational clergyman, and descended from Willia...
-Juggernaut, Or Jagannath
Juggernaut, Or Jagannath (called by the natives Pooree), a town of Bengal, India, on the N. W. coast of the bay of Bengal, in the province of Orissa, and in the district and 45 m. 8. of the city of Cu...
-Juggler
Juggler, one who practises or exhibits tricks by sleight of hand, or who makes sport by tricks of extraordinary and deceptive dexterity. The further we go back in history, the more do we find the jugg...
-Jugurtha
Jugurtha, a Numidian king, born before the middle of the 2d century B. C, died in Rome in 104. He was the illegitimate son of Masta-nabal, youngest son of Masinissa, king of Nu-midia. Micipsa, his pat...
-Jujube
Jujube, a name given to species of zizyphus, especially Z. vulgaris, a small tree, native of Jujube (Zizyphus vulgaris). Asia, belonging to the rhamnacea or buckthorn family. The Arabic name o...
-Jujuy
I. A province of the Argentine Republic, bounded N. by Bolivia, E. by the Gran Chaco, S. by the province of Salta, and W. by Bolivia; area, about 30,000 sq. m.; pop., in 1869, including foreigners, 40...
-Jules Antoine Taschereau
Jules Antoine Taschereau, a French author, born in Tours, Dec. 19, 1801, died in Paris, Nov. 11, 1874. He was one of the editors of the National, and for a short time after the revolution of July, 183...
-Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure
Jules Armand Stanislas Dufaure, a French statesman, born at Saujon, Dec. 4, 1798. He studied at Paris, practised law at Bourges, was elected deputy for Saintes in 1834, and was continually reelected t...
-Jules Arnand Claretie
Jules Arnand Claretie, a French author, born in Limoges, Dec. 3, 1840. He was educated in Paris, and became a journalist and lecturer, but was forbidden to deliver public addresses in 1865 and again i...
-Jules Barthelemy-Salm-Hilaire
Jules Barthelemy-Salm-Hilaire, a French savant, born in Paris, Aug. 19, 1805. He was employed in the ministry of finance and as assistant professor of French literature in the polytechnic school till ...
-Jules Gabriel Janin
Jules Gabriel Janin, a French author, born of Jewish parents at St. Etienne, Dec. 11, 1804, died at Passy, June 20, 1874. He completed his classical studies at the college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, ...
-Jules Jules Francois Suisse-Simox (Simon)
Jules Jules Francois Suisse-Simox (Simon), a French statesman, born in Lorient, Dec. 31, 1814. After teaching in various places, he lectured in 1838 at the normal school in Paris. In 1839 he succeeded...
-Jules Marcou
Jules Marcou, a French geologist, born at Salms, in the department of Jura, April 20, 1824. He completed his studies at the col-lege. St. boms in Paris, and published in 1846, in the memoirs of the ge...
-Jules Mazarix
Jules Mazarix (Ital. Mazarini, or Mazza-rino, Giulio), cardinal, a French statesman, born at Piscina, in the kingdom of Naples, or according to some in Rome, July 14, 1602, died in Paris, March 9, 166...
-Jules Michelet
Jules Michelet, a French historian, born in Paris, Aug. 21, 1798, died at Hyeres, Feb. 9, 1874. He studied in the college Charlemagne, and after travelling in Germany was called in 1821 to the chair o...
-Jules Sebastien Cesar Dumont Durville
Jules Sebastien Cesar Dumont D'Urville,, a French navigator, born at Conde-sur-Noireau, May 23, 1790, died May 8,1842. In 1819-'20 he visited the Grecian archipelago and the shores of. the Black sea, ...
-Julia Brace
Julia Brace, a blind deaf mute, born at Newington, Conn.,* in 1806. She lost both sight and hearing at the age of 4 1/2 years, and soon forgot the few words she had learned to speak. In 1825 she enter...
-Julia Pardoe
Julia Pardoe, an English author, born in Beverley, Yorkshire, in 1806, died Nov. 26, 1862. She produced a volume of poems when she was 13 years old, and a novel at 15; but her first important work was...
-Julian
Julian (Flavius Claudius Julianus), sur-named the Apostate, a Roman emperor, born in Constantinople, Nov. 17, A. D. 331, died in Persia, June 26, 363. He was the son of Julius Constantius, the grandso...
-Julian Ersin Memcewicz
Julian Ersin Memcewicz, a Polish author, born at Skoki, Lithuania, in 1757, died in Paris, May 21, 1841. He was educated in the military academy of Warsaw, and became an adjutant of Czartoryski; but h...
-Julian Jakob Berzelius
Julian Jakob Berzelius, baron, a Swedish chemist, born at Vafversunda, district of Linko-ping, Aug. 20, 1779, died in Stockholm, Aug. 7, 1848. His father was government schoolmaster in his native vill...
-Juliane De Vietinghoff Krudener
Juliane De Vietinghoff Krudener, baroness, a Russian novelist and mystic, born in Riga, Nov. 21, 1764, died in Karasu-Bazar, Crimea, Dec. 25, 1824. She was carefully educated in the house of her fathe...
-Julias Mosen
Julias Mosen, a German poet, born at Ma-rieney, Saxony, July 8,1803, died Oct. 10, 18G7. He was the son of a schoolmaster, and studied jurisprudence at Jena and Leipsic. After filling some inferior ju...
-Julias Robert Mayer
Julias Robert Mayer, a German physicist, born in Heilbronn, Wiirtemberg, Nov. 25, 1814. He received his early education in the gymnasium of Heilbronn, and studied medicine at Tirbingen, finishing his ...
-Julich
Julich (Fr. Juliers), a town of Prussia, in the province of the Rhine, capital of a circle celebrated for fertility, in the district and 17 m. N. E. of the city of Aix-la-Chapelle; pop. in 1871, 5,244...
-Julie Jeanne Eleonore De Lespinasse
Julie Jeanne Eleonore De Lespinasse, a French lady remarkable for her intellectual gifts and accomplishments, born in Lyons, Nov. 19, 1732, died in Paris, May 23, 1776. She was the illegitimate daught...
-Julien Offray De La Mettrie
Julien Offray De La Mettrie, a French physician and philosopher, born in St. Malo, Dec. 25, 1709, died in Berlin, Nov. 11, 1751. He was the son of a rich merchant, received a liberal education, and wa...
-Julius Adolf Stockhardt
Julius Adolf Stockhardt, a German chemist, born at Rohrs-dorf, Saxony, Jan. 4, 1809. After serving in a pharmacy, he taught natural sciences at Dresden in 1838-'9, afterward at Chemnitz till 1847, and...
-Julius Jakob Yon Haynau
Julius Jakob Yon Haynau, an Austrian soldier, born in Cassel, Oct. 14, 1786, died in Vienna, March 14, 1853. He was an illegitimate son of the elector William I. of Hesse-Cassel, who while stationed w...
-Julius Pollux
I. A Greek Grammarian And Sophist A Greek Grammarian And Sophist, born at Naucratis in Egypt, flourished about A. D. 183. He studied at Athens, where subsequently he taught grammar and rhetoric. His ...
-Julius Schnorr Von Karolsfeld
Julius Schnorr Von Karolsfeld, a German painter, born in Leipsic, March 26, 1794, died in Dresden, May 24, 1872. He was the son of the painter Veit Hans Schnorr (1764-1841), and studied under his fath...
-Julius, The Name Of Three Popes
I. Saint, born in Rome, died there, April 12, 352. He was chosen pope, Feb. 6, 337. He sustained Athanasius in his contest with the Arians, and summoned a council in 342, in which the course of Athana...
-Jumna
Jumna, a river of Hindostan, and the principal tributary of the Ganges. It rises in Gur-whal, near the S. base of the Himalaya, in lat. 31 N, lon. 78 32' E. at the foot of a group of hills c...
-June
June, the sixth month of the year, consisting of 30 days. The name is variously derived from juniores (the young men), to whom Romulus is said to have assigned it, as he assigned May to the elders; fr...
-June Berry
June Berry, one of the common names for amelanchier Canadensis, a rosaceous shrub or small tree, which botanically differs from py-rus, the genus of the apple and pear, only in the number of cells in ...
-Jung, Or Jungius, Joachim
Jung, Or Jungius, Joachim, a German philosopher, born in Lubeck, Oct. 22, 1587, died in Hamburg, Sept. 23, 1657. He was professor of mathematics at Giessen from 1609 to 1614. He subsequently studied ...
-Jung-Stilling
Jung-Stilling (Johann Heinrich Jung), a German mystic, born at Im-Grund, Nassau, Sept. 12,1740, died in Carlsruhe, April 2, 1817. After being successively a charcoal burner, tailor, and teacher, he be...
-Juniata
Juniata, a river of Pennsylvania, formed in the S. central part of the state, by the junction of the Little Juniata and Frankstown branch, which rise at the foot of the Alleghany mountains, in Blair a...
-Juniper
Juniper (juniperus, the ancient Latin name), a genus of evergreen shrubs and trees, of the cypress subfamily of the order coniferce. The leaves in this genus are awl-shaped or scalelike, rigid, and so...
-Juno
Juno, called by the Greeks Hera, in ancient mythology, a daughter of Saturn and Rhea, and the sister and wife of Jupiter. She bore the same relation to women that Jupiter did to men, and was treated w...
-Jupiter
Jupiter (Lat. gen. Jovis, whence the English form Jove), called Zeus by the Greeks, the greatest of the Greek and Roman gods, son of Saturn and Rhea, and brother of Neptune, Pluto, Vesta, Ceres, and J...
-Jupiter (2)
Jupiter, the largest member of our planetary system, and the fifth in order of distance from the sun, so far as the primary members of the system (omitting the asteroids) are concerned. It is designat...
-Jura
Jura, an island off the W. coast of Argyle-shire, Scotland, one of the inner Hebrides; area, about 85 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 761. It is separated from the mainland on the east by the sound of Jura, abo...
-Jury
Jury, a chosen body of men whose duty it is either to judge or determine certain questions of fact submitted to them, or to inquire into the existence of certain alleged facts. Upon the jury a very la...
-Justice Of The Peace
In the English law, justices of the peace are judges of record appointed by the king's commission to be justices within certain limits, for the conservation of the peace and the execution of divers t...
-Justin
Justin (Flavius Anicius Justestus). I. The Elder, Byzantine emperor, born of a family of barbarian peasants at Tauresium, a village near Sardica (now Sophia), in Bulgaria, in 450, died in 527. He went...
-Justin Edwards
Justin Edwards, an American clergyman, born in Westhampton, Mass., April 25, 1787, died at Virginia Springs, July 23, 1853. He graduated at Williams college in 1810, settled in the ministry at Andover...
-Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr (Flavius Justinus), the earliest of the church fathers after the apostolic age, born at Flavia Neapolis (the modern Na-blus), in Samaria, about 105, died in Rome about 165. His parents w...
-Justin Mccarthy
Justin Mccarthy, an Irish author, born in Cork, Nov. 22, 1830. From 1846 to 1853 he was connected with the Cork Examiner, and then joined the staff of the Northern Times at Liverpool. In 1860 he ...
-Justin Perkins
Justin Perkins, an American missionary, born at West Springfield, Mass., March 12, 1805, died at Chicopee, Mass., Dec. 31, 1869. He graduated at Amherst college in 1829, spent two years in Andover th...
-Justus Moser
Justus Moser, a German author, born in Osnabriick, Dec. 14, 1720, died there, Jan. 8, 1794. He studied jurisprudence at Jena and Gottingen, and became government attorney in 1747; and for 20 years dur...
-Justus Von Liebig
Justus Von Liebig, baron, a German chemist, born in Darmstadt, May 12, 1803, died in Munich, April 18, 1873. While a youth he was taught in the gymnasium of his native town; and, after spending ten mo...
-Jute
Jute, the fibre of corchorus capsularis and other species; the name is also applied to the plant which furnishes the fibre. The genus corchorus belongs to the order tiliacece, of which the linden or b...
-Jutland
Jutland (Dan. Jylland), an irregular peninsula, forming a province of the kingdom of Denmark, lying between lat. 55 18' and 57 45' N., and lon. 8 5' and 10 57' E., bounded N. by th...
-Juvenal
Juvenal (Juvenalis), Defining Junius, a Roman satirical poet, flourished in the latter part of the 1st century A. D. and in the first quarter of the 2d. The only certain facts in his personal history ...
-Kaffa, Or Kafa
Kaffa, Or Kafa, a country of E. Africa, lying S. of Abyssinia and W. of Somauli. It consists of an extensive table land, between two branches of the river Gojeb or Godafo, at an elevation of about 5,0...
-Kairvan, Or El Kirwan Kairwan
Kairvan, Or El Kirwan Kairwan, a city of Tunis, Africa, 80 m. S. of the city of Tunis; pop. estimated at 15,000. It is situated on a height commanding a large sandy plain, and is surrounded by a crene...
-Kakodyle, Or Cacodyle (As2c4h12)
Kakodyle, Or Cacodyle (As2c4h12), a coupled compound of arsenic and methyle, expressed by the name arsendimethyle. The substance is a highly poisonous liquid, heavier than water, gives forth vapors of...
-Kalamata
Kalamata, a town of Greece, capital of the nomarchy of Messenia and of an eparchy of the same name, about 1 m. from the gulf of Koron in the south of the Peloponnesus; pop. about 6,200. It is the seat...
-Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo, a S. W. county of the S. peninsula of Michigan, drained by the Kalamazoo and affluents of St. Joseph's river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 32,054. The surface is level or undulating, wit...
-Kaleidoscope
Kaleidoscope (Gr. beautiful, a form, and to see), an optical instrument for multiplying the reflected images of small colored objects, producing by the symmetry of their arrangement patterns of...
-Kalidasa
Kalidasa, an Indian poet, who, according to tradition, lived at the court of King Vikrama-ditya, in the 1st century B. C. He was one of the poets called the nine precious stones of the court. Vikramad...
-Kalispels, Or Pends Doreilles
Kalispels, Or Pends D'Oreilles, a tribe of Indians, of the Selish family, living in Montana, Idaho, Washington territory, and British America. They are a brave but peaceable and good-tempered race, wi...
-Kalkbremer
I. Christian, a German composer, born in Minden, Sept. 22, 1755, died in Paris, Aug. 10,1806. He was for a number of years in the service of Prince Henry of Prussia, the brother of Frederick the Great...
-Kalmia
Kalmia, a genus of handsome flowering, evergreen, North American shrubs of the order ericaceae, named in honor of Peter Kalm. They are popularly known as laurels, but are not related to laurus, the tr...
-Kaluga
I. A central government of Russia, bordering on Smolensk, Moscow, Tula, and Orel; area, 11,927 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 984,255. The surface is in general very level. It is watered by numerous rivers, th...
-Kameela, Or Kamala
Kameela, Or Kamala, the glandular powder and hairs obtained from the capsules of Rott-lera tinctoria, a small tree of the order euphor-biacece growing in the East Indies. The finest, consisting of rou...
-Kamehameha
Kamehameha, the name of a line of sovereigns of the Hawaiian islands. I. Called Nui (the Great), born in 1753, died at Kailua, on the island of Hawaii, May 8,1819. He was the son of Keoua, a powerful ...
-Kampfer, Or Kaempfer, Engelbrecht
Kampfer, Or Kaempfer, Engelbrecht, a German traveller, born in Lemgo, Lippe-Detmold, in 1651, died in Detmold, Nov. 2, 1716. He studied at Konigsberg, and accompanied as secretary a Swedish ambassador...
-Kamtchatka
Kamtchatka, a large peninsula of the Rus-sian empire, in the N. E. of Asia, about 800 m. long from N. to S., and of irregular breadth, the maximum, along the 56th parallel of latitude, being about 250...
-Kanagawa
Kanagawa, a town of Japan, on the W. side of a harbor in the bay of Yedo, and 16 m. S. S. W. of Tokio (Yedo); pop. about 4,000. In the town and vicinity are several famous temples and remains of old f...
-Kane
I. A N. E. county of Illinois, drained by Fox river; area, 540 sq. m., pop. in 1870, 39,091. The surface consists chiefly of rolling prairie, diversified by numerous small tracts of timber. The soil i...
-Kangaroo
Kangaroo, a marsupial animal, whose numerous species constitute the family macro-podidae, peculiar to Australia and the neighboring islands. (See Marsupials.) The dentition is as follows: incisors 6/2...
-Kano
Kano, a city of central Africa, capital of a province of the same name in Iloussa, situated on a fertile plain in lat. 12 0' 19 N. and Ion. 8 40' E.; pop. about 40,000, nearly half of whom ...
-Kansas
Kansas, a tribe of Indians of the Dakota family, who have given their name to one of the states of the Union. They are an offshoot of the Osages, and resemble them in person, character, customs, and l...
-Kansas (2)
Kansas, a western state of the American Union, the 21st admitted, lying between lat. 37 and 40 N., and Ion. 94 40' and 102 W., bounded N. by Nebraska, E. by Missouri, S. by Indian ...
-Kansas City
Kansas City, a city of Jackson co., Missouri, the second in the state in population and importance, situated on the right bank of the Missouri river, just below the mouth of the Kansas river, and near...
-Kars
Kars, a fortified city of Turkish Armenia, seat of a pasha, situated on a rugged plain, 6,000 to 7,000 ft. above the sea, on the Kars, a branch of the Arpatchai, a tributary of the Kars. Aras or ...
-Karaites, Or Caraites
Karaites, Or Caraites (Heb. Karaim, readers, scripturists), a Jewish sect, existing in Russia (chiefly in the Crimea), Austria (Gali-cia), Turkey, and other countries of the East, whose distinguishing...
-Karak
Karak, a small rocky island in the Persian gulf, in lat, 29 14' N., Ion. 50 20' E., about 15 m. in circumference, and 40 m. N. W. of Bushire; pop. about 3,000. It affords a safe anchorage, e...
-Karamania, Or Karaman Caramania
Karamania, Or Karaman Caramania, the former designation of a province of Asiatic Turkey, in the south of Asia Minor, now included in the vilayet of Konieh, mainly between lat. 37 and 39 N., ...
-Karamsin
Karamsin (properly Karamzin), Nikolai Mi-khailovitch, a Russian historian, born in eastern Russia in December, 1765, died in the Tauridan palace near St. Petersburg, June 3, 1826. He studied in Moscow...
-Karasu -Bazar
Karasu -Bazar, a town of the Crimea, in the government of Taurida, and in the circle and 28 m. E. N. E. of the city of Simferopol; pop. in 1867, 14,397, chiefly Tartars, but including also Armenians, ...
-Karians Kayrens Karens
Karians Kayrens Karens, or Rarrans, a rude people of Burmah, Siam, and parts of China, supposed to extend from lat. 10 to 28 N. They inhabit the jungles and mountainous districts, and number...
-Karl August Hase
Karl August Hase, a German theologian, born at Steinbach, Saxony, Aug. 25,1800. He studied theology at the universities of Leipsic, Er-angen, and Tubingen, was imprisoned for five months in 1819 on ac...
-Karl August Lndwig Philipp Varnhagen Von Ense
Karl August Lndwig Philipp Varnhagen Von Ense, a German author, born in Diisseldorf, Feb. 21, 1785, died in Berlin, Oct. 10, 1858. He studied in Berlin and at various periods in Halle and Tubingen, an...
-Karl August Vou Hardenberg
Karl August Vou Hardenberg, prince, a German statesman, born at Essenroda, Hanover, May 31, 1750, died in Genoa, Nov. 26, 1822. He received a brilliant education, travelled extensively abroad, and on ...
-Karl Bund
Karl Bund, a German political agitator, born in Mannheim, Sept. 4, 1820. While studying law in Heidelberg he was twice arrested for political offences, and spent several months in orison. He was banis...
-Karl Casar Von Leonhard
Karl Casar Von Leonhard, a German geologist, born at Rumpelheim, near Hanau, Sept. 12, 1779, died in Heidelberg, Jan. 23, 1862. He was educated at Marburg and Gottingen, was employed in making several...
-Karl Daub
Karl Daub, a German theologian, born in Cassel, March 20, 1765, died in Heidelberg, Nov. 22, 1836. He was educated at the gymnasium of Cassel and the university of Marburg, where he remained three yea...
-Karl Ferdinand Buol-Schauenstein
Karl Ferdinand Buol-Schauenstein, count von, an Austrian statesman, born May 17,1797, died in Vienna, Oct. 28, 1865. He was descended from an ancient Grison family, and under the direction of his fath...
-Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow
Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow , a German author, born in Berlin, March 17, 1811. While studying theology and philosophy at the university, he published in 1831 Forum der Journallitera-tur. His next work was ...
-Karl Friedrich Burdach
Karl Friedrich Burdach, a German physiologist, born at Leipsic, June 12, 1776, died July 16, 1847. He graduated in medicine at Leipsic in 1800, and in 1811 became professor of physiology in the univer...
-Karl Friedrich Lessing
Karl Friedrich Lessing, a German painter, grand-nephew of the preceding, born in War-tenberg, Silesia, Feb. 15, 1808. His father, an officer of the Prussian government, placed him when about 12 years ...
-Karl Friedrich Neumam
Karl Friedrich Neumam, a German orientalist, born of Jewish parents at Reichmannsdorf, near Bamberg, Dec. 22, 1798, died in Berlin, March 117, 1870. He studied at Heidelberg, Munich, and Gottingen, an...
-Karl Friedrich Von Ledebour
Karl Friedrich Von Ledebour, a German traveller, born in Stralsund, July 8, 1785, died in Munich, July 4, 1851. He graduated at Stockholm as doctor of philosophy at an early age, and was appointed in ...
-Karl Friedridi Philipp Von Martius
Karl Friedridi Philipp Von Martius, a German traveller, born in Erlangen in 1794. died in Munich, Dec. 13, 1868. He graduated as a physician at the university of his native town, and from 1817 to 1820...
-Karl Friedrieh Zelter
Karl Friedrieh Zelter, a German composer, born in Berlin, Dec. 11, 1758, died there, May 15, 1832. He was bred a mason and builder. Forbidden to indulge his musical tastes, he secretly walked to Potsd...
-Karl Gnstaf Wrangel
Karl Gnstaf Wrangel, count, a Swedish soldier, born Dec. 13,1613, died in the island of Rugen in July, 1676. In the thirty years' war he served under Gustavus Adolphus, Bernhard of Weimar, Baner, and ...
-Karl Gnstav Bischof
Karl Gnstav Bischof, a German chemist and geologist, born at Word, a suburb of Nuremberg, Jan. 18, 1792, died in Bonn, Nov. 30, 1870. He studied at Erlangen, devoting himself at first to mathematics a...
-Karl Gottlob Zumpt
Karl Gottlob Zumpt, a German scholar, born in Berlin, March 20, 1792, died in Karlsbad, June 25, 1849. He studied under Creuzer in Heidelberg, and under Wolf and Böckh in Berlin, and was successively ...
-Karl Gustav Carls
Karl Gustav Carls, a German physician and naturalist, born in Leipsic, Jan. 3, 1789, died in Dresden, July 28, 1869. After studying in the gymnasium and university of his native place, he devoted hims...
-Karl Gutzlaff
Karl Gutzlaff, a German missionary, born in Pyritz, Pomerania, July 8, 1803, died in Victoria, Hong Kong, Aug. 9, 1851. He was born of poor parents, and was apprenticed to a belt maker at Stettin. A s...
-Karl Heinrich Schultz-Schultzenstein
Karl Heinrich Schultz-Schultzenstein, a German physiologist, born at Alt-Ruppin, Prussia, July 8, 1798, died in Berlin, March 27, 1871. He graduated at Berlin, where he became in 1825 extraordinary, a...
-Karl Joseph Anton M1ttermaier
Karl Joseph Anton M1ttermaier, a German jurist, born in Munich, Aug. 5, 1787, died in Heidelberg. Aug. 28, 1867. He studied at Landshut and Heidelberg, was for many years professor in the former unive...
-Karl Joseph Von Hefele
Karl Joseph Von Hefele, a German historian, born at Unterkochen, Wurtemberg, March 15, 1809. He studied at Ellwangen and Ehingen, graduated in 1834 at the university of Tubingen, and became in 1840 pr...
-Karl Klans Von Der Decken
Karl Klans Von Der Decken, a German traveller, born at Kotzen, Prussia, Aug. 8, 1833, killed at Berderah, E. Africa, Oct. 3, 1865. He entered the Hanoverian army in 1850, but left the service in 1860,...
-Karl Lebrecht Immermann
Karl Lebrecht Immermann, a German author, born in Magdeburg, April 24, 1796, died in Dusseldorf, Aug. 25, 1840. He qualified himself at Jena for the Prussian judiciary service, in which he found emplo...
-Karl Lndwig Michklet
Karl Lndwig Michklet, a German philosopher, born in Berlin, Dec. 4, 1801. He was educated at the university of Berlin, receiving the degree of Ph. D, in 1824. The principles contained in bis inaugural...
-Karl Ludwig Von Pollnitz
Karl Ludwig Von Pollnitz, baron, a German writer of French memoirs, born near Cologne, Feb. 25, 1692, died in Berlin, June 23, 1775. He was highly educated, and was attached successively to the servic...
-Karl Mack Yon Leiberich
Karl Mack Yon Leiberich, baron, an Austrian general, born at Neuslingen, Franconia, Aug. 25, 1752, died at St. Polten, near Vienna, Oct. 22,1828. He rose from humble life, served in Turkey under Laudo...
-Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst Von Weber
Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst Von Weber, baron, a German composer, born at Eutin near Lübeck, Dec. 18, 1786, died in London, June 5, 1826. His father, who was a musician, gave him a liberal education and...
-Karl Marx
Karl Marx, a German socialist, born in Treves in 1818. He completed Lis studies in Bonn and Berlin, and became in 1842 chief editor of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne. That journal being suppressed ...
-Karl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai
Karl Otto Ehrenfried Nicolai, a German composer, born in Königsberg, June 9, 1810, died in Berlin, May 10, 1849. During his childhood he learned to play the piano from his father, whose cruelty drove ...
-Karl Reichenbach
Karl Reichenbach, baron, a German naturalist, born in Stuttgart, Feb. 12, 1788, died in Leipsic, Jan. 19, 1869. He was educated at Tubingen. At the age of 16 he conceived the idea of establishing a ne...
-Karl Richard Lepsius
Karl Richard Lepsius, a German Egyptologist, born in Naumburg, on the Saale, Dec. 23, 1810. In 1828 he began the study of languages at the university of Leipsic, and continued it at Gottingen and Berl...
-Karl Robert Von Nesselrode
Karl Robert Von Nesselrode, count, a Russian statesman, born on board a Russian frigate in the port of Lisbon, Dec. 14, 1780, died in St. Petersburg, March 23, 1862. He was baptized in the Protestant ...
-Karl Rudolf Hagenbach
Karl Rudolf Hagenbach, a German historian, born in Basel, March 4, 1801, died there, June 7, 1874. He studied at Basel, Bonn, and Berlin, adopted the views of Schleiermacher, and in 1828 became profes...
-Karl Simrock
Karl Simrock, a German author, born in Bonn, Aug. 28, 1802. He qualified himself at Bonn and Berlin for the judicial service, in which he was employed from 1823 to 1830, when he was removed on account...
-Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer
Karl Theodor Bayrhoffer, a German philosopher and politician, born in Marburg in 1812. He studied law, but devoted himself subsequently to philosophy, on which subject he began to lecture in 1834 in M...
-Karl Theodor Korner
Karl Theodor Korner, a German poet, born in Dresden, Sept. 23, 1791, killed near Rosenberg, Mecklenburg, Aug. 26, 1813. His father intended him for scientific pursuits, and sent him to the mining acad...
-Karl Ullmann
Karl Ullmann, a German theologian, born at Epfenbach, Bavaria, March 15, 1796, died in Carlsruhe, Jan. 12, 1865. He was successively professor at Halle and Heidelberg, and in 1853 became bishop of the...
-Karl Vogt
Karl Vogt, a German naturalist, born in Giessen, July 5, 1817, where his father, a well known author of valuable medical works, was a professor in the university. He studied medicine, and in 1839 went...
-Karl Von Clausewitz
Karl Von Clausewitz, a Prussian soldier and military writer, born at Burg, June 1, 1780, died in Breslau, Nov. 16, 1831. He served in the army while a boy, and studied in the Berlin academy for young ...
-Karl Von Rotteck
Karl Von Rotteck, a German historian, born in Freiburg, Baden, July 18, 1775, died there, Nov. 26, 1840. He was professor of history at Freiburg from 1798 to 1818, and subsequently of political scienc...
-Karl Von Scherzer
Karl Von Scherzer, chevalier, a German traveller, born in Vienna, May 1, 1821. He learned the trade of a printer, and was employed by Brockhaus in Leipsic and in the government printing establishment ...
-Karl Willhelm Von Humboldt
Karl Willhelm Von Humboldt, baron, a German scholar, brother of the preceding, born in Potsdam, June 22, 1767, died at Tegel, April 8, 1835. In 1788 he went to the university of Frankfort-on-the-Oder,...
-Karol Libelt
Karol Libelt, a Polish author, born in Po-sen, April 8, 1807. He took the university prize at Berlin for a Latin essay on pantheism, and graduated there in 1829. Having visited Paris, he went to Polan...
-Kasbin Casbin
Kasbin Casbin, kazbin, or Casveen, a fortified city of Persia, in the province of Irak-Ajemi, 90 m. N. W. of Teheran, in lat. 36 12' N., Ion. 49 53' E.; pop. in 1868 estimated at 25,000. It ...
-Kaschau
Kaschau (Hun. Kassa), a town of N. Hungary, capital of the county of Abauj, 133 m. N. E. of Pesth; pop. in 1870, 21,742, consisting of Slovaks, Magyars, Germans, and Jews. It is situated on the Hernad...
-Kashgar
I. A province of East Turkis-tan, between lat. 36 30' and 41 N, and Ion. 72 and 77 30' E.; area, about 57,000 sq. m. It lies in the basin of the Kizil Darya and its tributaries. Th...
-Kaspar Hauser
Kaspar Hauser, a German youth, remarkable for his mysterious history, born about 1812, died at Anspach, Dec. 17, 1833. He was found in the streets of Nuremberg, May 26, 1828, dressed in the garb of a ...
-Kaspar Von Schwenkfeld
Kaspar Von Schwenkfeld, the founder of a religious sect, born in Ossig, Silesia, in 1490, died in Ulm about 1561. He was a nobleman of ancient lineage, councillor to the duke of Liegnitz and an eager ...
-Katahdin, Or Ktaadn
Katahdin, Or Ktaadn, the highest mountain in Maine, situated in the central part of the state, about 80 m. N. by W. of Bangor, and 6 m. N. E. of the Penobscot river. It is in a region difficult of acc...
-Kate Josephine Bateman
Kate Josephine Bateman, an American actress, born in Baltimore, Md., Oct. 7, 1843. At three years of age she made her debut upon the stage at Louisville, Ivy., as one of the Babes in the Wood in a p...
-Katharina Von Bora
Katharina Von Bora, the wife of Martin Luther, born at Loben, near Merseburg, Jan. 29, 1499, died at Torgau, Dec. 20, 1552. In her youth she was placed in the Cistercian convent of Nimptschen, near Gr...
-Katydid
Katydid (crytophyllus concavus, Scudd.), an American grasshopper, named from the sound of its note. It is about an inch and a half long, the body being an inch, pale green, with darker wings and wing ...
-Kauai
Kauai, the principal N. W. island of the Hawaiian group, in lat. 22 N, Ion. 159 30' W.; area, 527 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 4,961. It is irregularly circular, about 28 m. in. diameter, and mount...
-Kazan, Or Kasan
I. An E. government of European Russia, bordering on Viatka, Ufa, Simbirsk, and Nizhegorod; area, 23,727 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 1,670,337. The surface is generally flat, but in parts undulating and hil...
-Kean
I. Edmund, an English actor, born in London, March 17, 1787 (according to the suggestion of his biographer Mr. Procter, although other accounts make the year 1789 or 1790), died in Richmond, May 15, 1...
-Kearny
I. Lawrence, an American naval officer, born in Perth Amboy, N. J., Nov. 30, 1789, died there, Nov. 29, 1868. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1807. When the war with Great Britain broke out he ...
-Keechies
Keechies, a tribe of Indians, originally in Texas, apparently the same mentioned by Spanish authorities about 1780 as the Quitzeis, and then north of Bucareli. They were a small tribe numbering less t...
-Keene
Keene, a city, capital of Cheshire co., New Hampshire, on the left bank of the Ashuelot river, at the junction of the Cheshire and Ashuelot railroads, 43 m. W. S. W. of Concord, and 80 m. N. W. of Bos...
-Kehl
Kehl, a town of Germany, in Alsace-Lorraine, on the right bank of the Rhine, at its junction with the Kinzig, opposite Strasburg; pop. about 4,000. It was fortified by the French toward the close of t...
-Keith
I. George, a Prussian diplomatist, born at Kincardine, Scotland, in 1685, died near Potsdam, Prussia, May 25, 1778. He was the tenth earl marischal, and the descendant of a race who had long been gran...
-Kellermann
I. Francois Christophe, duke of Valmy, a French soldier, born in Strasburg, May 30, 1735, died in Paris, Sept. 12, 1820. Enlisting as a private in 1752, he served during the seven years' war and obtai...
-Kemble
Kemble, the name of a family of British actors. I. Roger, the founder of the family, born in Hereford, March 1, 1721, died in 1802. He was during a great portion of his life an actor and the manager o...
-Kenaians
Kenaians, the name generally given to the division of the great Athabascan family living in Alaska. The name is derived from Kenai, the peninsula between Cook's inlet and Prince William sound, but has...
-Kendall
I. A S. W. county of Texas, intersected by the Guadalupe river; area, 1,400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,536, of whom 101 were colored. Two thirds of the surface is covered with timber, and the remainder i...
-Kenilworth
Kenilworth, a parish and village of Warwickshire, England, about equidistant (5 m.) from Leamington, Warwick, and Coventry, containing the splendid ruins of Kenilworth castle. Of the original structur...
-Kennebec
Kennebec, a S. county of Maine, traversed from N. to S. by Kennebec river, and touched on the west by the Androscoggin; area, 1,050 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 58,021. It has an undulating surface, diversif...
-Kennedy
I. Benjamin Hall, an English clergyman, born at Summer Hill, near Birmingham, Nov. 6,1804. He graduated at St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1827, was elected fellow and classical lecturer in 1828, be...
-Kenosha
Kenosha, a S. E. county of Wisconsin, bounded E. by Lake Michigan and S. by Illinois, and drained by Des Plaines and Fox rivers; area, 306 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,147. It has a level and thinly timbe...
-Kenrick
I. Francis Patrick, an American Roman Catholic prelate, born in Dublin, Dec. 3, 1797, died in Baltimore, July 8, 1863. He received a classical education in the schools of his native city, and at the a...
-Kent
I. A central county of Rhode Island, bounded E. by Narragansett bay, and W. by Connecticut; area, 186 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 18,595. It has a diversified surface and a good soil, and is drained by Flat...
-Kenton
Kenton, a N. county of Kentucky, separated from Ohio by the Ohio river, and bounded E. by Licking river; area, 140 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 36,096, of whom 1,657 were colored. The surface is very uneven,...
-Kentucky
Kentucky, an interior state of the American Union, and the second admitted under the federal constitution, between lat. 36 30 and 39 6' N., and lon. 82 2' and 89 40' W. It is bound...
-Keokuk
Keokuk, a S. E. county of Iowa, drained by Skunk river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 19,434. The surface consists partly of prairie, interspersed with groves of timber, and the soil is generally fe...
-Keppel
I. Augustus, viscount, an English admiral, son of the second earl of Albemarle (a title conferred in 1695 on Arnold Joostvan Keppel, lord of Voorst, a Dutch general who accompanied William of Orange t...
-Keratry
I. Augnste Hilarion de, a French statesman and author, born in Rennes, Oct. 28, 1769, died in November, 1859. He inherited the title of count, but never- used it, and though sympathizing with the revo...
-Kerman, Or Kirman
I. A province of Persia, the ancient Caramania, bounded N. by Khorasan, E. and S. E. by Afghanistan and Beloochistan, S. by the Persian gulf, and S. W. and W. by Laristan and Farsistan; area, 75,730 s...
-Kermes Mineral
Kermes Mineral, a compound of the ter-sulphide with the teroxide of antimony. The secret of its preparation was purchased in 1720 by the French government and made public. It is prepared either in the...
-Kerosene
Kerosene (from Gr. wax), a term originally employed as a trade mark for a mixture of certain liquid hydrocarbons used for purposes of illumination. It has been prepared from bituminous coal, bitumi...
-Kerry
Kerry, a S. W. county of Ireland, in the province of Munster, bordering on the Atlantic, the estuary of the Shannon, and the , counties Limerick and Cork; area, 1,811 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 196,014, of...
-Kertch
Kertch (anc. Panticapceum or Bosporus), a city of Russia, in the Crimea, on the strait of its name or of Yenikale, commanding the entrance to the sea of Azov, lat. 45 20' N., lon. 30 28' E.,...
-Kestrel
Kestrel, a European falcon, of the genus tinnunculus (Vieill.), much resembling the Kestrel (Tinnunculus alaudarius). American sparrow hawk. This bird (T. alaudarius, Briss.) has the form and pro...
-Kewkiang, Or Kiukiang
Kewkiang, Or Kiukiang, a town of China, in the province of Kiangsi, on the Yangtse, near the N. end of Lake Poyang, 227 m. S. W. of Nanking. It takes its name from the nine rivers which flow from the ...
-Key West
Key West (Sp. Cayo Hueso, Bone Key). I. An island forming part of Monroe co., Florida, one of the Florida Keys, 60 m. S. W. of Cape Sable, the S. point of the state; pop. in 1850, 2,367; in 1860, 2,83...
-Kharesm, Or Khovaresm
Kharesm, Or Khovaresm, in the middle ages, a designation of the khanate of Khiva, and in more recent times of the central portion of it. According to eastern legends, Kai Khosru in pursuit of the army...
-Khartoom
Khartoom, a town of Sennaar, Africa, the centre of government of Egyptian Soudan, situated on the banks of the Bahr el-Azrek or Blue Nile, nearly at its junction with the White Nile; lat. 15 36' ...
-Kherson, Or Cherson
I. A S. government of European Russia, bordering on the governments of Kiev, Poltava, Yekaterinoslav, and Taurida, the Black sea, and Bessarabia; area, 27.475 sq. m.: pop. in 1867, 1,497,995, consisti...
-Khiva
I. A khanate of Independent Tur-kistan, central Asia, between lat. 36 and 44 N., and lon. 51 and 62 30' E., bounded N. W. and N. by Russia, N. E. and E. by Bokhara, S. by Afghanist...
-Khokan, Or Kokand
I. A country of central Asia, one of the three great khanates of West Turkistan or Independent Tartary, lying between lat. 39 and 43 N, and lon. 69 and 75 E.; bounded S. W., W., N,...
-Khorasan, Or Khorassan
Khorasan, Or Khorassan, a N. E. province of Persia, between lat. 31 30' and 38 40' N., and lon. 52 40' and 01 20' E., bounded N. by Khiva, E. by Afghanistan, S. and W. by the Persi...
-Khotin, Or Chocim
Khotin, Or Chocim, a fortified town of Russia, in Bessarabia, on the right bank of the Dniester, nearly opposite Kamenetz, near the frontier of Galicia; pop. in 1867, 20,917. It is surrounded by hills...
-Khuzistan
Khuzistan (anc. Susiana), a province of Persia, bounded N. and N. E. by Luristan, S. E. by Fars, S. by the Persian gulf, and W. by the Turkish vilayet of Bagdad; area estimated at 39,000 sq. m.; pop. ...
-Kiakhta, Or Kiachta
Kiakhta, Or Kiachta, a town of Siberia, near the Chinese frontier, in the Russian province of Transbaikalia, lat. 50 20' N., lon. 106 30' E., about 100 m. S. of Lake Baikal, on a small strea...
-Kiches, Or Utlatecas Quiches
Kiches, Or Utlatecas Quiches, a semi-civilized nation of Guatemala, occupying at the time of the conquest the greater part of what is now called Los Altos, or the highlands of Guatemala, including the...
-Kickapoos
Kickapoos, a tribe of the great Algonquin family, first found by the French missionaries toward the close of the 17th century on the Wisconsin, not far from the Maskoutens, a kindred tribe, who seem t...
-Kidney
Kidney, a special organ in vertebrated animals, whose office is to separate from the blood certain effete substances, to be thrown out of the system in the urine; it has no direct connection with any ...
-Kieff, Or Kiow Kiev
I. A S. government of European Russia, bordering on Minsk, Tchernigov, Poltava, Kherson, Podolia, and Volhynia; area, 19,682 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 2,144,276. Kiev is the most fertile part of the Ukrai...
-Kiel
Kiel, a seaport of Prussia, in Holstein, capital of the province of Schleswig-Holstein, and of a district of its own name (embracing Hoistein), situated on the Kieler Hafen, a fine harbor of the Balti...
-Kilauea
Kilauea, a volcano in the E. part of the island of Hawaii, in lat. 19 25' N., lon. 155 20' W. It is a pit or sunken plain 8 m. in circumference, bounded by steep or perpendicular walls, and ...
-Kildeer
Kildeer, an American plover, so called from its notes, which resemble the sounds kildee, kildee, dee, dee, dee; it is the charadrius vociferus (Linn.) or the genus aegialitis (Boie). The kildeer is ...
-Kilkenny
I. An inland county of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, bordering on Queen's, Carlow, Wexford, Waterford, and Tipperary counties; area, 796 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 109,302. The surface is generally...
-Killarney
Killarney, a market town and parish of Ireland, county Kerry, 44 m. N. N. W. of Cork; pop. of the town (which lies partly in the parish of Aghadoe) in 1871, 5,187. It is an unattractive place, contain...
-Killigrew
I. Sir William, an English poet, born at Hanworth, Middlesex, in 1605, died in London in 1693. He was educated at St. John's college, Cambridge, and became governor of Pendennis castle in Cornwall, an...
-King
King (Ger. Konig; A. S. cyng or cynig), a title of dignity designating the supreme ruler of a nation or country. The etymology of the word is far from being settled, some deriving it from the old Goth...
-Kings (2)
I. A S. Central County Of New Brunswick, Canada Canada I. A S. Central County Of New Brunswick, drained by the St. John river; area, 1,408 sq. m.; pop. in 1871,24,593, of whom 10,841 were of Irish, 8...
-King Bird
King Bird, an American flycatcher of the genus tyrannus (Cuv.), and species T. Caroli-nensis (Baird) or T. intrepidus (Vieill.); other names given to it are tyrant flycatcher and bee martin. This bird...
-King Crab, Or Horse-Shoe Crab
King Crab, Or Horse-Shoe Crab, a common name for the limuloid group of the entomos-tracan order of crustaceans, from their large size and peculiar form. This order is the lowest of the class, as the s...
-King Fish
King Fish, the common name of the perchlike, sciaenoid fishes of the genus umbrina, especially the U. nebulosa (Storer) or U. alburnus (De Kay), the former being regarded by Storer as the northern and...
-King Of Bavaria Louis I (Ludwig Karl August)
King Of Bavaria Louis I (Ludwig Karl August), born Aug. 25, 1786, died in Nice, Feb. 29, 1868. He visited Italy in 1804-'5, served in the Bavarian contingent to Napoleon's armies in 1806-'9, and marri...
-King Of France Louis IX
King Of France Louis IX.and a saint of the Roman Catholic church, born at Poissy, April 25, 1215, died near Tunis, Africa, Aug. 25, 1270. He was the son of Louis VIII. and his queen Blanche of Castile...
-King Of France Louis XL
King Of France Louis XL, the sixth of the house of Valois, and son of Charles VII. by Marie of Anjou, born in Bourges, July 3, 1423, died at Plessis-les-Tours, Aug. 30, 1483. He gave early evidence of...
-King Of Lydia Croesus
King Of Lydia Croesus, succeeded to the throne before the middle of the 6th century B. C. Writers of high repute, however, conjecture that he had already been for 15 years associated in the government...
-King Of Macedon Cassander
King Of Macedon Cassander, son of Antipa-ter, born about 354 B. C, died in 297. History gives no account of his life previous to 323, in which year he undertook a journey to Babylon, in order to defen...
-King Of Naples And Sicily Charles Of Anjou
King Of Naples And Sicily Charles Of Anjou, count of Anjou and Provence, born about 1220, died in 1285. He was the youngest brother of Louis IX. of France, and married Beatrix, the heiress of Provence...
-King Of Spain Charles II
King Of Spain Charles II., son of Philip IV. and Marianna of Austria, born Nov. 6, 1661, died Nov. 1, 1700. Philip, dying when his son was but four years old, left the kingdom under the government of ...
-King Of Sweden Charles IX
King Of Sweden Charles IX., fourth son of Gustavus Vasa, born in 1550, died Oct. 30, 1611. Eric XIV., successor of Gustavus, excited the dislike of the people, and his brothers John and Charles united...
-King Of The Romans
The coronation of Otho I. of Germany by Pope John XII. at Rome in 962 was considered as having transferred the imperial dignity bestowed by Leo III. on Charlemagne (800) from his Italian to his German...
-King's Mountain
King's Mountain, a post village in Gaston co., N. 0., in the vicinity of which is an eminence of the same name, situated in York co., S. 0., about 80 m. N. by W. of Columbia, which was the scene of a ...
-Kingfisher
Kingfisher, an extensive family of birds, with a lengthened, generally straight bill, broad at the base with acute tip, rounded wings, short tail, strong and short tarsi. The family includes, accordin...
-Kinglake
I. Alexander William, an English author, born in Taunton in 1802. He was educated at Eton and at Trinity college, Cambridge, was called to the bar in 1837, and in a few years acquired an extensive cha...
-Kinglet
Kinglet (regulus cristatus, Ray), a well known European bird, often called golden-crowned warbler and wren. It is 3 1/2 in. long, yellowish olive-green above and yellowish gray below, with an orange-y...
-Kingsley
I. Charles I. Charles, an English clergyman, born at Holne, Devonshire, June 12,1819. He is the son of the Rev. Dr. Kingsley, rector of St. Luke's, Chelsea, and formerly vicar of Holne. In his 14th y...
-Kingston
Kingston, a city and the county seat of Ulster co., New York, on the W. bank of the Hudson river, about 90 m. N. of New York and 55 m. S. of Albany, and on the N. bank of Ron-dout creek, which is navi...
-Kingston (2)
Kingston, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Frontenac co., Ontario, Canada, situated at the head of the St. Lawrence river, where it issues from Lake Ontario, and at the mouth of Cataraqui cre...
-Kinic Acid
Kinic Acid, also called cinchonic and quinie acid, a substance obtained in combination with lime in evaporating the infusion of Peruvian bark to a solid consistence, and treating the extract with alco...
-Kino
Kino(sometimes incorrectly called gum kino), a name applied to various astringent vegetable extracts. These are obtained from several distinct regions, and from trees not only of different genera but ...
-Kioto
Kioto (often called Miako, the native equivalent of the Chinese Kioto, capital, the real name being Heian or Heianjo), a city and long the capital of Japan, in the S. W. part of the main island, on th...
-Kiowas, Or Kioways
Kiowas, Or Kioways, a tribe of North American Indians belonging to the Shoshonee family. They were first brought to notice by Lewis and Clark. Their skin lodges and hunting grounds were then on the Pa...
-Kiptchak, Or Kaptchak
Kiptchak, Or Kaptchak, the name of one of the oldest Mongolian or Tartar races, and also that of the lands of S. E. Russia and W. Asia which they inhabited. Oriental authors, as Rashid ed-Din and Abul...
-Kirghisesor Kirghiz-Kaizaks Kirghiz
Kirghisesor Kirghiz-Kaizaks Kirghiz, a nomadic people of Asiatic Russia, occupying a region called the Kirghiz steppes, which extends from the Caspian sea to the Russian-Chinese frontier at the Altai ...
-Kirkcudbright
Kirkcudbright, a S. W. county of Scotland, bordering on Solway frith, which separates it from the English county of Cumberland; area, 954 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 41,852. With the county of Wigtown, whic...
-Kisfaludy
I. Karoly I. Karoly, a Hungarian dramatist, born at Tete, in the county of Raab, Feb. 6, 1788, died in Pesth, Nov. 21, 1830. At an early age he entered the Austrian army, served in Italy and in the c...
-Kissingen
Kissingen, a watering place of Bavaria, in the district of Lower Franconia, on the Saale, 32 m. N. by E. of Wurzburg; pop. in 1871, 2,591. It is walled, and has very extensive baths with five mineral ...
-Kistnah, Or Krishna
Kistnah, Or Krishna, a large river of S. India, which rises in the Western Ghauts, at Maha-bulishwar, about 40 m. from the Malabar coast, and after a S. E. course of about 800 m. discharges its waters...
-Kite
Kite, the common name of many birds of prey belonging to the subfamily milvince, characterized by moderate size, slender figure, short and weak bill with hooked and acute tip and sinuated margins, nos...
-Kkasinski
I. Waleryan I. Waleryan, count, a Polish author, born in the Polish province of White Russia about 1780, died in Edinburgh, Dec. 22, 1855. He entered the Polish civil service at an early age, and whi...
-Klamath
Klamath, a N. W. county of California, bordering on the Pacific, bounded N. by Klamath river, which also intersects it, and traversed by Trinity river; area, about 2,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,686, o...
-Klaproth
I. Martin Heinrich I. Martin Heinrich, a German chemist, born at Wernigerode, Dec. 1, 1743, died in Berlin, Jan. 1, 1817. After being engaged for some years in Berlin as a practical chemist, he becam...
-Klausenburg
Klausenburg (Hun. Kolosvar), a town of Transylvania, capital of the county of the same name, and before 1848 of the whole country, on the Szamos, near its source, 225 m. E. by S. of Pesth, with which ...
-Kleber
Jean Baptiste, a French soldier, born in Strasburg in 1753 or 1754, assassinated in Cairo, Egypt, June 14, 1800. His father, a mason, died when he was a child, and he was educated by a country clergym...
-Klikitat
Klikitat, a S. county of Washington territory, separated from Oregon by the Columbia river; area, 3,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 329. The W. part is occupied by the Cascade range, and in the extreme N. W...
-Klipsringer
Klipsringer (Dutch, cliff springer), a South African field antelope, the oreotragus saltatrix (Bodd.). The male is about 3 1/2 ft. long and 22 in. high at the shoulder; the head is short and broad, wi...
-Knight
I. Richard Payne I. Richard Payne, an English author, born at Wormsley Grange, Herefordshire, in 1750, died in London, April 24, 1824. Being a sickly child, he was not put to school, nor allowed to s...
-Knights Hospitallers Of The Order Of Saint John Of Jerusalem
Saint John Of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitallers of the Order of (also called knights of Rhodes and knights of Malta), a religious and military order which originated in the middle of the 11th century. I...
-Knights Of The Bath
Knights Of The Bath, a military order in Great Britain. This order is supposed to have originated at the time of the first crusade, but first distinctly mentioned in the reign of Henry IV. Froissart s...
-Knot
Knot, the European name of a sandpiper of the genus tringa (Linn.), one of the few birds common to the old and new worlds; other names are the ash-colored, red-breasted, gray-backed, and robin snipe; ...
-Knout
Knout (properly Knut), the Russian word for whip, and the name of an instrument of punishment formerly in use in Russia. The culprit was bound to two stakes, and received on his bare back the specifie...
-Knox
Knox, the name of nine counties in the United States. I. A S. County Of Maine I. A S. County Of Maine, bordering on the Atlantic, bounded E. by Penobscot bay, and intersected by the Medomac and St. ...
-Knoxville
Knoxville, a city and the county seat of Knox co., Tennessee, situated at the head of steamboat navigation on the right or N. bank of the Holston river, 4 m. below the mouth of the French Broad, and 1...
-Koala, Or Kangaroo Bear
Koala, Or Kangaroo Bear, a marsupial animal of the phalanger family and genus phascolarctos (De Blainville), the P. cinereus (Fisch.). The dental formula is: incisors 3/1- 3/1, canines 1/0-1/0, premol...
-Kock
I. Charles Paul De I. Charles Paul De, a French novelist and dramatist, born at Passy, near Paris, May 21,1794, died in Paris, Aug. 29,1871. The son of a Dutch banker, who had removed to France, and ...
-Koloshes
Koloshes, a name applied by the Russians to a family of Indian tribes on the N. W. coast of America, extending from lat. 54 40' to the Atna or Copper river, and comprising the Hydas, Hennegas, To...
-Kong
Kong, a mountain range of W. Africa, running E. and W. nearly parallel with the coast, on the N. frontier of Upper Guinea, and terminating on the Atlantic in a number of promontories, the principal of...
-Konieh, Or Koniah
Konieh, Or Koniah(Anc. Iconium), a city of Asia Minor, capital of the vilayet of its name, about 280 m. S. E. of Constantinople; pop. about 40,000. The stout walls which surround it were built from th...
-Konigsberg
Konigsberg, a fortified city of Prussia, capital of an administrative district and circle of the same name, in the province of East Prussia, on the river Pregel, about 5 m. from its entrance into the ...
-Konigsmark
I. Philip Christopher I. Philip Christopher, count of, a Swedish adventurer, born about 1650, killed July 1, 1694. While a colonel in the Swedish service he went to the court of Hanover in 1692. The ...
-Konrad Peutinger
Konrad Peutinger, a German antiquary, born in Augsburg, Oct. 14, 1465, died there, Dec. 24, 1547. He obtained his education in several Italian universities, and during a large portion of his life was ...
-Koomassie, Or Coomassie
Koomassie, Or Coomassie, a town of W. Africa, capital of Ashantee, about 105 m. N. by W. of Cape Coast Castle; pop. (previous to its destruction in 1874) about 15,000. Its site is on the declivity of ...
-Koorg, Or Cadnga Coorg
Koorg, Or Cadnga Coorg, a district of S. Hin-dostan, among the Western Ghauts, bounded N. by Canara and Mysore, E. by Mysore, S. by Malabar, and W. by Malabar and Canara, mainly between lat. 12 a...
-Kootenays
Kootenays, a tribe of Indians in the northwest of the United States, with some bands in British Columbia. They form a distinct family, as shown by their language, from the Flatheads, with whom they ha...
-Koran, Or Alkoran
Koran, Or Alkoran(Arab. quran, the reading, or that which ought to be read; hence, the book ), the sacred book of the Mohammedans. It is their chief authority not only in matters of faith, but in a...
-Kordofan
Kordofan, a country of E. Africa, subject to the khedive of Egypt, lying between lat. 12 30' and 15 30' N., and lon. 29 and 32 E., bounded N. by Nubia and S. by the Deir mountains,...
-Korvei, Or Corvey
Korvei, Or Corvey, a village of Westphalia, Prussia, in the district and 42 m. S. E. of Min-den, on the left bank of the Weser; pop. about 600. It is beautifully situated, and has a harbor and an annu...
-Kostroma
I. A Central Government Of European Russia I. A Central Government Of European Russia, bordering on the governments of Vologda, Viatka, Nizhegorod, Vladimir, and Yaroslav; area, 30,812 sq. m.; pop. i...
-Kotah
I. A Native State Of India I. A Native State Of India, in Raj-pootana, bordering on Boondee, Gwalior, and Indore, and bounded N. W. and W. by the Chumbul; area, about 5,000 sq. m.; pop. about 433,000...
-Kothen
Kothen, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Anhalt, 33 m. N. W. of Leipsic; pop. in 1871, 13,563. It has two Protestant churches, a Catholic church, a synagogue, a palace with a library and collection ...
-Kotzebue
I. August Friedrich Ferdinand Von I. August Friedrich Ferdinand Von, a German dramatist, born in Weimar, May 3, 1761, assassinated in Mannheim, March 23, 1819. He studied at the gymnasium of Wei-mar ...
-Kovno
Kovno (Pol. Kowno). I. A W. Government Of European Russia I. A W. Government Of European Russia, bordering on Prussia and on the governments of Courland, Wilna, and Suwalki, and nearly touching the ...
-Kronstadt
Kronstadt (Hun. Brasso), a city in the Saxon division of Transylvania, Transleithan Austria, near the frontier of Wallachia, 65 m. E. S. E. of Hermannstadt; pop. in 1870, 27,766, of whom about 10,000 ...
-Krozet, Or Crozet
Krozet, Or Crozet, a group of four small islands in the Indian ocean, between Kerguelen and Prince Edward islands, of volcanic origin, and composed chiefly of large rocks. Possession island, the large...
-Krummacher
I. Friedrich Adolf I. Friedrich Adolf, a German theologian, born at Tecklenburg, Westphalia, July 13, 1768, died in Bremen, April 14, 1845. His first appointment was to the professorship of theology ...
-Kryloff, Or Kriloff, Ivan
Kryloff, Or Kriloff, Ivan, a Russian author, born in Moscow, Feb. 13, 1768, died in St. Petersburg, Nov. 21, 1844. While a boy he wrote several comedies, and having obtained a place as clerk in one of...
-Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan, called in Chinese She-tsu And Hu-Pe-Li, the founder of the 20th or Mongol dynasty of Chinese emperors, born in the earlier part of the 13th century, died in Peking in 1294. He was the gra...
-Kuenlun, Or Kulkun
Kuenlun, Or Kulkun, a mountain range of central Asia, forming the N. boundary of Thibet, and separating it from East Turkistan, the desert of Gobi, and the Koko-nor territory. It runs from W. to E. on...
-Kulja
I. A Province Of The Russian Government General Of Turkistan I. A Province Of The Russian Government General Of Turkistan, in central Asia; area, 27,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 114,337. After the expul...
-Kulm
Kulm (Boh. Chlumec), a village of Bohemia, in the circle of Leitmeritz, 8 m. N. E. of Teplitz, noted for a battle between the allies and the French, Aug. 29-30, 1813. After his victory at Dresden (Aug...
-Kum, Or Koom
Kum, Or Koom, a town of Persia, capital of a district of the same name in the province of Irak-Ajemi, 78 m. S. by W. of Teheran. It is important from its situation on the high road between the N. and ...
-Kumaon
Kumaon, a district of the Northwest Provinces in British India, bordering on the Himalaya mountains, Nepaul, Rohilcund, the Dehra Doon, and the district of Gurwhal; area, about 7,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1...
-Kunersdorf
Kunersdorf, a village of Prussia, near Frankfort - on - the - Oder, noted for a battle fought Aug. 12, 1759. After the failure of Gen. Wedel (July 23) to prevent the junction of the Russians and Austr...
-Kurdistan, Or Koordistan
Kurdistan, Or Koordistan, ( The Country of the Kurds), an extensive region of western Asia, comprised chiefly within the basin of the Tigris, between lat. 34 and 39 N, and lon. 39 and...
-Kurile Islands
Kurile Islands, a chain of small islands in the Pacific ocean, extending from the S. extremity of Kamtchatka to Yezo, the northernmost of the Japanese islands. They lie between lat. 42 and 51°...
-Kurrachee, Or Karachi
Kurrachee, Or Karachi, .a seaport town of Sinde, India, in the presidency of Bombay, capital of a district of the same name, 91 m. S. W. of Hydrabad; pop. about 30,000. It is situated on a bay of its ...
-Kursk
I. A S. Government Of Russia I. A S. Government Of Russia, bordering on the governments of Orel, Voronezh, Kharkov, Poltava, and Tchernigov; area, 18,-890 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 1,866,859. The surface...
-Kustrin, Or Custrin
Kustrin, Or Custrin, a town of Prussia, in the province of Brandenburg, near the junction of the Warthe with the Oder, which is spanned by a bridge about 900 ft. long, on the railway from Berlin to Da...
-L. M. Lawson
L. M. Lawson, an American physician, born in Nicholas co., Ky., Sept. 10, 1812, died in Cincinnati, Jan. 21, 1864. His father was a pioneer Methodist minister who had emigrated from Virginia. He gradu...
-LL. D Brownson Orestes Augustus
LL. D Brownson Orestes Augustus., an American author, born at Stockbridge, Vt., Sept. 16, 1803. In his 19th year he joined the Presbyterian church at Ballston, N. Y., where he was at the time attendin...
-LL. D Cogswell Joseph Green
LL. D Cogswell Joseph Green, an American scholar, born at Ipswich, Mass., Sept. 27,1786, died in Cambridge, Mass., Nov. 26,1871. After graduating at Harvard college in 1806, he made a voyage to India ...
-LL. D Dana James Dwight
LL. D Dana James Dwight, an American geologist and mineralogist, born at Utica, N. Y., Feb. 12, 1813. He graduated at Yale college in 1833, where he evinced an especial love for the natural sciences a...
-La Camargue
La Camargue, an island of France, which forms the S. W. portion of the department of Bouches-du-Rhone, and lies between the E. and W. mouths of the Rhone; length N. and ft., 25 m.; greatest breadth E....
-La Cerda
La Cerda, the name of an ancient Spanish family, which traced its origin to Fernando, the eldest son of Alfonso X. of Castile, called La Cerda, or the horse's mane, from a large tuft of hair which gre...
-La Crosse
La Crosse, a S. W. county of Wisconsin, separated from Minnesota by the Mississippi river, bounded N. W. by Black river, and drained by the La Crosse; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,297. The surfa...
-La Guayra, Or Laguaira
La Guayra, Or Laguaira, a seaport of Venezuela, on the Caribbean sea, 5 m. N. E. of Caracas, of which it is the port; lat. 10 36' N., lon. 66 57' W.; pop. about 6,000. It comprises only two ...
-La Malmaison
La Malmaison, a village of France, in the department of Seine-et-Oise, about 7 m. TV. of the enceinte of Paris, noted for a palace which became celebrated through Josephine, the first wife of Napoleon...
-La Manche
La Manche, a N. W. department of France, in Normandy, bordering on the English channel and the departments of Calvados, Orne, Mayenne, and llle-et-Vilaine; area, 2,289 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 544,776. T...
-La Paz
I. A W. Department Of Bolivia I. A W. Department Of Bolivia, bordering on Peru; area, 43,051 sq. m.; pop. in 1865, 519,465, about nine tenths of whom were Aymaras. The face of the country is extremel...
-La Porte
La Porte, a N. W. county of Indiana, bordering on Michigan and Lake Michigan, and drained by Kankakee, Little Kankakee, and Gallien rivers; area, 450 sq. m.; pop. in 18T0, 27,062. The surface consists...
-La Rioja
I. A W. Province Of The Argentine Republic A W. Province Of The Argentine Republic, bounded N. and N. E. by Cata-marca, E. by Cordova, S. by San Luis, S. W. by San Juan, and W. by Chili, from which i...
-La Rive
I. Charles Gaspard De I. Charles Gaspard De, a Swiss chemist, born in Geneva, March 14, 1770, died there, March 18, 1834. In 1794 he left Switzerland on account of the political disturbances, and wen...
-La Rochejaquelein
I. Henri Du Verger I. Henri Du Verger, count de, a French royalist, born in the chateau of La Durbeliere, near Chatillon-sur-Sevres, Poitou, in August, 1772, killed at Nouaille, March 4, 1794. He was...
-La Salle
I. A S. W. County Of Texas I. A S. W. County Of Texas, intersected by the Rio Frio and the Rio Nueces; area, 1,400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 69. Water is scarce, and the county is not adapted to agricult...
-La Vendee
La Vendee, a W. department of France, formed from the old province of Poitou, bordering on Loire-Inferieure, Maine-et-Loire, Deux-Sèvres, Charente-Inferieure, and the bay of Biscay; area, 2,588 sq. m....
-La, Or La Harrbe Limousine Marche
La, Or La Harrbe Limousine Marche, an ancient province of France, bounded N. by Berry and Bourbonnais, E. by Auvergne, S.by Limousin, and W. by Angoumois and Poitou. It now forms the department of Cre...
-Labarum
Labarum, the military standard of Constan-tine the Great, adopted by him in commemoration of the appearance of the cross in the sky when he was on the march against Maxentius. It consisted of a pole o...
-Laborde
I. Jean Joseph I. Jean Joseph, marquis do, a French financier, born at Jaca, Aragon, in 1724, guillotined in Paris, April 18, 1794. He amassed a large fortune in mercantile operations, and rendered i...
-Labouchere
I. Henry, Baron Taunton Baron Taunton I. Henry, an English statesman, born in London, Aug. 15, 1798, died July 13, 1869. His father, Peter Caesar Labouchere, whose ancestors left France at the period...
-Laboulaye
I. Edouard Rene Lefebvre I. Edouard Rene Lefebvre, a French author, born in Paris, Jan. 18, 1811. He studied law, and became known first by his Histoire du droit de propriete fonciere en Europe depui...
-Labrador
Labrador, a peninsula of British North America, on the Atlantic coast, between lat. 49 and 63 N., and lon. 56 and 79 W., comprising in its fullest sense all that territory bounded ...
-Labrador Tea
Labrador Tea (ledum latifolium), an interesting low evergreen shrub belonging to the heath family, and to the same suborder with the kalmia, the rhododendron, and the azalea. It is found in moist plac...
-Labuan
Labuan, a British island in the Malay archipelago, off the N. W. coast of Borneo, in lat. 5 22' N, lon. 115 10' E.; area, 45 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 4,803. The chief settlement is at Victoria ...
-Laburnum
Laburnum, the ancient Latin name as well as the popular one for a small, hardy, deciduous tree of the family leguminosce. It was formerly placed in the genus cytisus, and is found in most works as C. ...
-Labyrinth
Labyrinth, a structure of intricate passageways which it is impossible to traverse without a clue. Three labyrinths are mentioned in ancient story. The best authenticated is the labyrinth of Egypt, si...
-Labyrinthodon
Labyrinthodon (Gr. labyrinth, and a tooth), a gigantic fossil reptile, so named by Prof. Owen from the complex laby-rinthic structure of the teeth; the same animal had been previously called chei...
-Lac
Lac, a resinous exudation from the twigs and branches of various kinds of trees in the East Indies, caused by the punctures of the insect coccus ficus, which swarms upon trees yielding a milky juice. ...
-Lacandones
Lacandones, an Indian tribe of Central America, whose territory, formerly embracing a large proportion of N. W. Guatemala, Chiapas, and perhaps Tabasco, along the banks of the river of their own name ...
-Laccadive Isles
Laccadive Isles (Sanskrit, lakke, hundred thousand, and dive, island), a group of small islands in the Indian ocean, consisting of 20 clusters, 100 m. off the Malabar coast, between lat. 10 and 1...
-Lace
Lace, a fabric of threads of cotton, linen, flax, silk, gold, or silver, interwoven to form a delicate plain or ornamental network. According to some authorities, lace was in use among the Egyptians a...
-Laches
Laches (law Fr. lachesse, idleness). The law shows no favor to either tardy or negligent suitors. Vigilantibus non dormientibus jura subveniunt (the laws assist those who are vigilant, not those who s...
-Lachlan Mcintosh
Lachlan Mc'Intosh, an American soldier, born at Borlam, near Inverness, Scotland, March 17, 1725, died in Savannah, Ga., Feb. 20, 1806. His father, John More Mcintosh, with 100 highlanders, came to Ge...
-Lachner
I. Franz I. Franz, a German composer, born at Rain, Bavaria, April 2, 1804. He studied under the abbe Stadler, and in 1834 became chapelmaster at Mannheim. In 1835 he received the first prize for sym...
-Lackawanna
Lackawanna, the name of a river and coal basin in Luzerne co., Pa. The stream rises in the N. E. corner of the state, enters the N. E. extremity of the northern anthracite coal field, along.which it c...
-Laconicaor Lacedacmon Laconia
Laconicaor Lacedacmon Laconia, the southeasterly division of the ancient Peloponnesus, bordering on Messenia, Arcadia, and Argolis. The country comprised within its boundaries is a long valley shut in...
-Lacordaire
I. Jean Baptiste Henri I. Jean Baptiste Henri, a French Roman Catholic divine, born at Recey-sur-Ource, Cote d'Or, May 12, 1802, died in So-reze, Nov. 22, 1861. He was the son of a physician who had ...
-Lacquer
Lacquer, a transparent or colored varnish for covering articles of brass or wood, either for ornament or to preserve them from becoming tarnished. Shell lac is the basis of the varnish commonly employ...
-Lacretelle
I. Pierre Louis I. Pierre Louis, a French jurist, born in Metz in 1751, died in Paris, Sept. 5, 1824. He had gained distinction both as an advocate and litterateur, when in 1778 he went to Paris, and...
-Lacroix
I. Paul I. Paul, a French novelist and historical and philological writer, born in Paris, Feb. 27, 1806. Under the pseudonyme of Le bibliophile Jacob, he wrote a number of historical tales and novels...
-Lactic Acid
Lactic Acid, a product of the decomposition of any kind of sugar in solution, induced by the presence of certain albuminous ferments, as diastase exposed for some time in solution to the air. Milk con...
-Ladakh, Or Middle Thibet
Ladakh, Or Middle Thibet, a state of central Asia, subject to Cashmere, bounded N. by East Turkistan, E. by Great Thibet, S. and S. W. by the Punjaub and Cashmere proper, and W. by Cashmere and Bulti;...
-Ladanum, Or Labdanum
Ladanum, Or Labdanum, a resinous exudation of various evergreen shrubs of the genus cis-tus, principally of the C. Creticus, found in the islands of the Grecian archipelago and the neighboring countri...
-Ladies Of The Sacred Heart
Ladies Of The Sacred Heart, a religious congregation in the Roman Catholic church, devoted to education, founded in Paris, Nov. 21, 1800. Two fruitless attempts to establish a society of women devoted...
-Ladino
Ladino, a term applied throughout Central America, and particularly in Nicaragua and Guatemala, to the mestizo or half-breed descendants of whites and Indians. It was sometimes, though rarely, used by...
-Ladislas
Ladislas (Hun. Laszlo), Saint, king of Hungary (1077-95). See Hungary. Ladislas #1 Ladislas (Pol. Wladystaw) II., king of Poland, born in Lithuania about 1350, died in Grodek, near Lemberg, Galicia,...
-Ladoga
Ladoga, a lake of Russia, the largest in Europe, surrounded by the governments of Vi-borg, Olonetz, and St. Petersburg, and lving between lat. 59 58' and 61 46' N., and lon. 29 50' and ...
-Lady
Lady (Anglo-Saxon, hlafdige; Old Eng., levedy), a title used as the correlative of lord (A. S. hlaford), or, in common speech, as the correlative of gentleman. It is supposed to have signified origina...
-Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope
Lady Hester Lucy Stanhope, an eccentric English woman, born in London, March 12, 1776, died at Jun, in the Lebanon, June 23, 1839. She was the eldest child of Charles, third Earl Stanhope, by Hester, ...
-Lady Jane Grey
Lady Jane Grey, a noble English lady, born at Bradgate, her father's estate in Leicestershire, in 1537, beheaded in the tower of London, Feb. 12, 1554. She was the great-granddaughter of Henry VII., w...
-Lady Masham Abigail
Lady Masham Abigail, the favorite of Queen Anne of England, born about 1670, died Dec. 6, 1 r.34. The place of her birth was probably London, where her father, Francis Hill, was a merchant, and marrie...
-Lady's Slipper
Lady's Slipper, the common name, corresponding to the generic one, of orchidaceous plants of the genus cypripedium (Gr.k , a name of Venus, and &#...
-Lady-Bird
Lady-Bird (sometimes called Lady-Bug), a small beetle of the trimerous division, and of the genus coccinella (Frisch). In this extensive and well known genus the body is hemispherical, the thorax very...
-Laelius
I. Cains I. Cains, a Roman general, born about 235 B. C. He commanded the fleet which captured New Carthage, in Spain, 210 B. C. He was the friend of Scipio, and commanded the left wing of his army a...
-Lafayette
Lafayette, the name of six counties in the United States. I. A N. County Of Florida I. A N. County Of Florida, bordering on the gulf of Mexico, and bounded E. and N. E. by the Suwannee river; area, ...
-Lafayette College
Lafayette College, an institution of learning at Easton, Pa., chartered in 1826. Situated in the great mining and manufacturing region of Pennsylvania, the college has special facilities for affording...
-Lafayette, Or La Fayette, Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves Gilbert Motier
Lafayette, Or La Fayette, Marie Jean Paul Roch Yves Gilbert Motier, marquis de, a general of the American revolution and a French statesman, born at the chateau of Chavagnac, near Brioude, Sept. 6, 17...
-Lafenburg
Lafenburg, a duchy of northern Germany, since 1865 united with the crown of Prussia, but in point of administration entirely independent. It borders on Lubeck, Mecklenburg, Hamburg, and the Prussian p...
-Lagos
Lagos, a seaport town of Portugal, in the province of Algarve, 110 m. S. S. E. of Lisbon, on the N. W. shore of Lagos bay; pop. about 8,000. It is well built, and contains three churches, three conven...
-Lago Maggiore
Lago Maggiore (anc. Lacus Verbanus), a lake of N. Italy and Switzerland, enclosed by Lombardy, Piedmont, and the canton of Ticino; length 40 m.; average breadth 2 m., greatest breadth 5 m.; greatest d...
-Lagostomis
Lagostomis, a genus of mammals of the chinchilla family, inhabiting the vast plains east of the Andes. There is but one species, L. tricho-dactylus, the viscacha or biscaho. The anterior feet are four...
-Lagotis
Lagotis (Bennett), or Lagidium, a genus of the chinchilla family, having the following dental formula: incisors 2/2; molars 4/4-4/4 = 20. The incisors are sharpened, and each molar consists of three c...
-Lahore
Lahore, a city of India, capital of the Pun-jaub, about 1 m. from the E. bank of the Ra-vee, in lat. 31 36' N., lon. 74 21' E., 265 m. N. W. of Delhi; pop. in 1871, 98,924. It is walled with...
-Lais
Lais, the name of two celebrated courtesans of ancient Greece. I* The elder Lai's lived in the time of the Peloponnesian war, and is generally supposed to have been a native of Corinth. She was consid...
-Lajos Louis (Kossuth)
Lajos Louis (Kossuth), a Hungarian patriot, born at Monok, county of Zemplen, April 27, 1802. His family, of Slavic descent, were Lutherans and noble. His father, a lawyer, gave his children a liberal...
-Lake (2)
Lake, the name of nine counties in the United States. I. The N. W. County Of Tennessee I. The N. W. County Of Tennessee, bounded N. by Kentucky, W. by the Mississippi river, which separates it from ...
-Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain, lies between New York and Vermont, and extends from Whitehall in the former state to St. John's in Canada. It is 120 m. long, and varies in breadth from 40 rods to 15 m. Its greatest b...
-Lake Dwellings
Lake Dwellings, a class of prehistoric habitations existing in some form in various parts of the world, but found in greatest perfection and most thoroughly explored in Switzerland. In Scotland and Ir...
-Lake Erie
Lake Erie, the most southern of the five great lakes of the northern United States and of Canada, and the lowest of the chain, except Lake Ontario, which lies below it to the northeast. It is bounded ...
-Lake Huron
Lake Huron, one of the great lakes on the boundary between the United States and British America, lying between lat. 43 and 46 15' N., and Ion. 80 and 84 40' W. It receives at its ...
-Lake Managia
Lake Managia, a beautiful body of water in Nicaragua, about 40 m. long by16 in. wide, 157 ft. above the Pacific ocean, from which it is separated by a ridge of land 15 m. broad in its narrowest part. ...
-Lake Michigan
Lake Michigan, one of the five great lakes of the United States, and the only one which is entirely included in these states. It lies in a N. and S. direction, extending from the N. W. corner of India...
-Lake Ontario
Lake Ontario, the lowest and smallest of the chain of five great lakes of the northern United States and Canada. The name is Indian, meaning beautiful. The lake extends E. and W. about 180 m., having ...
-Lake Regillus
Lake Regillus, a small body of water in Latium, where, according to the historical legends of ancient Rome, was fought the battle which decided the fate of the last Roman king (about 498 B. C). Its si...
-Lake Superior
Lake Superior, the uppermost of the great border lakes of the United States and Canada, and the largest body of fresh water on the globe. It is included between lat. 46 30' and 49 X., and Io...
-Lalemant
Lalemant, a Parisian family, of which several members were prominent in the early French missions in Canada. I. Charles I. Charles, born Nov. 17, 1587, died in Paris, Nov. 18, 1674. He became a Jesu...
-Lamaism
Lamaism (Thibetan, bLama* lord, master, teacher), the prevailing religion of Thibet and some other parts of Asia. It is a form of Buddhism modified by the adoption of some of the doctrines and practic...
-Lamantin, Or Sea Cow Manatee
Lamantin, Or Sea Cow Manatee, a large aquatic mammal (manatus, Cuv.), which was arranged by Cuvier among cetaceans, forming with the dugong the herbivorous group of this order, the family sirenia of I...
-Lamb
I. Charles I. Charles, an English author, born in London, Feb. 18, 1775, died in Edmonton, Dec. 27, 1834. His father was servant and friend to one of the benchers of the Inner Temple, and published a...
-Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet
Lambert Adolphe Jacques Quetelet, a Belgian statistician, born in Ghent, Feb. 22, 1796, died in Brussels, Feb. 17, 1874. When scarcely 18 years old he was appointed professor of mathematics in his nat...
-Lambessa, Or Lambese
Lambessa, Or Lambese, a French penal colony of Algeria, in the province and 55 m. S. by W. of the city of Constantine, founded in 1848-'50; pop. of the town about 400, of whom half are Europeans. A Fr...
-Lambeth
Lambeth, a parish and suburb of London, 1 3/4 m. S. W. of St. Paul's cathedral, on the S. side of the Thames, here crossed by the Waterloo, Charing Cross railway, Westminster, and Vauxhall bridges; po...
-Lammas Day
Lammas Day, in the calendar, the first day of August, so called perhaps from the custom which formerly prevailed among the tenants who held lands of the cathedral church in York, England, of bringing ...
-Lammergeyer
Lammergeyer (Germ. Lammer, lambs, and Geier, vulture), or Bearded Vulture (gypaetus barbatits, Cuv.), the largest of European birds of prey. It is about 4 ft. long and 9 or 10 ft. in extent of wings; ...
-Lamp
Lamp, a vessel employed for producing light, and sometimes also heat, by the combustion of inflammable fluids, grease, or wax. The simple form of these contrivances adopted by the ancient Hebrews has ...
-Lampblack
Lampblack, finely divided carbon, obtained by collecting the smoke produced in burning oils, fats, and resins, with a supply of air sufficiently reduced to prevent perfect combustion; the aim being to...
-Lamprey
Lamprey, a cyclostome or marsipobranch fish of the family petromyzonidce (hyperoartia, Muller), and genus petromyzon (Linn.). This order, with the myxinoids, constitutes the class of myzonts of Agassi...
-Lampsacus
Lampsacus, an ancient Greek city of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the Hellespont near where it expands into the Propontis. Its original name was Pityusa, but it was colonized at an early period by ...
-Lanark
Lanark, the county town of Lanarkshire, Scotland, on the river Clyde, 656 ft. above the sea, 23 m. S. E. of Glasgow, and 31 S. W. of Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 5,099. It consists of one main and several...
-Lanarkshire, Or Clydesdale
Lanarkshire, Or Clydesdale, an inland county of Scotland, bordering on the counties of Dumbarton, Stirling, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Peebles, Dumfries, Ayr, and Renfrew; area, 888 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, ...
-Lancashire, Or Lancaster
Lancashire, Or Lancaster, a N W. county of England, bordering on Cumberland, Westmoreland, Yorkshire, Cheshire, and the Irish sea; area, 1,005 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 2,819,-495. The surface is nearly l...
-Lancaster
I. A S. E. County Of Pennsylvania I. A S. E. County Of Pennsylvania, bounded S. W. by the Susquehanna river and S. E. by Octorara creek; area, 928 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 121,340. The surface is uneven...
-Lancaster (2)
Lancaster, a city and the capital of Lancaster co., Pennsylvania, on the Conestoga river and the Pennsylvania Central railroad, in the midst of a rich agricultural region, 68 m. by rail and 60 m. in a...
-Lancelet
Lancelet (dranchiostoma or amphioxus), the lowest known of the vertebrate animals, constituting the order pharyngobranchii of Huxley, the leptocardia of Haeckel, who regards it as a primary division o...
-Lancelot Of The Lake
Lancelot Of The Lake, a hero of British mythology, one of the knights of King Arthur's round table. He was brought up at the court of Vivien, the Lady of the Lake, whence his surname. He became Arthur...
-Land Of The Don Cossacks, Or Province Of The Army Of The Don
Land Of The Don Cossacks, Or Province Of The Army Of The Don, a government of South Russia, lying between lat. 46 10' and 51 10' N., and Ion. 37 10' and 44 15' E., and bordering on...
-Landau
Landau, a fortified town of Rhenish Bavaria, on the Queich, 18 m. N. W. of Carlsruhe, on the railway from Paris to Mentz; pop. in 1871, 6,921, exclusive of the garrison. The ground plan of the rampart...
-Lander
Lander, a N. county of Nevada, intersected by Humboldt river and watered by the Reese; area, 10,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,815, of whom 218 were Chinese. The surface is diversified with mountains, hi...
-Landseer
I. John I. John, an English engraver, born in Lincoln in 1769, died Feb. 29, 1852. His reputation was founded on the engravings furnished for Bowyer's edition of Hume's History of England and Moore...
-Lanfranc
Lanfranc, archbishop of Canterbury, born in Pavia about 1005, died in Canterbury, England, May 24, 1089. He studied civil law in the university of Bologna, and after practising in Pavia established hi...
-Langbaine
I. Gerard I. Gerard, an English scholar, born in Westmoreland about 1608, died in 1658. The greater part of his life was passed at Oxford, where he was provost of Queen's college, and keeper of the u...
-Langdon Cheves
Langdon Cheves, an American statesman, born at Rocky River, S. C, Sept, 17, 1776, died at Columbia, June 25,1857. He received little early education, but was admitted to the bar in 1800, and rapidly a...
-Langnage And Literature Of Hungary
Langnage And Literature Of Hungary. The Hungarian language (Hung. Magyar nyelv) is an isolated branch of the Uralo-Altaic family, constituting a peculiar group with the now extinct idioms of the Uzes,...
-Language
Language (Lat. lingua, tongue), in a general . sense, any means of communicating thought. Man commonly accomplishes it through the organs of sight and hearing, and when these are impaired through the ...
-Language And Literature Of China
Language And Literature Of China. I. THE Colloquial Language. On the first access of Europeans to some knowledge of the language of China, the most exaggerated notions were formed of its eccentricity ...
-Language And Literature Of Denmark
Language and Literature of Denmark,. The Danish language (danske Sprog) belongs to the Gothic family of languages, which early separated into two branches : the Norsk, or Scandinavian, and the Germani...
-Language And Literature Of Egypt
Language And Literature Of Egypt. Nothing is positively known of the origin and chronology of the old Egyptian language. Though very distinct, it indicates some affinity to the Semitic languages, but ...
-Language And Literature Of England
Language And Literature Of England. The English is preeminently a composite language, made up mainly from the Celtic, Latin, Anglo-Saxon, Danish, and Norman French, with the addition of words from the...
-Language And Literature Of Greece
The Greek language is a branch of the Indo-European family, and was spoken, probably as early as 15 centuries before our era, by the Greeks in Europe and Asia Minor, and subsequently in lower Italy, S...
-Language And Literature Of Iceland
Language And Literature Of Iceland. Islenzka, or Islenzk tunga, the Icelandic tongue, is the language of the Scandinavians who settled in Iceland in the 9th century. The earliest name given to it in t...
-Language And Literature Of Italy
Language And Literature Of Italy. The term Italian language is applied in literary history to what is at present the universal vehicle of official communication, religious instruction, epistolary corr...
-Language And Literature Of Japan
Language And Literature Of Japan. The Japanese language belongs to the polysyllabic branch of the Mongolian division. In a narrower sense, it has neither common descent with nor family relationship to...
-Language And Literature Of Norway
The Norroena mdl, or northern language, now represented, with slight inflectional and orthographical variations, by the Icelandic, was the common language of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden from an unknow...
-Language And Literature Of Poland
The Polish language belongs to the northwestern group of the Slavic division of the Indo-European tongues. Its principal dialects, though not materially differing from each other, are those of Masovia...
-Language And Literature Of Portugal
The Portuguese, like the Spanish, to which it bears a strong resemblance, is one of the modern forms of the Romance language, which in the middle ages imperceptibly took the place of the Latin. It may...
-Language And Literature Of Russia
The Russian language is the most widely spread and important idiom of the great Slavic family of languages, of which it forms the easternmost branch. It is distinguished by regularity, flexibility, a ...
-Language And Literature Of Siam
Siamese is spoken from Burmah and British Burmah on the west to Anam and Cambodia on the east, and from the Malay state of Keddah on the south to the confines of China on the north. The dialectical va...
-Language And Literature Of Spain
The Spanish language sprang from the vulgar Latin, which was introduced into Spain with Roman domination, and became prevalent throughout the peninsula. But vestiges still remained of ancient dialects...
-Language And Literature Of Sweden
The Swedish is one of the Scandinavian tongues, and as such belongs to the Germanic (or Teutonic) branch of the family of the Indo-European languages. (See Germanic Paces and Languages.) Though Old No...
-Language And Literature Of The Netherlands
Under the title Germanic Races and Lan-guages, the development of the Dutch language, and the relation which it holds to the other languages of the Teutonic group, have been discussed. The Dutch alpha...
-Language And Literature Of. Javanese Java
Language And Literature Of. Javanese Java, spoken in Java and several small adjacent islands, belongs to the Malayan division of the Malayo-Polynesian group of languages, and is most closely related t...
-Language And Literature Of. The Persian Persia
Language And Literature Of. The Persian Persia, which for 900 years past has been the cultivated language of Persia, belongs to the Iranic group of the Indo-European languages. The earlier languages o...
-Languages And Literatnre Of The Celts
Languages And Literatnre Of The Celts. The various families of the race described in the preceding article termed themselves Celts (pronounced Kelts, for in all their languages and dialects the letter...
-Languages And Literature Of Ethiopia
Languages And Literature Of Ethiopia. The inscriptions on the pyramids in Ethiopia consist in part of hieroglyphs strongly resembling the Egyptian; but the language of the two countries was not the sa...
-Languedoc
Languedoc, an ancient province of southern France, bounded N. by Lyonnais, E. by Dau-phiny and Provence, from which it was separated by the Rhone, S. E. by the Mediterranean, S. by Roussillon and Foix...
-Lannt Thompson
Lannt Thompson, an American sculptor, born in Queen's county, Ireland, in 1833. He came to the United States at an early age with his mother, a widow, who settled in Albany, N. Y. While studying in th...
-Lanra Bridgman
Lanra Bridgman, a blind deaf mute, born at Hanover, N. H., Dec. 21,1829. Up to the age of two years she possessed all her faculties, but a severe illness at that time occasioned the loss of sight and ...
-Lanrence Oliphaat
Lanrence Oliphaat, an English author, born in 1829. He is the only son of Sir Anthony Oliphant, C. B., who was appointed chief justice of Ceylon in 1838. He was educated in England, and at an early ag...
-Lanrence Sterne
Lanrence Sterne, an English author, born in.Clonmel, Ireland, Nov. 24, 1713, died in London, March 18, 1768. His parents were English, and his father, Roger Sterne, was a lieutenant in Handaside's reg...
-Lansdowne
I. William Petty I. William Petty, first marquis of, better known as the earl of Shelburne, a British statesman, born May 2, 1737, died May 2, 1805. In early life he entered the army, and served with...
-Lansing
Lansing, a city and the capital of Michigan, in Ingham co., on Grand river, here spanned by an iron and two wooden bridges, 85 m. N. W. of Detroit; lat. 42 46' 28 N., lon. 84 32' 40 W.; po...
-Lant Carpenter
Lant Carpenter, LL. D., an English clergyman, born at Kidderminster, Sept. 2,1780, died April 5,1840. He was of a nonconformist family, and at an early age was adopted and educated by Mr. Pearsall, a ...
-Laos
Laos, a country of Asia, in Indo-China or Further India, bounded by China, Anam, Siam, and Burmah, and extending from about lat. 16 to 23 N., though its limits are not closely defined; pop. ...
-Laocoon
Laocoon, a Trojan hero, generally represented as the son of Antenor, and a priest of Apollo or Neptune. While the Trojans were assembled round the wooden horse of the Greeks, deliberating whether they...
-Laodicea
Laodicea, in ancient geography, the name of six Greek cities in Asia, situated in Phrygia, Syria, Lycaonia, Ccelesyria, Media, and Mesopotamia, founded by Seleucus Nicator, the first king of Syria, an...
-Laon
Laon (anc. Lugdunum Clavatum, and Bibrax Suessonum; mediaeval Lat. Laudunum), a fortified city of France, capital of the department of Aisne, 74 m. N. E. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 10,268. It is mainly b...
-Lapidary
Lapidary (Lat. lapidarius, a stone cutter, from lapis, a stone), a workman whose trade is the cutting and polishing of small ornamental stones. His apparatus consists almost exclusively of wheels or d...
-Lapland
Lapland (Lappish, Sameanda and Somella-da), the land inhabited by the Lapps, the northernmost portion of the Scandinavian peninsula and the European continent, comprised in Norway, Sweden, and Russia....
-Lapwing
Lapwing, a plover of the genus vanellus (Linn.). The bill is shorter than the head, slender, and straight, vaulted and curved at the end of both mandibles; wings very long and pointed, with the second...
-Laramie
Laramie, an E. county of Wyoming territory, bounded N. by Montana, E. by Dakota and Nebraska, and S. by Colorado; area, about 14,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,957. It is intersected by the North Platte...
-Larceny
Larceny (Fr. larcin, Lat. latrocinium, theft), the taking and removing, by trespass, of personal property, which the trespasser knows to belong either generally or specially to another, with the inten...
-Larch
Larch (larix, the ancient name), a genus of deciduous coniferous trees, of the pine subfamily. They have at times been classed with the pines and the firs, from both of which they differ, principally ...
-Lard
Lard, the oily portion of hogs' fat, separated from the animal tissues by the process called rendering, which is melting it out at the temperature of boiling water, and commonly with the mixture of a ...
-Lares
Lares, a class of inferior divinities or protecting spirits in ancient Rome, domestic and public. Their worship was closely connected with that of the manes, but only the spirits of the good were hono...
-Larissa
Larissa (Turk. Yenishehr, new town), a town of European Turkey, in the vilayet and 75 m. S. S. W. of the city of Salonica; pop. about 20,000, more than half Turks, and the rest Greeks, Jews, etc. It i...
-Lark
Lark, a conirostral bird of the family alau-didce, coming in many respects near the finches. The family characters are: a short and conical bill with the frontal feathers extending along the sides; th...
-Lark In Goldsmith Mead
Lark In Goldsmith Mead, an American sculptor, born in Chesterfield, N. II., Jan. 3, 1835. In 1852 he went to Brooklyn, N Y., where for three years he was a pupil of Henry Kirke Brown. At Brattleboro,...
-Larrey
I. Dominique Jean I. Dominique Jean, baron, a French surgeon, born at Baudean, near Bagneres-de-Bigorre, in July, 17G6, died in Lyons, July 25, 1842. He studied medicine and surgery at Toulouse, and ...
-Lascaris
I. Andreas Joannes I. Andreas Joannes, surnamed Rhyndacenus, a Greek philologist, born on the banks of the Rhyndacus in Phrygia about 1445, died in Rome in 1535. He belonged to a family which counted...
-Lassa, Or Hlassa
Lassa, Or H'Lassa, a city of Asia, capital of Thibet, situated in a fertile plain on an affluent of the Sampo or Dzang-ba-tzin, in lat. 30 48' N., lon. 91 25', 600 m. N. N. E. of Calcutta; p...
-Lasso
Lasso (Span. lazo), a cord in common use in Spanish America for catching wild cattle. It is a very strong but thin, well plaited rope of raw hide, one end of which is attached to the broad surcingle ...
-Laszlo Magyar
Laszlo Magyar, a Hungarian traveller, born in Szabadka in 1817, died in south Africa, Nov. 6, 1864. He attended the naval school at Fiume, entered the Brazilian navy in 1844, and took part in the war ...
-Laszlo Szalay
Laszlo Szalay, a Hungarian historian, born in Buda, April 18, 1813, died in Salzburg, July 17, 1864. He studied at the university of Pesth, was admitted to the bar in 1833, was a member of the diet of...
-Latakia
Latakia (anc. Laodi-cea), a town of Syria, 120 m. N. of Beyrout; pop. about 7,000. The town is on a rocky promontory, from 100 to 200 ft. high, which projects nearly two miles into the sea, opposite t...
-Lateran
Lateran, the name of a palace and church in Rome, so called from their being built on the estate of Plautius Lateranus, who was put to death by Nero for complicity in the conspiracy of the Pisos. The ...
-Lather Martin
Lather Martin, an American lawyer, horn in New Brunswick, N. J., in 1744, died in New York, July 10, 1826. He graduated at the college of New Jersey in 1762, and till 1770 taught school at Queenstown,...
-Latin Language And Literature
The Latin language is a branch of the Aryan or Indo-European family, and was spoken by the Latins, or inhabitants of Latium, in central Italy, probably as early as 10 or 15 centuries before our era. I...
-Latins Aeinilins Paulis
Latins Aeinilins Paulis, surnamed Macedoni-cus, a Roman general, the most celebrated member of the distinguished family AEmilius Paulus (or Paullus), of the AEmilia gens, born in Rome about 230 B. C, ...
-Latitude
Latitude (Lat. latitudo, breadth). I. In Geography I. In Geography, the distance of a place on the earth's surface from the equator, N. or S., reckoned in degrees, minutes, and seconds of the great ...
-Latium
Latium, one of the principal divisions of ancient Italy. The name is variously derived from Latinus, who more probably owed his to that of the region; from latere, to be hidden; from latus, broad, etc...
-Lauderdale
I. The N. W. County Of Alabama I. The N. W. County Of Alabama, bordering on Tennessee and Mississippi, and bounded S. and W. by the Tennessee river; area, 672 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,15,091, of whom 5,1...
-Laudon, Or London, Gideon Ernst
Laudon, Or London, Gideon Ernst, baron, an Austrian general, born at Trotzen, Livonia, Oct. 10, 1716, died at Neutitzschein, Moravia, July 14, 1790. He was descended from an ancient Scottish family, s...
-Laumonite
Laumonite (called by Werner efflorescing zeolite, from its property of crumbling at the touch after exposure to the air), a mineral found in cavities in amygdaloidal rocks, and also in syenite and por...
-Launitz
I. Nikolaus Karl Eduard Schmidt Von Der I. Nikolaus Karl Eduard Schmidt Von Der, a German sculptor, born at Grobin, Cour-land, Nov. 23,1797, died in Frankfort, Dec. 12, 1869. He studied at Rome under...
-Laurel
Laurel, a name applied to a number of trees and shrubs, which in many cases are not related to one another. It should be restricted to the genus laurus or true laurel, which is the type of the laurace...
-Laurens
I. A N. W. County Of South Carolina I. A N. W. County Of South Carolina, bounded N. E. by Enoree river, and S. W. by the Saluda; area, 812 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 22,536, of whom 12,632 were colored. T...
-Laurens Perseus Hickok
Laurens Perseus Hickok, an American metaphysician, born in Danbury, Conn., Dec. 29, 1798. He graduated at Union college in 1820, devoted himself to theology, was licensed as a preacher in 1822, and wa...
-Laurent Angliviel De La Beaumelle
Laurent Angliviel de la Beaumelle, a French author, born at Valleraugue, department of Gard, Jan. 28, 1726, died in Paris, Nov. 17, 1773. He became professor of belles-lettres at Copenhagen, and while...
-Laurent Clerc
Laurent Clerc, a deaf mute, one of the founders and teachers of the asylum for the deaf and dumb at Hartford, Conn., born at La Balme, department of Isere, France, Dec. 20, 1785, died in Hartford, Jul...
-Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr
Laurent Gouvion Saint-Cyr, a French marshal, born in Toul, April 13, 17G4, died at Hyeres, March 17, 1830. He studied the fine arts, and in 1792 enlisted among the volunteers who marched to the invade...
-Laurentian Mountains
Laurentian Mountains, a range of British North America, extending in its general direction from Labrador in a curve around the S. and W. shores of Hudson bay to the Arctic ocean, upward of 3,000 m. In...
-Laurium
Laurium (Gr. Aavpiov or Aavpeiov), a promontory of Greece, in the southern portion of Attica, Famous silver, lead, zinc, and antimony deposits were discovered here in very remote antiquity, were succe...
-Lausanne
Lausanne, a city of Switzerland, capital of the canton of Vaud, situated near the N. shore of the lake and 31 m. N. E. of the city of Geneva, and about 1/2 m. from Ouchy, its port on the lake; pop. in...
-Laval
Laval, a fortified town of France, capital of the department of Mayenne, on the Mayenne river, 41 m. E. S. E. of Rennes; pop. in 1866, 27,189. There is a considerable trade in wine, brandy, wood, iron...
-Lavender
Lavender (lavandula, Linn.), a genus of hoary, narrow-leaved, fragrant, sub-shrubby or perennial-herbaceous plants, of the natural order labiates, indigenous to the south of Europe, the Canaries, N. A...
-Law Merchant
This ancient phrase has been defined as synonymous with the law of merchants. It is rather the system of law which the courts of England and the United States apply to mercantile contracts. It is a br...
-Law Of Nations
Law Of Nations, according to Mr. Wheaton, maybe defined as consisting of those rules of conduct which reason deduces, as consonant to justice, from the nature of the society existing among independen...
-Law Of Patents
Letters patent are granted by the governments of various countries to secure to inventors, their heirs and assigns, for a specified period, the exclusive right to new inventions and discoveries useful...
-Lawn
Lawn, a word derived from the old English laund or lawnd, land, especially applied to untilled land left between woods, now used for any extent of grass land kept especially for ornamental purposes. W...
-Lawrence
Lawrence, the name of ten counties in the United States. I. A W. County Of Pennsylvania I. A W. County Of Pennsylvania, bordering on Ohio, and watered by Beaver river and its constituents the Mahoni...
-Lawrence (2)
Lawrence, a city and one of the shire towns of Essex co., Massachusetts, situated on both sides of the Merrimack river, here crossed by two bridges, about 26 m. from its mouth, 22 m. N. of Boston, and...
-Lawrence (3)
Lawrence, a city and the capital of Douglas co., Kansas, on both banks of the Kansas river, here spanned by two bridges, 70 m. above its mouth, 25 m. E. by S. of Topeka, and 28 m. S. W. of Leavenworth...
-Lawrence (4)
I. Amos I. Amos, an American merchant, born in Groton, Mass., April 22, 1786, died in Boston, Dec. 31, 1852. In 1799 he became a clerk in a country store in Dunstable, and soon afterward in Groton. I...
-Lawyer
Lawyer, one whose profession is to give advice and assistance in legal matters, and to prosecute and defend in the courts the causes of those who may employ him for the purpose. The designation compre...
-Laybach, Or Laibach
Laybach, Or Laibach, a town of Austria, capital of the duchy of Carniola, situated on the river Laybach, near its entrance into the Save, 45 m. N. E. of Trieste, on the railway from Vienna; pop. in 18...
-Layering
Layering, one of the processes in horticulture by which plants are multiplied. In the propagation of plants by cuttings, a portion of the stem is removed and inserted in the soil, where it takes root ...
-Laynez, Or Lainez, Diego
Laynez, Or Lainez, Diego, the second general of the society of Jesus, born at Almazan, Castile, in 1512, died in Rome, Jan. 19,1565. He received his master's degree in the university of Alcala in 1533...
-Lazar Meszaros
Lazar Meszaros, a Hungarian general, born in Baja, county of Bacs, Feb. 20, 1796, died at Eywood, Herefordshire, England, Nov. 16, 1858. He studied law at Pesth, but in 1813, on the outbreak of the ne...
-Lazarc Hoche
Lazarc Hoche, a French soldier, born at Montreuil, a suburb of Versailles, June 25,1768, died Sept. 18, 1797. He was the son of a poor workman, enlisted in the army at the age of 16, and on the breaki...
-Lazarists
Lazarists, a society of regular clerks founded at Paris in 1625, so called from the priory of St. Lazare, near Paris, their first official residence, but whose proper name is Priests of the Congrega...
-Lazaro Spallanzani
Lazaro Spallanzani, an Italian naturalist, born at Scandiano, in the duchy of Modena, Jan. 12, 1729, died Feb. 12, 1799. He studied at Reggio and Bologna, and was chosen in 1754 to fill the chair of l...
-Lazarus Bendavid
Lazarus Bendavid, a German philosopher and mathematician, of Jewish parentage, born in Berlin, Oct. 18,1762, died there, March 28, 1832. A glass-cutter by trade, he attained great proficiency in mathe...
-Lazzarom
Lazzarom (It. lazzaro, a leper), the lowest classes of the populace of Naples, including porters, itinerant venders of food, boatmen, beggars, and all without a fixed place of abode. The name is deriv...
-Le Conte
I. John I. John, an American naturalist, born near Shrewsbury, N. J., Feb. 22, 1784, died in Philadelphia, Nov. 21, 1860. He entered the corps of United States engineers in 1813, and was early employ...
-Le Creuzot
Le Creuzot, a town of France, in the department of Saone-et-Loire, 11 m. S. E. of Autun; pop. in 1866, 23,872. The town and its environs contain the most extensive iron founderies, coal mines, and mac...
-Le Mains
Le Main's, a town of France, capital of the department of Sarthe, 118 m. S. W. of Paris, on the W. bank of the river Sarthe, here crossed by three bridges; pop. in 1872. 46,981. It is the seat of a bi...
-Le Moyne
Le Moyne, a Canadian family, several of whose members performed important parts in the history of American colonization. The family arose with Charles Le Moyne, born in Normandy in 1626, died in Montr...
-Lea
I. Isaac I. Isaac, an American naturalist, born in Wilmington, Del., March 4, 1792. His ancestors followed William Penn from England, and were ministers in the society of Friends. At the age of 15 he...
-Lead
Lead, an elementary substance belonging to the class of metals, and having when pure the following characteristics: color white with bluish gray tint; lustre highly metallic; specific gravity 11.370 a...
-Leaf
The parts of a plant concerned in its nutrition are the root, stem, and leaf, which are termed the organs of vegetation. The leaf, as is the case with the others, is subject to many modifications, and...
-Lease
Lease, in law, the contract whereby one party (the lessor or landlord) transfers to another party (the lessee or tenant) the use and possession of real estate. The word is sometimes used also to desig...
-Leather
Leather (Sax. lether, from lithe, lither, soft, flexible), an insoluble compound of the gelatine and fibrine of hides and skins with tannic acid, though under the general name of leather are included ...
-Leavenworth
Leavenworth, a N E. county of Kansas, bounded N. E. by the Missouri river, which separates it from Missouri, and S. by the Kansas; area, 460 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 32,444. The surface is undulating, di...
-Lebanon
Lebanon, a S. E. county of Pennsylvania, bounded N. W. by Kittatinny or Blue mountain, S. E. by South mountain, and drained by Swatara river and its branches; area, 288 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 34,096. I...
-Lecce
I. A S. E. Province Of Italy I. A S. E. Province Of Italy, formerly called Terra d'Otranto, and forming part of the division of Apulia, though in antiquity it formed the separate division of Calabria...
-Lech
Lech (anc. Licus), a river of Germany, a tributary of the Danube, rising from Lake Formanin in Vorarlberg, Austria, at a height of 6,000 ft., E. of the Rothe Wand mountain (9,000 ft. high). Entering T...
-Lee
Lee, the name of eight counties in the United States. I. The S. W. County Of Virginia I. The S. W. County Of Virginia, bordering on Tennessee and Kentucky, and traversed by Powell's river; area, 512...
-Lee (2)
Lee, the name of a family of Virginia, descended from an old cavalier family in England. Richard Lee emigrated to Virginia in the reign of Charles I., bringing with him a numerous household, and settl...
-Leech
Leech, a red-blooded, footless, smooth-bodied, abranchiate annelid of the family hiru-dinei, and genus sanguisuga (Sav.) or hirudo (Linn.). The body is soft, retractile, composed of numerous segments,...
-Leeds
Leeds, a N. E. county of Ontario, Canada, on the N. bank of the river St. Lawrence, near Lake Ontario; area, 895 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 35,302. It has a rough, hilly surface, diversified by a number of...
-Leek
Leek (allium porrum), a plant of the same genus with the onion, a native of the shores of the Mediterranean, and naturalized in other parts of Europe. It has been long in cultivation, and was probably...
-Leeuwenhoek, Or Leeuwenhoeek, Antonins Tan
Leeuwenhoek, Or Leeuwenhoeek, Antonins Tan, a Dutch naturalist, born in Delft, Oct. 24, 1632, died there, Aug. 26, 1723. He had no learned education, and in early life was engaged in mercantile pursui...
-Lefevre
Lefevre (called also Favre, Faivre, and Faber), Pierre, the first associate in Paris of Ignatius Loyola, born at Villaret, Upper Savoy, April 13 or 14, 1506, died in Rome, Aug. 1, 1546. His parents we...
-Lefort, Or Le Fort, Francois
Lefort, Or Le Fort, Francois, a Russian general, of Swiss origin, born in Geneva in 1656, died in Moscow, March 12, 1699. He early became a cadet of the Swiss guards in the French service, entered the...
-Legacy
Legacy (Lat. legatum, from legare, to bequeath), a gift of any personal property by will. In Rome the general law determined uniformly who should succeed to the political, social, and personal rights ...
-Legate
Legate (Lat. legatus, one sent with a charge), in ancient Rome, the title given to an ambassador, or to the lieutenant of the supreme civil and military magistrate; in ecclesiastical history, the titl...
-Leghorn
Leghorn (It. Livorno). I. A Province Of Central Italy I. A Province Of Central Italy, in Tuscany, consisting of two districts, the city of Leghorn and the island of Elba; area, 126 sq. m.; pop. in 1...
-Legouve
I. Gabriel Marie Jean Baptiste I. Gabriel Marie Jean Baptiste, a French poet, born in Paris, June 23, 1764, died there, Aug. 30, 1812. He inherited a large fortune from his father, the advocate Jean ...
-Leh, Or Le
Leh, Or Le, a city of Cashmere, India, capital of the province of Ladakh, situated in the upper part of an open valley of the Himalaya, 3 m. N. of the Indus and 11,500 ft. above the sea, about 150 m. ...
-Lehigh
Lehigh, a river of Pennsylvania, rising near Wilkesbarre, Luzerne co., in the N. E. part of the state, and uniting with the Delaware at Easton after a S. S. E. course of about 90 m. In its upper cours...
-Leibnitz, Or Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm
Leibnitz, Or Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, a German philosopher, born in Leipsic at the beginning of July, 1046, died in Hanover, Nov. 14, 1710. His father, a professor in the university, died when he w...
-Leicester
Leicester (anc, Ratae), a manufacturing town of England, capital of Leicestershire, situated near the centre of the county, on the right bank of the Soar, which is here crossed by three ancient bridge...
-Leicestershire
Leicestershire, a central county of England, bordering on the counties of Nottingham, Lincoln, Rutland, Northampton, Warwick, Stafford, and Derby; area, 797 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 269,311. The surface ...
-Leinster
Leinster, one of the four provinces of Ireland, constituting; the S. E. part of the island, between lat. 52 7' and 54 6' N., and Ion. 6 and 8 3' W., bounded N. by Ulster, E. by St....
-Leipsic
Leipsic (Ger. Leipzig), a city of Saxony, in an extensive and fertile valley, watered by the Pleisse, here joined by the Elster and other small rivers, within a few miles of the Prussian frontier, 60 ...
-Leith
Leith, a seaport town of Edinburghshire, Scotland, situated on the Water of Leith at its confluence with the frith of Forth, almost adjoining Edinburgh; pop. in 1871, 44,280. Until the passing of the ...
-Leitrim
Leitrim, a N. W. county of Ireland, in the province of Connaught, bordering on Donegal bay and the counties Donegal, Fermanagh, Ca-van, Longford, Roscommon, and Sligo; area, 613 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, ...
-Leland
Leland, , Charles Godfrey, an American author, born in Philadelphia, Aug. 15, 1824. He graduated at Princeton college in 1846, and subsequently studied at the universities of Heidelberg, Munich, and P...
-Lemberg, Or Leopol (Pol. Lwow)
Lemberg, Or Leopol (Pol. Lwow), the capital of Austrian Galicia, on the Peltew, a small tributary of the Bug, 185 m. E. of Cracow; pop. in 1870, 87,105, nearly one third of whom were Jews. The city pr...
-Lemming
Lemming, a small rodent of the subfamily arvicolinae or field mice, and the genus myodes (Pallas); authors have also referred it to geo-rychus (111.), lemmus (Zinck), and hypudaeus (111.). The lemming...
-Lemnos
Lemnos (now Stalimni, Stalimene, or Lim-ni), a Turkish island in the Grecian archipelago, situated about 40 m.W. S. W. of the Dardanelles, in lat. 40 N., Ion. 25 E.; length 22 m., greatest b...
-Lemon (Citrus Limonium)
The species of the genus citrus are not very clearly defined, and some botanists have regarded the citron, orange, shaddock, lime, and lemon, usually considered distinct, as forms derived from one spe...
-Lemon Grass
Under the name of oil of lemon grass there is imported from Ceylon and other parts of the East an oil much used in perfumery. The source of this oil is according to some authorities andropogon schaena...
-Lempa
Lempa, a river of San Salvador, and the largest stream of Central America falling into the Pacific. It rises in the lake of Guija, in the N. W. corner of San Salvador, flows nearly due E. through a br...
-Lemuel Haynes
Lemuel Haynes, an American clergyman, born in West Hartford, Conn., July 18, 1753, died in Granville, N. Y., Sept. 28, 1834. His father was black and his mother white. The latter abandoned her offspri...
-Lemuel Shaw
Lemuel Shaw, an American jurist, born in Barnstable, Mass., Jan. 9, 1781, died in Boston, March 30, 1861. He graduated at Harvard college in 1800,. and became an usher in the Franklin (now Brimmer) sc...
-Lemur
Lemur, the name applied to many animals of the order qnadrumana or monkeys, of the families galeopithecidae and lemuridae, all of the old world. The galeopithecidae have been described under Flying Le...
-Lens
Lens (Lat. lens or lentis, a lentil or pea), a transparent body used for refracting light. A convex lens is usually of the form of two segments of spheres, united by their bases; such a lens is called...
-Lenawee
Lenawee, a S. E. county of Michigan, bordering on Ohio, and drained by Raisin and Macon rivers and several other streams; area, 735 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 45,595. It has a rolling surface, well wooded ...
-Lencosia Nicosia, Or Lefkosha
Lencosia Nicosia, Or Lefkosha, a town of Asiatic Turkey, capital of Cyprus, situated in the N. part of the island, 9 m. from the sea; pop. about 12,000, two thirds of whom are Turks. It is about three...
-Lennart Torstenson
Lennart Torstenson, count of Ortala, a Swedish general in the thirty years' war, born at Torstena, Aug. 17, 1603, died in Stockholm in April, 1051. In 1618 he became a page at the court of Gustavus Ad...
-Lenoir
Lenoir, an E. county of North Carolina, traversed by Neuse river; area, 390 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,434, of whom 5,532 were colored. The surface is undulating, and the soil fertile near the streams. ...
-Lenormant
I. Charles I. Charles, a French archaeologist, born in Paris, June 1, 1802, died in Athens, Nov. 24, 1859. He studied law, but during a visit to Italy became interested in archaeology. In 1825 he was...
-Lent
Lent (Anglo-Sax. lencten, Ger. Lenz, Dutch lente, spring), the springtide fast of 40 days before Easter. In the Latin church it is called jejunium quadragesimale, the fast of 40 days; and the first...
-Lentil
Lentil (Lat. lens), an esculent seed produced by ervum lens, of the pea family, and used for food from the earliest times. The lentils of Egypt used to be held in much esteem. It was a preparation of ...
-Leo
Leo, the name of twelve popes, of whom the following are the most important. I. Leo I., Saint, Surnamed The Great Surnamed The Great I. Leo I. Saint, born of Tuscan parents in Lome about 390, died t...
-Leo Africanus
Leo Africanus (originally Al-Hassan ibn Mohammed), a Moorish traveller, born in Granada, Spain, about 1485, died about 1526. While he was a child, his parents removed to Africa, and settled at Fez, th...
-Leon
I. A N. County Of Florida I. A N. County Of Florida, bordering on Georgia, and bounded W. by Ocklo-conee river; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 15,236, of whom 12,341 were colored. It has an undulati...
-Leonard Bacon
Leonard Bacon, D. D., an American clergyman, born in Detroit, Mich., Feb. 19, 1802. He was educated at Yale college and at An-dover theological seminary, and in March, 1825, became pastor of the first...
-Leonardo Botalli
Leonardo Botalli, a Piedmontese physician, born at Asti about 1530. He was educated at Pavia, and went to France in 1561, where he acquired celebrity by his controversies with the faculty of Paris on ...
-Leonardo Brum
Leonardo Brum, called Aretino, an Italian author, born in Arezzo in 1369, died in Florence, March 9, 1444. For about ten years he was secretary of the papal chancery, excepting in 1410, when he was fo...
-Leonardo Da Pisa, Or Leonardo Bonaeci Or, Bonaceio
Leonardo Da Pisa, Or Leonardo Bonaeci Or, Bonaceio, an Italian mathematician, born in Pisa about 1170; the year of his death is unknown. He is also called Fibonacci, an abbreviation of Filius Bonaeci....
-Leonardo Da Vinci
See Vinci. Leonardo Da Vinci #1 Leonardo Da Vinci, an Italian painter, born at the Vinci palace, near Florence, in 1452, died at the chateau of Clou, near Amboise, France, May 2, 1519. He was an ill...
-Leonardo Marquez
Leonardo Marquez, a Mexican general, born in the city of Mexico about 1818. Entering the army at an early age, he was engaged in several battles in the valley of Mexico against the American army in 18...
-Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler, a Swiss mathematician, born in Basel, April 15, 1707, died in St. Petersburg, Sept. 7, 1783. He was intended for the church, and entered the university of Basel; but the influence of t...
-Leonidas Polk
Leonidas Polk, an American clergyman, subsequently a general in the confederate army, born in Raleigh, N. C, in 1806, killed at the battle of Pine Mountain, near Marietta, Ga., June 14, 1864. He gradu...
-Leonine City (Citta Leonina And Borgo)
The name given to that portion of Rome comprising the Vatican basilica and palace with the surrounding suburb, which Leo IV. (847-55) enclosed with a wall. In the time of Leo III. (795-816) the freque...
-Leopard
(felis leopardus, Linn.), A carnivorous mammal of Africa and India, often confounded with the African panther (F. pardus, Linn.), but of smaller size, paler yellow color, and with more numerous rows o...
-Leopold I
Leopold I, emperor of Germany, born June 9, 1640, died in Vienna, May 5,1705. He was the fourth son of the emperor Ferdinand III., of the house of Hapsburg, and of Maria Anna of Spain, and was educate...
-Leopold II
Leopold II, emperor of Germany, of the house of Hapsburg, born May 5, 1747, died March 1, 1792. He was the son of the emperor Francis I. and Maria Theresa, and on the death of his father in 1765 succe...
-Leopold Odomell
Leopold O'Domell (Span. O'Donel, Leo-poldo), count of Lucena and duke of Tetuan, a Spanish soldier, born in Santa Cruz, island of Teneriffe, Jan. 12, 1809, died at Biarritz, France, Nov. 5, 1867. He w...
-Leopold Schmid
Leopold Schmid, a German theologian, born in Zürich, June 9, 1808, died in Giessen, Dec. 20,1869. He studied at Tübingen and Munich, became in 1839 professor of theology at Giessen, and in 1843 profes...
-Leopold Von Bith
Leopold Von Bith, a German geologist, born at Stolpe, April 25, 1774, died in Berlin, March 4, 1853. At the age of 16 he was placed at the mining academy of Freiberg, where Alexander von Humboldt was ...
-Leopold Von Ranke
Leopold Von Ranke, a German historian, born at Wiehe, near Naumburg, Dec. 21, 1795. In 1818 he became principal teacher of the gymnasium of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. In 1824 appeared at Berlin his Geschi...
-Leopold Zityz
Leopold Zityz, a German Hebraist, born in Detmold, of Jewish parents, Aug. 10, 1794. He studied under Wolf, De Wette, and Böckh in Berlin. He was preacher at the German synagogue in 1820-22, one of th...
-Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani
Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani, an Italian anatomist, born in Bologna, Nov. 21, 1725, died in Padua, Dec. 30, 1813. He studied in his native place, devoting himself especially to anatomy, and became p...
-Lepanto
Lepanto (mod. Gr. Epacto). I. A Seaport Town Of Greece I. A Seaport Town Of Greece, in the nomarchy of Acarna-nia, capital of the eparchy of Naupactus, on the N. coast of the gulf of the same name, ...
-Lepidosiren
Lepidosiren, a vertebrated animal, possessing characters of both fishes and reptiles, and alternately referred by naturalists to one or the other of these classes. This animal was discovered by Dr. Na...
-Lepidus
Lepidus, the cognomen of a distinguished Roman family of the AEmilian gens, the most illustrious of whom were the following. I. M. Aemilins I. M. Aemilins, died in 152 B. 0. He was one of the three ...
-Lepra
Lepra (Gr. scaly), a skin disease which in the most common form (lepra vulgaris) is characterized by circular patches, the centre depressed with the skin sound or nearly so, the circumference slig...
-Leprosy
Leprosy, a name under which during the middle ages were confounded tubercular elephantiasis, elephantiasis of the Arabs (Barba-does leg), the scaly diseases of the skin (lepra and psoriasis), and othe...
-Lerida
I. A N. E. Province Of Spain I. A N. E. Province Of Spain, in Catalonia, bounded N. by the Pyrenees, and bordering on France, the republic of Andorra, and the provinces of Gerona, Barcelona, Tarragon...
-Leroy Madison Lee
Leroy Madison Lee, an American clergyman, born in Petersburg, Va., April 30, 1808. He studied law, but entered the ministry of the Methodist Episcopal church in 1828. He occupied important stations in...
-Les Landes
Les Landes, a S. W. department of France, in Gascony, bordering on the bay of Biscay and on the departments of Gironde, Lot-et-Garonne, Gers, and Basses - Pyrenees; area, 3,597 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 3...
-Leslie
I. Charles Robert I. Charles Robert, an English painter, born in London, Oct. 17, 1794, during the temporary residence there of his parents, died there, May 5,1859. His father, a watchmaker of Philad...
-Letitia Elizabeth Maclean (Landon)
Letitia Elizabeth Maclean (Landon), an English authoress, born in Old Brompton, a suburb of London, in 1802, died at Cape Coast Castle, Africa, Oct. 15, 1838. At the age of 13 she began to write poetr...
-The Letter H
The H eighth letter in the Latin alpha-bet, and in others derived directly from it, as English, French, German, and Italian. It was also the eighth letter in the original Greek alphabet, where it was ...
-The Letter I
The I, 9th letter of the Latin and of most other European alphabets, derived from the 10th Phoenician, Hebrew, etc, where it is named yod (Heb. yad, hand), and considered as a consonant. A dot under o...
-The Letter J
The J, 10th letter of most European alphabets, is a spurious counterpart of the letter I. It is also called the consonant of that vowel, fulfilling that function of the original letter when it precede...
-The Letter K
The K, 11th letter of the Phoenician and other Semitic graphic systems, named Kaph (hollow of the hand), is also the 11th of the English and many other European alphabets, although the letters precedi...
-The Letter L
12th letter of the Phoenician and other Semitic graphic systems (lamed) and of most modern European alphabets, the 23d in Arabic, the 27th in Persian and Turkish, and the 11th in Greek the 12th befo...
-The Letter M
13th letter and the 10th consonant , of the English alphabet. The form of the character, like that of the other English letters, is ultimately derived, though with important modifications, from the an...
-The Letter U
THE 21st letter and 5th vowel of the English alphabet. It is not found in the Semitic languages, which have no distinct letters for vowels proper, and was probably originally wanting in the Greek, in ...
-Lettic Race
Lettic Race, a northwestern subdivision of the Letto-Slavic or Slavo-Lettic group of the Aryan or Indo-European family, embracing the Lithuanians, Old Prussians, and Letts. The Lithuanians, the inhabi...
-Lettres De Cachet
Lettres De Cachet (Fr. cacher, to hide), a kind of warrant formerly in use in France. They were so called in distinction from the lettres patentes, or open letters, which were warrants issued in the n...
-Lettuce
Lettuce, a plant of the natural order compositae, the leaves of which are largely used as a salad. It has been cultivated in England for over 200 years, and has been known from the earliest times; hen...
-Leuchtenberg
Leuchtenberg, a mediatized principality of Bavaria, in the district of the Upper Palatinate; area, about 80 sq. m.; pop. about 6,500. Capital, Pfreimdt (pop. 1,600). It took its name from a lofty cast...
-Leuidas Lent Hamline
Leuidas Lent HAMLINE, an American clergyman, born in Burlington, Conn., May 10, 1797, died at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, March 23, 1865. He was educated for the ministry of the Presbyterian church, but subse...
-Leuk
Leu'K (Fr. Loueclie), a small town of Switzerland, in the canton of Valais, on the right bank of the Rhone (which is here crossed by a bridge connecting with the road on the Sim-plon), 15 m. N. E. of ...
-Levi
Levi, the third son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia, He and his brother Simeon caused the massacre of the Shechemites and the pillage of their city to avenge the wrong done to their sister Dina...
-Levi Silliman Ives
Levi Silliman Ives, an American bishop, born in Meriden, Conn., Sept. 16, 1797, died in New York, Oct. 13, 1867. He was brought up on a farm in Turin, Lewis co., N. Y., to which his father had removed...
-Levi Woodbury
Levi Woodbury, an American statesman, born in Francestown, N. H., Dec. 22,1789, died in Portsmouth, Sept. 7, 1851. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1809, was admitted to the bar in 1812, and pract...
-Levites
Levites, in a general sense, all the descendants of Levi; more particularly those who were employed in the lower services of the temple, as distinguished from the priests, who were of the family of Aa...
-Lewald
I. Johann Karl August I. Johann Karl August, a German author, born in Konigsberg, Oct. 14, 1792, died in Munich, March 10, 1871. He passed from the gymnasium to a mercantile house, accompanied the Ru...
-Lewes (2)
I. George Henry I. George Henry, an English author, born in London, April 18, 1817. After receiving an unusually varied education, partly in England and partly on the continent, he became a clerk in ...
-Lewis
Lewis, in mechanics, an ingenious device for securing heavy blocks of stone to the tackle for hoisting. It is said to be named from Louis XIV., under whom the invention was supposed to have been first...
-Lewis Cass
Lewis Cass, an American statesman, born at Exeter, N. H, Oct. 9, 1782, died in Detroit, Mich., June 17, 1866. He was the eldest son of Jonathan Cass, who served in the revolution and rose to the rank ...
-Lewis Gaylord And Willis Gaylord Clark
Lewis Gaylord And Willis Gaylord Clark, American journalists, twin brothers, born at Otisco, Onondaga co., N. Y., in 1810. In 1834 Lewis became editor of the Knickerbocker magazine, which had been f...
-Lewis Henry Morgw
Lewis Henry Morgw, an American author, born in Ledyard, Cayuga co.. N. Y., Nov, 21, in 18. He graduated at Union college in 1840, and studied law at Rochester, where he began to practise in 1844, and ...
-Lewis Theobald
Lewis Theobald, an English author, born at Sittingbourne, Kent, died in September, 1744. He was an attorney, but did not practise. His tragedy Electra appeared in 1714; and in 1717 he contributed to...
-Lewis Warrington
Lewis Warrington, an American naval officer, born in Williamsburg, Va., Nov. 3, 1782, died in Washington, D. C, Oct. 12, 1851. He graduated at William and Mary college in 1798, entered the navy as a m...
-Lewisia
Lewisia, an interesting plant of the portu-laca family, named in honor of Capt. Meriwether Lewis, who collected it while on his early exploring expedition with Clarke. The large, thick, brandling root...
-Lewiston
Lewiston, a city of Androscoggin co., Maine, on the E. bank of the Androscoggin river, opposite Auburn, with which it is connected by four bridges, and on the Lewiston and Androscoggin divisions of th...
-Lex Loci
Lex Loci (Lat., the law of the place), in jurisprudence, a general rule that remedy for all legal wrongs must be pursued in accordance with the forms prescribed by the lex fori, the law of the forum, ...
-Lexington
Lexington, a central county of South Carolina, bounded N. E. by the Congaree and S. W. by the Edisto river, and intersected by the Saluda and N. Edisto; area, 980 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,988, of who...
-Lexington (2)
Lexington, a city and the capital of Fayette co., Kentucky, situated on the Town fork of Elkhorn river, a tributary of the Kentucky, at the intersection of the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington, a...
-Leyden, Or Leiden
Leyden, Or Leiden, (Dutch Leijden; anc. Lugdunum Batavorum), a city of the Netherlands, in the province of South Holland, 22 m. S. W. of Amsterdam and 9 m. N. E. of the Hague, on the Old Rhine, which ...
-Liad
Liad (Goldschmidt), Jenny, a Swedish vocalist, born in Stockholm, Oct. 6, 1821. From infancy she manifested a remarkable talent for singing. When about nine years old she entered the musical academy a...
-Libanus, Or Jebel Libnan The White Mountain (Lebanon)
Libanus, Or Jebel Libnan The White Mountain (Lebanon), the western of two mountain chains in Syria which are thrown off from the S. E. continuations of the Taurus range, and extend S. S. W. almost par...
-Libel
Libel, in law, has one meaning in criminal law, or as a ground for civil action, and quite another as one of the processes of legal remedy. In both senses the word is derived from the Latin libellus, ...
-Liberia
Liberia, a republic on the W. coast of Africa, between lat. 4 20' and 7 20' N., extending from the Sherbro river on the northwest, near the S. boundary of the British colony of Sierra Leone,...
-Liberius
Liberius, a saint and pope of the Roman Catholic church, born in Rome about 300, died there in 366. He was made a deacon by Sylvester I., and elected, against his will, bishop of Rome in May, 352. He ...
-Liberty
I. A S. E. County Of Georgia I. A S. E. County Of Georgia, bordering on the Atlantic, and partly bounded on the S. W. by the Altamaha river; area, 660 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,688, of whom 5,260 were ...
-Libocedrus
Libocedrus (Lat. libanus, frankincense, and cedrus, the cedar), a small genus of evergreen coniferous trees, resembling the thuja or arbor vitae, from which it mainly differs in the structure of the s...
-Libourne
Libourne, a town of France, in the department of Gironde, 16 m. E. N.. E. of Bordeaux; pop. in 1866, 14,639. It is beautifully situated at the entrance of the Isle into the Dordogne, which are respect...
-Library
Library (Lat. librarium, a bookcase), a collection of books designed for use and preservation; also the repository of such a collection. Although the English word comes directly from the Latin, the Ro...
-Libyans
Libyans, a group of peoples of N. Africa, linguistically related to the Egyptians and Ethiopians, and like them forming a family of the Hamitic division of the Semitic race in the wider sense. To them...
-Licata
or Alieata. a seaport of Sicily, in the province and 26 m. S. E. of the city of Gir-.ti: pop. about 17.000. It is at the mouth of the Salso, the largest river of Sicily, and is built partly on the sho...
-Lichens
In the classification of plants we have the two great sub-kingdoms of flowering and flowerless plants; the flowerless or cryp-togamous plants are subdivided into acrogens, which are mostly herbaceous,...
-Lichfield
Lichfield, an episcopal city and municipal and parliamentary borough of Staffordshire, England, and a county in itself, situated on a small branch of the Trent, and on the London and Northwestern rail...
-Licking
Licking, a central county of Ohio, drained by the Licking river; area, 666 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 35,756. It has a level surface and a good soil, mostly under cultivation, and abounds in iron ore. It i...
-Lieber
I. Francis I. Francis, an American publicist, born in Berlin, March 18, 1800, died in New York, Oct. 2, 1872. He had begun the study of medicine when in 1815 he joined the Prussian army as a voluntee...
-Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein, an independent principality, which until 1866 formed part of the German confederation, bounded N. E. and E. by the Austrian circle of Vorarlberg, S. by the Swiss canton of Grisons, and ...
-Liege (Ger. Luttich)
I. A Province (Flem. Luikerland) Of Belgium I. A Province Flem. Luikerland (Of Belgium), bounded N. by Belgian and Dutch Limburg, E. by Rhenish Prussia, S. by Belgian Luxemburg, and. S. W. and W. by ...
-Liegnitz
Liegnitz, a town of Prussia, capital of a district of the same name in the province of Silesia, on the Katzbach, and on the Silesian and Saxon railway, 37 m. W. N. W. of Breslau and 147 m. S. E. of Be...
-Lien
Lien (Fr. lier, to tie or bind), in its broader sense, every hold upon or right to property to secure the payment of a debt, or the discharge of an obligation. In this sense it includes mortgages, ple...
-Lieutenant
Lieutenant (Fr., from Lat. locum tenens, one holding the place, i. e., acting for another), a title applied to various representative officers, military and civil. In most armies the lieutenant is nex...
-Life Boat
Life Boat, a boat constructed specially for the preservation of life in cases of shipwreck. The first patent for a life boat was granted in England in 1785 to Lionel Lukin, a coach builder of London. ...
-Life Insurance
Life Insurance, a contract whereby an insurer engages, for a consideration called a premium, to insure a person against a certain amount of pecuniary loss supposed to be consequent upon the decease of...









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