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The American Cyclopaedia Vol7 | by George Ripley And Charles A. Dana



The American Cyclopaedia - Popular Dictionary Of General Knowledge. Vol7

TitleThe American Cyclopaedia
AuthorGeorge Ripley And Charles A. Dana
PublisherD. Appleton And Company
Year1873
Copyright1873, D. Appleton And Company
AmazonThe New American Cyclopędia. 16 volumes complete.

The American Cyclopędia

Edited By George Ripley And Charles A. Dana.

Other spellings could be: Cyclopaedia, Cyclopedia, Encyclopędia, Encyclopaedia, Encyclopedia

-Light
Light, that force in nature which, acting on the retina, produces the sensation of vision. It also has an important influence upon chemical affinity, as may be instanced in the union of hydrogen and c...
-Lighthouse
Lighthouse, a structure from the top of which a light is shown at night as a direction or warning to mariners. Lighthouses are necessarily situated on headlands, isolated rocks or sands, and pierheads...
-Lightning
Lightning, the illuminating flash produced by the discharge of atmospheric electricity, either between two clouds, or between a cloud and the earth, usually accompanied by a noise called thunder. It m...
-Ligne
I. Charles Joseph I. Charles Joseph, prince de, an Austrian general, son of Claude Lamoral II., viceroy of Sicily, and descended on his mother's side from Mary, queen of Scots, born in Brussels in Ma...
-Liguria
Liguria, in ancient geography, a district of northern Italy, which according to the divisions of Augustus was bounded N. by the Pa-dus (Po), E. by the Macra (Magra), separating it from Etruria, S. by ...
-Lilac
Lilac, an ornamental flowering shrub, the name of which is said to have been introduced with the plant. It belongs to the genus syringa, of the olive family; the generic name is from the Greek for pip...
-Lilium Zeller
Lilium Zeller, a German scholar, born at Kleinbottwar, Würtemberg, Jan. 22, 1814. He studied in Tubingen under Strauss and Baur, and in Berlin under Neander, lectured on theology in the former univers...
-Lille, Or Lisle
Lille, Or Lisle (Originally L, 'Isle, the island; Flem. Ryssel), a fortified city of France, capital of the department of Le Nord, formerly of French Flanders, 7 m. from the Belgian frontier, 58 m. S....
-Lillebonne
Lillebonne (Lat. Juliobona)a city of France, in the department of Seine-Inferieure, on the river Bolbec near its confluence with the Bec-quet, 19 m. E. of Havre; pop. in 1866, 5,049. It occupies a fin...
-Lilly, Or Lyly, John
Lilly, Or Lyly, John, an English author, born in Kent about 1553, died about 1600. He became a student in Magdalen college, Oxford, about 1570, received the degree of master in 1575, and was at that t...
-Lily
Lily, a word of ancient and uncertain origin, and one which has, according to Prior, been long used in some oriental languages for a flower in general. In common use it is often applied in combination...
-Lily Of The Valley
Lily Of The Valley (convallaria majalis), one of the most popular of the many plants which have the name lily attached to them, but which do not belong to the genus lilium. The generic name is the Lat...
-Lima
Lima, the capital of Peru and of the department and province of its own name, on the Rimac river, 7 m. from Callao, its port on the Pacific; lat, 12 2' S., Ion. 77 7' W.; pop. in 1863, 121,3...
-Limbo
Limbo (Lat. linibus, border or edge), according to some of the scholastic theologians, one of the places into which departed spirits are received. St. Thomas Aquinas places hell in the centre of the e...
-Limburg
I. A Territory Of Europe I. A Territory Of Europe, formerly constituting a province of the Netherlands. Before its division in 1830 it extended between lat. 50 42' and 51 45' N., and lon. 4...
-Limburg-On-The-Lahn
Limburg-On-The-Lahn, a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau, 16 m. N. E. Cathedral of St. George. of Ems; pop. in 1867, 4,487. It is a very old town, celebrated for the picturesque si...
-Lime
Lime, oxide of calcium, or quicklime, a white, alkaline, earthy substance, obtained by calcining some of the various carbonates of lime, such as pure limestones, marbles, and marine shells. It is brit...
-Limerick
I. A S. W. County Of Ireland I. A S. W. County Of Ireland, in the province of Munster, bordering on Clare, from which it is separated by the Shannon, Tipperary, Cork, and Kerry; area, 1,035 sq. m.; p...
-Limestone
Limestone, the generic name of all rocks which are principally composed of carbonate of calcium. It is more particularly applied to those which are not crystalline, and are not white like marble. Perf...
-Limited Liability
Limited Liability, a peculiar responsibility for contracts, defined by statute. The instance of partnership is a common one in which parties by the relation itself assume a general liability for the a...
-Limited Partnership
Limited Partnership (or, as it is sometimes called, special partnership), a partnership whereof one or more of the members contribute a certain amount to the capital, which may be lost by its being de...
-Limoges
Limoges, a town of France, capital of the department of Haute-Vienne, situated on the right bank of the Vienne, which is here crossed by three bridges, 215 m. S. by W. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 55,134. ...
-Limpet
Limpet, a name applied to the gasteropod mollusks of the families patellidoe, calyptrceidce, and fissurellidce. The shell is conical, with the apex turned forward, variously ridged, and with more or l...
-Lin Kinor Riu Kiu Loo Choo Islands
Lin Kinor Riu Kiu Loo Choo Islands, a chain of islands in the N. Pacific, between lat. 24 and 29 N., and Ion. 123 and 130 E. They are about 36 in number, besides many islets, and s...
-Lincoln
Lincoln, the name of 1G counties in the United States. I. A S. County Of Maine I. A S. County Of Maine, bounded S. by the Atlantic and W. in part by the Kennebec, and drained by Sheepscott, Da-maris...
-Lincoln (2)
Lincoln, a S. county of Ontario, Canada, bounded N. by Lake Ontario, and E. by the Niagara river; area, 321 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 29,517, of whom 9,005 were of English, 7,928 of Irish, 7,396 of German...
-Linden
Linden, the name in all Germanic languages for trees of the genus tilia, its origin being obscure; the same trees are called lime, and by the old English authors lyne or line; they are called in north...
-Lindley Murbay
Lindley Murbay, an English grammarian, born at Swatara, Lancaster co., Pa., in 1745, died near York, England, Feb. 10, 1826. He received his primary education in Philadelphia, in the academy of the so...
-Lindsay, Or Lyndsay, Sir David
Lindsay, Or Lyndsay, Sir David, a Scottish poet, born at Garmylton, Haddingtonshire, about 1490, died about 1555 or 1567. He inherited the estate of The Mount in Fife-shire, and is commonly called S...
-Linen
Linen (Gr. Xivov, Lat. linum, flax, linen), a fabric made of flaxen threads. The manufacture is very ancient, and no record is preserved of its early history. It was old in the time of Herodotus; and ...
-Ling
Ling, a European fish of the cod family, lota molva (Cuv.). The body is elongated, the head flat, the gape large, the lower jaw the shorter with a single barbule at the extremity; teeth in the upper j...
-Linley
I. Thomas I. Thomas, an English composer, born at Wells about 1725, died in London in 1795. After completing his musical education he established himself in Bath, where he was very successful in teac...
-Linn
I An E. county of Iowa, drained by the Wapsipinicon and Red Cedar rivers and Prairie and Buffalo creeks; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1*870, 31,080. It is well timbered, and has a diversified surface and...
-Linnaea
Linnaea, a plant of the honeysuckle family, popularly known as the twin flower. The custom of naming the genera of plants in honor of botanists obtained before the time of Linnaeus, and has been conti...
-Linnaeus
Linnaeus (Swed. Linne), Carl von, a Swedish naturalist, born near Stenbrohult, in the province of Smaland, May 24, 1707, died in Upsal, Jan. 10, 1778. His father, the Protestant minister of the parish...
-Linnet
Linnet, the name of several birds of the finch family, of the genus linota (Bonap.) or cegioihus (Cab.); the distinguishing characters have been given under Finch, in the genus fringilla of which they...
-Linseed Oil, Or Flaxseed Oil
Linseed Oil, Or Flaxseed Oil, an oil expressed from the seeds of flax, and very extensively employed in the arts, and particularly in the preparation of paints for woodwork and other surfaces. It is t...
-Linum
Linum, the classical name of flax, and the botanical name of a genus of which that is the most important member (see Flax), containing several species cultivated as garden plants, both annual and pere...
-Linz, Or Lintz
Linz, Or Lintz, a town of Austria, capital of the province of Upper Austria, at the confluence of the Traun with the Danube, which is here crossed by a wooden bridge 1,800 ft. long, 93 m. W. of Vienna...
-Lion
Lion (leo, Leach, and felis leo, Linn.), the largest and most majestic of the cat family, an inhabitant of Africa and Asia. Several species are made by some zoologists, and these are even elevated int...
-The Lion Louis VIII
The Lion Louis VIII, king of France, son of Philip Augustus, born in 1187, died at Mont-pensier in Auvergne, Nov. 8, 1226. Before his accession he went to England by invitation of the barons hostile t...
-Lipans
Lipans, a tribe of American Indians, a branch of the Apaches. In the last century they roamed from the Rio Grande and the borders of Chihuahua to the grounds of the Comanches, and made war on the Span...
-Lipari
I. A Group Of Volcanic Islands I. A Group Of Volcanic Islands (anc. AEolice or Vulcanice insula) in the Tyrrhenian sea, between the W. coast of Naples and the N. coast of Sicily, from which they are ...
-Lippe, Or Lippe-Detmold
Lippe, Or Lippe-Detmold, a German principality, bounded N. E. by the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, E. by the province of Hanover and by Waldeck, and on all other sides by Westphalia; area, 437 sq...
-Lippi
I. Fra Filippo I. Fra Filippo, an Italian painter, born in Florence in 1412, died in Spoleto in 1469. He was of obscure parentage, and at an early age found refuge in the convent of the Carmelites in...
-Liquidambar
Liquidambar (L. styraciflua), the sweet gum tree or bilsted, a large deciduous tree, placed by some botanists in a family by itself, while others unite it with the witch hazel and a few other genera t...
-Liquorice, Or Lieorice
Liquorice, Or Lieorice, a medicinal article derived from plants belonging to the genus glycyrrhiza (Gr. yrvkvg, sweet, and pica, a root), commonly from the G. glabra, and probably a portion is furnish...
-Lisbon
Lisbon (Port. Lisboa), a city and the chief seaport of Portugal, capital of the kingdom and of the province of Estremadura, on the right bank of the Tagus, about 9 m. from its mouth, 173 m. S. by W. o...
-Lisieux
Lisieux (anc. Noviomagus), a city of Nor-mandy, France, in the department of Calvados, 25 m. E. of Caen; pop. in 1866, 12,617. It is situated in a fine valley, watered by the small streams Orbec and T...
-Lisle
I. Guillaume De I. Guillaume De, a French geographer, born in Paris, Feb. 28, 1675, died Jan. 25, 1726. He was the son of Claude de Lisle, a geographer and historian of some note, and at the age of n...
-Litchfield
Litchfield, the N. W. county of Connecticut, bordering on New York and Massachusetts; area, 885 sq. m.; pop. in 1870 48,727. It is watered by the Housatonic, Naugatuck, and Farmington rivers, with the...
-Litchi
Litchi, a Chinese edible fruit, which is occasionally to be found in the fruit stores of our seaport cities. It is produced by a small tree, nephelium litohi, belonging to the sapindacece, the family ...
-Literary And Scientific Societies
The origin of this distinctive title for private intellectual associations is as ancient as that of academies. (See Academy.) Societies existed in antiquity and in the middle ages, and in Germany and ...
-Literature Of The United States
The literary history of the United States may be treated under three distinctly marked periods, viz.: a colonial or ante-revolutionary period (16201775), during which the literature of the country was...
-Lithium
Lithium, a metal first obtained by Davy; symbol Li, chemical equivalent 7. (See Lithia.) It is most easily reduced from the chloride by the galvanic current. It is a soft, ductile, white metal, suscep...
-Lithography
(Gr. ni0os, a stone, and ypa-0eiv, to write), a method of producing printed copies of a writing or drawing on stone without the usual process of engraving. It was invented about 1796-'8, in Munich, by...
-Lithuania
Lithuania (Lith. Letuva; Pol. Litwa; Ger. Lithauen), a large tract of land in eastern Europe, which now belongs to the Russian empire, with the exception of a small part included in the East Prussian ...
-Litmus
Litmus (Ger. Lackmus), a blue coloring matter prepared from rocella tinctoria and related lichens. The various species of rocella are found upon the rocks of the coast of the Mediterranean and other w...
-Little Rock
Little Rock, the capital and chief city of Arkansas, county seat of Pulaski co., situated near the centre of the state, on the S. bank of the Arkansas river, about 250 m. above its mouth, and 125 m. W...
-Littleton, Or Lyttelton, Sir Thomas
Littleton, Or Lyttelton, Sir Thomas, an English jurist, born in Devonshire early in the 15th century, died at Frankley, Worcestershire, Aug. 23, 1481. His father's name was West-cote, but he substitut...
-Littorale, Or Properly Litorale
Littorale, Or Properly Litorale, ( Lat. and Ital., belonging to the seashore; Ger. Kusten-land), a province of the Austro-Hungarian nomarchy, situated on the N. shores of the Adriatic sea and includin...
-Liturgy
Liturgy (Gr. neitovpyia, a public act or service), in general, the totality of the prayers and ceremonies which are used by a church for the celebration of divine worship. More commonly, however, it i...
-Liver
Liver, an organ characterized by the presence of cells secreting bile, and found in some form or other throughout almost the whole animal series. These cells may be scattered over the intestinal canal...
-Liverpool
Liverpool, a borough and the principal seaport of England, in Lancashire, on the right bank of the river Mersey, 4 m. above its mouth in the Irish sea, 201 m. by railway N. W. of London and 31 m. W. b...
-Liverpool (2)
Liverpool, a town, port of entry, and the capital of Queens co., Nova Scotia, situated on the right bank of the river Mersey, here spanned by a bridge, at its entrance into Liverpool harbor, 70 m. S. ...
-Liverworts
Liverworts, a family of cryptogamous plants, called hepaticce by botanists. The liverworts are humble, often very minute plants, in some genera resembling the lichens and in others the mosses, from bo...
-Livery Of Seisin
Livery Of Seisin (Fr. liverie de seisine; Lat. deliberatio or traditio seisinae). A change of possession naturally accompanies, as it is indeed the best evidence of, a transfer of property. Personal c...
-Livia Drusilla
Livia Drusilla, the wife of the emperor Augustus, born in 56 or 54 B. C, died in A. D. 29. She was the daughter of Livius Drusus, and was married first to Tiberius Claudius Nero, who, having fought ag...
-Livingston
Livingston, the name of six counties in the United States. I. A W. County Of New York I. A W. County Of New York, watered by the Genesee river and a number of creeks; area, 509 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,...
-Livingston (2)
Livingston, the name of a family various members of which have been distinguished in American history. John Livingston (born in 1603), the common ancestor of the family, and a lineal descendant of the...
-Livonia
Livonia (Ger. Livland), a W. government of Russia, bounded N. by Esthonia, E. by Lake Peipus and the government of Pskov, S. E. by Vitebsk, S. by Courland, and W. by the gulf of Livonia or bay of Riga...
-Livy
Livy (Livius Andronicus). See Andronp cus, Livius. Livy #1 Livy (Titus Liyius), a Roman historian, born in Patavium (Padua) in 59 B. C, died A. D. 17. All that is known concerning his life is that h...
-Lizard
Lizard, the common name of several families of saurian reptiles, but properly restricted to the family lacertini, or the autosaurian group of Dumeril and Bibron. Many iguanas, geckos, monitors, and sk...
-Lizards-Tail
Lizard's-Tail, a plant with heart-shaped leaves and long, slender, gracefully curving spikes of white flowers, growing in large clumps in swamps and along the margins of ponds and slow rivers from New...
-Lizula
Lizula, a genus of glumaceous plants, called wood rushes; they belong to the juncaceae or rush family, but differ from jancus, the rush proper, in having softer, flatter, and grass-like leaves; their ...
-Llama
Llama (auchenia, Illiger), a ruminant animal representing the camel family in the western hemisphere. The dentition is as follows; incisors 2/6, the upper placed at the side of the intermaxillary bone...
-Llanquihue
Llanquihue, a province of Chili, bounded N. by Valdivia, E. by the Andes, S. by a strait separating it from Chiloe and the gulf of An-cud, and W. by the Pacific; area estimated at 8,350 sq. m.; pop. i...
-Lloyds
Lloyd's, the name of subscription rooms on the first floor of the London exchange, where merchants, shippers, and underwriters attend to obtain shipping intelligence, and where the business of marine ...
-Lloyd Kenyon
Lloyd Kenyon, lord, a British jurist, born at Gredington, Flintshire, Oct. 5, 1732, died in Bath in 1802. He was the son of a Welsh squire, and after a very imperfect education at a free grammar schoo...
-Lncien Anatole Prevost-Paradol
Lncien Anatole Prevost-Paradol, a French author, born in Paris, Aug. 8, 1829, died by his own hand in Washington, D. C, July 19, 1870. His mother was a celebrated tragic actress. In 1855 he became pro...
-Lncilio Vanini
Lncilio Vanini, an Italian philosopher, born at Taurisano about 1585, burned at the stake in Toulouse, Feb. 19, 1619. After studying at Eome and Padua, he entered holy orders, taught at Geneva, Paris,...
-Lndowick Muggleton
Lndowick Muggleton, an English fanatic, who in conjunction with John Reeve founded the sect of the Muggletonians, born in 1609, died March 14, 1697. He was a tailor, and in 1651 proclaimed himself and...
-Lneins Jnnins Brutus
Lneins Jnnins Brutus, a Roman patriot, lived about 500 B. C. According to the commonly received story, his mother was the sister of Tarquin the Proud, the last king of Rome, and he feigned imbecility ...
-Loach
Loach, a soft-rayed cyprinoid fish, of the genus colitis (Linn.). The common loach of Great Britain (C. oarhatula, Linn.) is 3 or 4 in. long, with a small head, elongated body very little narrowed at ...
-Loan
Loan, in law, the delivery of an article to a borrower, who is to use it without paying therefor. The rights and obligations of the lender and of the borrower may be considered separately. I. Eights ...
-Loango
Loango, a kingdom in Lower Guinea, on the W. coast of Africa, N. of the embouchureof the Congo or Zaire. The name is generally applied also to the entire coast land between Cape Lopez and the Congo. O...
-Lobegott Tischendorf
Lobegott Tischendorf (Latinized AEnothe-us) Friedrich Constautin von, a German Biblical palaeographer, born at Lengenfeld in the Voigt-land, Saxony, Jan. 18, 1815, died in Leipsic, Dec. 7, 1874. From ...
-Lobelia
Lobelia, a genus of plants named by Lin-naeus in honor of Matthias Lobel; it is the typo of the order Lobeliaceae, which includes some half dozen other genera besides this. The lobelias are herbs, wit...
-Loblolly Bay
Loblolly Bay, the common name for shrubs or trees of the order camelliaceae and genus Gordonia, a name which commemorates both Dr. James Gordon, an eminent Scotch physician, and Alexander Gordon, a Lo...
-Lobos Or Seal (Islands)
Lobos Or Seal (Islands), three islands in the Pacific near the coast of Peru, and belonging to that country. The principal island, Lo-bos de Tierra, is in lat. 6 29' S. and Ion. 80 52' W., a...
-Lobster
Lobster, a well known marine crustacean, of the order decapoda and genus homarus (Milne-Edwards). The common lobster of the United States (II. Americanus, Milne-Edwards) American Lobster (Homarus ...
-Loch Awe
Loch Awe, a lake in Argyleshire, Scotland, 8 m. N. W. of Inverary. It is 24 m. long, and in few places more than 1 m. wide, encircled by rugged and precipitous mountains, the loftiest, Ben Cruachan, 3...
-Loch Lomond
Loch Lomond, the largest lake in Scotland, 15 m. N. W. of Glasgow, lying between Dumbartonshire on the west and the counties of Perth and Stirling on the east. It is 24 m. long, and has its greatest w...
-Lock
Lock, a fastening for doors, boxes, etc, designed not to be opened except by an instrument called a key especially adapted to the lock, or by manipulating some secret arrangement of bolts and pins. Th...
-Locris
Locris, a territory of ancient Greece, occupied by the Locrians, who were said to have been descended from the Leleges. Their territory, in the opinion of Niebuhr, originally extended across the conti...
-Locri, Or Locri Epizephyrii
Locri, Or Locri Epizephyrii, ( Western Lo-cri), an ancient city of southern Italy, situated on the S. E. coast of the Bruttian peninsula. It was founded by a colony from Locris, Greece, in the 7th ...
-Locrport
Locrport, a city and the capital of Niagara co., New York, on the Erie canal and the New York Central railroad (which here crosses the canal by a bridge 500 ft. long and 60 ft. above the water), 20 m....
-Locust
Locust, a saltatory orthopterous insect, of the family locustadce, and the genera acrydium, locusta, captenus, and others. The locusts are characterized by roofed wing covers, short antennae not taper...
-Lodi
Lodi, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province and 18 m. S. E. of the city of Milan, on the right bank of the Adda; pop. about 20,000. It stands on a gentle elevation in the midst of a fertile plain...
-Loffoden, Or Lofoten
Loffoden, Or Lofoten, a group of islands off the N. W. coast of Norway, between lat. 67 and 69 30' N., and lon. 12 and 17 E., extending S. W. to N. E. about 175 m.; pop. about 17,0...
-Log
Log, and Log Line, an apparatus used in connection with the half-minute glass for obtaining the approximate rate of movement of a vessel through the water. The log is a triangular or quadrangular piec...
-Logan
Logan, the name of five counties in the United States. I. A S. W. County Of West Virginia I. A S. W. County Of West Virginia, bordering on Kentucky, and drained by the Guyandotte and the Tug fork of...
-Logan (2)
Logan, the assumed name of the Indian chief Tah-gah-jute, born about 1725, killed near Lake Erie in the summer of 1780. He was the son of Shikellamy, a chief of the Cayugas, who resided on the shores ...
-Logarithms
Logarithms (Gr. noyos, ratio, and api0uos, number), numbers so related to the natural numbers that the multiplication and division of the latter may be performed by addition and subtraction, and the r...
-Logic
Logic (Gr. nryos, reason), the science of reasoning. More strictly and properly, it is the science of deducing ideas or conceptions one from another, and of constructing them into propositions, argume...
-Logrono
I. A Province Of Old Castile Spain I. A Province Of Old Castile, bordering on Alava, Navarre, Saragossa, Soria, and Burgos; area, 1,945 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 182,941. The northern part is generally l...
-Logwood
Logwood, a dyewood yielded by the logwood tree (hcematoxylon Campechianum) of Central America. The tree belongs to the suborder Ccesalpinece of the natural order legumi-7ioso2. It grows in very favora...
-Loir-Et-Cher
Loir-Et-Cher, a central department of France, including a large part of the old province of Orleanais and a small portion of Tou-raine, bordering on the departments of Eure-et-Loire, Loiret, Cher, Ind...
-Loire
Loire (anc. Liger), a river of France, running N, N. W., and finally W. by S., across the central and western parts of the country, and dividing it into two nearly equal parts. It rises on the slope o...
-Loire-Inferieure (Lower Loire)
A W. department of France, in Brittany, bordering on the bay of Biscay and the departments of Morbihan, Ille-et-Vilaine, Maine-et-Loire, and Vendee; area, 2,654 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 602,206. The coas...
-Loja
Loja, an inland city of Ecuador, capital of a province of the same name, 250 m. S. by W. of Quito; pop. about 10,000. It is situated in a delightful valley nearly 7,000 ft. above the sea, near the sou...
-Lokman
Lokman, an Arabian fabulist, represented in the Koran as a contemporary of David, and by other traditions as a descendant of the Arab tribe of Ad; and again as an Ethiopian slave, deformed and witty, ...
-Lola Montez
Lola Montez, a favorite of Louis I. of Bavaria, born in 1824, died at Astoria, N. Y., June 30, 1861. According to some authorities she was a native of Montrose, Scotland, and the illegitimate daughter...
-Lollards
Lollards, a name given to several religious associations in the middle ages. Its etymology has been variously explained. Some suppose that it comes from the Ger. lullen, to hum, so that the term would...
-Lombardy
Lombardy, a division of northern Italy, lying between lat. 44 54' and 46 37' N., and lon. 8 32' and 10 50' E., and bounded N. by the Alps, which separate it from Switzerland and Ty...
-Lombok
Lombok (native, Tanak Sassak), an island of the Indian archipelago, separated by the strait of Lombok from Baii on the west, and by the strait of Alias from Sumbawa on the east; area, about 1,850 sq. ...
-London
London, the metropolis of Great Britain, situated on the Thames, 60 m. W. from the sea by the course of the river to the Nore light, and 40 m. in a straight line; lat. (of the centre of the dome of St...
-Londonderry
I. A N. County Of Ireland I. A N. County Of Ireland, in the province of Ulster, bordering on the Atlantic ocean, Lough Foyle, and Lough Neagh, and on the counties of Antrim, Tyrone, and Donegal; area...
-Long Branch
Long Branch, a village of Ocean township, Monmouth co., New Jersey, on the New Jersey Southern railroad, 28 m. S. of New York, and 63 m. N. E. of Philadelphia; permanent population about 5,000. It is ...
-Long Island
Long Island, an island comprising Kings, Queens, and Suffolk counties, New York, situated between lat. 40 33' and 41 10' N., and Ion. 71 51' and 74 2' W.; extreme length E. and W.,...
-Long Island City
Long Island City, a city of Queens co., New York, at the W. end of Long Island, opposite the upper part of New York city; pop. in 1874, about 16,000. It extends 3 m. E. and W. by 5 m. N. and S., and h...
-Longitude
Longitude, in geography, an arc of the equator included between the meridian of a place and the meridian whence the degrees are counted, which is usually called the first meridian. The ancient geograp...
-Longman
I. Thomas I. Thomas, an English publisher, born in Bristol in 1699, died in London, June 18, 1755. In 1716 he was apprenticed to John Osborn, a stationer and bookseller of London, with whom he entere...
-Longstreet
I. William I. William, an American inventor, born in New Jersey about 1760, died in Georgia in 1814. He early removed to Georgia, and in 1790 wrote a letter to Thomas Telfair of Savannah asking his a...
-Lonis Angustin Guillanme Bosc
Lonis Angustin Guillanme Bosc, a French naturalist, born in Paris, Jan. 29, 1759, died there, July 10, 1828. He held public offices until the reign of terror, when he sought refuge in the forest of Fo...
-Lonis Antoinc Fauvclet De Bourrienne
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-Lonis Bourdaloue
Lonis Bourdaloue, a French prelate and orator, born at Bourges, Aug. 20, 1632, died in Paris, May 13, 1704. At an early age he entered the society of Jesus, and became professor of rhetoric, philosoph...
-Lonis Francois Desire Edonard Pie
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-Lonis Jacques Maude Daguerre
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-Lonis Jules Trochu
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-Lonis Marie De La Haie Cormenin
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-Loom
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-Lope De Vega (Lope Felix De Vega Cabpio)
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-Lopez
I. Carlos Antonio I. Carlos Antonio, president of Paraguay, born in Asuncion, Nov. 4, 1790, died there, Sept. 10, 1862. He received the best education attainable in the ecclesiastical seminary of Asu...
-Lophobranchs
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-Lord Ashburton John Dunning
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-Lord Broughton John Cam Hobhouse
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-Lord Clyde Campbell Sir Colin
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-Lord Howard Of Effingham Charles Howard
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-Lord Lyons Of Christchurch Edmund Lyons
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-Lord Somers John
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-Lord Thurlow Edward
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-Lord's Supper, Or Eucharist
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-Lorenz Okey
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-Lorenzo Bartolini
Lorenzo Bartolini, an Italian sculptor, born at Savignano, near Prato, Tuscany, in 1777, died in Florence, Jan. 20, 1850. He took lessons from a French artist in Florence, and went to Paris in 1797, w...
-Lorenzo Campeggio
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-Lorenzo Dow
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-Lorenzo Valla
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-Loreto, Or Loretto
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-Lori
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-Lorient, Or Lorient
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-Lorin Blodget
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-Lorinser
I. Karl Ignaz I. Karl Ignaz, a German physician, born in Bohemia, July 24, 1796, died at Patschkau, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 2, 1853. He studied in Prague and Berlin, where he graduated in 1817. He was...
-Lorraine
Lorraine (Ger. Lothringen), an old province of N. E. France, formerly bounded N. by Belgium, Luxemburg, and Rhenish Prussia, N. E. by Rhenish Bavaria, E. by Alsace, S. by Franche-Comte, and S. W. and ...
-Lory
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-Los Angeles
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-Lot
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-Loth Katrine
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-Lothaire I
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-Lothaire II Or III, A German Emperor
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-Lottery
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-Lotus
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-Loudon
I. A N. E. County Of Virginia I. A N. E. County Of Virginia, separated from Maryland by the Potomac; area, 460 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 20,929, of whom 5,691 were colored. The surface is hilly, having t...
-Lough Derg
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-Lough Erne
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-Louis Adolphe Thiers
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-Louis Alexandre Berthier
Louis Alexandre Berthier, prince and duke of Neufchatel and Valengin, and prince of Wagram, a French soldier, born in Versailles, Nov. 20, 1753, died in Bamberg, June 1, 1815. His father was chief of ...
-Louis Anguste Victor De Ghaisne Bourmont
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-Louis Antoine De Bougainville
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-Louis Antoine Henri De Bourbon Enghien
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-Louis Belmontet
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-Louis Bernard Guyton De Morveau
Louis Bernard Guyton De Morveau, a French chemist, born in Dijon, Jan. 4, 1737, died in Paris, Jan. 2,1816. While yet a minor he was appointed deputy attorney general at the parliament of Dijon, which...
-Louis Cesar Joseph Ducornet
Louis Cesar Joseph Ducornet, a French artist, born in Lille, Jan. 10, 1806, died April 27, 1856. He was born without arms, but learned in childhood to make his feet perform all the ordinary offices of...
-Louis Charles Alfred De Musset
Louis Charles Alfred De Musset, popularly known as Alfred de Musset, a French poet, born in Paris, Nov. 11, 1810, died there, May 2, 1857. He was a son of Victor Donatien de Musset (1768-1832), better...
-Louis Charles Antoine Desaix De Veygoux
Louis Charles Antoine Desaix De Veygoux, a French general, born at St. Hilaire d'Ayat in Auvergne, Aug. 17, 1768, killed at Marengo, June 14, 1800. He was educated at the military school of Effiat, wh...
-Louis Charles Delescluze
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-Louis Charles Philippe Raphael Dor-Leans Nemours
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-Louis Claude Saint-Martin
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-Louis De Rouvroi Saint-Simon
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-Louis De Thomassin
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-Louis Desire Veron
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-Louis Edouard Bouet-Willaumez
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-Louis Felicien Joseph Caignart De Saulcy
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-Louis Ferdinand Alfred Mairy
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-Louis Francois Bertin
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-Louis Francois De Bausset
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-Louis Francois Lejeune
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-Louis Francois Michel Raymond Wolowski
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-Louis Gabriel Sichet
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-Louis Hennepin
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-Louis I
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-Louis IV
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-Louis Isidor Duperrey
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-Louis Jean Marie Daubenton
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-Louis Joseph Antoine Dc Potter
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-Louis Joseph Ernest Picard
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-Louis Joseph Montcalm De Saint-Veran
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-Louis Joseph Papeveau
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-Louis Leonard De Lomenie
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-Louis Marie Joseph Maximilien Caffarelli Du Falga
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-Louis Marie Joseph Ohier Grandpre
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-Louis Mathieu Langles
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-Louis Matliien Mole
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-Louis Mclane
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-Louis Moreau Gottschalk
Louis Moreau Gottschalk, an American pianist and composer, born in New Orleans, May 8, 1829, died in Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 18, 1869. His father was an Englishman of German-Jewish descent, and his mothe...
-Louis Narbonne-Lara
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-Louis Nathaniel Rossel
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-Louis Nicolas Bescherelle
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-Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
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-Louis Pasteur
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-Louis Philippe
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-Louis Philippe Dorleans Paris
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-Louis Pierre Henriquel-Depont
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-Louis VI
Louis VI, the Fat, the fifth Capetian king of France, born about 1078, died Aug. 1, 1137. The son of Philip I. by his first wife, Bertha of Holland, he was pursued by the hatred of his stepmother, Ber...
-Louis Veuillot
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-Louis XII
Louis XII, king of France, the eighth of the house of Valois, born in Blois in 1462, died Jan. 1, 1515. The son of Duke Charles of Orleans, and great-grandson of Charles V., he was left an orphan when...
-Louis XIII
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-Louis XIV
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-Louis XV
Louis XV, king of France, great-grandson and successor of the preceding, born in Versailles, Feb. 15, 1710, died there, May 10,1774. He was the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, and of Maria Adela...
-Louis XVI
Louis XVI, king of France, grandson and successor of the preceding, born in Versailles, Aug. 23, 1754, guillotined in Paris, Jan. 21, 1793. He was the third son of the dauphin Louis and of Maria Josep...
-Louis XVII
Louis XVII, dauphin and titular king of France, son of the preceding, born in Versailles, March 27, 1785, died in the Temple at Paris, June 8, 1795. He was the third child of Louis and Marie Antoinett...
-Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier)
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-Louisa
I. A Central County Of Virginia I. A Central County Of Virginia, bounded N. by the North Anna river, and drained by the South Anna and Little rivers; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870,16,332, of whom 10...
-Louisa Ouida (De La Rame)
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-Louisburg
Louisburg, a ruined town of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, on the S. E. side of the island of Cape Breton, in lat. 45 54' N., lon. 59 52' W. Its present population consists of only a f...
-Louise Colet
Louise Colet, a French poetess, born at Aix, Aug. 25, 1808, died in Nice in 1871. Her maiden name was Revoil, and she married in 1835 Hippolyte Colet of Nimes, a musical composer. Soon after her marri...
-Louisiana
Louisiana, one of the gulf states of the American Union, and the fifth admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 28 59' and 33 N., and Ion. 88 40' and 94 10' W...
-Louisville
Louisville, the chief city of Kentucky, county seat of Jefferson co., situated at the falls of the Ohio, on the S. bank, about 400 m. above its mouth and 600 m. below its head at Pittsburgh, 150 m. be...
-Louvain
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-Louvre
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-Lowell
Lowell, a city and one of the shire towns of Middlesex co., Massachusetts, the third in the state in point of population, situated on the Merrimack river, at the mouth of the Concord river, 25 m. N. W...
-Lowell (2)
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-Lowell Mason
Lowell Mason, an American composer, born in Medfield, Mass., Jan. 8,1792, died in Orange, N. J., Aug. 11, 1872. From childhood he manifested great fondness for music, and at a very early age he began ...
-Lower Or Old (Span California
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-Lowndes
I. A S. County Of Georgia I. A S. County Of Georgia, bordering on Florida, and watered by the With-lacoochee and its branches; area, about 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 8,321, of whom 4,045 were colored....
-Lowth
I. William I. William, an English theologian, born in London in 1661, died at Buriton, Hampshire, in 1732. He graduated at Oxford in 1683, and became chaplain to Dr. Mew, bishop of Winchester, who in...
-Lubbock
I. Sir John William I. Sir John William, an English astronomer, born in London, March 26, 1803, died in Kent, June 20, 18G5. He graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 1825, devoted his life to s...
-Lubeck
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-Lucas
I. A N. W. County Of Ohio I. A N. W. County Of Ohio, bordering on Michigan and Lake Erie, bounded partly on the S. by the Maumee river, and drained by the Ottawa river and Swan creek; area, 420 sq. m...
-Lucan
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-Lucania
Lucania, in ancient geography, a division of southern Italy or Magna Graecia, bounded N. W. by Campania, from which it was partly separated by the river Silarus (now Sele), N. by Samnium, N. E. by Apu...
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I. A Province Of Central Italy I. A Province Of Central Italy, bounded N. by Massa e Carrara and Modena, E. by Florence, S. by Pisa, and W. by the Li-gurian sea; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 280,3...
-Lucern (Medicago Sativa)
A forage plant of the family leguminosce, and related to clover (trifolium) not only in its botanical characters but in its agricultural uses. The derivation of the word is obscure, but it is supposed...
-Lucerne
Lucerne (Ger. Luzern), I. A central canton of Switzerland, bounded N. by Aargau, N. E. by Zug, E. by Schwytz, S. E. and S. by Unter-walden and Bern, and W. by Bern; area, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 132...
-Lucian, A Greek Author (Lat. Lucianus Gr. Aovkiavos)
A Greek Author Lucian (Lat. Lucianus Gr. Aovkiavos), born in Samosata, on the Euphrates, about A. D. 120, died in Egypt about 200. His parents being too poor to give him a learned education, he was ap...
-Lucifer
Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, died about 370. In 354 he was sent by Liberius, bishop of Rome, as legate to the council of Milan, to uphold, in conjunction with Eusebius of Ver-celli, the cause of the C...
-Lucius Aelius Sejanus
Lucius Aelius Sejanus, a Roman conspirator, born at Volsinii in Etruria, put to death A. D. 31. He was first attached to the interests of the infant Cams Caesar (Caligula), the son of Germanicus, but...
-Lucius Aurelius Commodfs Antoninus
Lucius Aurelius Commodfs Antoninus, emperor of Rome, born at Lanuvium, A. D. 161, assassinated Dec. 31, 192. He was the son of Marcus Aurelius and the younger Faustina, daughter of Antoninus Pius. He ...
-Lucius Cornelias Cinna
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-Lucius Liciuius Lucullus
Lucius Liciuius Lucullus, a Roman general, born about 109 B. 0., died about 57. His first appearance in public life was as the accuser of the augur Servilius, who had procured the banishment of his fa...
-Lucius Mimmhs
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-Lucius Quintius Cincinnatis
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-Lucius Septimius Severus
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-Lucknow
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-Lucretius
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-Ludvig Holberg
Ludvig Holberg, baron, a Danish dramatist, born in Bergen, Norway, Nov. 6, 1684, died in Copenhagen, Jan. 28, 1754. When a boy he was placed under the care of the bishop of Munthe, his relative, who c...
-Ludwig August Dieskau
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-Ludwig Borne
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-Ludwig Hausser
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-Ludwig Helnrich Von Jakob
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-Ludwig Leichhardt
Ludwig Leichhardt, a German explorer, born at Trebatsch, Prussia, Oct. 23, 1813, died in Australia in 1848. He studied at Gottingen and Berlin, being aided by William Nicholson, a physician of Bristol...
-Ludwig Sigismnnd Jacoby
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-Ludwig Spohr
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-Ludwik Mieroslawski
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-Lueretia Coffin (Mott)
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-Lugo
I. A 1st. W. Province Of Spain I. A 1st. W. Province Of Spain, in Galicia, bordering on the bay of Biscay and the provinces of Asturias, Leon, Orense, Pon-tevedra, and Corunna; area, 3,787 sq. m.; po...
-Luigi Cibrario
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-Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli
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-Luigi Lablache
Luigi Lablache, an Italian singer, born in Naples, Dec. 6, 1794, died there, Jan. 23, 1858. He was the son of a French merchant, and studied vocal and instrumental music in one of the conservatories o...
-Luigi Lambruschini
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-Luigi Lanzi
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-Luigi Palma Di Cesnola
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-Luini, Or Lovini, Bernardino
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-Luis De Gongora Y Argote
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-Luis Molina
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-Luis Ponce De Leon
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-Luitprand, Or Liutprand
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-Luke Wadding
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-Lully, Or Lulli, Jean Baptiste
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-Lump Fish, Or Lump Sucker
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-Lumpkin
I. Wilson I. Wilson, an American statesman, born in Pittsylvania co., Va., Jan. 14, 1783, died in Athens, Ga., in 1871. Early in 1784 his father removed to that part of Georgia now known as Oglethorp...
-Luna, Or Selene
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-Lunacy
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-Lunar Cycle, Or Metonic Cycle
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-Lund
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-Lunenburg
Lunenburg, a S. E. county of Virginia, bounded N. by the Nottoway and S. by the Meherrin river; area, 410 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 10,403, of whom 6,059 were colored. The surface is generally level and t...
-Lungs
Lungs, in man, as well as in quadrupeds, birds, and reptiles, the principal organs of respiration. The lungs always consist of membranous sacs, contained in the interior of the body, into which the at...
-Lungwort
Lungwort (pulmonaria officinalis), a perennial herb of the borage family, a native of Europe, and frequently found in old gardens. The creeping root stock throws up a large tuft of ovate-oblong leaves...
-Lupercalia
Lupercalia, the ancient Roman festival of purification and expiation, celebrated annually on the 15th of February (a month called from Februa, another name for the festival), in honor of Lupercus (sur...
-Lupine
Lupine, the common name of plants of the genus lupinus. There is some doubt as to the origin of the name, but most authors regard it as coming from lupus, a wolf, and as having reference to the voraci...
-Lusatia
Lusatia (Ger. Lausitz), a region of Germany, which formerly constituted the two margravi-ates of Upper and Lower Lusatia, the former being the southern division. They were bounded N. by Brandenburg, E...
-Lusitania
Lusitania, in ancient geography, the country of the Lusitani, and in a wider sense the name of one of the three provinces into which the Iberian peninsula was divided by Augustus. The Roman province o...
-Lustration
Lustration (Lat, lustratio, also lustrum), purification by sacrifices or other ceremonies. Originally ablution in water was the only rite observed by the Greeks, but afterward sacrifices, etc, were ad...
-Lute, Or Luting
Lute, Or Luting, (Lat. Lutum clay), a soft adhesive mixture used in chemical operations for making tight the joints of an apparatus. Its ingredients vary according to the kinds of vapors to be confine...
-Luther Lee
Luther Lee, an American clergyman, born in Schoharie, N. Y., Nov. 30, 1800. He united with the Methodist Episcopal church in 1821, and soon began to preach. In 1827 he joined the Genesee conference, a...
-Luther V Bell
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-Lutheran Church
The Lutheran church has been known by various titles. Her own earliest preference was for the name Evangelical (1525), and many of her most devoted sons have insisted on giving her this name withou...
-Luxemburg
Luxemburg (Fr. Luxembourg), a territory of Europe, now constituting the southernmost province of Belgium and a detached dependency of the Netherlands (but ranking as an independent grand duchy), bound...
-Luzerne
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-Luzon, Or Lncon
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-Lycaonia
Lycaonia, in ancient geography, a division of Asia Minor, bounded N. by Galatia, E. by Cappadocia, S. by Cilicia, S. W. by Isauria (which at certain periods was regarded as a part of it), and W. by Ph...
-Lychnis
Lychnis (Gr. a light or lamp), a genus of old-world plants belonging to the pink family (caryophyllacece), and so called either on account of the flame color of some species, or because the cottony ...
-Lycia
Lycia, an ancient country on the southern coast of Asia Minor, S. E. of Caria, and S. of Phrygia, Pisidia, and Pamphylia. The Solyma range borders its E. coast, and TV. of it are the Massicytus and Cr...
-Lycoming
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-Lycoperdon
Lycoperdon, a genus of fungi, which in the accepted arrangement is placed in the gastero-mycetes, one of the six divisions into which this immense order is separated, and of which the common puff-ball...
-Lycopodium
Lycopodium (Gr. a wolf, and a foot, a name of obscure application), the botanical name for a genus of cryptogamous plants popularly known as club mosses; this with a few other genera make up the f...
-Lycurgus
Lycurgus, the Spartan legislator, concerning whose personal history, nothing certain is known, and many modern critics have doubted whether he ever really existed. According to Herodotus, he lived abo...
-Lydia
Lydia, an ancient country of western Asia Minor, bounded N. by Mysia, E. by Phrygia, S. by Caria, and W. by the iEgean sea. The boundaries, however, varied at different times. According to Strabo, t...
-Lydia Marin Child
Lydia Marin Child, an American authoress, born at Med ford, Mass., Feb. 11, 1802. Her father, David Francis, was a baker. In 1824 she published her first book, Hobomok, an Indian Story, which was fo...
-Lygodium
Lygodium (Gr. flexible), a genus of climbing ferns, with much divided leafy fronds, having stalked divisions in pairs, so that the frond appears like a slender stem bearing opposite, petioled leaves...
-Lyman Spalding
Lyman Spalding, an American physician, born in Cornish, N. II., June 5, 1775, died in Portsmouth, N. H., Oct. 31, 1821. He graduated at Harvard college in 1797, assisted Prof. Nathan Smith in establis...
-Lymph
Lymph (Lat. lympha, clear, pure water, from Gr. a water spirit), the nearly transparent and colorless fluid found in the lymphatic or absorbent vessels extensively distributed over the body, in near...
-Lynch Law
Lynch Law, as commonly used in America, the practice of punishing men for alleged crimes and offences by private and unauthorized persons, without a trial according to due forms of law. The practice h...
-Lynchburg
Lynchburg, a city of Campbell co., Virginia, on the S. bank of James river, and on the James River and Kanawha canal, at the junction of the Washington City, Virginia Midland, and Great Southern rail...
-Lynn
Lynn, a city of Essex co., Massachusetts, bordering S. on Lynn harbor, an arm of Massachusetts bay, and S. E. on Nahant bay, separated from the harbor by the peninsula of Na-hant, which juts out in a ...
-Lynx
Lynx, a carnivorous mammal, usually arranged with the cats, but differing from the genus felis in wanting the small upper premolar next the canine, the dentition being - incisors |, canines 1/1-1/1, a...
-Lyon
Lyon, the name of five counties in the United States. I. A W. County Of Kentucky I. A W. County Of Kentucky, bounded S. W. by the Tennessee river, and intersected by the Cumberland; area, about 875 ...
-Lyons (2)
Lyons (Fr. Lyon; anc. Lugdunum), the principal manufacturing city of France, and since 1834 one of its most powerful fortresses, capital of the department of Rh6ne, at the junction of the Saone and Rh...
-Lyon Playfair
Lyon Playfair, an English chemist, born in Meerut, British India, in 1819. He was educated at St. Andrews, Scotland, studied chemistry under Thomas Graham in Glasgow and. London, and in Giessen under ...
-Lyre
Lyre (Gr. ), one of the most ancient and famous of the family of stringed instruments, the origin of which is lost in antiquity. It was familiar to the Egyptians, and to the nations of western Asia,...
-Lyre Bird
Lyre Bird, a large tenuirostral passerine bird, of the family certhidae or creepers, and subfamily menurinm or wrens, according to Gray; and of the family eriodoridae of Cabanis. Lyre Bird (Menura...
-Lysander
Lysander, a Spartan soldier, killed in battle in 395 B. 0. There is no mention of him in history till 407 B. C, when he succeeded Cra-tesippidas as navarch or commander of the Spartan fleet in the AEg...
-Lysias
Lysias, an Athenian orator, born in Athens in 458 B. 0., died there in 378. In 443 he emigrated with an Athenian colony to Thurii in Italy, and there completed his education. After the destruction of ...
-Lysimachia
Lysimachia (Gr. ' release from, and strife, or in honor of King Lysimachus), a genus of plants of the natural order prima-lacece. They are herbaceous, perennial, and have entire leaves and axill...
-Lysimachus
Lysimachus, a Greek general, king of Thrace, born in Pella, Macedonia, about 360 B. 0., slain in battle in 281. He was the son of Aga-thocles, a Thessalian, and was early distinguished for valor, acti...
-Lysippus
Lysippus, a Greek sculptor, of Sicyon in the Peloponnesus, flourished in the latter part of the 4th century B. C. He was originally a workman in bronze. Alexander the Great ordered that no one should ...
-Lythrum
Lythrum (Gr. gore, from the color of. the flowers in some species), a genus of herbaceous plants belonging to the natural order lythracece, generally with opposite, entire leaves, no stipules, axill...
-M. D Craik James
M. D Craik James, the family physician of Washington, born in Scotland in 1731, died in Fairfax co., Va., Feb. 6, 1814. He was educated for the medical service of the British army, emigrated to Virgin...
-M. D., LL. D Dana Samuel Luther
M. D., LL. D Dana Samuel Luther, an American chemist, born at Amherst, N. H., July 11, 1795, died in Lowell, Mass., March 11, 1868. He graduated at Harvard college in 1813, during the war with Great B...
-Macao
Macao, a Portuguese dependency and city on the coast of China, at the mouth of the Canton river, in lat. 22 10' 30 N, Ion. 113 32' E.; area, 12 sq. m.; pop. about 100,000, of whom 90,000 ar...
-Macaque
Macaque, a name given to several quadru-manous animals intermediate between the long-tailed monkeys and the baboons, constituting the genus macacns (Lacep.), characterized by a facial angle of 40...
-Macaroni
Macaroni (Ital. maccheroni), a peculiar paste or dough prepared from wheat flour and manufactured into tubes, ribbons, or threads. It is an Italian invention, and, though made by a simple process, has...
-Macassar, Or Mangkassar
Macassar, Or Mangkassar, (Also Called by the Dutch Vlaardingen). I. A Dutch Government I. A Dutch Government, comprising the S. W. portions of the island of Celebes, in the Malay archipelago; area (...
-Macaw
Macaw, the common name of the large and gorgeous South American parrots of the subfamily araince, characterized by a large stout bill, compressed on the sides, with the culmen much arched to the prol...
-Macdiarmid
I. John I. John, a Scottish author, born at Weem, Perthshire, in 1779, died in London, April 7, 1808. He was educated at the universities of Edinburgh and St. Andrews, and in 1801 established himself...
-Macdonald
Macdonald, , Flora, a Scottish heroine, born in the isle of South Uist, one of the Hebrides, in 1720, died March 4, 1790. She was the daughter of Macdonald of Milton, who belonged to the Macdonalds of...
-Macedonia, Or Macedon
Macedonia, Or Macedon (the latter name being used, exclusively by English writers, to designate the state or empire, the former designating the land or province), an ancient country of S. E. Europe, N...
-Macerata
I. An E. Province Of Italy I. An E. Province Of Italy, bordering on Ancona, Umbria, Ascoli Piceno, and the Adriatic; area, 1,057 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 236,994. The two former papal delegations of Mac...
-Machias
Machias, the shire town and a port of entry of Washington co., Maine, on the Machias river, near its mouth, 120 m. E. by N. of Augusta, and 35 m. S. by W. of Calais; pop. in 1870, 2,525. It is connect...
-Mackenzie River
Mackenzie River, a river of British North America, in the Northwest territories of Canada, which has its head in Great Slave lake, and, after a N. course of about 1,200 m., empties through several mou...
-Mackerel
Mackerel, a well known acanthopterygian fish of the scomberoid family, and one of great utility to man, from its countless numbers and excellence as food. This family includes also the bonito and its ...
-Mackinaw
Mackinaw, an E. county of the upper peninsula of Michigan, bordering on Lake Michigan and the straits of Mackinaw; area, about 1,250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,716. The surface is uneven and is well wood...
-Macon
Macon, the name of six counties in the United States. I. A S. W. County Of North Carolina I. A S. W. County Of North Carolina, bordering on Georgia, and watered by the head streams of the Tennessee ...
-Macon (2)
Macon, a city and the capital of Bibb co., Georgia, situated on both sides of the Ocmul-gee river, here crossed by a bridge, at the head of steamboat navigation, 80 m. S. E. of Atlanta, and 160 m. W. ...
-Macrauchenia
Macrauchenia (Owen), a genus of fossil herbivorous animals, forming one of the connecting links between the palaeotherium and other extinct pachyderms of the Paris basin and the camel family, especial...
-Madagascar
Madagascar, the largest and most important of the African islands, situated in the Indian ocean, between lat. 11 57' and 25 42's., and lon. 43 10' and 50 25' E., separated from Afr...
-Madame Celeste
Madame Celeste, an English dancer and actress, born in Paris, Aug. 10, 1814. Though of French parentage, and a pupil of the conservatory of the then royal academy of music, she has been connected from...
-Madder
Madder, a plant (rubia tinctorum), the roots of which are employed as a red dye. It was known and used by the ancients, and a correct description of the plant is given by Dioscorides under the name of...
-Madeira (Port. Wood)
A Portuguese island in the Atlantic ocean, lying between lat. 32 37' and 32 52' N., and Ion. 16 38' and 17 16' W.; greatest length from E. to W. 34 m., greatest breadth from N. to ...
-Madeira, Or Madera
Madeira, Or Madera, (Port and Span., wood), a river of South America, the largest of the affluents of the Amazon, formed by the united waters of the Beni and the Mamore or Grande, which drain almost t...
-Madison
Madison, the name of 19 counties in the United States. I. A Central County Of New York; Area I. A Central County Of New York; Area, 670 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 43,522. Oneida lake is on the N. border,...
-Madison (2)
Madison, a city of Wisconsin, capital of the state and of Dane co., situated in lat. 43 4' N., lon. 89 23' W., 75 m. W. of Milwaukee; pop. in 1850, 1,525; in 1860, 6,611; in 1870, 9,176, of ...
-Madras
I. A Province Of British India I. A Province Of British India, commonly known as a presidency, comprising the southern part of the peninsula of Hindo-stan, bounded N. W. by the Bombay territories, N....
-Madrazo
I. Jose Madrazo Y Aguda I. Jose Madrazo Y Aguda, a Spanish painter, born in Santander, April 22, 1781, died in Madrid, May 8, 1859. He studied at the academy of Madrid, in Paris under David, and in R...
-Madrid
I. A Central Province Of Spain I. A Central Province Of Spain, in New Castile, bordering on Segovia, Guadalajara, Cuenca, Toledo, and Avila; area, 2,997 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 487,482. The general asp...
-Madrigal
Madrigal, in music, a vocal composition in from three to eight parts, set commonly to words of an amatory or pastoral character, and intended to be sung by several voices on a part and without instrum...
-Madura
Madura, an island of the Indian archipelago, in the Sunda group, N. E. of Java, from which it is separated by a strait from 1 to 2 m. wide; area, about 1,300 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 662,720. A chain of ...
-Maelstrom
Maelstrom (Norw. malestrom, grinding or whirling stream), an ocean current or whirlpool off the coast of Norway S. W. of the Loffoden islands, in lat. 67 48' N. and lon. 12 E. It runs betwee...
-Maestricht
Maestricht (Dutch, Maastricht), a city of the Netherlands, capital of the province of Limburg, on the Maas, 18 m. W. N. W. of Aix-la-Chapelle; pop. in 1870, 28,840, mostly Roman Catholics. The river, ...
-Magalhaens
Magalhaens (Port. Magalhaes), Domingos Jose Goncalves de, a Brazilian poet, born in Rio de Janeiro about 1810. After taking his doctor's degree he went to Europe, and was in 1836 attache of the Brazil...
-Magalhaens, Or Magellan, Fernando
Magalhaens, Or Magellan, Fernando, a Portuguese navigator, believed to have been born in Oporto about 1470, killed at Mactan, one of the Philippine islands, April 27, 1521. Entering the Portuguese nav...
-Magdalen Islands
Magdalen Islands (Fr. Isles de la Madeleine), a group in the gulf of St. Lawrence, belonging to Gaspe co., Quebec, Canada; aggregate area, 86 1/2 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 3,172, of whom 2,833 were of Fre...
-Magdalena
Magdalena, a maritime state of Colombia, bounded N. by the Caribbean sea, E. by Venezuela, S. by the state of Santander, and W. by Bolivar; area, 26,950 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 85,-255. The face of the ...
-Magdeburg
Magdeburg, a fortified city of Prussia, capital of the province of Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, 76 m. S. W. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, including Sudenburg, 84,401; with Neu-stadt-Magdeburg (20,...
-Magenta
Magenta, a town of Lombard v, Italy, about 5 m. from the E. (left) bank of the Ticino and 15 m. W. of Milan, with which city it communicates by railway and canal; pop. about 5,000. It is the first sta...
-Magic
Magic, as explained by its adepts, the traditional science of the secrets of nature, embracing all knowledge and constituting the perfection of philosophy; also the art of exercising preterhuman power...
-Magic Lantern
Magic Lantern, an optical instrument in tended for exhibiting, by means of lenses, magnified images of pictures painted in variously colored transparent gums, on glass slides. It is constructed upon t...
-Magna Charta
Magna Charta, the Great Charter, or the Charter of Liberties, as it is commonly called by English writers, a constitutional instrument executed by King John of England, guaranteeing to the people i...
-Magnesia
I. The Most Easterly Division Of Ancient Thessaly, Greece Greece I. The Most Easterly Division Of Ancient Thessaly, a narrow and mountainous strip of land, containing among others Mts. Ossa and Pelio...
-Magnesium
Magnesium, the metallic base of magnesia; symbol, Mg.; chemical equivalent, 12; specific gravity, 1.74; hardness, that of calcareous spar. Davy proved its existence; but Bussy in 1830 first obtained i...
-Magnetism
Magnetism, the name given to the phenom-ena displayed by magnets. If a bar of slightly tempered steel be held vertically and struck several blows with a wooden mallet, it will acquire the property of ...
-Magneto-Electricity
As shown in the article Electro-Magnetism, great magnetic power is developed by passing a current of galvanism around a bar of soft iron; and since in all cases a mechanical action is accompanied by a...
-Magnisson, Or Magnnsen, Finn
Magnisson, Or Magnnsen, Finn, an Icelandic scholar, born in Skalholt, Aug. 27, 1781, died in Copenhagen, Dec. 24,1847. He studied at the university of Copenhagen, returned to Iceland in 1803, and prac...
-Magnolia
Magnolia, a genus of trees and shrubs dedicated by Linnaeus to Pierre Magnol, professor of botany at Montpellier, France, at the close of the 17th century, and who was the first to apply the term fam...
-Magnus Amelias Cassiodoris
Magnus Amelias Cassiodoris, an Italian statesman, author, and ascetic, born at Scyla-cium about 408, died about 560. He was of an ancient and wealthy Roman family. In his youth he distinguished himsel...
-Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe
Magnus Jacob Crusenstolpe, a Swedish author, born at Jonkoping March 11, 1795, died in January, 1865. He was appointed assessor of the superior court of Stockholm in 1825, and became generally known i...
-Magpie
Magpie, a conirostral bird of the crow family, and the genus pica (Briss.). The bill is long find strong, about as high;is broad at the base, with compressed sides, hooked tip, and covered with bristl...
-Mahan
I. Dennis Hart Dennis Hart, an American military engineer, born in New York, April 2, 1802, drowned in the Hudson river, near Stony Point, Sept. 16, 1871. He graduated at West Point in 1824, was appo...
-Mahmoud I
Mahmoud I, sultan of Turkey, a son of Mustapha II., born in Constantinople Aug 6 1696,died Dec.13 1754. He was raised to the Ottoman throne in1730, after the deposi-tion of his uncle Ahmed III. The ja...
-Mahmoud II
Mahmoud II, sultan of Turkey, the younger son of Abdul Hamed, born in Constantinople, July 20, 1785, died there, July 1, 1839. During his youth, passed in the seraglio, he became familiar with Persian...
-Mahogany (Swietenia Mahagoni)
Mahogany (Swietenia Mahagoni), a tree of the natural order meliacew, a native of South America, Honduras, and the West India islands, and among the most valuable of tropical timber trees. The genus is...
-Mahrattas
Mahrattas (Maha-rashtra, great people), a people inhabiting the region in central and western India bounded N. by the Satpoora mountains, E. by the Wyne-Ganga and Manjera rivers, S. by the Kistnah and...
-Maine
Maine, one of the New England states, the most easterly of the American Union, and the tenth admitted under the constitution, between lat. 42 57' and 47 32' N., and Ion. 66 52' and 71&d...
-Maipures, Or May Pares, Indians Of South America
Maipures, Or May Pares, Indians Of South America, chiefly on the upper Orinoco and Negro rivers. The family includes the Oaveres or Cabres, who were nearly annihilated by the Ca-rilis; the Guaypunabis...
-Maistre
I. Joseph Joseph, count de, an Italian statesman, born in Chambery, Savov, April 1, 1754, died in Turin, Feb. 26, 1821. His father was president of the senate of Savoy. After having studied at the un...
-Majesty
Majesty, a title of the highest honor, first used by the Romans to designate the supreme power and dignity of the people (majestas po-puli Romani), as well as of its highest chosen representatives or ...
-Majorca (Span. Mallorea)
Majorca (Span. Mallorea), the largest of the Balearic islands, in the Mediterranean, belonging to Spain, about 120 m. S. S. E. of Barcelona, between lat. 39 15' and 40 N., and Ion. 2 20' and...
-Majydamis
Majydami's, the name of a remedial writ, belonging to a once extensive class of precepts which bore the generic name of mandamus. They derived their name from the significant word of the mandatory cla...
-Malabar
Malabar, a district of British India, in the province of Madras, on the W. doast, between lat. 10 and 12 20' N.; area, 6,262 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 2,274,463, of whom about 24,000 were Christ...
-Malacca
I. A British Territory A British Territory, one of the Straits Settlements, on the W. side of the Malay peninsula, between hit. 2 and 2 30' N extending 42 m. along the coast, and varying in...
-Malachi
Malachi, the last of the minor prophets. The name may be defined either my messenger or messenger of Jehovah. 'Nothing is known of his person or history, and many interpreters, as Umbreit, Hengste...
-Malacology
Malacology ((Jr. , soft, and , discourse), that department of zoology which treats of the mollusca, some of which were termed even by Aristotle malakia (soft animal-), including the examina...
-Malaga
I. A S. Province Of Spain A S. Province Of Spain, in An-dalusia, bordering on Cadiz, Seville, Cordova, Granada, and the Mediterranean; area, 2,822 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 505,010. The surface is irregu...
-Malan
I. Cesar Henri Abraham Cesar Henri Abraham, a Swiss theologian, born in Geneva, July 8, 1787, died there, May 8, 1864. His ancestors, who were noble and Protestant, tied on account of persecution fro...
-Malatesta
Malatesta, a family of Italy, many of whose members were rulers of Rimini and other cities of the Romagna, and which became affiliated with the house of Montefeltro and with the dukes of Urbino. The f...
-Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula, the name given by geographers to the long and narrow tract which projects southward from Indo-China, and forms the southern extremity of the Asiatic continent, bounded E. by the China...
-Malayo-Polynesian Races Ajvd Languages
The alayo-Polynesians are the light-complex- ioned, olive-colored, and straight-haired inhabitants of the islands of the Indian and Pacific oceans, from the Andamans in the bay of Bengal in the west t...
-Malcolm Laing
Malcolm Laing, a Scottish historian, born on the island of Mainland, Orkneys, in 1762, died there in November, 1818. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh, studied law, and was called to the ...
-Maldives, Or Malediva Islands
Maldives, Or Malediva Islands, a chain of small coral islands in the Indian ocean, about 450 m. W. of Cevlon, extending in a straight line from lat. 76'N. to 0 40'S., between Ion. 72 48' and 733 ...
-Male Fern (Aspidium Filix-Mas)
Theo-phrastus and other ancient writers mention two kinds of fern, the male and female; whether or not this was the fern referred to as the male, it retains the name in common as well as in botanical ...
-Malignant Pustule
Malignant Pustule, a specific disease, essentially septic and gangrenous, confined to the cutaneous tissue, and generally to those parts of the surface that are habituallv uncovered. It appears most c...
-Malintzin, Or Mallnche Marina
Malintzin, Or Mallnche Marina, an Indian woman who rendered efficient aid in the conquest of Mexico. She was a native of the province of Guazacoalcos, and of noble blood, though sold as a slave in her...
-Mallow
Mallow, a common name for plants of the genus malca (from (Jr. , to soften, in allusion to their softening and emollient properties). The genus, as at present restricted, includes about 16 species, ...
-Malmesbiry
I. James Harris James Harris, first earl of, an Endish diplomatist, born in Salisbury, April 21, 1746, died in London, Nov. 20, 1820. He was the eldest son of James Harris, secretary and comptroller ...
-Malmo (Swedish Malmohus)
I. A Ian Or Province Of Sweden A Ian Or Province Of Sweden, bordering on Christ ian-stad the Baltic, and the Sound; ana. ].' sq m pop. in 1873, 322,175. It is one of the most fertile portions of Swed...
-Malplaquet
Malplaquet, a village of France, in the department of Le Nord, 10 m. S. by AV. of the Belgian town of Mons, celebrated for a battle between the allied forces under Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and t...
-Malta (Anc. Melita)
Malta (Anc. Melita), a British possession in the Mediterranean, including the islands of Malta, Gozo, and Oomino, and the uninhabited islets of Cominotto and Fihia, the entiro group lying between lat....
-Malte-Brun
I. A Danish Geographer A Danish Geographer, whose actual name was Malthe Conrad Brunn, born at Thisted in Jutland, Aug. 12, 1775, died in Paris, Dec. 14, 1826. He studied in Copenhagen, devoting hims...
-Maltha
Maltha (Gr. , soft wax; also denoting a mixture of wax and pitch, used for the surface of writing tablets, and for some kinds of cement). Pliny describes under this name an inflammable mud flowing f...
-Malwa
Malwa, an old province of central India, comprising a table land from 1,500 to 2,500 ft. above the level of the sea, bounded N. E. by the valley of the Ganges, E. by Bundelcund, S. by the Vindhya, and...
-Mamelikks (Arabic Memalik A Slave)
Mamelikks (Arabic Memalik A Slave), a body of soldiery who ruled Egypt for several centuries. They were introduced into that country by the sultan Malek el-Add 11. about the middle of the 13th century...
-Mammalia
Mammalia, the highest vertebrated animals, including man, warm-blooded, breathing by lungs separated from the abdominal cavity by a diaphragm, generally covered with hair, and bringing forth their you...
-Mammary Glands
Mammary Glands, the organs which secrete the nutritive fluid, milk, by which the young of man and the mammalia are nourished during the early periods of life. They vary from two in the human female to...
-Mammee Apple (Mammca Americana)
Mammee Apple (Mammca Americana), a handsome tree of 60 ft. in height, native of the Caribbean islands and the neighboring continent. It has large, oval or obovate. shining, leatherv, opposite leaves, ...
-Mammoth
Mammoth, the fossil elephant of Siberia (elephas primigenius, Blumenbach), found in the diluvial strata of Europe and Asia, and perhaps also in North America. Large fossil bones were alluded to by The...
-Mammoth Cave
Mammoth Cave, the largest cavern known, situated in Edmondson co., near Green river, in Kentuckv, about 75 m. 8. S. W. of Louisville. Its mouth is reached by passing down a wild rocky ravine through a...
-Mamtius (Manuzio)
I. Aldus Aldus, called the Elder, the first of a well known family of Italian printers, born at Bassiano about 1449, died in Venice, Feb. 3, 1515. He was deeply versed in classical literature, and ab...
-Man In The Iron Mask
Man In The Iron Mask, a state prisoner of France in the reign of Louis XIV., who died in the Bastile, Nov. 19, 1703. Some critics have denied the existence of such a person, but late investigations ha...
-Man Isle Of (Manx Mannin, Orelian Van-Nin; Lat. Monapia)
Man Isle Of (Manx Mannin, Orelian Van-Nin; Lat. Monapia) , an island belonging to Great Britain, in the Irish sea, about midway between England, Scotland, and Ireland, its centre Iving in lat. 54...
-Managua
Managua, a city and the capital of Nicaragua, and of the department of Granada, situated on the S. shore of the lake of the same name, 220 ft. above the level of the Pacific, in lat. 12 7' N., Io...
-Manakin
Manakin, the name applied to the denti-rostral birds of the family ampelidae or chatterers and subfamily piprinm; they are generally small and of brilliant colors, and with one exception inhabitants o...
-Manasseh
I. The Elder Son Of Joseph The Elder Son Of Joseph, son of Jacob, adopted by the latter on his deathbed to become the head of one of the tribes of Israel, yet made inferior to his younger brother Eph...
-Manchester
Manchester, one of the shire towns of Hillsborough co., New Hampshire, and the largest city in the state, situated on both banks (but chiefly on the E.) of the Merrimack river, 18 m. S. by E. of Conco...
-Manchester (Anc. Mancunian)
Manchester (Anc. Mancunian), the most important manufacturing city in Great Britain, situated in the 8. E. corner of Lancashire, on both sides of the river Irwell, 162 in. N. N. W. of London, and 31 i...
-Manchineel (Hippomane Mancinella)
Manchineel (Hippomane Mancinella), a poisonous evergreen tree growing wild in the West India islands, along the shores of the Caribbean sea, and in southern Florida. It is of the natural order euphorb...
-Mancini
Mancini, a Roman family, founded in the 14th century by Pietro Omni-Santi, surnaroed Mancini dei Luci. Among his descendants was Michele Lorenzo Mancini. a brother of Cardinal Francesco Maria Mancini,...
-Manco Capac
I. The mythical ancestor of the incas of Peru. (See Peru, and Quichuas). II. Inca Of Peru Inca Of Peru, killed in 1544. He was the second son of the inca Huayna Capac, the conqueror of Quito, who di...
-Mandalay, Or Pattawapura Mandelay
Mandalay, Or Pattawapura Mandelay, the present capital of the kingdon of Burmah, a little N. of the former capital Amarapura, 3 m. from the Irrawaddy river, and 350 m. N. of Rangoon; pop. about 90,000...
-Mandans
Mandans, an Indian tribe of the Dakota family, dwelling on the Upper Missouri. According to their traditions, they came from under the earth, where they lived near a subterranean lake. They ascended b...
-Mandate
Mandate, a law term derived from the Roman civil law. It may be defined as a bailment (delivery) of a chattel or chattels to a person who is to do something with or about the things bailed, entirely w...
-Mandingo
Mandingo, a country in W. Africa, bounded N. by Kaarta, E. by Bambarra, S. by the Kong mountains, and W. by Senegambia, lying between lat. 8 and 15 K, and Ion. 8 and 12 W. Much of ...
-Mandrake (Mandragora Officinarum)
Mandrake (Mandragora Officinarum), a stemless plant, with lanceolate leaves, concealing beneath them several pale violet-colored flowers, and having a large, forked, fleshy, perennial root. It grows s...
-Manetho
Man'Etho, an Egyptian historian, who nourished in the reign of Ptolemy Soter, at the beginning of the 3d century B. C. He was a priest of Sebennytus in Lower Egypt, ami wrote in Greek a work on the re...
-Manfred
Manfred, prince of Tarentum, king of the Two Sicilies, natural son of the emperor Frederick II. and of Blanca, a daughter of Count Lanzia of Lombardy, born in Sicily about 1233, fell in the battle of ...
-Manganese
Manganese, a metal having the symbol Mn and the combining weight 55, long known in the mineral pyrolusite, used to neutralize the green color of glass. The ores containing it were variously styled fem...
-Mango
Mango, the native name of an East Indian fruit, of species of mangifera, of which 14 are known; some of them have been cultivated and become completely naturalized in the West Indies and other tropica...
-Mango Parr
Mango Parr, a Scottish traveller, born at Fowlshiels, Selkirkshire, Sept. 10, 1771, killed in Africa probably in the early part of 1806. At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a surgeon in Selkirk. He...
-Mangosteen (Malay Mangostana; Garcinia Mangostana)
Mangosteen (Malay Mangostana; Garcinia Mangostana), a tree growing with an upright stem to the height of 20 ft., and bearing a very beautiful and eatable berry, esteemed the most delicious of East Ind...
-Mangrove
Mangrove, a common name for three or four tropical plants, but mainly applied to species of rhizophora (Gr. , a root, and , to bear), a genus so called on account of the aerial roots borne by the...
-Manichaeans
Manichaeans, a religious sect of the East, founded about the middle of the 3d century. Its origin is involved in obscurity, oriental and occidental writers differing much in their accounts of it. Acco...
-Manila
Manila, a city capital of the island of Luzon, and of the whole Philippine archipelago, near the mouth of the Rio Pasig, which empties into the bay of Manila; lat. 14 36' ST., Ion. 121 E.; p...
-Manila, Or Manila Hemp
Manila, Or Manila Hemp, the fibre of musa textilis, a native of the Phillipine islands, and of the same genus with the banana and plantain. The tree, known in the islands by the native name of abaca, ...
-Manimission
Manimission, in Roman antiquity, the form by which slaves, or other persons not sui juris, were released from their condition. There were three modes of effecting a legal release, by vindicta, census,...
-Manissa, Or Manisa
Manissa, Or Manisa (anc. Magnesia and Sipy-lum), a city of Asia Minor, in the vilayet of Aidin, on the S. bank of the Hermus, and on the N. slope of Mt. Sipylus, about 20 m. N. E. of the city of Smyrn...
-Manitoba
Manitoba, a province of the Dominion of Canada, situated between bit. 49 and 50 30' N, and Ion. 96 and 99 W. It is bounded S. by Minnesota and Dakota, and on all other sides by the...
-Manitou
Manitou, among some tribes of the American Indians, the name of any object of worship. TheIllinois, wrote the Jesuit Marest, adore a sort of genius, which they call mani-tou; to them it is the mast...
-Manitoulin Islands
Manitoulin Islands, a group stretching E. and W. along the N. shore of Lake Huron from Georgian bay to the N. peninsula of Michigan, the principal of which are Great Manitoulin or Sacred island, Littl...
-Manitowoc
Manitowoc, an E. county of Wisconsin, bordering on Lake Michigan, and drained by the Manitowoc, E. and W. Twin, and Sheboygan rivers; area, 612 sq. m.; pop, in 1870, 33,364. The soil is fertile and he...
-Manius Or Marcus (Curius Dentatus)
Manius Or Marcus (Curius Dentatus), a Roman consul, flourished in the first half of the 3d century B. 0. In 290 he became consul and defeated the Samnites; in 275, during his second consulship, he van...
-Manlii
Manlii, one of the most, celebrated patrician gentes of ancient Rome, members of which held high offices in the state for about five centuries. The first of them who attained to the consulship was Cne...
-Manna
Manna, the concrete juice of several species offrarinus, or ash. Several of the ashes have tlowers producing distinct petals, a character which some botanists consider a sufficient reason for placing ...
-Mannheim, Or Manheim
Mannheim, Or Manheim, a town of the grand duchy of Baden, capital of the circle of the Lower Rhine, situated on the right bank of the Rhine, at the confluence of the Neckar with that river, 43 m. S. S...
-Mannite, Or Mannitose
Mannite, Or Mannitose, also called sugar of manna and sugar of mushrooms (C6H14O6), one of the glucoses, which was discovered by Proust, and its composition determined by Lie-big. It exists in a great...
-Manoel De Silveyra Pinto De Fonseca Chaves
Manoel De Silveyra Pinto De Fonseca Chaves, marquis of, and count of Amarante, a Portuguese general and statesman, born at Villa Real, died in Lisbon, March 7, 1830. He was opposed to the Portuguese l...
-Manolio Malpighi
Manolio Malpighi, an Italian anatomist, born near Bologna in 1628, died in Pome, Nov. 29. 1694. In 1056 he was appointed by Ferdinand II. of Tuscany professor of medicine at Pisa. where he made the ac...
-Manometer
Manometer (Gr. , rare, and ,measure - measurer of rarity), an instrument employed to measure the pressure exerted by a confined portion of gas or vapor. The force is usually expressed in units of ...
-Manresa
Manresa, a town of Spain, in the province and 30 m. N. N. W. of the city of Barcelona, near the left bank of the Llobregat river; pop. about 15,000. It is one of the most picturesque towns in Cataloni...
-Mansart, Or Mansard
I. Francois Francois, a French architect, born in Paris in 1598, died there in 1666. At the age of 22 he distinguished himself by the rot oration of the hotel Toulon. In 1624 he attracted the attenti...
-Mansfeld
Mansfeld, an ancient noble family of Germany, taking its name from the 'castle of Mansfeld, the original seat of the family, and now in the town and circle of Mansfeld in Prussian Saxony. I. Peter Er...
-Mansfield
Mansfield, a town of Tolland co., Connecticut, on the New London Northern railroad, 25 m. E. of Hartford; pop. in 1870, 2,401. It is bounded W. by the Willimantic river, and is intersected by the Natc...
-Manslaughter
In the article Homicide, it is said that felonious homicide is either manslaughter or murder. These two are distinguished from each other by the intent winch causes or accompanies the act. If a homici...
-Mantchooria, Or Mantcharia
Mantchooria, Or Mantcharia, the land of the Mantchoos, a country of Asia, a dependency of the Chinese empire, bounded N. by the Amoor river, which separates it from the Russian province of the Amoor, ...
-Manteuffel
I. Otto Theodor Otto Theodor, baron, a Prussian statesman, born at Lubben, Feb.3. 1805. He entered the civil service at an early age. In 1844 he was made a member of the council of state, and in 1847...
-Mantis
Mantis (Fabr.; Gr. , a soothsayer), a genus of orthopterous insects of the group of graspers (raptoria). In the best known species, M. religiosa (Linn.), the head is triangular, the eyes large, the ...
-Mantinea
Mantinea, one of the oldest and most powerful towns of Arcadia, on the borders of Ar-golis and the river Ophis. Its democratic political constitution was, according to Polybius, one of the best in ant...
-Mantua (Ital. Mantova)
I. A N. Province Of Italy A N. Province Of Italy, formerly included in Lombardy, but lately attached to Venetia, bordering on Brescia, Verona, Rovigo, Modena, Reggio, Parma, and Cremona; area, 855 sq...
-Manuel
Manuel, the name of two Byzantine emperors. I. Manuel I. Comneiins Manuel I. Comneiins, born about 1120, died Sept. 24, 1180. The valor which he had displayed against the Turks induced his father Jo...
-Manuel Dc Godoy
Manuel Dc Godoy, a Spanish statesman, born in Badajoz, May 12, 1767, died in Paris in October, 1851. Descended from an old and noble family, yet poor, he went to Madrid at the age of 17 to seek his fo...
-Manuel Jose Quintana
Manuel Jose Quintana, a Spanish poet, born in Madrid, April 11, 1772, died there, March 11, 1857. He was educated at Salamanca and practised law for a time at Madrid; but he soon turned his attention ...
-Manufactory Of The Gobelins
Manufactory Of The Gobelins, an establishment in Paris belonging to the French government, devoted to the production of tapestry and carpets. It is situated in the faubourg St. Marcel, upon the Bievre...
-Manufacture Of Cards
Playing and address cards are prepared from cardboards, made by pasting a sheet of cartridge paper between two sheets of white or colored paper; or for ornamented backs, sheets may be printed with the...
-Manufactures Of Wool
At the time of the Macedonian conquest the natives of India wove shawls of great beauty. The Greeks also learned many processes of woollen manufacture from the Egyptians; and the Romans and also the p...
-Manuscript
Manuscript (Lat. manu scriptum, written with the hand), in bibliography, a written book or document, in distinction from a printed one. (For the various materials that have been used for this purpose,...
-Map (Lat. Mappa)
Map (Lat. Mappa), a representation of a portion of the earth's surface, or of the celestial sphere, upon a plane. Its object is to present to the eye the bearings of objects upon the surface from each...
-Mapes, Or Map, Walter
Mapes, Or Map, Walter, an English Latin poet, born about the middle of the 12th century, probably in Herefordshire, died about 1210. He studied in Paris, and after his return became a great favorite o...
-Mapimi
Mapimi, a desert in N. Mexico, extending from the great bend of the Rio Grande, in hit. 30, southward to the vicinity of Parras, in lat. 25 30', and averaging 2£ degrees in width. It embrace...
-Maple
Maple, the common name of trees of the genus acer (Celtic ac, hard), belonging to the natural order sapindacece, of which with two other genera it forms the suborder acerinecr. There are about 50 spec...
-Mars
Mars (a contraction of Havers or Mavors), the Roman god of war, whose name in the Sabine and Oscan tongues was Mamers, and who was early identified with the Greek Ares. Before this identification he s...
-Mars (2)
Mars, the fourth planet in order of distance from the sun, and the nearest to us of the superior planets, that is, of the planets whose orbits lie outside that of the earth. Mars travels around the su...
-Marabou
Marabou, the popular name of several large birds of the stork family, of the genus leptop-tilus (Lesson), natives of Asia and Africa, whose delicate vent feathers were formerly highly esteemed as orna...
-Maracaybo, Or Maracaibo
I. A City Of Venezuela A City Of Venezuela, capital of the state of Zulia (formerly Maracaybo), situated on the W. shore of a channel connecting the lake and gulf of the same name, about 25 m. from t...
-Marajo, Or Joannes
Marajo, Or Joannes, an island of Brazil, in the mouth of the Amazon, which it divides into two unequal branches; length about 180 in., greatest breadth about 150 m.; pop. about 20,000, almost exclusiv...
-Maranhao, Or Maranham
I. A 1st E. Province Of Brazil A 1st E. Province Of Brazil, bounded N. by the Atlantic, E. by the province of Piauhy, S. W. by Goyaz, and TV. by Grlio Para; area, 168,000 sq. m.; pop. about 385,000, ...
-Marathon
Marathon, a town of Greece, near the E. coast of Attica, about 18 m. N. E. of Athens, near which the Persians under Datis and Ar-taphernes were defeated, in 490 B. C. (Sept. 28 or 29, according to som...
-Marble
Marble, a rock used as an ornamental building stone, for interior decorations, and for sculpture. Generally, any limestone that can be obtained in large sound blocks, and is susceptible of a good poli...
-Marburg
Marburg, a town of Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau, on the river Lahn, 49 m. S. W. of Cassel; pop. in 1871, 9,065. The principal public buildings are the church of St. Elizabeth, a fine, perf...
-Marc Antonio De Dominis
Marc' Antonio De Dominis, a theologian and natural philosopher, born in Arbe, an island of Dalmatia, in 1566, died in Rome in September, 1624. He was a relative of Pope Gregory X., studied at Loretto ...
-Marc Bohemond
Marc Bohemond, a Norman crusader, born about 1060, died in 1111. He was the eldest son of Robert Guiscard, the conqueror of Apulia and Calabria, and commanded with distinction in the wars of his fathe...
-Marc Theodore Bourrit
Marc Theodore Bourrit, a Swiss artist and author, born in Geneva about 1739, died near that city about 1815. He early evinced artistic talent, and reproduced the beauties of Alpine scenery in remarkab...
-Marco Marcos Botzaris (Bozzaris)
Marco Marcos Botzaris (Bozzaris), a Greek patriot, born about 1790, died near Missolonghi, Aug. 20, 1823. His father, Kitzos Bozzaris, his grandfather, uncles, and brothers, were all distinguished pat...
-Marco Minghetti
Marco Minghetti, an Italian statesman, born in Bologna, Sept. 8, 1818. He early became known as a lecturer on political economy and advocate of free trade, and as a journalist. In 1848 he was for a sh...
-Marco Polo
See Polo. Marco Polo #1 Marco Polo, a Venetian traveller, born about 1254, died about 1324. His father Nicole and his uncle Maffeo sailed shortly before Marco's birth on a trading voyage to Constant...
-Marcomnni
Marcomnni (Ger., men of the marches or borders), an ancient German people of Suevic race. They appear to have originally dwelt in the regions of the Main and Neckar in S. W. Germanv, whence thev follo...
-Marcos Aurelins Antoninus Caracalla
Marcos Aurelins Antoninus Caracalla, a Roman emperor, born at Lyons A. D. 188, died in 217. He was originally called Bassianus, but received the nickname of Caracalla from a favorite Gallic tunic whic...
-Marcus Aemilius Scaurus
I. A Roman Senator And Consul A Roman Senator And Consul, born in 163 B. C., died between 90 and 88. He studied eloquence, gained distinction in the army, and was elected curule aedile in 123, praeto...
-Marcus Atilius Regulus
Marcus Atilius Regulus, a Roman general, died about 250 B. C. He was consul in 267, when he defeated the Sallentini, took Brun-dusium, and received a triumph. In 256, the ninth year of the first Punic...
-Marcus Aurelius Probus
Marcus Aurelius Probus, a Roman emperor, born in Sirmium, Pannonia, about A. D. 230, assassinated there in 282. While he was very young the emperor Valerian raised him to the rank of tribune. He comma...
-Marcus Coeceius Nerva
Marcus Coeceius Nerva, a Roman emperor, born probably in Narnia, Umbria, A. D. 32, died in Rome, Jan. 23, 98. He was twice consul before his accession to the purple, in 71 with Vespasian, and in 90 wi...
-Marcus Fabius Quintilian (Quintilianus)
Marcus Fabius Quintilian (Quintilianus), a Roman rhetorician, born probably at Calagur-ris in Spain about A. D. 40, died about 118. He was educated at Rome, and was an advocate and teacher of eloquenc...
-Marcus Furius Camillus
Marcus Furius Camillus, a Roman magistrate, died of pestilence in 365 B. C. His name is connected with some of the greatest events in the history of the republic. His virtues and exploits are recorded...
-Marcus Salvius Otho
Marcus Salvius Otho, a Roman emperor, born A. D. 32, died in April, 69. His family traced its origin to the kings of Etruria. His father, Lucius Otho, held many places of honor and trust under Tiberiu...
-Marcus Terentios Varro
Marcus Terentios Varro, a Roman scholar, born in the Sabine town of Reate in 116 B. C, died in 28. He received a liberal education, held a high office in the navy in the wars against the pirates and a...
-Marcus Tullins Ciceuo
Marcus Tullins Ciceuo, a Roman orator, statesman, and philosopher, born at Arpinum, Jan. 3, 106 B. C, assassinated Dec. 7, 43 B. C. He belonged to an equestrian family, and with his brother Quintus wa...
-Marcus Valerius Corvus
Marcus Valerius Corvus, a Roman general, born about 371 B. C., died about 271. In 349, being tribune under L. Camillus in his campaign against the Gauls, he accepted the challenge of a gigantic barbar...
-Mare Lescarbot
Mare Lescarbot, seigneur de St. Audebert, a French historian, born at Vervins about 1570, died about 1630. His earliest known work, Discours sur la reunion des Eglises d' Alexandria et de Russie a la ...
-Maremme
Maremme (sing, marcmma, a salt marsh), tracts of marshy country in some parts of middle Italy, on the Mediterranean coasts, especially from the mouth of the Cecina to Orbetello, which are extremely un...
-Marexgo
Marexgo, a village of Piedmont, Italy, on; the river Bormida, 2 m. S. E. of Alessandria, I situated on an extensive plain of the same name, where a victory was gained by Bonaparte over the Austrian ge...
-Margaret
Margaret, queen and patron saint of Scotland, born in Hungary in 1046, died in Edinburgh. Nov. 17. 1093. She was the niece of Edward the Confessor, and daughter of Edward, son of Edmund Ironside. and ...
-Margaret Beaufort
Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and of Derby, born at Bletsoe, Bedfordshire, in 1441, died in 1509. She was a daughter of the duke of Somerset, grandson of Edward III., and was married to the ...
-Margaret Blessington
Margaret Blessington, countess of, an Irish woman of letters, born near Clonmel, Sept. 1, 1789, died in Paris, June 4, 1849. She was the third daughter of Mr. Edmund Power, and when only 15 years old ...
-Margaret Fuller Ossoli
Margaret Fuller Ossoli, marchioness, an American authoress, born in Cambridgeport, Mass., May 23, 1810, died by shipwreck on Fire Island beach, off Long Island, July 16, 1850. She was the eldest child...
-Margaret Of Anou
Margaret Of Anou, queen of England, daughter of Rene, duke of Lorraine and count of Provence, and titular king of Sicily and Jerusalem, and of Isabella of Lorraine, born at Pont-a-Mousson, March 23, 1...
-Margaret Of Austria
Margaret Of Austria, daughter of Maximilian I., emperor of Germany, and of Mary of Burgundy, born in the Low Countries, Jan. 10, 1480, died there, Dec. 1, 1530. Before she was three years old she was,...
-Margaret Of Denmark
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-Margaret Of Parm4
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-Margaret Of Valois
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-Maria Angelica Kauffmann
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-Maria Christina
Maria Christina, former queen dowager of Spain, born in Naples, April 27, 1806. Her father was Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies, and her mother Maria Isabella, daughter of Charles IV. of Spain. Sh...
-Maria De Medici
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-Maria Felicia Malibran
Maria Felicia Malibran, a Spanish singer, born in Paris, March 24, 1808, died in Manchester, England, Sept. 23, 1886. She was the eldest daughter of the singer and instructor Manuel Garcia, by whom sh...
-Maria II. Da Gloria
Maria II. Da Gloria, queen of Portugal, born in Rio Janeiro, April 4, 1819, died in Lisbon, Nov. 15,1853. Her mother, a daughter of the emperor Francis I. of Austria, and her grandfather, John VI. of ...
-Maria Lonisa Catharine Augusta
Maria Lonisa Catharine Augusta, empress of Germany and queen of Prussia, born in Weimar, Sept. 30, 1811. She is the daughter of the grand duke Charles Frederick of Saxe-Weimar (died July 8, 1853), and...
-Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini
Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini, an Italian composer, born in Florence, Sept. 8, 1760, died in Paris, March 15, 1842. He studied under his father, who was a pianist, and in 1769) under B...
-Maria Theresa
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-Marianneor Mariana Islands Ladrone
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-Mariano Charlotte De Corday Darmans
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-Mariano Matamoros
Mariano Matamoros, a Mexican patriot, executed at Valladolid, Feb. 13, 1814. The time and place of his birth and the circumstances of his early life are unknown. In December, 1811, he was parish pries...
-Marie Ahelie
Marie Ahelie, queen of the French, born at Caserta, near Naples, April 20, 1782, died at Claremont, near Windsor, England, March 24, 1866. Her father was Ferdinand I., king of the Two Sicilies, and he...
-Marie Alp House A French General Bedeau
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-Marie Anne Adelaide Lenormand
Marie Anne Adelaide Lenormand, a French fortune-teller, born in Alencon, May 27, 1772, died in Paris, June 25, 1843. She was of a respectable family, but owing to the death of her father received a ve...
-Marie Anne Chateauroux
Marie Anne Chateauroux, duchess de, a favorite of Louis XV., born about 1718, died Dec. 8, 1744. She was a daughter of the marquis de Nesle, lost her mother in 1729, and following her example as well ...
-Marie Cappelle Lafarge
Marie Cappelle Lafarge, a French woman notorious for her condemnation as a poisoner, born at Villers-Hellon, Aisne, in 1816, died at Ussat, a watering place in the Pyrenees, Nov. 7, 1852. She belonge...
-Marie De Rabutin-Chantal Sevigne
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-Marie De Rohan Montbazon Chevreuse
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-Marie Felicite Brosset
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-Marie Francois Xavier Bichat
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-Marie Heuri Beyle
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-Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat Condorcet
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-Marie Jean Herault De Sechelles
Marie Jean Herault De Sechelles, a French revolutionist, born in Paris in 1760, guillotined there, April 5, 1794. He was a lawyer, and was advocate general at the Chatelet. When the revolution broke o...
-Marie Jeanne Gomard De Yaubernier Barry
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-Marie Joseph Engene Sue
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-Marie Lonise Elisabeth Lebrun
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-Marie Margnerite Daubray Brinvilliers
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-Marie Nicolas Bouillet
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-Marie Roch Louis Reybaud
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-Marie Therese Louise De Savoie-Ca-Rignan Lamballe
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-Marietta
Marietta, a city and the capital of Washington co., Ohio, at the confluence of the Ohio and Muskingum rivers, and at the terminus of the Marietta and Cincinnati and the Marietta, Pittsburgh, and Cleve...
-Marigold
Marigold, the usual name of garden plants of two distinct genera of campositw The old naturalists called them Mary Gowles, a name from the Anglo-Saxon for another plant, which has been transferred to ...
-Marini, Or Marino, Glambattista
Marini, Or Marino, Glambattista, an Italian poet, born in Naples, Oct. 18. 1569, died there, March 25, 1625. He was driven from his home on account of his repugnance to the legal profession, and devot...
-Marion
Marion, the name of 17 counties in the United States. I. A X. County Of West Virginia A X. County Of West Virginia, drained by the Monongahela and its branches; area, 275 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,10...
-Marion Delorme
Marion Delorme, a French courtesan, born near Chalons-sur-Marne about 1612, died in Paris in 1650. She was the daughter of a tradesman, and received little if any education. Endowed with extraordinary...
-Marjoram
Marjoram, the common name of plants of the genus origanum, in the natural order la-biatte, having nearly entire leaves and purplish or whitish flowers crowded in cylindrical or oblong spikes, which ar...
-Mark Alexander Boyd
Mark Alexander Boyd, a Scottish scholar and soldier, born at Galloway, Jan. 13, 1562, died at Pinkill, April 10, 1601. His headstrong temper made him quarrel with his relatives and instructors, and be...
-Mark Catesby
Mark Catesby, an English artist and naturalist, born about 1680, died in London, Dec. 24, 1749. After studying the natural sciences in London, he went to Virginia, and remained in America seven years,...
-Mark Hopkins
Mark Hopkins, an American scholar, born in Stockbridge, Mass., Feb. 4, 1802. He graduated at Williams college in 1824, and having filled a tutorship in the college for two years, he received in 1828 t...
-Marlborough
Marlborough, a N. E. county of South Carolina, bordering on North Carolina, bounded W. by the Great Pedee river, and watered by its affluents; area, 505 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 11,814, of whom 0,008 wer...
-Marmaros
Marmaros, a N. E. county of Hungary, bordering on Galicia, Bukowina, and Transylvania, and the counties of Bereg, Ugocsa, and Szat-mar; area, 3,998 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 220,506, including about 100,0...
-Marmoset
Marmoset, the common name of the South American monkeys of the family hapalidce, including the genera hapale (Illiger) and midas (Geoffroy). The number of teeth is the same as in the old-world apes an...
-Marmot
Marmot, a large rodent of the squirrel family, and genus arctomys (Schreber). The body is thick and compressed, the head large and flattened, the legs short and stout, and the tail short, bushy, and n...
-Maronites
Maronites, a body of Syrian Christians who acknowledge the spiritual supremacy of the Eoman pontiff. The name appears to have been derived from St. Maron or Maroun, a hermit who lived in the mountains...
-Maroons
Maroons, fugitive slaves in the European colonies in the West Indies and in Guiana, who banded together in the forests and mountains and for a long time maintained their freedom. The origin of the wor...
-Marquesas Islands, Or Mcudana Archinolao
Marquesas Islands, Or Mcudana Archinolao, a cluster of 13 small islands in the South Pacific ocean, between lat. 7' 45' and 1 1 S and Ion. 138 and 14 1 W.; aggregate area. 480 sq. m.; pop. in 186...
-Marquette
I. A central county of the upper peninsula of Michigan, bounded N. E. , by Lake Superior and S. W. by Wisconsin, and ! drained f,y the Escanaba, Michigamig, and Me-quacumecuin rivers and other streams...
-Marquis, Or Marquess
Marquis, Or Marquess, a title of dignity in England, France, and Italy, ranking next below that of duke. In Germany, whence it derives its origin, the corresponding title is Marhjraf, in English mar-r...
-Marraige
Marraige, in law. the conjugal union of one man with one woman. In all Christian comities the marriage relation exists, and is as the most solemn of contracts; 'in.: in Protestant countries it is sacr...
-Marriage Settlements
A promise to give or advance to a woman, or settle upon her, money or an estate, on her marriage is valid; because the marriage is regarded by the law as a sufficient consideration for it. But it must...
-Marrow
Marrow, also called Medulla, a soft, translucent, yellowish or reddish vascular substance, found in the central cavities and in the spongy texture of the bones of man and the higher animals. There are...
-Marryat
I. Frederick Frederick, a British author, born in London, July 10, 1792, died at Lang-ham. Norfolk, Aug. 2, 1848. He entered the naval service at 11 years of age as a midshipman on board the frigate ...
-Marsala (Anc. Lilybceum)
Marsala (Anc. Lilybceum), a fortified seaport town at the W. extremity of Sicily, adjacent to Cape Boeo (anc. Promontorium Luy-bceum), in the province and 16 in. S. S. W. of the town of Trapani; pop. ...
-Marschner Heinrich
Marschner Heinrich, a German composer, born in Zittau, Aug. 16, 1795, died in Hanover, Dee. 13, 1801. He was almost a self-taught musician, his parents being too poor to afford him proper instruction,...
-Marseillaise
Marseillaise, a national song of France, produced in 1792 by Rouget de i'lsle, an offi-cer th.-n stationed at Strasburg, and hence originally called Chant de guerre de Varmee du lihin. It soon attaine...
-Marseilles (Fr. Marseille; Anc. Massilia)
Marseilles (Fr. Marseille; Anc. Massilia), a city and the principal seaport of France, capital of the department of Rouches-du-Rhone, on the N. E. shore of the gulf of Lyons, at the head of a bay the ...
-Marsh
I. George Perkins George Perkins, an American scholar, born in Woodstock, Vt., March 17, 1801. He graduated at Dartmouth college in 1820, and then removed to Burlington, Vt., where he studied law and...
-Marshal
Marshal (Fr. marechal; old Tier. Marah, horse, and Scale or Sehalk, servant), a term originally applied to the person who had charge of the horses of the king or other high dignitary. In the middle a...
-Marshall
Marshall, the name of nine counties in the United States. I. A X. County Of West Virginia A X. County Of West Virginia, forming the base of the Panhandle between Ohio and Pennsylvania, and bordere...
-Marshall Hall
Marshall Hall, an English physician, born at Basford, Nottinghamshire, in 1790, died in Brighton, Aug. 11, 1857. At the age of 19 he went to the university of Edinburgh and studied medicine and chemis...
-Marsi
I. An Ancient People Of Italy An Ancient People Of Italy, of Sabine race. They dwelt in the central Apennines, their territory surrounding Lake Fuci-nus (now Lago di Celano), where they bordered upon...
-Marsipials
Marsipials, an order of implacental mammals, all, with the exception of the American opossums, now confined to Australia and its archipelago. The name is derived from the presence of a marsupium or ab...
-Marston Moor
Marston Moor, a large open plain of Yorkshire, England, 8 in. N. W. of York, where a decisive victory was gained by the parliamentary forces and the Scots, under Lord Fairfax and the earl of Leven, ov...
-Marsyas
Marsyas, in Greek mythology, according to different traditions, a satyr or a peasant of Phrygia, son of Hyagnis, (Eagrus, or Olympus. A flute, which Minerva had thrown awray in disgust at seeing the d...
-Marten
Marten, a carnivorous animal of the weasel family, and genus mustela (Linn.), which includes also the fisher and the sahle of Europe. The pine marten or American sahle (if. Americana, Turton) is small...
-Martha's Vineyard
Martha's Vineyard, an island lying off the S. coast of Massachusetts, and forming the principal portion of Dukes co. With Ohap-paquiddick island, which lies immediately adjacent at its E. extremity an...
-Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialts)
Martial (Marcus Valerius Martialts), a Latin epigrammatic poet, born in Bilbilis, Spain, March 1, A.D. 43, died near the same place in or after 104. Little is known of his history except from his work...
-Martial Law
Martial Law, a term often confounded with military law, but in fact quite distinct from it. Military law, besides some customary law, consists chiefly of the articles of Avar; that is to say, of the c...
-Martin
Martin, an American bird, the largest of the swallow family, belonging to the genus progne (Boie). The bill is strong and short, with a very wide gape and curved culmen; the wings lengthened, the firs...
-Martin (2)
Martin, the name of five popes, of whom the following are the more important. I. Martin I., Saint Saint Martin I., horn at Todi in Tuscany about 600, died in the Tauric Chersonese (Crimea), Sept. 16...
-Martin Biter
Martin Biter, a German reformer, born at Schlettstadt, in Alsace, in 1491, died in Cambridge, England, Feb. 27,1551. His real name, according to some, was Butzer, but according to others it was Kuhhor...
-Martin Farqnhar Tupper
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-Martin Fried Rich Rudolph Delbruck
Martin Fried Rich Rudolph Delbruck, a German statesman, born in Berlin in 1817. He is the son of a clergyman, who was intrusted with the education of the crown prince, afterward Frederick William IV. ...
-Martin Haug
Martin Haug, a German orientalist, born at Ostdorf, Wurtemberg, Jan. 30, 1827. By private study he made himself master of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew. In 1848 he went to the university of Tubingen, where...
-Martin John Spalding
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-Martin Luther
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-Martinique, Or Martinico
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-Martino Fernandez Navarrete
Martino Fernandez Navarrete, a Spanish historian, born at Abalos, Old Castile, Nov. 9, 1705, died in Madrid, Oct. 8,1844. He entered the navy in 1780, was present at the attack on Gibraltar in Septemb...
-Martueau
I. Harriet Harriet, an English authoress, born in Norwich, June 12, 1802. She is descended from French ancestors, who on the revocation of the edict of Nantes established themselves at Norwich. She r...
-Martyn Paine
Martyn Paine, an American physician, born in Williamstown, Vt., July 8, 1794. He graduated at Harvard college in 1813, studied medicine in Boston, and practised in Montreal, Canada, from 1816 to 1822,...
-Martynia
Martynia, a genus of plants, named in honor of Prof. John Martyn, of Cambridge, Eng., and belonging to a suborder of the Bignoni-acea, which some botanists regard as entitled to rank as an order, the ...
-Martyr
Martyr (Gr , a witness), a term applied to all who suffer for any noble cause, but in a more limited sence to those who suffer death in order to bear witness to their religious belief. Some early wr...
-Marvel Of Peru
Marvel Of Peru, a garden name for plants of the genus mirabilu, also called four o'clock. The genus belongs to the family nyctaginaeea, and includes about half a dozen species, natives of the warmer ...
-Mary
Mary (Gr. and ), the mother of Jesus. But little is recorded of her history in the Scriptures. Some authorities consider Luke's genealogy to be that of Mary, and Heli (Luke iii. 23) to have been h...
-Mary I
Mary I, first queen regnant of England and Ireland, fourth sovereign of the Tudor line and daughter of Henry VIII. and of Catharine of Aragon, born at Greenwich palace, Feb 18 1516, died st St. James'...
-Mary II
Mary II, first queen regnant of Great Britain and Ireland, daughter of James II. and wife of William III., born at St. James's, April 30, 1G62, died at Kensington palace, Dec. 28, 1094. Her father at ...
-Mary Lyon
Mary Lyon, an American teacher, born in Buckland, Mass., Feb. 28, 1797, died in South Hadley, Mass., March 5, 1849. Under great difficulties she acquired by persevering effort such an education as she...
-Mary Magdalene
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-Mary Manley (De La Riviere)
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-Mary Martha Sherwood
Mary Martha Sherwood, an English authoress, born at Stanford, Worcestershire, July 6, 1775, died at Twickenham, near London, Sept. 30, 1851. She was a daughter of the Rev. George Butt. Her earliest wo...
-Mary Of The Incarnation (Marie Gdy-Ard)
Mary Of The Incarnation (Marie Gdy-Ard), an Ursuline nun, called the St. Theresa of New France, born in Tours, France, Oct. 18, 1599, died in Quebec, April 30, 1672. By the will of her father she marr...
-Mary Russell Mitford
Mary Russell Mitford, an English authoress, born at Alresford, Hampshire, Dec. 16, 1786, died near Reading, Jan. 10, 1855. She was the daughter of a physician whose pecuniary speculations early involv...
-Mary Somerville
Mary Somerville, a British physicist, born in Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, Scotland, Dec. 26, 1780, died in Naples, Italy, Nov. 29, 1872. She was the daughter of Vice Admiral Sir William Fairfax, and chie...
-Mary Stuart
Mary Stuart, queen of Scots, born in the palace of Linlithgow in December, 1542, beheaded at Fotheringay castle, Northamptonshire, England, Feb. 8, 1587. The precise date of her birth is unknown, for ...
-Mary Victoria Condon Clarke
Mary Victoria Condon Clarke, an English authoress, born in London, June 22, 1809. She is the eldest daughter of the composer and organist Vincent Novello, and sister of Clara Novello, the singer. In h...
-Mary Virginia Hawes (Terhune)
Mary Virginia Hawes (Terhune), an American novelist, under the pseudonyme of Marion Harland, born in Amelia county, Va., about 1835. At the age of 16 she published in Godey's Lady's Book a sketch en...
-Maryland
Maryland, one of the original states of the American Union, situated between lat. 37 53' and 39 44' N, and Ion. 75o 4' and 79 33' W., having an extreme length E. and W. of 196 m., and ...
-Marysville
Marysville, a city and the capital of Yuba co., California, situated at the junction of the Feather and Yuba rivers, on the Oregon division of the Central Pacific railroad at the intersection of the C...
-Masaccio
Masaccio, a Florentine painter, whose real name was Tommaso Guidi, born at San Giovanni, near Florence, early in the 15th century, died in 1443. He is said to have been a pupil of Masolino da Panicale...
-Masaniello
Masaniello (a contraction of Tommaso Ani-ello), an Italian popular leader, born in Amain in 1620, assassinated in Naples, July 16, 1647. He was a fisherman, but headed a successful revolt against the ...
-Masaya
Masaya, an inland city of Nicaragua, in the department of Granada, 15 m. S. E. of Managua; pop. about 12,000, nearly all Indians. It has not a single public edifice worthy of notice; but the suburbs, ...
-Mascoutins
Mascoutins, an Algonquin tribe, near Lake Michigan, who figure largely in early French accounts. They were closely united with the Foxes and Kickapoos, and when first known to the French, about 1620, ...
-Masinissa, Or Massinissa
Masinissa, Or Massinissa, a king of Numidia, born about 240 B. C, died in 148. He was the son of Gala, king of the Massylians, the most powerful tribe in E. Numidia, and received a superior education ...
-Mason
Mason, the name of six counties in the United States. I. A W. County Of West Virginia A W. County Of West Virginia, bounded N. and W. by the Ohio river, and drained by the Great Kanawha and its tr...
-Mason (2)
Mason, the name of a family of Virginia. The first of the family who came to North America was Col. George Mason, a member of the English parliament in the reign of Charles I. He opposed the arbitrary...
-Mason And Dixon's Line
Mason And Dixon's Line, the parallel of lat. 39 43' 26.3 N., which separates Pennsylvania from Maryland, drawn by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two distinguished English mathematicians and a...
-Masque
Masque, a species of dramatic entertainment, comprehending scenic effects and dancing. It was much cultivated in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries, and reached its highest perfection in Englan...
-Massachusetts
Massachusetts, one of the thirteen original states of the American Union, and one of the New England states, between lat. 41 15' and 42 53' N, and Ion. 69 56' and 73 ' 82' W.; extreme l...
-Massachusetts Indians
At the time of the English settlement of Massachusetts the territory was occupied by five Algonquin tribes. The Pennacooks were in the north-cast, partly in what is now New Hampshire; the Massachusett...
-Massasoit
Massasoit, a sachem of the Wampanoags, died in the autumn of 1661, about 80 years of age. His dominions extended over nearly all the southern part of Massachusetts, from Cape Cod to Narragansett bay; ...
-Massillon
Massillon, a city of Stark co., Ohio, on the Tuscarawas river and the Ohio canal, at the intersection of the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago, the Lake Shore and Tuscarawas Valley, and the Massillo...
-Massimo Taparelli Azeglio
Massimo Taparelli Azeglio, marquis d', an Italian statesman, artist, and author, born in Turin, Oct. 2, 1798, died there, Jan. 15, 1866. In his youth, as he says himself in his memoirs, he was a swagg...
-Master And Servant
The word servant /Lat.servus) is a generic term embracing all persons bound or obliged to render service to others, and therefore including slaves; but where slavery does not exist, a servant is under...
-Master Robert Wace
Master Robert Wace, an Anglo-Norman poet, born in Jersey about 1110, died probably in England about 1184. His name is variously written. He resided at Caen, and is supposed to have been a favorite cha...
-Master Singers (Ger. Meutertanger)
Master Singers (Ger. Meutertanger), a class of minstrels who flourished in Germany during the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. They were generally of burgher extraction, and in the reign of the emperor...
-Mastic
Mastic (Gr. from , to chew or eat, so named from the practice of chewing the substance which prevailed formerly as at present in Greece), a resinous exudation from the bark of the pistacia lentisc...
-Mastiff (Canis Urcanus)
Mastiff (Canis Urcanus), a variety of the dog family, large and powerful, with truncated muzzle and elevated skull, strong neck, muscular back, and robust limbs. The condyles of the lower jaw are abov...
-Mastodon
Mastodon (Gr. , nipple, and tooth), an extinct proboscidian mammal, coming near the elephant, found either in the tertiary or more recent deposits in all quarters of the globe except Africa. This ...
-Mat
Mat, a coarse fabric made by interweaving strips of the inner bark of trees, flags, rushes, husks, straw, grass, rattans, or similar materials, and used for covering floors, for beds, sails, packing o...
-Matamas
Matamas, a fortified seaport of Cuba, on the San Juan river, here crossed by a bridge, and at the head of a beautiful bay of the same name, 53 m. E. of Havana; pop. about 30,000, a considerable decrea...
-Matamoros
Matamoros, a frontier city of Mexico, in the state of Tamaulipas, on the right bank and 40 m. from the mouth of the Rio Grande, opposite Brownsville, Texas, and 450 m. 1ST. of Mexico; pop. about 12,00...
-Match
Match, a small stick of combustible material furnished with some very inflammable com-.position, and used for producing fire. It is commonly known in England as the lucifer match'1 or lucifer. In 1...
-Mate, Or Paraguay Tea
Mate, Or Paraguay Tea, the leaves of a native holly found in South America, an infusion of which is drunk by the people as tea is by Chinese and Europeans. The leaf and the drink are called mate, the ...
-Mateo Jose Bonaveiitura Orfila
Mateo Jose Bonaveiitura Orfila, a French chemist, born in Port Mahon, Minorca, April 24, 1787, died in Paris, March 12, 1853. He studied medicine at Valencia and Barcelona, and the junta of the latter...
-Mathematics
Mathematics (Gr. , or , learning), as usually defined, the science of quantities; or more precisely, the science which determines unknown quantities by means of their relations to known quantities...
-Mather
I. Richard Richard, an English clergyman, born at Lowton, Lancashire, in 1596, died in Dorchester, Mass., April 22, 1669. He received a good education, became a schoolmaster at Toxteth Park, near Liv...
-Mathews
I. Charles Charles, an English actor, born in London, June 28, 1776, died in Plymouth, June 28, 1835. He was educated at the merchant taylors' school, and subsequently was apprenticed to his father, ...
-Mathew Simpson
Mathew Simpson, an American clergyman, born in Ohio, June 10, 1810. He graduated at Alleghany college, Meadville, Pa., in 1832, and received the degree of M. D. in 1833, but in the same year entered t...
-Matteo Bandello
Matteo Bandello, an Italian novelist, born at Castelnuovo Scrivia, near Alessandria, in 1480, died in Agen, France, about 1562. He was a Dominican, accompanied his uncle, general of this order, on his...
-Matterhorn
Matterhorn (Fr. Mont Gervin; Ital. Monte Silvio), a mountain of the Pennine Alps, between the canton of Valais, Switzerland, and the Val d'Aosta, Italy, 14,835 ft, high. It is one of the grandest peak...
-Matthew Baillie
Matthew Baillie, a Scottish physician, born at the manse of Shatts, Lanarkshire, Oct. 27, 1761, died at Cirencester, Gloucestershire, Sept. 23, 1823. He was the elder brother of Joanna Baillie, and ne...
-Matthew Boulton
Matthew Boulton, an English mechanician, born in Birmingham, Sept. 3, 1728, died near there, Aug. 17, 1809. He joined his father in the manufacture of hardware, and one of his first inventions was a n...
-Matthew Carey
Matthew Carey, an American publisher and author, born in Dublin, Ireland, Jan. 28, 1760, died in Philadelphia, Sept. 16, 1839. At the age of 15 years he began to learn the business of printer and book...
-Matthew Fontaine Maury
Matthew Fontaine Maury, an American hy-drographer, born in Spottsvlvania co., Va., Jan. 14, 1806, died in Lexington, Va.. Feb. 1, 1873. His parents removed while he was still young to Tennessee. In 18...
-Matthew Gregory Lewis
Matthew Gregory Lewis, an English author, born in London, July 9, 1775, died at sea, while returning from Jamaica, May 14, 1818. He was educated at Christchurch, Oxford, and lived for some time in Ger...
-Matthew Henry
Matthew Henry, an English Biblical commentator, son of Philip Henry, born at Broad Oak, Flintshire, Oct. 18, 1662, died in Nant-wich, June 22, 1714. He studied law for some time, but preferred the min...
-Matthew Lyon
Matthew Lyon, an American politician, born in Wicklow co., Ireland, in 1746, died at Spadra Bluff, Arkansas, Aug. 1, 1822. He emigrated to New York in 1755, and, being unable to pay for his passage, w...
-Matthew Paris, Or Matthew Of Paris
Matthew Paris, Or Matthew Of Paris (Lat. Matthaeus Parisiensis, so called from his having studied in that city), an English historian, born about 1195, died in 1250. From 1217 he was a Benedictine mon...
-Matthew Parker
Matthew Parker, the second Protestant archbishop of' Canterbury, born in Norwich, Aug. 6, 1504, died in London, May 17, 1575. He entered Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, in 1520, and in 1527 was ord...
-Matthew Prior
Matthew Prior, an English poet, born at Wimborne-Minster, Dorsetshire, July 21, 1664, died at Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, a seat of Lord Oxford, Sept. 18, 1721. He graduated at Cambridge in 1686. Here he...
-Matthew Tindal
Matthew Tindal, an English author, born at Beer-Ferris, Devonshire, about 1657, died in London, Aug. 16, 1733. He was educated at Oxford, took the degree of bachelor in 1676, and was elected to a fell...
-Matthias
Matthias, a religious impostor, whose real name was Robert Matthews, born in Washington co., N. Y., about 1790, died in Arkansas. He kept a country store, failed in 1816, and went to reside in New Yor...
-Matthias Alexander Castren
Matthias Alexander Castren, a Finnish philologist, born at Tervola, Dec. 2, 1813, died in Helsingfors, May 7, 1852. He devoted himself to collecting the monuments of the genius of Finland scattered th...
-Matthias I
Matthias I, the Great, surnamed Corvinus, king of Hungary, born in 1443, died in Vienna in 1490. He was a son of John Hunyady (Hunniades), the governor of Hungary during the minority of King Ladislas ...
-Matto Grosso (Port
Matto Grosso (Port, thick hrushwood), a province of Brazil, bounded N. W. and N. by Amazonas and Grao Para, E. and S. E. by Go-yaz, Sao Paulo, and Parana, S. by Paraguay, and S. W. and W. by Bolivia; ...
-Matvei Ivanovitch Platoff
Matvei Ivanovitch Platoff, count, a Russian general, of Greek origin, born about 1760, died in 1818. He was brought up among the Cossacks of the Don, and after many years' service in the Russian army ...
-Mauch Chunk
Mauch Chunk, a borough and the capital of Carbon co., Pennsylvania, on the W. bank of the Lehigh river, at its passage through the Mahoning mountain, on both sides of the mouth of Mauch Chunk creek, ...
-Maui
Maui, the second in size of the Hawaiian islands, in lat. 21o N., Ion. 156 30' W.; length 50 m., greatest breadth 27 m.; area, 603 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 12.334. It is of volcanic formation, and c...
-Maule
Maule, a S. province of Chili, bounded N. by Talca, E. by the Andes, S. by Nuble and Concepcion, and W. by the Pacific; area, 6,424 sq. m., or according to a Chilian authority, about 8,100 sq. m.; pop...
-Maulmain, Or Monlmehi
Maulmain, Or Monlmehi, a port of Tenasse-rim, on the E. side of the bay of Bengal, at the mouth of the Salwen, on a small peninsula formed by that river and the Gyne and Atta-ran, and nearly opposite ...
-Mauna Loa
Mauna Loa (long or high, mountain), a volcanic mountain occupying a large part of the central and southern regions of the island of Hawaii; elevation, 13,760 ft. It is entirely composed of lavas whi...
-Maunel Chrysoloras
Maunel Chrysoloras, a learned Greek of Constantinople, the first who revived the study of Greek literature in Italy toward the close of the middle ages, born about the middle of the 14th century, died...
-Maurer
I. Georg Laduig Von Georg Laduig Von, a German jurist, born at Erpolsheim, Rhenish Bavaria, Nov. 2, 1790, died in Munich, May 9, 1872. He took his degree at Heidelberg in 1812, and studied in Paris t...
-Maurice
Maurice, count of Nassau and prince of Orange, stadtholder of the United Dutch Provinces, born at Dillenburg, Nov. 14, 1567, died at the Hague, April 23,1025. He was the second surviving son of Willia...
-Maurice Saxe
Maurice Saxe, count de, a marshal of France, born in Germany in October, 1696, died at Chambord, Nov. 30, 1750. He was the natural son of Augustus the Strong, elector of Saxony and king of Poland, by ...
-Mauritania, Or Mauretania
Mauritania, Or Mauretania, in ancient geography, the N. W. coast of Africa, including the modern Morocco and part of Algeria. It was bounded N. by the Mediterranean, E. by the river Ampsaga, which sep...
-Mauritius, Or Isle Of France
Mauritius, Or Isle Of France, an island belonging to England, in the Indian ocean, between hit. 19 58' and 20 31' S. and Ion. 57 21' and 57 51' E., about 500 m. E. of Madagascar, 1...
-Maximilian (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph)
Maximilian (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph), archduke of Austria and emperor of Mexico, horn in Vienna. July 6, 1832, shot in Queretaro, Mexico, June 19,1807. He was the second son of the archduke Franci...
-Maximilian I
Maximilian I, emperor of Germany, born in Neustadt, near Vienna, March 22, 1459, died at Wels, Jan. 12, 1519. He was the son of the emperor Frederick III., of the house of Hapsburg, and of Eleanor, a ...
-Maximilicn De Betliune Sully
Maximilicn De Betliune Sully, baron de Rosny, duke of, a French statesman, born at Rosny, near Mantes, Dec. 13, 1560, died near Chartres, Dec. 22, 1641. He belonged to a noble Protestant family, and f...
-Maximilien Lamarque
Maximilien Lamarque, count, a French general, born in St. Sever, July 22, 1770, died-in Paris, June 1, 1832. He enlisted in the army in 1791, was sent to Spain, reached the rank of captain, and joined...
-Maximilien Marie Isidore De Robespierre
Maximilien Marie Isidore De Robespierre, a French revolutionist, born in Arras, May 6, 1758, executed in Paris, July 28, 1794. He was supposed to be of remote Irish origin, and his ancestors had acqui...
-Maximilien Paul Emile Littre
Maximilien Paul Emile Littre, a French philologist, born in Paris, Feb. 1, 1801. He was educated for the profession of medicine, but his attention has always been given chiefly to philosophical and li...
-Maximin (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus)
Maximin (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus)), a Roman emperor, born in Thrace in the latter part of the 2d century, killed before Aqnileia in 238. He was the son of a Goth by an Alan woman, and was brought...
-May (Lat. Mains)
May (Lat. Mains), the fifth month in the Gregorian calendar, consisting of 31 days. Among the Romans it was sacred to Apollo, and almost every day was a festival. On the 9th, 11th, and 13th days was c...
-Mayas
Mayas, the race of Indians inhabiting Yucatan and some adjoining districts. By some ethnologists they are regarded as a distinct race, though the precise period of their arrival on the peninsula is un...
-Mayer Anselm Rothschild
Mayer Anselm Rothschild, a German banker, born in Frankfort in 1743, died there in September, 1812. He belonged to a poor Jewish family, and was a clerk in Hanover before establishing himself at Frank...
-Mayfly
Mayfly, an insect generally placed m the order newoptera, with the dragon Hies, ephemeral, myrmeleon, and termites or white ants, forming the genus phryganea as restricted by Latreille. The jaws are h...
-Mayhew
Mayhew, the name of several brothers distinguished in contemporary English literature. I. Henry Henry, born in London, Nov. 25, 1812, was educated at Westminster school, and afterward established hi...
-Mayne Reid
Mayne Reid, a British novelist, born in the north of Ireland in 1818. He is the son of a Presbyterian minister, and was educated for the church, but, being fonder of adventure than of theology, set ou...
-Maynooth
Maynooth, a market town of Ireland, county Kildare, on the Royal canal, 15 m. W. N. W. of Dublin; pop. in 1871, 2,091. It has a ruined castle built in 1426 by John Fitzgerald, earl of Kildare,- and is...
-Mayo
Mayo, a maritime county of Ireland, in the province of Connaught, bordering on Sligo, Roscommon, Gahvay, and the Atlantic ocean; area, 2,131 sip m.; pop. in 1871, 245,855. The coasts are indented by n...
-Mayor Of The Palace
Mayor Of The Palace (Lat. major domus regice, or magister palatii), an officer of state in France under the Merovingian kings, who originally exercised the functions of royal steward, having the manag...
-Mayweed
Mayweed, a plant of the composite family, with so much the aspect of the chamomile that some botanists place it in the same genus as anthemis cotula, while others regard the fact that the ray flowers ...
-Mazatlan
Mazatlan, a maritime city of Mexico, in the state of Sinaloa, at the head of a bay at the entrance of the gulf of California, 530 m. N. W. of Mexico; pop. in 1867 (according to official reports), 11,6...
-Mbelingenlied, Or Nibelnngennot
Mbelingenlied, Or Nibelnngennot, an old German epic poem, embodying several cycles of heroic traditions. Its legends form a large part of the Heldeiuagen of Germany, and are found with various modific...
-Mcdowell
I. The S. County Of West Virginia I. The S. County Of West Virginia, bordering on Virginia, and drained by the Tug fork of Sandy river; area, about 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,952. The S. and E. part...
-Mchenry
I. A N. E. County Of Illinois I. A N. E. County Of Illinois, bordering on Wisconsin, drained by Fox and Des Plaines rivers and their branches; area, 470 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 23,762. The surface is n...
-Mchlenberg
I. Peter John Gabriel Peter John Gabriel, an American general, son of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the founder of the German Lutheran church in America, born at Trappe, Montgomery co., Pa., Oct. 1, 174...
-Mckel
Mckel, a silver-white, malleable, and ductile metal, discovered by Cronstedt in 1751. It is represented by the symbol Ni; its atomic weight is 58'8, and its specific gravity is 8'279, increasing to 8....
-Mclean
I. A N. W. County Of Kentucky I. A N. W. County Of Kentucky, intersected by Green river; area, 320 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 7,614, of whom 814 were colored. The surface is undulating and the soil produc...
-Mcleod
Mcleod, a S. central county of Minnesota, watered by the S. fork of Crow river; area, 504 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,643. The surface is undulating and the soil productive. It is traversed by the Hasting...
-Mcobar Islands
Mcobar Islands, a cluster in the Indian ocean, S. of the Andaman group and N. of Sumatra, between lat, 6 45' and 9 15' N., and Ion. 92 45' and 94 E.; pop. about 6,000. It includes ...
-Mcolaitaas
Mcolaitaas, a heretical sect, alluded to in Rev. ii. 6, 15, and by some supposed to have received their name from Nicolas of Antioch, one of the seven deacons said to have fallen into practices oppose...
-Mdonald Clarke
M'Donald Clarke, an eccentric American poet, born in New London, Conn., June 18, 1798, died in New York, March 5, 1842. For many years his blue cloak, cloth cap, erect military air, and beaming counte...
-Meade
Meade, a N. county of Kentucky, on the Ohio river, drained by Otter and Spring creeks and other tributaries of the Ohio; area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 9,485, of whom 1,294 were colored. It has...
-Meadow Lark
Meadow Lark, a starling, of the American genus sturnella (Vieillot). The body is thick and stout, the legs large, with hind toes reaching beyond the tail, which is short, even, and of narrow pointed f...
-Meadow Mouse
Meadow Mouse, the common name of the small rodents of the genus arvicola (Lacep.). The molars are (3/3)-(3/3), and rootless; the ears are short, nearly hidden in the fur; the muzzle is broad and round...
-Meadow Ore Bog Ore
Meadow Ore Bog Ore, or Limonite (Or. meadow), a variety of iron ore, which collects in low places, being washed down in a soluble form in the waters which flow over rocks or sands containing oxide ...
-Meadville
Meadville, a city and the capital of Crawford co., Pennsylvania, on the E. bank of French creek, and on the Atlantic and Great W estern railroad at the junction of the Franklin branch, 82 m. N. by W. ...
-Meal Worm
Meal Worm, the name given in Europe to the larva of a black heteromerous beetle, the tene-brio molitor (Linn.). The perfect insect, about two thirds of an inch long, appears in the evening in the leas...
-Mealy Bug
Mealy Bug, a very destructive insect in greenhouses, of the order hemiptera, and family coccidae or bark lice, the coccus Adonidum, (Linn.). The perfect insects resemble small scales; the reddish larv...
-Measles (Rubeola Rnorbilli)
Measles (Rubeola Rnorbilli), a contagious exanthematous fever, attended with a characteristic eruption. Up to the latter part of the last century measles and scarlet fever were confounded together, or...
-Mechanics
Mechanics, that branch of natural philosophy which treats of the action of forces on bodies. It is divided into statics, which treats of the action of forces in equilibrium, and dynamics, which treats...
-Mechlin, Or Mechelen (Fr.Malines)
Mechlin, Or Mechelen (Fr.Malines), a city of Belgium, in the province of Antwerp, on the Dyle, 13 m. N. by E. of Brussels; pop. in 1870, 30,090. It is one of the railway centres of Belgium, four lines...
-Mecklenburg
I. A S. E. County Of Virginia A S. E. County Of Virginia, bordering on North Carolina, bounded N. by the Meherrin river, intersected by the Roanoke, and drained by its tributaries; area, 640 sq. m.; ...
-Medea
Medea, a mythical princess, a daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, by the oceanid Idyia, or Hecate, daughter of Perses. She was famous for her skill in sorcery, and enabled Jason, with whom she had fa...
-Media
Media (Old Pers. Mada; Heb. Madai). an ancient country of Asia, bounded N. by Armenia, from which it was partly separated by the A raws (Aras) river and the Caspian sea, E. by Hyrcania, Parthia, and t...
-Medical Electricity, Or Elertro-Therapentics
Medical Electricity, Or Elertro-Therapentics, the therapeutical application of the various kinds of electricity. The attempt to employ electricity in medicine dates as far back as the knowledge of the...
-Medical Jurisprudence
Medical Jurisprudence, called also legal or forensic medicine, the employment of the principles of medical science in the administration of law. In its relations to jurisprudence, medical learning is ...
-Medici
Medici, a distinguished family of not well authenticated origin, though traced by some genealogists to the days of Charlemagne, and appearing in Florentine history since the close of the 13th century....
-Medicine
Medicine, the science and art of curing disease. Some rude appliances to wounds and injuries, some equally rude observances in cases of internal disease, are common among the most barbarous people. Th...
-Medilvat
I. A S. W. County Of Texas A S. W. County Of Texas, bounded N. E. by the Medina river; area, 1,175 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,078, of whom 92 were colored. The surface is rolling and in some parts hilly...
-Medina
Medina (Arab. Medinet en-Nebi, city of the prophet), a city of Arabia, in the province of Hedjaz, situated on the vast plateau of high land which forms central Arabia, about 250 m. N. of Mecca, in l...
-Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea, the great midland sea separating the southern shores of Europe from the north coast of Africa, and bounded E. by part of Asia. It was not known to the ancients by its present name. ...
-Medlar
Medlar, a fruit-bearing tree of the order rosacea, common in the wild state in most parts of Europe, some of the finer varieties of which are cultivated. In most works the medlar is placed in a separa...
-Meerschaum
Meerschaum (Ger., sea foam, so called from its lightness and whitish appearance), or Mag-nesite, a hydrous silicate of magnesia, of composition represented by the formula MgO, Si03 + 2HO. It is a mine...
-Meerut
I. A District Of British India A District Of British India, in the Northwest Provinces, forming part of the Doab, and bounded E. by the Ganges and W. by the Jumna; area, 2,332 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 1...
-Megaloimx
Megaloimx (Gr. , great, and , claw), an extinct genus of giant edentates, allied to the sloths, established in 1797 by Thomas Jefferson, in a communication to the American philosophical society o...
-Megalopolis
Megalopolis, a city of ancient Greece, ori-ginally capital of the Arcadian confederation, on the river Helisson. It was founded at the suggestion of Epaminondas, after the battle of Leuctra (371 B. C)...
-Megalosaurus
Megalosaurus (Gr. , great, and , lizard), a gigantic fossil reptile of the family of dinosaurians, which includes the iguanodon, previously described. This family, entirely extinct, was remarkable...
-Megara
Megara, a city of ancient Greece, capital of Megaris, about 1 m. from the Saronic gulf, opposite the island of Salamis, 20 m. AV. by N. of Athens. It consisted of a double acropolis and the city prope...
-Megasthenes
Megasthenes (Gr. , great, and strength), a name given by Dana to one of the grand divisions of the non-marsupial or higher mammals, as indicating a superior type, based on a larger and more power...
-Megatherium
Megatherium (Gr. , great, and , animal), an extinct edentate animal, of gigantic size, coming in many respects near to the sloth family, and with its allies, the megalonyx and mylodon, seeming to ...
-Mehemet Ali, Or Mohammed All
Mehemet Ali, Or Mohammed All, pasha of Egypt, born at Kavala, Macedonia, in 1769, died in Cairo, Aug. 2,1849. He lost his father at an early age, and was brought up by the governor of the town. Soon a...
-Meigs
I. A S. E. County Of Tennessee A S. E. County Of Tennessee, bounded N W. by the Tennessee river; area, 215 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,511, of whom 436 were colored. The surface is hilly and the soil fer...
-Meissen
Meissen, a town of Saxony, on the Elbe, 12 m. N. W. of Dresden; pop. in 1871, 11,455. It contains a castle founded by Henry the Fowler, and a fine Gothic cathedral, said to have been built by the empe...
-Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart(master), the father of German mysticism, born probably in Stras-burg in the middle of the 13th century, died probably in Cologne about 1328. He studied theology and philosophy in Paris...
-Mekhitar, Or Mechitar
Mekhitar, Or Mechitar, the founder of a congregation of Armenian monks, called after him Mekhitarists, born in Sebaste (Sivas) in Asia Minor, Feb. 7, 1676, died April 29, 1749. The name Mekhitar, sign...
-Mekong, Or Cambodia
Mekong, Or Cambodia, the chief river of the Indo-Chinese peninsula (Further India), rises near the E. extremity of the main range of the Himalaya mountains, in the S. E. portion of Thibet, flows 8. E....
-Melbourne
Melbourne, a city of S. E. Australia, capital of the colony of Victoria, on the banks of the Yarra-Yarra river, about 9 m. from its mouth, at the upper end of the large estuary of Port Phillip, 450 m....
-Melchior Joseph Eugene Daumas
Melchior Joseph Eugene Daumas, a French soldier and author, born Sept. 4, 1803, died near Bordeaux in May, 1871. He entered the army as a volunteer in 1822, but was appointed a sub-lieutenant in 1827....
-Meleager
I. A Mythical Hero Of Greece The legends respecting him are discordant. According to one, he was the son of Mars and Althaea, and to others, of (Eneus and Althaea. The prevailing legend is, that whil...
-Meletius, Or Melltius
Meletius, Or Melltius, author of the Mele-tian schism, horn in Egypt about 200, died at Lycopolig, in the Thebais, in 326. He was made bishop of Lycopolis about 300, and during the persecution became ...
-Melodeon
Melodeon (Gr. . , melody), the name, at different times, of two or more unlike forms of musical instruments, but now appropriated to one of recent date, and so far excelling those before it as to be...
-Melon
Melon, the common name for fruits of vines of the cucurlitacem or gourd family. In England, where but one kind is cultivated, the name melon applies solely to the fruit of cu-cumis melo; but in this c...
-Melos (The Ancient Name, Now Restored), Or Milo
Melos (The Ancient Name, Now Restored), Or Milo, an island in the Grecian archipelago, one of the Cyclades, belonging to the kingdom of Greece, lving about 65 m. E. of the coast of the Peloponnesus, i...
-Melrose Abbey
Melrose Abbey, a celebrated ruin in the town of Melrose, Roxburghshire, Scotland, near the Tweed, 31 m. S. E. of Edinburgh. It was founded in 1136 by David I., completed in 1146, and dedicated to the ...
-Melun (Anc. Melodunujn)
Melun (Anc. Melodunujn), a town of France, capital of the department of Seine-et-Marne, on the Seine, 25 m. S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1866, 11,408. Part of the town is built on an island in the Seine. T...
-Melville Island
I. In Polar America See Melville Sound. II. An Island Lying Off The N. W. Coast Of Australia An Island Lying Off The N. W. Coast Of Australia, between lat. 11 8' and 11 56' S., and Ion. 1...
-Melville Sound, Or Parry Sonnd
Melville Sound, Or Parry Sonnd, a body of water in the north polar regions of America, lying between lat. 72 and 75 N., .and Ion. 100 and 115 W., enclosed between the Parry islands...
-Membrane
Membrane, a general term applied to thin layers of tissue, more or less elastic, whitish or reddish, lining either closed cavities or canals opening externally, absorbing or secreting fluids, and enve...
-Memel
Memel, the northernmost town of Prussia, in the province of East Prussia, on the Baltic sea near the Russian frontier, at the N. end of the Kurisches Haff, and at the mouth of the river Dange, 72 m. N...
-Memnon
Memnon, a hero of the Trojan war, son of Tithonus and Eos or Aurora. Homer in the Odyssey describes him as the handsome son of Eos who brought a force of Ethiopians to assist in the defence of Troy ag...
-Memo Symons
Memo Symons (commonly written Menno Simonis, and defined as Menno, son of Simon; but Symons was his surname), a religious reformer, born at Witmarsum in West Friesland about 1496, died at Wtistenfel...
-Memphis
Memphis (Coptic, Menji or Menofre, good abode or the abode of the good one, supposed to refer to Osiris; in hieroglyphic inscriptions, according to some, Ma-en-Ptah, abode of Ptah; in Scripture, N...
-Memphis, A City
A City Memphis, port of delivery, and the capital of Shelby co., Tennessee, situated in the S. W. corner of the state, on the Mississippi river, just below the mouth of Wolf river, on the fourth Chick...
-Menander
Menander, an Athenian dramatic poet, born in 342 B. C, died in 291. Alexis, the comic poet, was his paternal uncle, Theophrastus his preceptor, and Epicurus his intimate friend. Little is known of his...
-Menard
I. A W. County Of Texas A W. County Of Texas, intersected by San Saba river; area, 870 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 667, of whom 372 were colored. The soil is fertile, and there is fine water power. Silver ...
-Menasseh Ben Israel
Menasseh Ben Israel (properly Manasseh rex Joseph ben Israel), a Jewish rabbi, born in Portugal about 1(104, died in Middelburg, Zealan 1. Nov. 20, 1657. His father tied from the inquisition to Hollan...
-Mendoza
I. A S. W. province of the Argentine Republic, bounded N. by San Juan, E. by San Luis, S. by the unsettled districts W. of Buenos Ayres, and W. by Chili, from which it is separated by the Andes; area,...
-Menhaden
Menhaden, a North American fish of the herring family, and genus alosa (Cuv.), which differs from the herrings (duped) in having a deep notch in the centre of the upper jaw. This fish (A. menhaden, St...
-Mennonites
Mennonites, a denomination of Protestants who reject infant baptism and baptize adult persons only on a profession of faith, and practise non-resistance and abstinence from oaths. They thus combine so...
-Menomonees, Or Menoniinees
Menomonees, Or Menoniinees, a tribe of American Indians, belonging to the Algonquin family, and from their first discovery to the present century residing on the Menominee river, which empties into Gr...
-Menopoma
Menopoma, a North American tailed batra-chian reptile, one of the series of animals which seem to connect the perennibranchiate amphibians with the salamanders. The genus menopoma was established by H...
-Menshikoff
I. Alexander Daniloviteh Alexander Daniloviteh, prince, a Russian statesman, born in Moscow about 1672, died in Berezov, Siberia, Nov. 2, 1729. The son of poor parents, he was brought up without educ...
-Mensuration
Mensuration, the art of measuring things which occupy space. This is the art which led to the formation of the science of geometry; and some schools of philosophy at the present day are inclined to li...
-Mentone (Fr. Menton)
Mentone (Fr. Menton), a town of France, in the department of Alpes-Maritimes, on the gulf of Genoa, 12 m. N. E. of Nice; pop. about 10,000. It is on two small bays, called respectively the East and th...
-Mentz
Men'Tz (Ger. Mainz; Fr. Mayence; anc. Mo-guntiacum), a fortified city of Germany, capital of Rhenish Hesse, on the left bank of the Rhine, nearly opposite its junction with the Main, 20 m. W. S. W. of...
-Mercer
Mercer, the name of counties in eight of the United States. I. A W. County Of New Jersey A W. County Of New Jersey, bordering on Delaware river; area, 200 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 40,386. The surface i...
-Mercury
Mercury, the planet nearest to the sun, travelling at a mean distance from it of about 35,392,000 m. The eccentricity of the orbit of Mercury is considerable, the centre of the orbit being more than 7...
-Mercury, Or Hermes
Mercury, Or Hermes, an ancient deity of the Greeks and Romans. According to the Greek legend, he was a son of Jupiter and Maia, a daughter of Atlas. He was born in a cave of Mt. Cyllene, in Arcadia, w...
-Mercury, Or Inicksilver
Mercury, Or Inicksilver, a metal of the coloor and lustre of silver, and fluid at ordinary temperatures, whence its ancient name of ar-aentnm ttrum, and that by which it was called by Aristotle and Th...
-Merganser
Merganser, a name applied to most of the saw-billed ducks, of the subfamily mergina, of which the goosander, the largest specie-, has been described under that title. The bill is very slender, narrow,...
-Merian
I. Mattbatis Mattbatis, the elder, a Swiss engraver, born in Basel in 1593, died in Frankfort in 1651. He studied four years in Zurich under Dietrich Meyer, a glass painter and engraver, lived severa...
-Merida
Merida (anc. Augusta Emerita), a city of Estremadura, Spain, on the right bank of the Guadiana, in the province and 30 m. E. of the city of Badajoz; pop. about 5,000. The streets are paved and clean; ...
-Meriden
Meriden, a town and city of New Haven co., Connecticut, on the New York, New Haven, and Hartford railroad, 18 m. N. E. of New Haven; pop. in 1850, 3,55!); in I860, 7,426; in 1870, 10,495. The city is ...
-Merivale
I. John Herman John Herman, an English author, born in Exeter, Aug. 5, 1779, died April 25, 1844. He studied at St. John's college, Cambridge, but took no degree, on account of his being a Presbyteri...
-Meriwether Lewis
Meriwether Lewis, an American explorer, born near Charlottesville, Va., Aug. 18, 1774, died near Nashville, Tenn., Oct, 11, 1809. He inherited a moderate fortune from his father, who died when he was ...
-Merlin
Merlin, a European falcon, of the genus hy-potriorchis (Boie), which differs from the genus falco (Linn.) chiefly in the more lengthened and slender tarsi, and long slender toes. This bird (H. cesalon...
-Merodach, Or Bel Merodach
Merodach, Or Bel Merodach, the second of the minor Babylonian gods, nearly corresponding with the classic Jupiter, and astronomically identified with the planet Jupiter. The name Merodach was at first...
-Meroe, A State
A State Meroe, with a capital of the same name, forming part of the ancient kingdom of Ethiopia. It. is hardly possible to fix the site of the ancient city, much less to define the boundaries of the s...
-Merovingians
Merovingians, the name of the first Frank-ish dynasty in Gaul or France. It was so called from Meroveus, king of the Ripuarian Franks (448-'58), who aided in the defeat of Attila in 451. He was succee...
-Merrimack
Merrimack, a river of New England, formed by the junction of the Pemigewasset and Win-nepiseogee rivers at Franklin, N. II. From this point the river runs S. 78 m. to Chelmsford, Mass., and thence E. ...
-Mersey
Mersey, a river of England, formed by the union of several small streams, which have their sources in the hills near the borders of Yorkshire, Cheshire, and Derbyshire. The two principal of these, the...
-Mesembryanthemum
Mesembryanthemum (Gr. , mid day, and , a flower), a genus of succulent plants called fig marigolds, and by the French ticoides, as some species produce an edible fruit resembling a tig. The genus ...
-Meshed, Or Meshid
Meshed, Or Meshid, a city of Persia, capital of the province of Khorasan, in an extensive valley of the same name, about 185 m. N. W. of Herat, 300 m. E. of the southern extremity of the Caspian sea, ...
-Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia (Gr. and , between the rivers, viz., Euphrates and Tigris; Heb. Aram Naharaim, Aram or Syria between the two rivers; now Al-Jeziveh, the island), an ancient country of western Asia, bo...
-Messala, Or Messalla
Messala, Or Messalla (Marcus Valerius Messala Corvixus), a Roman general, born according to Eusebius in 59, but according to Scaliger about 70 B. C, died about the beginning of the Christian era. He c...
-Messalina, Or Messallina
Messalina, Or Messallina, the name of two Roman empresses, who lived in the 1st century of the Christian era. I. Valeria Valeria, daughter of M. Valerius Messala Barbaras, and third wife of Claudius...
-Messapia
Messapia, the ancient Greek name of the peninsula forming the S. E. extremity of Italy, called by the Romans Calabria, a name applied in modern times to the opposite peninsula. (See Calabria.) The bou...
-Messenia, Or Messene
Messenia, Or Messene, the S. W. division of the Peloponnesus in ancient Greece, bounded N. by Elis, from which it was separated by the river Neda, and Arcadia; E. by Laconia, the boundary line varying...
-Messina
I. A Province Of Sicily A Province Of Sicily, including the N. E. extremity of the island, bordering on the Mediterranean and the strait of Messina, which separates it from Calabria; area, 1,768 sq. ...
-Metal
Metal (Gr. ), a term including about 50 elementary substances which possess, either wholly or in part, certain well marked physical and chemical properties, of which the most universal and character...
-Metallurgy
Metallurgy (Gr. , working metals), the science which treats primarily of the separation and isolation of the metals contained in their natural comhinations or associations, known as ores, and second...
-Metellus
Metellus, a Roman plebeian family of the Caeeilia gens. The following are its most distinguished members. I. Lucius Csecilius Lucius Csecilius, commander against the Carthaginians in the first Punic...
-Metempsychosis
Metempsychosis (Gr. , denoting change, and soul), the supposed transmigration of the soul from one body to another. It is a feature in Brahmanism and Buddhism, which represent the migration after...
-Meteor
Meteor (Gr. lofty, in the air), any phenomenon of short duration occurring in the atmosphere. Rain, snow, hail, fog, and dew-are meteors distinguished as aqueous; the movements of the winds constitu...
-Meteorology
Meteorology (Gr. , lofty, and discourse), the description and explanation of the phenomena peculiar to the atmosphere of the earth. On the atmosphere and its changes depend the development of ...
-Methodism
Methodism, a form of church life and polity which originated in England during the 18th century. I. Early History And Principles The moral and religious condition of England at the beginning of the ...
-Metronome
Metronome, an instrument for measuring time in music. It is a kind of pendulum whose centre of oscillation is beyond the point of suspension, contrived so that it may be easily carried about and place...
-Metsys, Or Messys, Quintin Matsys
Metsys, Or Messys, Quintin Matsys, a Flemish painter, born in Louvain about 1460, or according to some authorities in Antwerp in 1450, died in Antwerp about 1530. He was brought up as a blacksmith, in...
-Metternich
I. Clemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Clemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar, prince, an Austrian statesman, born in Coblentz, May 15, 1773, died in Vienna, June 11, 1859. He first appeared in public life as maste...
-Mettray
Mettray, an agricultural and penitentiary colony of France, in the department of Indre-et-Loire, 5 m. N. of Tours, on the railway to Le Mans. It is a celebrated establishment for the reformation of ju...
-Metz
Metz, a fortified city of the German Reichs-land of Alsace-Lorraine, at the confluence of the Seille and Moselle, 80 m. W. N. W. of Strasburg; pop. in 1871, 51,388, which has been much diminished by F...
-Meurthe-Et-Moselle
Meurthe-Et-Moselle, a N. E. department of France, in the old province of Lorraine, bordering on Belgium, Luxemburg, the German Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine, and the departments of Vosges and Meuse; a...
-Meuse
Meuse (anc. Mosa; Dutch, Maas; Flem. Maese), a river which rises in the department of Haute-Marne in France, and, flowing mainly N. through Vosges, Meuse, and Ardennes, enters Belgium near Charlemont....
-Mexico
Mexico (Estados Unidos de Mejico; Aztec, Mexitli), a federal republic occupying the S. W. portion of the continent of North America, between hit. 15 and 32 42' N., and Ion. 86 34' and 1...
-Mexico (2)
Mexico, a state of the republic of the same name, bounded N. by Hidalgo, E. by Tlaxcala and Puebla, S. E. by Morelos, S. by Guerrero, and W. by Michoacan; area, 9,598 sq. m.; pop. in 1869, 650,663. Tw...
-Mexico (3)
Mexico, a city and the capital of the republic and of the federal district (area, 85 sq. m.) of Mexico, situated in the centre of the valley of Mexico, and in the great central table land of the count...
-Meyendorff
Meyendorff, a Russian family, originating in Saxony, and including among its members Pope Clement II. They settled in Livonia about 1200, and became Swedish barons in the 17th century. Subsequently th...
-Meyerheim
I. Friedrich Eduard Friedrich Eduard, a German painter, born in Dantzic, Jan. 7, 1808. He studied at Berlin, and became a professor in the academy there. Many of his genre pictures, chiefly relating ...
-Mezquite (Aztec Mizquitl)
Mezquite (Aztec Mizquitl), the Mexican name for prosopis glandulosa, which was formerly placed in the genus algarobia, a tree of the mimosa suborder of the leguminosw. The mezquite seldom grows more t...
-Mght Hawk
Mght Hawk, a North American goatsucker of the subfamily caprimulgincn and genus chiordeiles (Swains.). In the C. Virginianus (Swains.) the length is 9½ in., and the extent of wings about 23½; the bill...
-Miami
Miami, a river of Ohio, which rises in Hardin co., flows S. and S. W. for a distance estimated at 150 m., passing Troy, Dayton, and Hamilton, and falls into the Ohio river at the S. W. corner of the s...
-Mica (Lat. Micare
Mica (Lat. Micare, to sparkle), in mineralogy, the name of a group of the silicates, distinguished by their remarkable lamellar structure, the elasticity of their laminos, and their half metallic lust...
-Micah
Micah, one of the 12 minor prophets, who, according to the testimony of his book (i. 1), prophesied in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah (about 759-698 B. C). He was a native of M...
-Michael Adriaenszoon De Ruyter
Michael Adriaenszoon De Ruyter, a Dutch admiral, born in Flushing, Zealand, in 1607, died in Syracuse, Sicily, April 29, 1676. He was apprenticed by his parents to a shoemaker at the age of 11 years, ...
-Michael Barclay De Tolly
Michael Barclay De Tolly, prince, a Russian general, born in Livonia in 1759, died at Inster-burg in East Prussia, May 25, 1818. He was a descendant of the Scottish Barclays. Being adopted by Gen. Van...
-Michael Drayton
Michael Drayton, an English poet, born in Hartshill, Warwickshire, in 1563, died in 1631. His life is involved in obscurity, and various unauthentic accounts of him are given. He is supposed to have s...
-Michael Ducas
Michael Ducas, a Byzantine historian of the 15th century. He was a descendant of the family of the emperor Michael VII. (Ducas), and held a high position at the court of Con-stantine Palaeologus, the ...
-Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus, a Spanish author, born at Villanueva, near Saragossa, in 1509, burned at the stake in Geneva, Oct. 27,1553. His proper Spanish name was Miguel Servedo. He studied law at Toulouse, bu...
-Michael William Balfe
Michael William Balfe, an Irish composer, born in Dublin, May 15, 1808, died in London, Oct. 20, 1870. When eight years old he played a concerto on the violin at a public concert. At the age of nine h...
-Michaux
I. Andre Andre, a French botanist, born in Versailles, March 7, 1746, died in Madagascar, Nov. 13, 1802. He studied under Bernard de Jussieu, and was afterward a pupil at thajardin des plantes, and a...
-Michel Chasles
Michel Chasles, a French mathematician, born at Epernon, Nov. 15, 1703. After the completion of his studies in 1814 at the polytechnic school of Paris, he removed to Char-tres, where he obtained a pro...
-Michel Chevalier
Michel Chevalier, a French political economist, born in Limoges, Jan. 13, 180G. He studied at the polytechnic and the mining schools, and was appointed engineer in the department of Le Nord. After the...
-Michel De Castelnai
Michel De Castelnai, sieur de la Mauvissiere, a French soldier and diplomatist, born at Mauvissiere about 1520, died at Joinville in 1592. lie entered the army in 1547, and won the favor of Francis of...
-Michel De Lhopital, Or Lhospital
Lhopital, Or Lhospital, Michel De, a French statesman, born at Aigueperse, Auvergne, about 1505, died near Etampes in March, 1573. He was made president of the court of accounts in 1554, and chancello...
-Michel Eugene Chevreul
Michel Eugene Chevreul, a French chemist, born at Angers, Aug. 31, 1786. Having completed his studies in the central school of Angers, he studied chemistry under Vauquelin in Paris, and afterward took...
-Michel Montaigne
Michel Montaigne, seigneur de, a French author, born at the chateau of Montaigne, in Perigord, Feb. 28, 1533, died there, Sept. 13, 1592. His father was an eccentric feudal baron. The young Montaigne ...
-Michele Carafa De Colobrano
Michele Carafa De Colobrano, an Italian composer, born in Naples, Nov. 28, 1785, died in Paris, July 26,1872. He studied music under eminent masters, but enlisted in the Italian army, was captured by ...
-Michigan
Michigan, one of the western states of the American Union, and the 13th admitted under the federal constitution, situated between lat. 41 45' and 48 20' N., and Ion. 82 25' and 90 ...









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