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The Encyclopaedia Britannica V2-1



Volume 1 of a Dictionary Of Arts, Sciences, Literature And General Information

TitleThe Encyclopaedia Britannica
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherEncyclopedia Britannica
Year1911
Copyright1911, Encyclopedia Britannica
AmazonGreat Books of the Western World (60 Volumes)

Eleventh Edition

Parts from Vol. II and III

-With The Headings Of The Articles In This Volume So Signed Initials Used In Volume II. To Identify Individual Contributors
A. B. R. ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, F.R S F.L.S. D.Sc. Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum. ANGIOSPERMS (in part); C. Pl. REV. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A. Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxf...
-Sir Edmund Andros
Sir Edmund Andros (1637-1714), English colonial governor in America, was born in London on the 6th of December 1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I., and the royal bailiff of the island...
-Andros, Or Andro
Andros, Or Andro, an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, 6 m. S.E. of Euboea, and about 2 m. N. of Tenos; it forms an eparchy in the modern kingdom of Greece. It is ne...
-Androtion
Androtion (c. 350 B.C.), Greek orator, and one of the leading politicians of his time, was a pupil of Isocrates and a contemporary of Demosthenes. He is known to us chiefly from the speech of Demosthe...
-Andujar
Andjar (the anc. Slilurgi), a town of southern Spain, in the province of Jan; on the right bank of the river Guadalquivir and the Madrid-Cordova railway. Pop. (1900) 16,302. And...
-Anecdote
Anecdote (from -, privative, and , to give out or publish), a word originally meaning something not published. It has now two distinct...
-Dominique Anel
Dominique Anel (1679-1730), French surgeon, was born at Toulouse about 1679. After studying at Montpellier and Paris, he served as surgeon-major in the French army in Alsace; then after two years at V...
-Anemometer
Anemometer (from Gr. , wind, and , a measure), an instrument for measuring either the velocity or the pressure of the wind....
-Anemone, Or Wind-Flower
Anemone, Or Wind-Flower (from the Gr. , wind), a genus of the buttercup order (Ranunculaceae), containing about ninety species in the north and south temperat...
-Anencletus, Or Anacletus
Anencletus, Or Anacletus, second bishop of Rome. About the 4th century he is treated in the catalogues as two persons - Anacletus and Cletus. According to the catalogues he occupied the papal chair fo...
-Anerio
Anerio, the name of two brothers, musical composers, very great Roman masters of 16th-century polyphony. Felice, the elder, was born about 1560, studied under G. M. Nanino and succeeded Palestrina in ...
-Anet
Anet, a town of northern France, in the department of Eure-et-Loir, situated between the rivers Eure and Vgre, 10 m. N.E. of Dreux by rail. Pop. (1906) 1324. It possesses the remains of a magn...
-Aneurin, Or Aneirin
Aneurin, Or Aneirin, the name of an early 7th-century British (Welsh) bard, who has been taken by Thomas Stephens (1821-1875), the editor and translator of Aneurin's principal epic poem Gododin, for a...
-Aneurysm, Or Aneurism
Aneurysm, Or Aneurism (from Gr. , a dilatation), a cavity or sac which communicates with the interior of an artery and contains blood. The wal...
-Anfractuosity
Anfractuosity (from Lat. anfractuosus, winding), twisting and turning, circuitousness; a word usually employed in the plural to denote winding channels such as occur in the depths of the sea, mountain...
-Angaria
Angaria (from , the Greek form of a Babylonian word adopted in Persian for mounted courier), a sort of postal system adopted by the Roman imperial ...
-Angary
Angary (Lat. jus angariae; Fr. droit d'angarie; Ger. Angarie; from the Gr. , the office of an &sigm...
-Angel
Angel, a general term denoting a subordinate superhuman being in monotheistic religions, e.g.. Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism. In polytheism the grades o...
-Angel. Part 2
In the Priestly Code, c. 400 B.C., there is no reference to angels apart from the possible suggestion in the ambiguous plural in Genesis i. 26. During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of an...
-Angel, A Gold Coin
Angel, a gold coin, first used in France (angelot, ange) in 1340, and introduced into England by Edward IV. in 1465 as a new issue of the noble, and so at first called the angel-noble. It varied i...
-Angelica
Angelica, a genus of plants of the natural order Umbelliferae, represented in Britain by one species, A. sylvestris, a tall perennial herb with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of whit...
-Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico (1387-1455), Italian painter. Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, bey...
-George Thorndike Angell
George Thorndike Angell (1823-1909), American philanthropist, was born at Southbridge, Massachusetts, on the 5th of June 1823. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1846, studied law at the Harvard Law School,...
-Angel-Lights
Angel-Lights, in architecture, the outer upper lights in a perpendicular window, next to the springing; probably a corruption of the word angle-lights, as they are nearly triangular. ...
-Angelus
Angelus, a Roman Catholic devotion in memory of the Annunciation. It has its name from the opening words, Angelus Domini nuntiavit Mariae. It consists of three texts describing the mystery, recited as...
-Angelus Silesius
Angelus Silesius (1624-1677), German religious poet, was born in 1624 at Breslau. His family name was Johann Scheffler, but he is generally known by the pseudonym Angelus Silesius, under which he publ...
-Angermunde
Angermnde, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on Lake Mnde, 43 m. from Berlin by the Berlin-Stettin railway, and at the junction of lines to Prenzlau, Freien-walde...
-Angerona, Or Angeronia
Angerona, Or Angeronia, an old Roman goddess, whose name and functions are variously explained. According to ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from pain and sorrow, or delivered ...
-Angers
Angers, a city of western France, capital of the department of Maine-et-Loire, 191 m. S.W. of Paris by the Western railway to Nantes. Pop. (1906) 73,585. It occupies rising ground on both banks of the...
-John Julius Angerstein
John Julius Angerstein (1735-1822), London merchant, and patron of the fine arts, was born at St. Petersburg and settled in London about 1749. His collection of paintings, consisting of about forty of...
-Angilbert
Angilbert (d. 814), Frankish Latin poet, and minister of Charlemagne, was of noble Frankish parentage, and educated at the palace school under Alcuin. As the friend and adviser of the emperor's son, P...
-Angina Pectoris
Angina Pectoris (Latin for pain of the chest), a term applied to a violent paroxysm of pain, arising almost invariably in connexion with disease of the coronary arteries, a lesion causing progressiv...
-Angiosperms
Angiosperms. The botanical term Angiosperm (, receptacle, and , seed) was coined in the form Angiospermae by Pa...
-Angiosperms. Part 2
Internal structure. In internal structure also the variety of tissue-formation far exceeds that found in Gymnosperms (see PLANTS: Anatomy). The vascular bundles of the stem belong to the collateral t...
-Angiosperms. Part 3
Flower. The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the distinction of th...
-Angiosperms. Part 4
Pistil and embryo-sac The ovary contains one or more ovules borne on a placenta, which is generally some part of the ovary-wall. The development of the ovule, which represents the macrosporangium, is...
-Angiosperms. Part 5
Embryology. The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into the seed. By the segmentation of the fertilized egg, now invested by cell-membrane, the embryo-plant arises. A varying num...
-Angiosperms. Part 6
Fruit and seed. As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within the embryo-sac, its wall enlarges and commonly absorbs the substance of the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near i...
-Angiosperms. Part 7
Germination of Seed. Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of which is a sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of...
-Angiosperms. Part 8
Phylogeny and taxonomy. The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is unassailable, but of the point or points of their origin from the general stem of the plant kingdom, and of the path ...
-Angiosperms. Part 9
Dicotyledons. Polypetalae: Thalamiflorae. Disciflorae. Calyciflorae. Gamopetalae: Inferae. Heteromerae. Bicarpellatae. Monochlamydeae in eight series. Monocotyledons in seven series....
-Angkor
Angkor, an assemblage of ruins in Cambodia, the relic of the ancient Khmer civilization. They are situated in forests to the north of the Great Lake (Tonle-Sap), the most conspicuous of the remains be...
-Angle
Angle (from the Lat. angulus, a corner, a diminutive, of which the primitive form, angus, does not occur in Latin; cognate are the Lat. angere, to compress into a bend or to strangle, and the Gr. ...
-Angler
Angler, also sometimes called fishing-frog, frog-fish, sea-devil (Lophius piscatorius), a fish well known off the coasts of Great Britain and Europe generally, the grotesque shape of its body and its ...
-Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl Of Anglesey
Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl Of Anglesey (1614-1686), British statesman, son of the 1st Viscount Valentia (cr. 1621) and Baron Mountnorris (cr. 1628), and of Dorothy, daughter of Sir John Philipps of Pic...
-Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess Of Anglesey
Henry William Paget, 1st Marquess Of Anglesey (1768-1854), British field-marshal, was born on the 17th of May 1768. He was the eldest son of Henry Paget, 1st earl of Uxbridge (d. 1812), and was educat...
-Anglesey, Or Anglesea
Anglesey, Or Anglesea, an insular northern county of Wales. Its area is 176,630 acres or about 276 sq. m. Anglesey, in the see of Bangor, is separated from the mainland by the Menai Straits (Afon Mena...
-Anglesite
Anglesite, a mineral consisting of lead sulphate, PbSO, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system, and isomorphous with barytes and celestite. It was first recognized as a mineral species by Dr. Wither...
-Anglii Or Angles Angli
Anglii Or Angles Angli, a Teutonic people mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania (cap. 40) at the end of the 1st century. He gives no precise indication of their geographical position, but states that, ...
-Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion, the name used to denote that great branch of the Christian Church consisting of the various churches in communion with the Church of England. The necessity for such a phrase as An...
-Anglican Communion. Part 2
The Church in the Colonies. On the 12th of August 1787 Dr. Charles Inglis was consecrated bishop of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction over all the British possessions in North America. In 1793 the see o...
-Anglican Communion. Part 3
Provincial Organization. (1) Local conditions soon made a provincial organization necessary, and it was gradually introduced. The bishop of Calcutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India w...
-Anglican Communion. Part 4
Spiritual autonomy. (3) By degrees, also, the relations of colonial churches to the archbishop of Canterbury have changed. Until 1855 no colonial bishop was consecrated outside the British Isles, the...
-Angling
Angling, the art or practice of the sport of catching fish by means of a baited hook or angle (from the Indo-European root ank-, meaning bend).[1] It is among the most ancient of human activities,...
-Angling. Part 2
Literary History From prehistoric times down to comparatively late in the days of chronicles, angling appears to have remained a practice; its development into an art or sport is a modern idea. In th...
-Angling. Part 3
Post-Classical Literature As to what happened in the world of angling in the first few centuries of the Christian era we know little. It may be inferred, however, that both fish and fishermen occupie...
-Angling. Part 4
Modern Literature In 1600 appeared John Taverner's Certaine Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite, and after this the period of angling literature proper begins. The Secrets of Angling (1613), by J(...
-Angling. Part 5
Modern Conditions In the modern history of angling there are one or two features that should be touched upon. The great increase in the number of fishermen has had several results. One is a correspon...
-Methods And Practice
Angling now divides itself into two main divisions, fishing in fresh water and fishing in the sea. The two branches of the sport have much in common, and sea-angling is really little more than an adap...
-Fresh-Water Fishing
Fly-Fishing Fly-fishing is the most modern of them, but it is the most highly esteemed, principally because it is the method par excellence of taking members of the most valuable sporting family of f...
-The Fish
It is practically impossible to classify the fish an angler catches according to the methods which he employs, as most fish can be taken by at least two of these methods, while many of those most high...
-The Fish. Part 2
Salmon Tackle And Methods It is when the drought breaks up and the long-awaited rain has come that the angler has his chance and makes ready his tackle, against the period of a few days (on some shor...
-The Fish. Part 3
Land-Locked Salmon The land-locked salmon (Salmo salar sebago) of Canada and the lakes of Maine is, as its name implies, now regarded by scientists as merely a land-locked form of the salmon. It does...
-The Fish. Part 4
Non-Migratory Salmonidae Of the non-migratory members of the Salmonidae the most important in Great Britain is the brown trout (Salmo fario). Its American cousin the rainbow trout (S. irideus) is now...
-The Fish. Part 5
Dry Fly Fishing with the floating fly is a device of southern origin, and the idea no doubt arose from the facts that on the placid south country streams the natural fly floats on the surface and tha...
-The Fish. Part 6
Other Methods The other methods of taking trout principally employed are spinning, live-baiting and worming. For big river trout such as those of the Thames a gudgeon or bleak makes the best spinning...
-The Fish. Part 7
Pike The pike (Esox lucius), which after the Salmonidae is the most valued sporting fish in Great Britain, is a fish of prey pure and simple. Though it will occasionally take a large fly, a worm or o...
-The Fish. Part 8
Black Bass The yellow perch of America (Perca flavescens) is very much like its European cousin in appearance and habits, but it is not so highly esteemed by American anglers, because they are fortun...
-The Fish. Part 9
Roach, Rudd, Dace, Chub The next group of Cyprinidae consists of fish which will take a bait similar to those already mentioned and also a fly. The sizes which limit the ordinary angler's aspirations...
-The Fish. Part 10
Sturgeon The sturgeons, of which there are a good many species in Europe and America, are of no use to the angler. They are anadromous fishes of which little more can be said than that a specimen mig...
-Sea Angling
Sea angling is attended by almost as many refinements of tackle and method as fresh-water angling. The chief differences are differences of locality and the habits of the fish. To a certain extent sea...
-Sea Angling. Part 2
Modern Authorities And Reference Books History and Literature: Prof. A. N. Mayer, Sport with Gun and Rod (New York and Edinburgh), with a chapter on The Primitive Fish-Hook, by Barnet Phillips; Dr....
-Sea Angling. Part 3
Coarse Fish C. H. Wheeley, Coarse Fish (Angler's Library, London, 1897); J. W. Martin, Practical Fishing (London); Float-fishing and Spinning (London, 1885); W. Senior and others, Pike and Perch (Fu...
-Sea Angling. Part 4
Fishery Law G. C. Oke, A Handy Book of the Fishery Laws (edited by J. W. Willis Band and A. C. M'Barnet, London, 1903). [1] As to whether angling necessarily implies a rod as well as a line and ho...
-Anglo-Israelite Theory
Anglo-Israelite Theory, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial descendants of the ten tribes forming the kingdom of Israel,...
-Anglo-Norman Literature
Anglo-Norman Literature: - The French language (q.v.) came over to England with William the Conqueror. During the whole of the 12th century it shared with Latin the distinction of being the literary l...
-Anglo-Norman Literature. Part 2
(B) Fableaux, Fables And Religious Tales In spite of the incontestable popularity enjoyed by this class of literature, we have only some half-dozen fableaux written in England, viz. Le chevalier &agr...
-Anglo-Norman Literature. Part 3
Didactic Literature This is the most considerable, if not the most interesting, branch of Anglo-Norman literature: it comprises a large number of works written chiefly with the object of giving both ...
-Anglo-Norman Literature. Part 4
Hagiography Among the numerous lives of saints written in Anglo-Norman the most important ones are the following, the list of which is given in chronological order: - Voyage de Saint Brandan (or Bran...
-Anglo-Norman Literature. Part 5
Satire The popularity enjoyed by the Roman de Renart and the Anglo-Norman version of the Riote du Monde (Z. f. rom. Phil. viii. 275-289) in England is proof enough that the French spirit of satire wa...
-Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. It is usual to speak of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; it would be more correct to say that there are four Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. It is true that these all grow out of a common s...
-Anglo-Saxon Law
Anglo-Saxon Law. 1. The body of legal rules and customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine expression of Teutonic legal thou...
-Anglo-Saxon Law. Part 2
As to church matters, the most prolific group is formed by general precepts based on religious and moral considerations, roughly 115, while secular privileges conferred on the Church hold about 62, an...
-Anglo-Saxon Law. Part 3
(a) The Anglo-Saxon legal system cannot be understood unless one realizes the fundamental opposition between folk-right and privilege. Folk-right is the aggregate of rules, formulated or latent but su...
-Anglo-Saxon Law. Continued
Bibliography Editions: Liebermann, Die Gesetze der Angelsachsen (1903, 1906) is indispensable, and leaves nothing to be desired as to the constitution of the texts. The translations and notes are, of...
-Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons. The term Anglo-Saxon is commonly applied to that period of English history, language and literature which preceded the Norman Conquest. It goes back to the time of King Alfred, who see...
-Angola
Angola, the general name of the Portuguese possessions on the west coast of Africa south of the equator. With the exception of the enclave of Kabinda (q.v.) the province lies wholly south of the river...
-Angola. Part 2
Geology The rock formations of Angola are met with in three distinct regions: (1) the littoral zone, (2) the median zone formed by a series of hills more or less parallel with the coast, (3) the cent...
-Angola. Part 3
Inhabitants The great majority of the inhabitants are of Bantu-Negro stock with some admixture in the Congo district with the pure negro type. In the south-east are various tribes of Bushmen. The bes...
-Angola. Part 4
Agriculture And Trade Angola is rich in both agricultural and mineral resources. Amongst the cultivated products are mealies and manioc, the sugar-cane and cotton, coffee and tobacco plants. The chie...
-Angola. Part 5
History The Portuguese established themselves on the west coast of Africa towards the close of the 15th century. The river Congo was discovered by Diogo Cam or Cao in 1482. He erected a stone pillar ...
-Angora, Or Enguri
Angora, Or Enguri. (1) A city of Turkey (anc. Ancyra) in Asia, capital of the vilayet of the same name, situated upon a steep, rocky hill, which rises 500 ft. above the plain, on the left bank of the ...
-Charles De Valois, Duke Of Angouleme
Charles De Valois, Duke Of Angoulme (1573-1650), the natural son of Charles IX. of France and Marie Touchet, was born on the 28th of April 1573, at the castle of Fayet in Dauphin. His f...
-Angouleme
Angoulme, a city of south-western France, capital of the department of Charente, 83 m. N.N.E. of Bordeaux on the railway between Bordeaux and Poitiers. Pop. (1906) 30,040. The town proper occup...
-Angoumois
Angoumois, an old province of France, nearly corresponding to-day to the department of Charente. Its capital was Angoulme. See Essai d'une bibliothque historique de l'Angoumois, by E. ...
-Angra, Or Angra Do Heroismo
Angra, Or Angra Do Heroismo (Bay of Heroism, a name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azor...
-Angra Pequena
Angra Pequena, a bay in German South-West Africa, in 26 38' S., 15 E., discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487. F. A. E. Lderitz, of Bremen, established a trading station here in 1883, ...
-Anders Jonas Angstrom
Anders Jonas Angstrm (1814-1874), Swedish physicist, was born on the 13th of August 1814 at Lgd, Medelpad, Sweden. He was educated at Upsala University, where in 1839 he became priva...
-Francois Anguier
Franois Anguier (c. 1604-1669), and MICHEL (1612-1686), French sculptors, were two brothers, natives of Eu in Normandy. Their apprenticeship was served in the studio of Simon Guillain. The chi...
-Anguilla, Or Snake
Anguilla, Or Snake, a small island in the British Indies, part of the presidency of St. Kitts-Nevis, in the colony of the Leeward Islands. Pop. (1901) 3890, mostly negroes. It is situated in 18 1...
-Angulate
Angulate (Lat. angulus, an angle), shaped with corners or angles; an adjective used in botany and zoology for the shape of stems, leaves and wings. ...
-Earls Of Angus
Earls Of Angus. Angus was one of the seven original earldoms of the Pictish kingdom of Scotland, said to have been occupied by seven brothers of whom Angus was the eldest. The Celtic line ended with M...
-Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of Angus
Archibald Douglas, 5th earl of Angus (c. 1450-c. 1514), the famous Bell the Cat, was born about 1450 and succeeded his father, George the 4th earl, in 1462 or 1463. In 1481 he was made warden of the...
-Archibald Douglas, The 6th Earl
Archibald Douglas, the 6th earl (c. 1489-1557), son of George, master of Douglas, who was killed at Flodden, succeeded on his grandfather's death. In 1509 he had married Margaret (d. 1513), daughter o...
-Archibald Douglas, 8th Earl, And Earl Of Morton
Archibald Douglas, 8th earl, and earl of Morton (1555-1588), was the son of David, 7th earl. He succeeded to the title and estates in 1558, being brought up by his uncle, the 4th earl of Morton, a Pre...
-William Douglas
William Douglas, 10th earl (c. 1554-1611), was the son of William, the 9th earl (1533-1591). He studied at St. Andrews University and joined the household of the earl of Morton. Subsequently, while vi...
-Sophonisba Angussola Or Angussciola
Sophonisba Angussola Or Angussciola, Italian portrait painter of the latter half of the 16th century, was born at Cremona about 1535, and died at Palermo in 1626. In 1560, at the invitation of Philip ...
-Anhalt
Anhalt, a duchy of Germany, and a constituent state of the German empire, formed, in 1863, by the amalgamation of the two duchies Anhalt-Dessau-Cthen and Anhalt-Bernburg, and comprising all the ...
-Anhalt. Continued
Constitution The duchy, by virtue of a fundamental law, proclaimed on the 17th of September 1859 and subsequently modified by various decrees, is a constitutional monarchy. The duke, who bears the ti...
-Leopold I., Prince Of Anhalt-Dessau
Leopold I., Prince Of Anhalt-Dessau (1676-1747), called the Old Dessauer (Alter Dessauer), general field marshal in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George II., prince of Anhalt...
-Anhydrite
Anhydrite, a mineral, differing chemically from the more commonly occurring gypsum in containing no water of crystallization, being anhydrous calcium sulphate, CaSO. It crystallizes in the orthorhombi...
-Ani
Ani (anc. Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (Harpasus) and a deep ravine. In 961 it...
-Anicetus
Anicetus, pope c. 154-167. It was during his pontificate that St. Polycarp visited the Roman Church. ...
-Luigi Anichini
Luigi Anichini, Italian engraver of seals and medals, a native of Ferrara, lived at Venice about 1550. Michelangelo pronounced his Interview of Alexander the Great with the high-priest at Jerusalem,...
-Phenylamine, Or Aminobenzene, Aniline
Phenylamine, Or Aminobenzene, Aniline (CHNH), an organic base first obtained from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by O. Unverdorben (Pogg. Ann., 1826, 8, p. 397), who named it crystalli...
-Animal
Animal (Lat. animalis, from anima, breath, soul), a term first used as a noun or adjective to denote a living thing, but now used to designate one branch of living things as opposed to the other branc...
-Animal Heat
Animal Heat. Under this heading is discussed the physiology of the temperature of the animal body. The higher animals have within their bodies certain sources of heat, and also some mechanism by mean...
-Animal Heat. Part 2
Variations In The Temperature Of Man And Some Other Animals As stated above, the temperature of warm-blooded animals is maintained with but slight variation. In health under normal conditions the tem...
-Animal Heat. Part 3
Limits Compatible With Life There are limits both of heat and cold that a warm-blooded animal can bear, and other far wider limits that a cold-blooded animal may endure and yet live. The effect of to...
-Animal Heat. Part 4
Regulation Of Temperature The heat of the body is generated by the chemical changes - those of oxidation - undergone not by any particular substance or in any one place, but by the tissues at large. ...
-Animal Worship
Animal Worship, an ill-defined term, covering facts ranging from the worship of the real divine animal, commonly conceived as a god-body, at one end of the scale, to respect for the bones of a slain...
-Animal Worship. Part 2
Bear The bear enjoys a large measure of respect from all savage races that come in contact with it, which shows itself in apologies and in festivals in its honour. The most important developments of ...
-Animal Worship. Part 3
Elephant In Siam it is believed that a white elephant may contain the soul of a dead person, perhaps a Buddha; when one is taken the capturer is rewarded and the animal brought to the king to be kept...
-Animal Worship. Part 4
Leopard The cult of the leopard is widely found in West Africa. Among the Ewe a man who kills one is liable to be put to death; no leopard skin may be exposed to view, but a stuffed leopard is worshi...
-Animal Worship. Part 5
Sheep Only in Africa do we find a sheep-god proper; Ammon was the god of Thebes; he was represented as ram-headed; his worshippers held the ram to be sacred; it was, however, sacrificed once a year, ...
-Anime
Anim, an oleo-resin (said to be so called because in its natural state it is infested with insects) which is exuded from the locust tree, Hymenaea coumaril, and other species of Hymenaea growi...
-Animism
Animism (from animus, or anima, mind or soul), according to the definition of Dr. E. B. Tylor, the doctrine of spiritual beings, including human souls; in practice, however, the term is often extended...
-Animism. Part 2
Animism And Eschatology The psychological side of animism has already been dealt with; almost equally important in primitive creeds is the eschatological aspect. In many parts of the world it is held...
-Animism. Part 3
Animal Souls But apart from considerations of this sort, it is probable that animals must, early in the history of animistic beliefs, have been regarded as possessing souls. Education has brought wit...
-Animism. Part 4
Spirits In General Side by side with the doctrine of separable souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief in a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls wh...
-Animism. Part 5
Animism And The Origin Of Religion Two animistic theories of the origin of religion have been put forward, the one, often termed the ghost theory, mainly associated with the name of Herbert Spencer...
-Animism. Part 6
Animism And Mythology But little need be said on the relation of animism and mythology (q.v.). While a large part of mythology has an animistic basis, it is possible to believe, e.g. in a sky world, ...
-Giovanni Animuccia
Giovanni Animuccia, Italian musical composer, was born at Florence in the last years of the 15th century. At the request of St. Filippo Neri he composed a number of Laudi, or hymns of praise, to be su...
-Paolo Animuccia
Paolo Animuccia, a brother of Giovanni, was also celebrated as a composer; he is said by Fetis to have been maestro di capella at S. Giovanni in Laterano from the middle of January 1550 until 1552, an...
-Anise
Anise (Pimpinella Anisum), an umbelliferous plant found in Egypt and the Levant, and cultivated on the continent of Europe for medicinal purposes. The officinal part of the plant is the fruit, which c...
-Initials Used In Volume III. To Identify Individual Contributors,[1] With The Headings Of The Articles In This Volume So Signed
A. C. P. Anna C. Paues, Ph.D. Lecturer in Germanic Philology at Newnham College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Newnham College. Author of A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version; etc. Bible,...
-Lower Austria
Lower Austria (Ger. Niedersterreich or sterreich unter der Enns, Austria below the river Enns), an archduchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Hungary, N. by Bohemia and Moravia, W...
-Upper Austria
Upper Austria (Ger. Obersterreich or sterreich ob der Enns, Austria above the river Enns), an archduchy and crown-land of Austria, bounded N. by Bohemia, W. by Bavaria, S. by Salzburg an...
-Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary, or the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Ger. sterreichisch-ungarische Monarchie or sterreichisch-ungarisches Reich), the official name of a country situated in central Europe, b...
-Austria-Hungary. Part 2
Budget Side by side with the budget of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a common budget, which comprises the expenditure necessary for the common affairs, namely for the conduct of foreign a...
-Austria-Hungary. Part 3
Debt Besides the debts of each state of the Dual Monarchy, there is a general debt, which is borne jointly by Austria and Hungary. The following table gives in millions sterling the amount of the gen...
-Austria-Hungary. Part 4
Fortifications The principal fortifications in Austria-Hungary are: Cracow and Przemysl in Galicia; Komrom, the centre of the inland fortifications, Ptervrad, -Arad an...
-The Austro-Hungarian Bank
Common to the two states of the monarchy is the Austro-Hungarian Bank, which possesses a legal exclusive right to the issue of bank-notes. It was founded in 1816, and had the title of the Austrian N...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy
The empire of Austria, as the official designation of the The title Emperor of Austria. territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only to 1804, when Francis II., the last of the Holy...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 2
During the 9th century the Frankish supremacy vanished, and the mark was overrun by the Moravians, and then by the Magyars, or Hungarians, who destroyed the few remaining traces of Frankish influence....
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 3
The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the Dispute as to the Austrian succession. emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their government was entrusted to Otto II., du...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 4
Rudolph IV. died childless in 1365, and in 1379 his two remaining brothers, Leopold III. and Albert III., made a division of their lands, by which Albert retained Austria proper and Carniola, and Leop...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 5
At the close of the middle ages the area of Austria had increased Austria at the close of the middle ages. to nearly 50,000 sq. m., but its internal condition does not appear to have improved in propo...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 6
The fortunes of Austria never seemed brighter than in 1628 when Wallenstein began the siege of Stralsund. The Swedish and French intervention. His failure, followed by the arrival of Gustavus Adolphus...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 7
He helped in the establishment of the universities of Innsbruck and Olmtz; and under his auspices, after the defeat of the Turks in 1683, Vienna began to develop from a mere frontier fortress in...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 8
The accession of Maria Theresa to the throne of the Habsburgs Maria Theresa. marks an important epoch in the history of Austria. For a while, indeed, it seemed that the monarchy was on the point of di...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 9
Meanwhile the ambition of Catherine of Russia, and the war Russia, Austria and the Ottoman Empire. with Turkey by which the empire of the tsars was advanced to the Black Sea and threatened to establis...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 10
In his foreign policy Joseph II. had been scarcely less unhappy. In 1784 he had resumed his plan of acquiring Bavaria for Austria by negotiating with the elector Charles Theodore its exchange for the ...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 11
The events of the period that followed, in which Austria Effects of the Revolutionary Wars. necessarily played a conspicuous part, are dealt with elsewhere (see Europe, French Revolutionary Wars, Napo...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 12
In order to understand the foreign policy of Austria, inseparably Internal affairs of Austria under Francis II. and Metternich. associated with the name of Metternich, during the period from the close...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 13
The maintenance within the empire of a system so artificial Metternich's policy of stability. and so unsound, involved in foreign affairs the policy of preventing the success of any movements by which...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 14
It was the union of the agrarian with the nationalist movements that made the downfall of the Austrian system inevitable. The material for the conflagration in Austria was thus all Revolutions of 184...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 15
On the 17th the emperor left Vienna for Innsbruck for the benefit of his health, and thence, on the 20th, issued a proclamation in which he cast himself on the loyalty of his faithful provinces, and...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 16
Jellachich, who had gone to Innsbruck to lay the Slav view before the emperor, was allowed to return to Agram, though not as yet formally reinstated. Here the diet passed a resolution denouncing the d...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 17
While the Reichsrath, transferred to Kremsier, was discussing fundamental rights and the difficult question of how to reconcile the theoretical unity with the actual dualism of the empire, the knot ...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 18
(W. A. P.; A. Hl.) The war of 1866 began a new era in the history of the Austrian empire. By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 19
The whole responsibility for the payment of the remainder of the interest, amounting annually to over a hundred million gulden, and the management of the debt, was left to the Austrians. The Hungarian...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 20
The absorption of South Germany in the German empire took away the chief cause for friction; and from that time warm friendship, based on the maintenance of the established order, has existed between ...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 21
In accordance with another clause of the treaty of Berlin, Austria was permitted to place troops in the sanjak of Novi-Bazar, a district of great strategic importance, which separated Servia and Monte...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 22
The disturbed state of European politics and the great increase The army. in the military establishments of other countries made it desirable for Austria also to strengthen her military resources. The...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 23
The system thus introduced gave commercial security till the year 1903. The result of these and other laws was an improvement in financial Reform of the Currency. conditions, which enabled the govern...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 24
The whole series of acts had to be carried in two parliaments, each open to the influence of national jealousy and race hatred in its most extreme form, so that the negotiations have been conducted un...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 25
At the close of the 19th century both states of the Dual Monarchy were visited by political crises of some severity. Parliamentary life in Austria was paralysed by the feud between Germans and Czechs ...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 26
Meanwhile the Hungarian Opposition broke its engagement. The Magyar words of command. Obstruction was continued by a section of the independence party; and Kossuth, seeing his authority ignored, resig...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 27
The announcement of his determination caused the Opposition to rally against him, and when on the 18th of November the Liberal party adopted a guillotine motion by a show of hands in defiance of ort...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 28
The economic dispute between Hungary and Austria was thus settled for ten years after negotiations lasting more than twelve years. One important question, however, that of the future of the joint Stat...
-Austria-Hungary History. I. The Whole Monarchy. Part 29
The emperor Francis Joseph pointed out that the question of a separate Bank for Hungary did not figure in the act of 1867, and could not be introduced into it, especially since the capital article of ...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867
As already explained, the name Austria is used for convenience to designate those portions of the possessions of the house of Habsburg, which were not included by the settlement of 1867 among the land...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 2
On the other hand the Germans of Bohemia, fearful of falling under the control of the Czechs, were the most ardent advocates of centralization. The Czechs were supported also by their fellow-countryme...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 3
They laid much stress on the historic task of Austria in bringing German culture to the half-civilized races of the east. They demanded, therefore, that all higher schools and universities should rema...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 4
This is one reason for the comparative weakness of Austria as compared with Hungary, where the Delegation is elected by each House as a whole; the Bohemian representatives, e.g., meet and choose 10 de...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 5
In the rural districts the clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical majority, refused to carry out the school l...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 6
On this the Germans, now that they were in a minority, left the diet, and began preparations for resistance. In Upper Austria, Moravia and Carinthia, where they were outvoted by the Clericals, they se...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 7
It appeared also that many of the leading newspapers of Vienna, by which the Liberal party was supported, had received money from financiers. For the next two years political interest was transferred ...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 8
The chief political leader in this new tendency was Prince Aloys v. Liechtenstein, who complained of the political influence exercised by the chambers of commerce, and demanded the organization of wor...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 9
In those territories in which several races dwell, the public and educational institutions are to be so arranged that, without applying compulsion to learn a second Landessprache, each of the races re...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 10
It was in Bohemia and Moravia that the contest was fought out with the greatest vehemence. The two races were nearly equal, and the victory of Czech would mean that nearly two million Germans would be...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 11
These events produced a great change on the character of the New German parties. German opposition. It became more and more avowedly racial; the defence of German nationality was put in the front of t...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 12
The Young Czechs could not take their place: their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 13
There were altogether 200 German members of the Reichsrath, but they were divided into eight parties, and nowhere did there seem to be the elements on which a government could be built up. The parlia...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 14
The Nationalists therefore stormed the platform, and the president and ministers had to fly into their private rooms to escape personal violence, until the Czechs came to their rescue, and by superior...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 15
Notwithstanding the result of the elections, the first months of the new parliament passed in comparative peace. There was a truce between the nationalities. The Germans were more occupied with their ...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 16
On the 15th of September 1905 a huge socialist and working-class Franchise reform. demonstration in favour of universal suffrage took place before the parliament at Budapest. The Austrian Socialist pa...
-II. Austria Proper since 1867. Part 17
After unsuccessful attempts by the Upper House to introduce General election 1907. plural voting, the bill became law in January 1907, the peers insisting only upon the establishment of a fixed maximu...
-Austria-Hungary Bibliography
1. Sources. A collection of early authorities on Austrian history was published in 3 vols. folio by Hieronymus Pez (Leipzig, 1721-1725) under the title Scriptores rerum Austriacarum veteres et genuini...
-Austria-Hungary Bibliography. Continued
(B) Constitutional E. Werunsky, sterreichische Reichs- und Rechtsgeschichte (Vienna, 1894, etc.); A. Bechmann, Lehrbuch der sterreichischen Reichsgesch. (Prague, 1895-1896); A. Huber, &ou...
-War Of The Austrian Succession
War Of The Austrian Succession (1740-1748). This war began with the invasion of Silesia by Frederick II. of Prussia in 1740, and was ended by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) in 1748. After 1741 ...
-War Of The Austrian Succession. Part 2
A fresh army was collected under Field Marshal Khevenhller at Vienna, and the Austrians planned an offensive winter campaign against the Franco-Bavarian forces in Bohemia and the small Bavarian ...
-War Of The Austrian Succession. Part 3
His operations were no more than a demonstration, and had so little effect that Broglie was sent for in haste to take over the command from him, Belleisle at the same time taking over charge of the ar...
-War Of The Austrian Succession. Part 4
The attention and resources of Austria were fully occupied, and the Prussians were almost unopposed. One column passed through Saxony, another through Lusatia, while a third advanced from Silesia. Pra...
-War Of The Austrian Succession. Part 5
Frederick hurried up his forces from Silesia and marched as rapidly as possible on Dresden, winning the actions of Katholisch-Hennersdorf (November 24) and Grlitz (November 25). Prince Charles w...
-Austrian Succession War Naval Operations
The naval operations of this war were languid and confused. They are complicated by the fact that they were entangled with the Spanish war, which broke out in 1739 in consequence of the long disputes ...
-Authentic
Authentic (from Gr. , one who does a thing himself), genuine, as opposed to counterfeit, true or original. In music it is one of the terms used for ...
-Autocephalous
Autocephalous (from Gr. , self, and head), of independent headship, a term used of certain ecclesiastical functionaries...
-Autochthones
Autochthones (Gr. , and , earth, i.e. people sprung from earth itself; Lat. terrigenae; see also under Aborigines), the original inhabitants...
-Autoclave
Autoclave, a strong closed vessel of metal in which liquids can be heated above their boiling points under pressure. Etymologically the word indicates a self-closing vessel (Ƿ...
-Autocracy
Autocracy (Gr. , absolute power), a term applied to that form of government which is absolute or irresponsible, and vested i...
-Auto-Da-Fe
Auto-Da-F, more correctly Auto-de-f (act of faith), the name of the ceremony during the course of which the sentences of the Spanish inquisition were read and executed. The auto-da-fe ...
-Autogamy
Autogamy (from Gr. , self, and , marriage), a botanical term for self-fertilization. (See Angiosperms.) ...
-Autogenous Autogeny
Autogenous Autogeny (Gr. ), spontaneous generation, self-produced. Haeckel distinguished autogeny and plasmogeny, applying the former t...
-Autographs
Autographs. Autograph (Gr. , self, , to write) is a term applied by common usage either to a document signed by the pers...
-Autographs. Continued
Apart from the autographs of sovereigns, those of famous men of the early middle ages can hardly be said to exist, or, if they do exist, they are difficult to identify. For example, there is a charter...
-Autolycus
Autolycus, in Greek mythology, the son of Hermes and father of Anticleia, mother of Odysseus. He lived at the foot of Mount Parnassus, and was famous as a thief and swindler. On one occasion he met hi...
-Autolycus Of Pitane
Autolycus Of Pitane, Greek mathematician and astronomer, probably flourished in the second half of the 4th century B.C., since he is said to have instructed Arcesilaus. His extant works consist of two...
-Automatic Writing
Automatic Writing, the name given by students of psychical research to writing performed without the volition of the agent. The writing may also take place without any consciousness of the words writt...
-Automatism
Automatism. In philosophical terminology this word is used in two main senses: (1) in ethics, for the view that man is not responsible for his actions, which have, therefore, no moral value; (2) in ps...
-Automaton
Automaton (from , self, and , to seize), a self-moving machine, or one in which the principle of motion is contained within the mechanism itself....
-Automorphism
Automorphism (from Gr. , self, and , form), the conception and interpretation of other people's habits and ideas on the analogy of on...
-Autonomy
Autonomy (Gr. , self, and , law), in general, freedom from external restraint, self-government. The term is usually coupled with a ...
-Autopsy
Autopsy (Gr. , self, and , sight, investigation), a personal examination, specifically a post-mortem (after death) examination of a dea...
-Joseph Autran
Joseph Autran (1813-1877), French poet, was born at Marseilles on the 20th of June 1813. In 1832 he addressed an ode to Lamartine, who was then at Marseilles on his way to the East. The elder poet per...
-Autun
Autun, a town of east-central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Sane-et-Loire, 62 m. S.W. of Dijon on the Paris-Lyon railway to Nevers. Pop. (1906) 11,927. Autun is plea...
-Autunite
Autunite, or Calco-uranite, a mineral which is one of the uranium micas, differing from the more commonly occurring torbernite (q.v.) or cupro-uranite in containing calcium in place of copper. It is...
-Auvergne
Auvergne, formerly a province of France, corresponding to the departments of Cantal and Puy-de-Dme, with the arrondissement of Brioude in Haute-Loire. It contains many mountains volcanic in ori...
-Auxanometer
Auxanometer (Gr. , to increase, , measure), an apparatus for measuring increase or rate of growth in plants. ...
-Auxentius
Auxentius (fl. c. 370), of Cappadocia, an Arian theologian of some eminence (see Arius). When Constantine deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the seat of Dionysius,...
-Auxerre
Auxerre, a town of central France, capital of the department of Yonne, 38 m. S.S.E. of Sens on the Paris-Lyon railway, between Laroche and Nevers. Pop. (1906) 16,971. It is situated on the slopes and ...
-Auxiliary
Auxiliary (from Lat. auxilium, help), that which gives aid or support; the term is used in grammar of a verb which completes the tense, mood or voice of another verb; in engineering, e.g. of the low s...
-Auximum
Auximum (mod. Osimo), an ancient town in Picenum, situated on an isolated hill 8 m. from the Adriatic, on the road from Ancona to Nuceria. It was selected by the Romans as a fortress to protect their ...
-Auxonne
Auxonne, a town of eastern France, in the department of Cte d'Or, 19 m. E.S.E. of Dijon on the Paris-Lyon railway to Belfort. Pop. (1906) 2766 (town); 6307 (commune). Auxonne is a quiet town si...
-Ava
Ava, the ancient capital of the Burman empire, now a subdivision of the Sagaing district in the Sagaing division of Upper Burma. It is situated on the Irrawaddy on the opposite bank to Sagaing, with w...
-Avadana
Avadna, the name given to a type of Buddhist romance literature represented by a large number of Sanskrit (Nepalese) collections, of which the chief are the Avadnasataka (Century of Lege...
-Avahi
Avahi, the native name of a Malagasy lemur (Avahis laniger) nearly allied to the indri (q.v.), and the smallest representative of the subfamily Indrisinae, characterized by its woolly coat, and measur...
-Avalanche
Avalanche (adopted from a French dialectic form, avalance, descent), a mass of snow and ice mingled with earth and stones, which rushes down a mountain side, carrying everything before it, and produci...
-Avallon
Avallon, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Yonne, 34 m. S.S.E. of Auxerre on a branch of the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906) 5197. The town, with wide streets...
-Avalon
Avalon (also written Avallon, Avollon, Avilion and Avelion), in Welsh mythology the kingdom of the dead, afterwards an earthly paradise in the western seas, and finally, in the Arthurian romances, the...
-Avaray
Avaray, a French territorial title belonging to a family some of whose members have been conspicuous in history. The Barnaise family named Bsiade moved into the province of Orl...
-Avars
Avars, or Avari, an East Caucasian people, the most renowned of the Lesghian tribes, inhabiting central Daghestan (see Lesghians). They are the only Lesghian tribe who possess a written language, for ...
-Avatar
Avatar, a Sanskrit word meaning descent, specially used in Hindu mythology (and so in English) to express the incarnation of a deity visiting the earth for any purpose. The ten Avatars of Vishnu are...
-John Lubbock Avebury
John Lubbock Avebury, 1st Baron (1834- ), English banker, politician and naturalist, was born in London on the 30th of April 1834, the son of Sir John William Lubbock, 3rd baronet, himself a highly di...
-Avebury
Avebury, a village in the Devizes parliamentary division of Wiltshire, England, on the river Kennet, 8 m. by road from Marlborough. The fine church of St James contains an early font with Norman carvi...
-Aveia
Aveia, an ancient town of the Vestini, on the Via Claudia Nova, 6 m. S.E. of Aquila, N.E. of the modern village of Fossa. Some remains of ancient buildings still exist, and the name Aveia still clings...
-Aveiro
Aveiro, a seaport, episcopal see, and the capital of an administrative district, formerly included in the province of Beira, Portugal; on the river Vouga, and the Lisbon-Oporto railway. Pop. (1900) 99...
-Avella
Avella (anc. Abella), a city of Campania, Italy, in the province of Avellino, 23 m. N.E. of Naples by rail. Pop. (1901) 4107. It is finely situated in fertile territory and its nuts (nuces Abellanae) ...
-Avellino
Avellino, a city and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, the capital of the province of Avellino, 1150 ft. above sea-level, 28 m. direct and 59 m. by rail E.N.E. of Naples, at the foot of Monte Vergine....
-Avempace
Avempace [Abu Bakr Muammad ibn Yaya, known as Ibn Bjja or Ibn aigh, i.e. son of the goldsmith, the name being corrupted by the Latins into Avempace, Avenpace or ...
-Richard Heinrich Ludwig Avenarius
Richard Heinrich Ludwig Avenarius (1843-1896), German philosopher, was born in Paris on the 19th of November 1843. His education, begun in Zrich and Berlin, was completed at the university of Le...
-Avenger Of Blood
Avenger Of Blood, the person, usually the nearest kinsman of the murdered man, whose duty it was to avenge his death by killing the murderer. In primitive societies, before the evolution of settled go...
-Avengers
Avengers, or Vendicatori, a secret society formed about 1186 in Sicily to avenge popular wrongs. The society was finally suppressed by King William II., the Norman, who hanged the grand master and bra...
-Aventail, Or Avantaille
Aventail, Or Avantaille (O. Fr. esventail, presumably from a Latin word exventaculum, air-hole), the mouthpiece of an old-fashioned helmet, movable to admit the air. ...
-Aventinus
Aventinus (1477-1534), the name taken by Johann Turmair, author of the Annales Boiorum, or Annals of Bavaria, from Aventinum, the Latin name of the town of Abensberg, where he was born on the 4th of J...
-Aventurine
Aventurine, or Avanturine, a variety of quartz containing spangles of mica or scales of iron-oxide, which confer brilliancy on the stone. It is found chiefly in the Ural Mountains, and is cut for orna...
-Avenue
Avenue (the past participle feminine of Fr. avenir, to come to), a way of approach; more particularly, the chief entrance-road to a country house, with rows of trees on each side; the trees themselves...
-Avenzoar, Or Abumeron
Avenzoar, Or Abumeron [Ab Merwn abdal-Malik Ibn Zuhr], Arabian physician, who flourished at the beginning of the 12th century, was born at Seville, where he exercised his profess...
-Average
Average, a term found in two main senses. (1) The first, which occurs in old law, is from a Law-Latin averagium, and is connected with the Domesday Book avera, the day's work which the king's tenants...
-Average. Part 2
Jettison of Deck Cargo No jettison of deck cargo shall be made good as G.A. Every structure not built in with the frame of the vessel shall be considered to be a part of the deck of the vessel. Rul...
-Average. Part 3
Rule XII Damage to Cargo in Discharging, etc. Damage done to or loss of cargo necessarily caused in the act of discharging, storing, reloading and stowing shall be made good as G.A. when and only wh...
-Average. Part 4
Thus expenses incurred after ship and cargo are in safety, say at Port of refuge expenses. a port of refuge, are not generally, by English law, to be treated as G.A.; although the putting into port ma...
-Average. Part 5
Rule VIII. allows as G.A. any damage sustained by cargo when discharged and, say, lightered for the purpose of getting the ship off a strand. And the corresponding damage in the case of cargo discharg...
-Average. Part 6
The same principle has a further consequence. The amount to be made good will not necessarily be the value of the goods or other property in their condition at the time they were sacrificed; so to cal...
-Avernus
Avernus, a lake of Campania, Italy, about 1 m. N. of Baiae. It is an old volcanic crater, nearly 2 m. in circumference, now, as in Roman times, filled with water. Its depth is 213 ft., and its...
-Averroes
Averroes [Abl-Wald Muammad ibn-Amad Ibn-Muammad ibn-Rushd] (1126-1198), Arabian philosopher, was born at Cordova. His early life was occupied in mastering the cur...
-Averruncator
Averruncator, a form of long shears used in arboriculture for averruncating or pruning off the higher branches of trees, etc. The word averruncate (from Lat. averruncare, to ward off, remove misch...
-Aversa
Aversa, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, 15 m. S.S.W. by rail from Caserta, and 12 m. N. by rail from Naples, from which there is also an electr...
-Avesnes
Avesnes, a town of northern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Nord, on the Helpe, 28 m. S.E. of Valenciennes by rail. Pop. (1906) 5076. The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, a...
-Aveyron
Aveyron, a department of southern France, bounded N. by Cantal, E. by Lozre and Card, S.W. by Tarn and W. by Tarn-et-Garonne and Lot. Area, 3386 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 377,299. It corresponds near...
-Avezzano
Avezzano, a town of the Abruzzi, Italy, in the province of Aquila, 67 m. E. of Rome by rail and 38 m. S. of Aquila by road. Pop. (1901) 9442. It has a fine and well-preserved castle, built in 1490 by ...
-Avianus
Avianus, a Latin writer of fables, placed by some critics in the age of the Antonines, by others as late as the 6th century A.D. He appears to have lived at Rome and to have been a heathen. The 42 fab...
-Aviary
Aviary (from Lat. avis, a bird), called by older writers volary, a structure in which birds are kept in a state of captivity. While the habit of keeping birds in cages dates from a very remote perio...
-Aviary. Continued
Provision must be made for the entire exclusion of such vermin as rats, stoats and weasels, which, if they were to gain access, would commit great havoc amongst the birds. The simplest and most effect...
-Avicenna
Avicenna [Ab Al al-Husain ibn Abdallh ibn Sn] (980-1037), Arabian philosopher, was born at Afshena in the district of Bokhara. His mother was a nativ...
-Avicenna. Continued
The remaining ten or twelve years of Avicenna's life were spent in the service of Abu Yafar Al Addaula, whom he accompanied as physician and general literary and scientific advi...
-Rufius Festus Avienus
Rufius Festus Avienus, a Roman aristocrat and poet, of Vulsinii in Etruria, who flourished during the second half of the 4th century A.D. He was probably proconsul of Africa (366) and of Achaia (372)....
-Avigliana
Avigliana, a town of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Turin, 14 m. W. by rail from the town of Turin. Pop. (1901) 4629. It has medieval buildings of some interest, but is mainly remarkable for its ...
-Avignon
Avignon, a city of south-eastern France, capital of the department of Vaucluse, 143 m. S. of Lyons on the railway between that city and Marseilles. Pop. (1906) 35,356. Avignon, which lies on the left ...
-Gil Gonzalez De Avila
Gil Gonzalez De vila (c. 1577-1658), Spanish biographer and antiquary, was born and died at vila. He was made historiographer of Castile in 1612, and of the Indies in 1641. Of his nume...
-Avila
vila, a province of central Spain, one of the modern divisions of the kingdom of Old Castile; bounded on the N. by Valladolid, E. by Segovia and Madrid, S. by Toledo and Cceres, and W....
-Luis De Avila Y Zuniga
Luis De Avila Y Zuniga (c. 1490-c. 1560), Spanish historian, was born at Placentia. He was probably of low origin, but married a wealthy heiress of the family of Zuniga, whose name he added to his own...
-Pedro Menendez De Aviles
Pedro Menndez De Avils (1519-1574), Spanish seaman, founder of St Augustine, Florida, was born at Avils in Asturias on the 15th of February 1519. His family were gentry, and he...
-Aviles, Or San Nicolas De Aviles
Avils, Or San Nicols De Avils (the Roman Flavionavia), a seaport of northern Spain, in the province of Oviedo; on the Bay of Avils, a winding inlet of the Bay of Biscay...
-Avizandum
Avizandum (from Late Lat. avizare, to consider), a Scots law term; the judge makes avizandum with a cause, i.e. takes time to consider his judgment. ...
-Avlona
Avlona (anc. Aulon; Ital. Valona; Alb. Vliona), a town and seaport of Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina. Pop. (1900) about 6000. Avlona occupies an eminence near the Gulf of Avlona, an inlet ...
-Vale Of Avoca, or Ovoca
Vale Of Avoca, or Ovoca, a mountain glen of county Wicklow, Ireland, in the south-eastern part of the county, formed by the junction of the small rivers Avonmore and Avonbeg, which, rising in the cent...
-Avocado Pear
Avocado Pear, the fruit of the tree Persea gratissima, which grows in the West Indies and elsewhere; the flesh is of a soft and buttery consistency and highly esteemed. The name avocado, the Spanish f...
-Amedeo, Conte Di Quaregna Avogadro
Amedeo, Conte Di Quaregna Avogadro (1776-1856), Italian physicist, was born at Turin on the 9th of June 1776, and died there on the 9th of July 1856. He was for many years professor of higher physics ...
-Avoidance
Avoidance (from avoid, properly to make empty or void, in current usage, to keep away from, to shun; the word avoid is adapted from the O. Fr. esvuidier or vider, to empty out, voide, mode...
-Avoirdupois, Or Averdupois
Avoirdupois, Or Averdupois (from the French avoir de pois, goods of weight), the name of a system of weights used in Great Britain and America for all commodities except the precious metals, gems and ...
-Avon
Avon, the name of several rivers in England and elsewhere. The word is Celtic, appearing in Welsh (very frequently) as afon, in Manx as aon, and in Gaelic as abhuinn (pronounced avain), and is radical...
-Avonian
Avonian, in geology, the name proposed by Dr A. Vaughan in 1905 (Q.J.G.S. vol. lxi. p. 264) for the rocks of Lower Carboniferous age in the Avon gorge at Bristol. The Avonian stage appears to embrace ...
-Barry Yelverton Avonmore
Barry Yelverton Avonmore, 1st Viscount (1736-1805), Irish judge, was born in 1736. He was the eldest son of Frank Yelverton of Blackwater, Co. Cork. Educated at Trinity College, Dublin, he was for som...
-Avranches
Avranches, a town of north-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Manche, 87 m. S. of Cherbourg on the Western railway. Pop. (1906) 7186. It stands on a wooded hill, its bot...
-Awadia And Fadnia
Awadia And Fadnia, two small nomad tribes of pure Arab blood living in the Bayuda desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, between the wells of Jakdul and Metemma. They are often incorrectly classed as Ja'alin. ...
-Awaji
Awaji, an island belonging to Japan, situated at the eastern entrance of the Inland Sea, having a length of 32 m., an extreme breadth of 16 m., and an area of 218 sq. m., with a population of about 19...
-Award
Award (from O. Fr. ewart, or esguart, cf. reward), the decision of an arbitrator. (See Arbitration.) ...
-Loch Awe
Loch Awe, the longest freshwater lake in Scotland, situated in mid-Argyllshire, 116 ft. above the sea, with an area of nearly 16 sq. m. It has a N.E. to S.W. direction and is fully 23 m. long from Kil...
-Awl
Awl (O. Eng. ael; at one time spelt nawl by a confusion with the indefinite article before it), a small hand-tool for piercing holes. ...
-Axe
Axe (O. Eng. aex; a word common, in different forms, in the Teutonic languages, and akin to the Greek ; the New English Dictionary prefers the spelling ax), a tool or we...
-Axholme
Axholme, an island in the north-west part of Lincolnshire, England, lying between the rivers Trent, Idle and Don, and isolated by drainage channels connected with these rivers. It consists mainly of a...
-Axile
Axile, or Axial, a term (= related to the axis) used technically in science; in botany an embryo is called axile when it has the same direction as the axis of the seed. ...
-Axinite
Axinite, a mineral consisting of a complex aluminium and calcium boro-silicate with a small amount of basic hydrogen; the calcium is partly replaced in varying amounts by ferrous iron and manganese, a...
-Axiom
Axiom (Gr. ), a general proposition or principle accepted as self-evident, either absolutely or within a particular sphere of thought. Each special science has it...
-Axis
Axis (Lat. for axle), a word having the same meaning as axle, and also used with many extensions of this primary meaning. It denotes the imaginary line about which a body or system of bodies rotates...
-Axle
Axle (in Mid. Eng. axel-tre, from O. Norweg. xull-tre, cognate with the O. Eng. aexe or eaxe, and connected with Sansk. ksha, Gr. , and Lat. axis), the pin or spin...
-Ax-Les-Thermes
Ax-Les-Thermes, a watering place of south-western France, in the department of Arige, at the confluence of the Arige with three tributaries, 26 m. S.S.E. of Foix by rail. Pop. (1906) 1...
-Axminster
Axminster, a market-town in the Honiton parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the river Axe, 27 m. E. by N. of Exeter by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 2906. The minster, ...
-Axolotl
Axolotl, the Mexican name given to larvae salamanders of the genus Amblystoma. It required the extraordinary acumen of the great Cuvier at once to recognize, when the first specimens of the Gyrinus ed...
-Axolotl. Continued
The original six specimens received in 1864 at the Jardin des Plantes, which had been carefully kept apart from their progeny, remained in the branchiate condition, and bred eleven times from 1865 to ...
-Axum
Axum, or Aksum, an ancient city in the province of Tigr, Abyssinia (14 7 52 N., 38 31 10 E.; altitude, 7226 ft), 12 m. W. by S. of Adowa. Many European tr...
-Aye Ay
Aye Ay. The word aye, meaning always (and pronounced as in day; connected with Gr. , always, and Lat. aevum, an age), is often spelt ay, and the New English Dictionary p...
-Ayacucho
Ayacucho, a city and department of central Peru, formerly known as Guamanga or Huamanga, renamed from the small plain of Ayacucho (Quichua, corner of death). This lies near the village of Quinua, in...
-Ayah
Ayah, a Spanish word (aya) for children's nurse or maid, introduced by the Portuguese into India and adopted by the English to denote their native nurses. ...
-Don Pedro Lopez De Ayala
Don Pedro Lopez De Ayala (1332-1407), Spanish statesman, historian and poet, was born at Vittoria in 1332. He first came into prominence at the court of Peter the Cruel, whose cause he finally deserte...
-Adelardo Lopez De Ayala Y Herrera
Adelardo Lopez De Ayala Y Herrera (1828-1879), Spanish writer and politician, was born at Guadalcanal on the 1st of May 1828, and at a very early age began writing for the theatre of his native town. ...
-Aye-Aye
Aye-Aye, a word of uncertain signification (perhaps only an exclamation), but universally accepted as the designation of the most remarkable and aberrant of all the Malagasy lemurs (see Primates). The...
-Aylesbury
Aylesbury, a market-town in the Aylesbury parliamentary division of Buckinghamshire, England, 38 m. N.W. by W. of London; served by the Great Central, Metropolitan and Great Western railways (which us...
-Heneage Finch Aylesford
Heneage Finch Aylesford, 1st Earl of (c. 1640-1719), 2nd son of Heneage Finch, 1st earl of Nottingham, was educated at Westminster school and at Christ Church, Oxford, where he matriculated on the 18t...
-Aylesford
Aylesford, a town in the Medway parliamentary division of Kent, England, 3 m. N.W. of Maidstone on the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901) 2678. It stands at the base of a hill on the...
-Lucas Vasquez De Ayllon
Lucas Vasquez De Ayllon (c. 1475-1526), Spanish adventurer and colonizer in America, was born probably in Toledo, Spain, about 1475. He accompanied Nicolas Ovando to Hispaniola (Santo Domingo) in 1502...
-John Aylmer
John Aylmer (1521-1594), English divine, was born in the year 1521 at Aylmer Hall, Tivetshall St Mary, Norfolk. While still a boy, his precocity was noticed by Henry Grey, marquis of Dorset, afterward...
-Aymara
Aymara (anc. Colla), a tribe of South American Indians, formerly inhabiting the country around Lake Titicaca and the neighbouring valleys of the Andes. They form now the chief ethnical element in Boli...
-Aymer Of Valence, Or Aethelmar
Aymer Of Valence, or aethelmar, (d. 1260), bishop of Winchester, was a half-brother of Henry III. His mother was Isabelle of Angoulme, the second wife of King John, his father was Hugo of Lusig...
-Aymestry Limestone
Aymestry Limestone, an inconstant limestone which occurs locally in the Ludlow series of Silurian rocks, between the Upper and Lower Ludlow shales. It derives its name from Aymestry in Herefordshire, ...
-Ayr
Ayr, a royal, municipal and police burgh and seaport, and county town of Ayrshire, Scotland, at the mouth of the river Ayr, 41 m. S.S.W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop....
-Jakob Ayrer
Jakob Ayrer (?-1605), German dramatist, of whose life little is known. He seems to have come to Nuremberg as a boy and worked his way up to the position of imperial notary. He died at Nuremberg on the...
-Ayrshire
Ayrshire, a south-western county of Scotland, bounded N. by Renfrewshire, E. by Lanarkshire and Dumfriesshire, S.E. by Kirkcudbrightshire, S. by Wigtownshire and W. by the Firth of Clyde. It includes ...
-Ayrshire. Part 2
Agriculture There has been no lack of agricultural enterprise. With a moist climate, and, generally, a rather heavy soil, drainage was necessary for the successful growth of green crops. Up to about ...
-Ayrshire. Part 3
Communications The Glasgow & South-Western railway owns most of the lines within the shire, its system serving all the industrial towns, ports and seaside resorts. Its trunk line via Girvan to Stranr...
-William Edward Ayrton
William Edward Ayrton (1847-1908), English physicist, was born in London on the 14th of September 1847. He was educated at University College, London, and in 1868 went out to Bengal in the service of ...
-Samuel Ayscough
Samuel Ayscough (1745-1804), English librarian and index-maker, was born at Nottingham in 1745. His father, a printer and stationer, having ruined himself by speculation, Samuel Ayscough left Nottingh...
-Sir George Ayscue, Askew or Ayscough
Sir George Ayscue (erroneously Askew or Ayscough), (d. 1671), British admiral, came of an old Lincolnshire family. Beyond the fact that he was knighted by Charles I., nothing is known of his career un...
-Sir Robert Aytoun, or Ayton
Sir Robert Aytoun, or Ayton, (1570-1638), Scottish poet, son of Andrew Aytoun of Kinaldie, Fifeshire, was born in 1570. He was educated at the university of St Andrews, where he was incorporated as a ...
-William Edmonstoune Aytoun
William Edmonstoune Aytoun (1813-1865), Scottish poet, humorist and miscellaneous writer, was born at Edinburgh on the 21st of June 1813. He was the only son of Roger Aytoun, a writer to the signet, a...
-Ayub Khan
Ayub Khan (1855- ), Afghan prince, son of Shere Ali (formerly amir of Afghanistan), and cousin of the amir Abdur Rahman, was born about 1855. During his father's reign little is recorded of him, but a...
-Ayuntamiento
Ayuntamiento, the Spanish name for the district over which a town council has administrative authority; it is used also for a town council, and for the town-hall. The word is derived from the Latin ad...
-Ayuthia
Ayuthia, a city of Siam, now known to the Siamese as Krung Kao or the Old Capital, situated in 100 32 E., 14 21 N. Pop. about 10,000. The river Me Nam, broken up into a netwo...
-Pierre Hyacinthe Azais
Pierre Hyacinthe Azas (1766-1845), French philosopher, was born at Sorze and died at Paris. He spent his early years as a teacher and a village organist. At the outbreak of the Revolutio...
-Azalea
Azalea, a genus of popular hardy or greenhouse plants, belonging to the heath order (Ericaceae), and scarcely separable botanically from Rhododendron. The beautiful varieties now in cultivation have b...
-Azamgarh
Azamgarh, or Azimgarh, a city and district of British India, in the Gorakhpur division of the United Provinces. The town is situated on the river Tons, and has a railway station. It is said to have be...
-Azan
An (Arabic for announcement), the call or summons to public prayers proclaimed by the Muezzin (crier) from the mosque twice daily in all Mahommedan countries. In small mosques the Mue...
-Don Jose Nicholas De Azara
Don Jose Nicholas De Azara (1731-1804), Spanish diplomatist, was born in 1731 at Barbunales, Aragon, and was appointed in 1765 Spanish agent and procurator-general, and in 1785 ambassador at Rome. Dur...
-Azariah
Azariah, the name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament. (1) One of Solomon's princes, son of Zadok the priest (1 Kings iv. 2), was one of several Azariahs among the descendants of Levi ...
-Azay-Le-Rideau
Azay-Le-Rideau, a town of western France, in the department of Indre-et-Loire, on the Indre, 16 m. S.W. of Tours by rail. Pop. (1906) 1453. The town has a fine Renaissance chateau, well restored in mo...
-Marquis d'Massimo Taparelli Azeglio
Marquis d'Massimo Taparelli Azeglio, (1798-1866), Italian statesman and author, was born at Turin in October 1798, descended from an ancient and noble Piedmontese family. His father, Cesare d'Azeglio...
-AzerbaijanN
Azerbjn (also spelt Aderbijan; the Azerbdegn of medieval writers, the Athropatakan and Atropatene of the ancients), the north-western and most important province of P...
-Azimuth
Azimuth (from the Arabic), in astronomy, the angular distance from the north or south point of the horizon to the foot of the vertical circle through a heavenly body. In the case of a horizontal line ...
-Azo
Azo (c. 1150-1230), Italian jurist. This Azo, whose name is sometimes written Azzo and Azzolenus, and who is occasionally described as Azo Soldanus, from the surname of his father, is to be distinguis...
-Azo Compounds
Azo Compounds, organic substances of the type RN:NR (where R = an aryl radical and R = a substituted alkyl, or aryl radical). They may be prepared by the reduction of nit...
-Azo Compounds. Part 2
Oxyazo Compounds The oxyazo compounds are prepared by adding a solution of a diazonium salt to a cold slightly alkaline solution of a phenol. The diazo group takes up the para position with regard to...
-Azo Compounds. Part 3
Diazo-Amines The diazo-amines, RN:NNHR, are obtained by the action of primary amines on diazonium salts; by the action of nitrous acid on a free primary amine, an iso-diazohydroxide b...
-Azoimide, Or Hydrazoic Acid
Azoimide, Or Hydrazoic Acid, NH, a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen, first isolated in 1890 by Th. Curtius (Berichte, 1890, 23, p. 3023). It is the hydrogen compound corresponding to P. Greiss' diazo...
-Azores
Azores (Aores), or Western Islands, an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, belonging to the kingdom of Portugal. Pop. (1900) 256,291; area, 922 sq. m. The Azores extend in an oblique line from ...
-Azores. Part 2
Climate The climate is particularly temperate, but the extremes of sensible heat and cold are increased by the humidity. The range of the thermometer is from 45 Fahr., the lowest known extreme, ...
-Azores. Part 3
Government The Azores are subdivided into three administrative districts named after their chief towns, i.e. Ponta Delgada, the capital of St Michael's; Angra, or Angra do Heroismo, the capital of Te...
-Azoth
Azoth, the name given by the alchemists to mercury, and by Paracelsus to his universal remedy. ...
-Azotus
Azotus, the name given by Greek and Roman writers to Ashdod, an ancient city of Palestine, now represented by a few remains in the little village of Esdud, in the governmental district of Acre...
-Azov, Or Asov
Azov, Or Asov (in Turkish, Asak), a town of Russia, in the government of the Don Cossacks, on the left bank of the southern arm of the Don, about 20 m. from its mouth. The ancient Tanais lay some 10 m...
-Azov Sea
Sea Of Azov. Sea Of an inland sea of southern Europe, communicating with the Black Sea by the Strait of Yenikale, or Kerch, the ancient Bosporus Cimmerius. To the Romans it was known as the Palus Maeo...
-Azoximes
Azoximes (furo [a.b.] diazoles), a class of organic compounds which contain the ring system HC = N N = CH \/ O. They may be prepared by converting nitriles into amidoximes by the action of hydr...
-Aztecs
Aztecs (from the Nahuatl word aztlan, place of the Heron, or Heron people), the native name of one of the tribes that occupied the tableland of Mexico on the arrival of the Spaniards in America. I...
-Azuaga
Azuaga, a town of western Spain, in the province of Badajoz, on the Belmez-Fuente del Arco railway. Pop. (1900) 14,192. Azuaga is the central market for the live-stock of the broad upland pastures wat...
-Azuay
Azuay (sometimes written Assuay), a province of Ecuador, bounded N. by the province of Caar, E. by Oriente, S. by Loja, and W. by El Oro. It was formerly called Cuenca, and formed part of the ...
-Domenico Alberto Azuni
Domenico Alberto Azuni (1749-1827), Italian jurist, was born at Sassar, in Sardinia, in 1749. He studied law at Sassari and Turin, and in 1782 was made judge of the consulate at Nice. In 1786-1788 he ...
-Gomes Eannes De Azurara
Gomes Eannes De Azurara (?-1474), the second notable Portuguese chronicler in order of date. He adopted the career of letters in middle life. He probably entered the royal library as assistant to Fern...
-Azure
Azure (derived, through the Romance languages, from the Arabic al-lazward, for the precious stone lapis lazuli, the initial l having dropped), the lapis lazuli; and so its colour, blue. ...
-Azurite
Azurite, or Chessylite, a mineral which is a basic copper carbonate, 2CuCOCu(OH). In its vivid blue colour it contrasts strikingly with the emerald-green malachite, also a basic copper carbona...
-Azymites
Azymites (Gr. -, without; , leaven), a name given by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharis...
-Letter B
B This letter corresponds to the second symbol in the Phoenician alphabet, and appears in the same position in all the European alphabets, except those derived, like the Russian, from medieval Greek, ...
-Franz Xaver Von Baader
Franz Xaver Von Baader (1765-1841), German philosopher and theologian, born on the 27th of March 1765 at Munich, was the third son of F. P. Baader, court physician to the elector of Bavaria. His broth...
-Baal
Baal, a Semitic word, which primarily signifies lord, owner or inhabitant,[1] and then, in accordance with the Semitic way of looking at family and religious relations, is specially appropriated to ex...
-Baalbek
Baalbek (anc. Heliopolis), a town of the Bukaa (Coelesyria), altitude 3850 ft., situated E. of the Litani and near the parting between its waters and those of the Asi. Pop. about 5000, includi...
-Baarn
Baarn, a small town in the province of Utrecht, Holland, 5 m. by rail E. of Hilversum, at the junction of a branch line to Utrecht. Like Hilversum it is situated in the midst of picturesque and wooded...
-Babadag
Babadag, or Babatag, a town in the department of Tulcea, Rumania; situated on a small lake formed by the river Taitza among the densely wooded highlands of the northern Dobrudja. Pop. (1900) about 350...
-Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage (1792-1871), English mathematician and mechanician, was born on the 26th of December 1792 at Teignmouth in Devonshire. He was educated at a private school, and afterwards entered St Pe...
-Babel
Babel, the native name of the city called Babylon (q.v.) by the Greeks, the modern Hillah. It means gate of the god, not gate of the gods, corresponding to the Assyrian Bb-ili. According to...
-Bab-El-Mandeb
Bab-El-Mandeb (Arab, for The Gate of Tears), the strait between Arabia and Africa which connects the Red Sea (q.v.) with the Indian Ocean. It derives its name from the dangers attending its navigati...
-Babenberg
Babenberg, the name of a Franconian family which held the duchy of Austria before the rise of the house of Habsburg. Its earliest known ancestor was one Poppo, who early in the 9th century was count i...
-Baber, Or Babar
Baber, Or Babar (1483-1530), a famous conqueror of India and founder of the so-called Mogul dynasty. His name was Zahir ud-din-Mahomet, and he was given the surname of Baber, meaning the tiger. Born o...
-Francois Noel Babeuf
Franois Noel Babeuf (1760-1797), known as Gracchus Babeuf, French political agitator and journalist, was born at Saint Quentin on the 23rd of November 1760. His father, Claude Babeuf, had dese...
-Francois Noel Babeuf. Continued
For a time the government, while keeping itself informed of his activities, left him alone; for it suited the Directory to let the socialist agitation continue, in order to frighten the people from jo...
-BabiiIsm
Bbism, the religion founded in Persia in A.D. 1844-1845 by Mrz Al Muhammad of Shrz, a young Sayyid who was at that time not twenty-five ...
-BabiiIsm. Continued
Literature The literature of the sect is very voluminous, but mostly in manuscript. The most valuable public collections in Europe are at St Petersburg, London (British Museum) and Paris (Biblioth&eg...
-Anthony Babington
Anthony Babington (1561-1586), English conspirator, son of Henry Babington of Dethick in Derbyshire, and of Mary, daughter of George, Lord Darcy, was born in October 1561, and was brought up secretly ...
-Churchill Babington
Churchill Babington (1821-1889), English classical scholar and archaeologist, was born at Roecliffe, in Leicestershire, on the 11th of March 1821. He was educated by his father till he was seventeen, ...
-Babirusa
Babirusa (pig-deer), the Malay name of the wild swine of Celebes and Buru, which has been adopted in zoology as the scientific designation of this remarkable animal (the only representative of its g...
-Baboon
Baboon (from the Fr. babuin, which is itself derived from Babon, the Egyptian deity to whom it was sacred), properly the designation of the long-muzzled, medium-tailed Egyptian monkey, scientifically ...
-Babrius
Babrius, author of a collection of fables written in Greek. Practically nothing is known of him. He is supposed to have been a Roman, whose gentile name was possibly Valerius, living in the East, prob...
-Babu
Babu, a native Indian clerk. The word is really a term of respect attached to a proper name, like master or Mr, and Babu-ji is still used in many parts of India, meaning sir; but without the suf...
-Baby-Farming
Baby-Farming, [1] a term meaning generally the taking in of infants to nurse for payment, but usually with an implication of improper treatment. Previous to the year 1871 the abuse of the practice of ...
-Babylon
Babylon (mod. Hillah), an ancient city on the left bank of the Euphrates, about 70 m. S. of Bagdad. Babylon is the Greek form of Babel or Bab-ili, the gate of the god (sometimes incorrectly writte...
-Babylon. Continued
We learn from Herodotus and Ctesias that the city was built on both sides of the river in the form of a square, and enclosed within a double row of lofty walls to which Ctesias adds a third. Ctesias m...
-Geography of Babylonia And Assyria
Babylonia And Assyria. I. Geography. - Geographically as well as ethnologically and historically, the whole district enclosed between the two great rivers of western Asia, the Tigris and Euphrates, fo...
-Classical Authorities of Babylonia And Assyria
II. Classical Authorities. - Such a country was naturally fitted to be a pioneer of civilization. Before the decipherment of the cuneiform texts our knowledge of its history, however, was scanty and q...
-Modern Discovery of Babylonia And Assyria
III. Modern Discovery. - The excavations of P. E. Botta and A. H. Layard at Nineveh opened up a new world, coinciding as they did with the successful decipherment of the cuneiform system of writing. L...
-Modern Discovery of Babylonia And Assyria. Part 2
Arrival Of The Semites When the Semites first entered the Semitic Influence. Edin or plain of Babylonia is uncertain, but it must have been at a remote period. The cuneiform system of writing was sti...
-Modern Discovery of Babylonia And Assyria. Part 3
Semitic Empire Of Sargon Of Akkad The next empire founded Sargon. in western Asia was Semitic. Semitic princes had already established themselves at Kis, and a long inscription has been discovered at...
-Modern Discovery of Babylonia And Assyria. Part 4
Rise Of Assyria Under Khammurabi a Samsi-Hadad (or Samsi-Raman) seems to have been vassal-prince at Assur, and the names of several of the high-priests of Assur who succeeded him have been made known...
-Modern Discovery of Babylonia And Assyria. Part 5
Second Assyrian Empire Under Tiglath-pileser III. arose the Tiglath-pileser III. second Assyrian empire, which differed from the first in its greater consolidation. For the first time in history the ...
-Modern Discovery of Babylonia And Assyria. Part 6
When Assur-bani-pal died, his empire was fast breaking up. Scythian influence. Under his successor, Assur-etil-ilani, the Scythians penetrated into Assyria and made their way as far as the borders of ...
-Assyro-Babylonian Culture
VII. Assyro-Babylonian Culture. - Assyrian culture came from Babylonia, but even here there was a difference between the two countries. There was little in Assyrian literature that was original, and e...
-Assyro-Babylonian Culture. Part 2
Art And Architecture The culture of Assyria, and still more of Babylonia, was essentially literary; we miss in it the artistic spirit of Egypt or Greece. In Babylonia the abundance of clay and want o...
-Assyro-Babylonian Culture. Part 3
Social Life Castes were unknown in both Babylonia and Assyria, but the priesthood of Babylonia found its counterpart in the military aristocracy of Assyria. The priesthood was divided into a great nu...
-Chronological Systems
VIII. Chronological Systems. - The extreme divergence in the chronological schemes employed by different writers on the history of Babylonia and Assyria has frequently caused no small perplexity to re...
-Chronological Systems. Part 2
Oppert's system[7] represents the earliest dates that have been suggested. He accepted the figures of the Kings' List and claimed that he reconciled them with the figures of Berossus, though he ignore...
-Chronological Systems. Part 3
From a Babylonian chronicle in the British Museum[23] we now know that Dynasty II. of the Kings' List never occupied the throne of Babylon, but ruled only in the extreme south of Babylonia on the shor...
-Chronological Systems. Part 4
The main difficulty in the reading of Babylonian and Assyrian proper names arises from the preference given to the ideographic method of writing them. According to the developed cuneiform system of ...
-Chronological Systems. Part 5
Fortunately, in the case of a large number of names occurring on business documents as the interested parties or as scribes or as witnesses - and it is through these documents that we obtain the major...
-Chronological Systems. Part 6
[4] For the events leading up to the conquests of Cyrus, see Persia: Ancient History, v. The chronology is not absolutely certain. [5] The following is a list of the later dynasties and kings ...
-Babylonian And Assyrian Religion
Babylonian And Assyrian Religion. The development of the religion of Babylonia, so far as it can be traced with the material at hand, follows closely along the lines of the periods to be distinguished...
-Babylonian And Assyrian Religion. Part 2
According as the one or the other aspect of such a power is brought into the foreground, Ishtar becomes the mother of mankind, the fertile earth, the goddess of sexual love, and the creative force amo...
-Babylonian And Assyrian Religion. Part 3
To read the signs of the heavens was therefore to understand the meaning of occurrences on earth, and with this accomplished it was also possible to foretell what events were portended by the position...
-Babylonian And Assyrian Religion. Part 4
The ritual alone which accompanied divination practices and incantation formulae and was a chief factor in the celebration of festival days and of days set aside for one reason or the other to the wor...
-Babylonian And Assyrian Religion. Bibliography
Morris Jastrow, jun., Religion Babyloniens und Assyriens (Giessen, 1904), enlarged and re-written form of the author's smaller Religion of Babylonia and Assyria (Boston, 1898); A. H. Sayce, The Religi...
-Babylonian Captivity
Babylonian Captivity, the name generally given to the deportation of the Jews to Babylon by Nebuchadrezzar. Three separate occasions are mentioned (Jer. lii. 28-30). The first was in the time of Jehoi...
-Babylonian Law
Babylonian Law. The material for the study of Babylonian law is singularly extensive without being exhaustive. The so-called contracts, including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receip...
-Babylonian Law. Part 2
There is no reason to regard him as specially connected with the court, as a royal pensioner, nor as forming the bulk of the population. The rarity of any reference to him in contemporary documents ma...
-Babylonian Law. Part 3
The tithe seems to have been the composition for the rent due to the god for his land. It is not clear that all lands paid tithe, perhaps only such as once had a special connexion with the temple. Th...
-Babylonian Law. Part 4
Debt was secured on the person of the debtor. Distraint on a debtor's corn was forbidden by the Code; not only must the creditor give it back, but his illegal action forfeited his claim altogether. An...
-Babylonian Law. Part 5
The marriage contract, without which the Code ruled that the woman was no wife, usually stated the consequences to which each party was liable for repudiating the other. These by no means necessarily ...
-Babylonian Law. Part 6
If she married, her husband managed it. The son also appears to have received his share on marriage, but did not always then leave his father's house; he might bring his wife there. This was usual in...
-Babylonian Law. Part 7
A curious extension of the talio is the death of creditor's son for his father's having caused the death of debtor's son as mancipium; of builder's son for his father's causing the death of house-owne...
-Bacau
Bacau, the capital of the department of Bacau, Rumania; situated among the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the river Bistritza, which enters the river Sereth 5 m. S. Pop. (1900) 16,187, ...
-Baccarat
Baccarat, a gambling card-game (origin of name unknown), supposed to have been introduced into France from Italy during the reign of Charles VIII. There are two accepted varieties of the game - baccar...
-Bacchanalia
Bacchanalia, the Lat. name for the wild and mystic festivals of Bacchus (Dionysus). They were introduced into Rome from lower Italy by way of Etruria, and held in secret, attended by women only, on th...
-Bacchylides
Bacchylides, Greek lyric poet, was born at Iulis, in the island of Ceos. His father's name was probably Meidon; his mother was a sister of Simonides, himself a native of Iulis. Eusebius says that Bacc...
-Bacchylides. Part 2
The only definite estimate of him by an ancient critic occurs in the treatise commonly translated On the Sublime, but meaning rathe...
-Bacchylides. Part 3
The same characteristic is found in the epinikia of Bacchylides. His fifth ode, and Pindar's first Olympian, alike celebrate the victory of the horse Pherenicus; but, while Pindar's reference to the r...
-Bacchylides. Part 4
The papyrus containing the odes of Bacchylides was found in Egypt by natives, and reached the British Museum in the autumn of 1896. It was then in about 200 pieces. By the skill and industry of Mr F. ...
-Baccio Dagnolo
Baccio Dagnolo (c. 1460-1543), Florentine wood-carver, sculptor and architect, had the family name of Baglioni, but was always known by the abbreviation of Bartolommeo into Baccio and the use of d'Agn...
-Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), German musical composer. The Bach family was of importance in the history of music for nearly two hundred years. Four branches of it were known at the beginning of ...
-Johann Sebastian Bach. Part 2
This triumph was followed by Bach's appointment as Kapellmeister to the duke of Cthen, a post which he held from 1717 to 1723. The Cthen period is that of Bach's central instrumental works...
-Johann Sebastian Bach. Part 3
In more than one case he has restored harmonies of priceless value from incomplete texts, by means of research and reasoning which he sums up in a modest footnote that reads as something self-evident....
-Johann Sebastian Bach. Part 4
Perhaps the only great composers who escaped the direct influence of Bach are Gluck and Berlioz. Even Gluck reproduced in every detail of harmony and figure the first twelve bars of the Gigue of Bach'...
-Johann Sebastian Bach. Part 5
If this is Bach's treatment of a comparatively small and specialized art-form, it is obviously impossible to reduce the scantiest account of the rest of his work into practical limits here, nor is the...
-Johann Sebastian Bach. Part 6
Only in the first line does the incisive initial figure persist a little longer in the new accompaniment than in the original solo, but on the last page it reappears and pervades the whole orchestra, ...
-Johann Sebastian Bach. Part 7
As to the aria of Hercules the change is in manner, while the character, in the human sense of the term, is quite rightly the same. Both Hercules and the faithful Christian of the oratorio are renounc...
-Summary Of Bach's Works
No attempt is here made at chronological sequence. The changes in Bach's style, though clear and important, are almost impossible to describe in untechnical language; nor are they of such general inte...
-Bach Editions
Almost the only works of Bach published during his lifetime were the instrumental collections, most of which he engraved himself. Of the church cantatas only one, Gott ist mein Knig (written whe...
-Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach
Karl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), German musician and composer, the third son of Johann Sebastian Bach, was born at Weimar on the 14th of March 1714. When he was ten years old he entered the Thom...
-Yair Bacharach
Yair Bacharach (1639-1702), German rabbi, was the author of awwoth Yar (a collection of Responsa) and other works. Bacharach was a man of wide culture, and holds an honourable place amo...
-Bacharach
Bacharach, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, romantically situated on the left bank of the Rhine, 30 m. above Coblenz on the railway to Mainz. Pop. 2000. There is an interesting churc...
-Louis Petit De Bachaumont
Louis Petit De Bachaumont (1690-1771), French littrateur, was of noble family and was brought up at the court of Versailles. He passed his whole life in Paris as the centre of the salon of Mad...
-Alexander Dallas Bache
Alexander Dallas Bache (1806-1867), American physicist, great-grandson of Benjamin Franklin, was born at Philadelphia on the 19th of July 1806. After graduating at the United States Military Academy a...
-Francis Edward Bache
Francis Edward Bache (1833-1858), English musical composer, was born in Birmingham on the 14th of September 1833. The pupil of Alfred Mellon for violin and Sterndale Bennett for composition, he afterw...
-Bachelor
Bachelor (from Med. Lat. baccalarius, with its late and rare variant baccalaris - cf. Ital. baccalare - through O. Fr. bacheler), in the most general sense of the word, a young man. The word, however,...
-Bachian
Bachian (Dutch Batjan), one of the Molucca Islands, in the residency of Ternate, Dutch East Indies, in the Molucca Sea, in 013-055 S. and 12722-128 E. With its...
-Back-Bond
Back-Bond, or Back-Letter, in Scots law, a deed qualifying the terms of another deed, or declaratory of the purposes for which another deed has been granted. Thus an ex facie absolute disposition, qua...
-Back-Choir
Back-Choir, Retro-Choir, a space behind the high altar in the choir of a church, in which there is, or was, a small altar standing back to back with the other. ...
-Backergunje
Backergunje, or Bakarganj, a district of British India in the Dacca division of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It forms part of the joint delta of the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, and its area is 4542 sq. m...
-Backgammon
Backgammon, a game played with draughtsmen and a special board, depending on the throw of dice. It is said to have been invented about the 10th century (Strutt). A similar game (Ludus duodecim scripto...
-Backgammon. Continued
It is 25 to 11, or about 9 to 4, against being hit on 1 24 12, or 2 1, 2 22 14, or a...
-Ludolf Backhuysen, or Bakhuisen
Ludolf Backhuysen, or Bakhuisen, (1631-1708), Dutch painter, was born at Emden, in Hanover. He was brought up as a merchant at Amsterdam, but early discovered so strong a genius for painting that he ...
-Backnang
Backnang, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wrttemberg, 19 m. by rail N.E. from Stuttgart. Pop. (1900) 7650. It has an interesting church, dating from the 12th century, and notable tanneries ...
-Backscratcher
Backscratcher, a long slender rod of wood, whalebone, tortoiseshell, horn or cane, with a carved human hand, usually of ivory, mounted at the extremity. Its name suggests the primary use of the implem...
-Backs River
Backs River (Thlewechodyeth, or Great Fish), a river in Mackenzie and Keewatin districts, Canada, rising in Sussex lake, a small body of water in 108 20 W. and 64 25 N., and ...
-Backwardation
Backwardation, or, as it is more often called for brevity, Back, a technical term employed on the London Stock Exchange to express the amount charged for the loan of stock from one account to the othe...
-Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon (Baron Verulam, Viscount St Albans) (1561-1626), English philosopher, statesman and essayist, was born at York House in the Strand, London, on the 22nd of January 1560/1. He was the youn...
-Francis Bacon. Part 2
As Bacon's conduct in this emergency seriously affected his fortunes and has been much misunderstood, it is necessary to state, as briefly as possible, the whole facts of the case. The House having be...
-Francis Bacon. Part 3
Ireland was then in a rebellious and discontented condition, and it was difficult for the English government to decide either on a definite course of policy with regard to it, or on a leader by whom t...
-Francis Bacon. Part 4
A second time Bacon was compelled to interfere in the course of the trial, and to recall to the minds of those present the real question at issue. He animadverted strongly upon the puerile nature of t...
-Francis Bacon. Part 5
In the second parliament there was not so much scope for the exercise of his powers. The Gunpowder Plot had aroused in the Commons warmer feelings towards the king; they passed severe laws against rec...
-Francis Bacon. Part 6
St John was summoned before the Star Chamber for slander and treasonable language; and Bacon, ex officio, acted as public prosecutor. The sentence pronounced (a fine of 5000 and imprisonment fo...
-Francis Bacon. Part 7
Bacon's share in another great trial which came on shortly afterwards, the Overbury and Somerset case, is not of such a nature as to render it necessary to enter upon it in detail.[20] It may be noted...
-Francis Bacon. Part 8
On the 26th June he was called before the council to answer certain charges, one of which was his conduct in the praemunire question. He acknowledged his error on that head, and made little defence. O...
-Francis Bacon. Part 9
This prudent advice was unfortunately rejected. But while he went cordially with the king in domestic affairs, he was not quite in harmony with him on questions of foreign policy. Not only was he pers...
-Francis Bacon. Part 10
So ends this painful episode, which has given rise to the most severe condemnation of Bacon, and which still presents great and perhaps insuperable difficulties. On the whole, the tendency of the most...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy
A complete survey of Bacon's works and an estimate of his place in literature and philosophy are matters for a volume. It is here proposed merely to classify the works, to indicate their general chara...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 2
Philosophical Works The great mass of Bacon's writings consists of treatises or fragments, which either formed integral parts of his grand comprehensive scheme, or were closely connected with it. Mor...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 3
IV. Scala Intellectus. - It might have been supposed that the new philosophy could now be inaugurated. Materials had been supplied, along with a new method by which they were to be treated, and natura...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 4
In place of these straggling efforts of the unassisted human mind, a graduated system of helps was to be supplied, by the use of which the mind, when placed on the right road, would proceed with unerr...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 5
In the third, the materials are worked up after the model or pattern of nature, though we are prone to err in the progress from sense to reason; the result is philosophy, which is concerned either wit...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 6
Following this summary philosophy come the sciences proper, rising like a pyramid in successive stages, the lowest floor being occupied by natural history or experience, the second by physics, the thi...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 7
Such a mode of procedure may be called anticipatio naturae (for in it reason is allowed to prescribe to things), and is opposed to the true method, the interpretatio naturae, in which reason follows a...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 8
On the other heads we have but a few scattered hints. But although the rigorous requirements of science could only be fulfilled by the employment of all these means, yet in their absence it was permis...
-Francis Bacon's Works and Philosophy. Part 9
The fruitful thoughts which lay under and gave rise to these scattered efforts of the human mind, were gathered up into unity, and reduced to system in the new philosophy of Bacon.[95] It is assuredly...
-Francis Bacon's Influence
It is impossible within our limits to do more than indicate the influence which Bacon's views have had on subsequent thinkers. The most valuable and complete discussion of the subject is contained in ...
-Francis Bacon's Biography and Philosophy
Biography J. Spedding, The Life and Letters of Lord Bacon (1861), Life and Times of Francis Bacon (1878); also Dr Rawley's Life in the Ellis-Spedding editions, and J. M. Robertson's reprint (above); ...
-Francis Bacon's Biography and Philosophy. Part 2
[21] A somewhat similar case is that of the writ De Rege inconsulto brought forward by Bacon. See Letters and Life, v. 233-236. [22] Ibid. vi. 6, 7, 13-26, 27-56. [23] Ibid. vi. 33. [24] A position...
-Francis Bacon's Biography and Philosophy. Part 3
[48] See also Letter to Fulgentio, Letters and Life, vii. 533. [49] Fil. Lab.; Cog. et Visa. i.; cf. Pref. to Ins. Mag. [50] Val. Ter. 232; cf. N. O. i. 124. [51] Letters, i. 123. [52] N. O. i. ...
-Francis Bacon's Biography and Philosophy. Part 4
It is evident that the Socratic search for the essence by an analysis of instances - an induction ending in a definition - has a strong resemblance to the Baconian inductive method. [83] N. O. i. 105...
-John Bacon
John Bacon (1740-1799), British sculptor, was born in Southwark on the 24th of November 1740, the son of Thomas Bacon, a cloth-worker, whose forefathers possessed a considerable estate in Somersetshir...
-Leonard Bacon
Leonard Bacon (1802-1881), American Congregational preacher and writer, was born in Detroit, Michigan, on the 19th of February 1802, the son of David Bacon (1771-1817), missionary among the Indians in...
-Sir Nicholas Bacon
Sir Nicholas Bacon (1509-1579), lord keeper of the great seal of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, was the second son of Robert Bacon of Drinkstone, Suffolk, and was born at Chislehurst. He...
-Roger Bacon
Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c. 1294), English philosopher and man of science, was born near Ilchester in Somerset. His family appears to have been in good circumstances, but in the stormy reign of Henry III....
-Roger Bacon. Part 2
Works And Editions Leland said that it is easier to collect the leaves of the Sibyl than the titles of the works written by Roger Bacon; and though the labour has been somewhat lightened by the publi...
-Roger Bacon. Part 3
This view of nature Bacon considered fundamental, and it lies, indeed, at the root of his whole philosophy. To the short notices of it given in the 4th and 5th parts of the Opus Majus, he subjoined tw...
-Roger Bacon. Part 4. Bibliography
The best work on Roger Bacon is perhaps that of E. Charles, Roger Bacon, sa vie, ses ouvrages, ses doctrines d'aprs des textes indits (1861). Against the somewhat enthusiastic estimate...
-Bacon
Bacon (through the O. Fr. bacon, Low Lat. baco, from a Teutonic word cognate with back, e.g. O. H. Ger. pacho, M. H. Ger. backe, buttock, flitch of bacon), the flesh of the sides and back of the pig...
-Babylonia And Assyria. Plate I
Photos, Mansell & Co. STELE OF VICTORY OF NARAM-SIN, KING OF AGADE. Louvre. COPPER VOTIVE FIGURE OF ARADSIN, KING OF LARSA. STATUE OF ASSUR-NAZIR-PAL, KING OF ASSYRIA. FIGURE OF GUDEA, ...
-Babylonia And Assyria. Plate II
Photos, Mansell & Co. SCULPTURED RELIEF OF THE REIGN OF ASSUR-NAZIR-PAL. IVORY PANELS WITH LINE ENGRAVING; FROM NIMRUD. ARCHITECTURAL ORNAMENTS OF PATINTED TERRA-COTTA; FROM NIMRUD. SEC...
-John Baconthorpe, Bacon, Baco, Bacconius
John Baconthorpe [Bacon, Baco, Bacconius], (d. 1346), known as the Resolute Doctor, a learned Carmelite monk, was born at Baconthorpe in Norfolk. He seems to have been the grandnephew of Roger Baco...
-Janos Bacsanyi
Janos Bacsanyi (1763-1845), Hungarian poet, was born at Tapolcza on the 11th of May 1763. In 1785 he published his first work, a patriotic poem, The Valour of the Magyars. In the same year he obtained...
-Bacteriology
Bacteriology. The minute organisms which are commonly called bacteria[1] are also known popularly under other designations, e.g. microbes, micro-organisms, microphytes, bacilli, micrococci....
-Bacteriology. Part 2
Schizomycetes are ubiquitous as saprophytes in still ponds and Distribution in Space. ditches, in running streams and rivers, and in the sea, and especially in drains, bogs, refuse heaps, and in the s...
-Bacteriology. Part 3
In the first place, the ancient question of spontaneous generation received fresh impetus from the difficulty of keeping such minute organisms as bacteria from reaching and developing in organic inf...
-Bacteriology Morphology, Sizes, Forms, Structure
Sizes, Forms, Structure, etc. - The Schizomycetes Form and Structure. consist of single cells, or of filamentous or other groups of cells, according as the divisions are completed at once or not. Whil...
-Bacteriology Growth And Division
Whatever the shape and size of the Reproduction. individual cell, cell-filament or cell-colony, the immediate visible results of active nutrition are elongation of the cell and its division into two e...
-Bacteriology Growth And Division. Part 2
Hardy has shown that such a destruction of part of the filament may be effected by the attacks of another organism. A very characteristic method of reproduction is that of Spores. spore-formation, an...
-Bacteriology Growth And Division. Part 3
Even when used in conjunction with purely morphological characters, these physiological properties are too variable to aid us in the discrimination of species and genera, and are apt to break down at ...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae
To the two divisions of bacteria, Haplobacterinae and Trichobacterinae, must now be added a third division, Myxobacterinae. One of the first members of this group, Chondromyces crocatus, was described...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 2
There are in all cultivated soils forms of bacteria which are capable of forcing the inert free nitrogen to combine with other elements into compounds assimilable by plants. This was long asserted as ...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 3
That the Leguminosae (a group of plants including peas, beans, Bacteria and Leguminosae. vetches, lupins, etc.) play a special part in agriculture was known even to the ancients and was mentioned by P...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 4
Fig. 17. - A plate-culture of a bacillus which had been exposed for a period of four hours behind a zinc stencil-plate, in which the letters C and B were cut. The light had to traverse a screen of ...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 5
The most recent observations of Molisch seem to show that bacteria possessing bacteriopurpurin exhibit a new type of assimilation - the assimilation of organic material under the influence of light. I...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 6
Apart from the resolution of doubts as to the power of spores to withstand such temperatures for long periods, the discoveries of Miquel, Globig and others have shown that there are numerous bacteria ...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 7
The principal experiments also indicate that it is the rays of highest refrangibility - the blue-violet and ultra-violet rays of the spectrum - which bring about the destruction of the organisms (figs...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 8
Little is known of the mode of action of bacteria on these plants, but it may be assumed with great confidence that they excrete enzymes and poisons (toxins), which diffuse into the cells and kill the...
-Bacteriology Myxobacteriaceae. Part 9
It is usually stated that the carbon dioxide molecule is here split by means of energy derived from the oxidation of nitrogen, but apart from the fact that none of these processes can proceed until th...
-II. Pathological Importance
The action of bacteria as pathogenic agents is in great part merely an instance of their general action as producers of chemical change, yet bacteriology as a whole has become so extensive, and has so...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 2
It may be noted, however, that it is still doubtful whether this organism is to be placed amongst the bacteria or amongst the protozoa. The methods employed in studying the relation of bacteria Metho...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 3
The full description of a particular bacterium implies an account not only of its microscopical characters, but also of its growth characters in various culture media, its biological properties, and t...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 4
The study of the nature of toxins requires, of course, the various methods of organic chemistry. Attempts to obtain them in an absolutely pure condition have, however, failed in important cases. So th...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 5
Attempts to get a pure toxin by repeated precipitation and solution have resulted in the production of a whitish amorphous powder with highly toxic properties. Such a powder gives a proteid reaction, ...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 6
In this way secondary abscesses, secondary tubercle glanders and nodules, etc., result; in typhoid fever there is secondary invasion of the mesenteric glands, and clumps of bacilli are also found in i...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 7
By immunity is meant non-susceptibility to a given disease, Immunity. or to experimental inoculation with a given bacterium or toxin. The term must be used in a relative sense, and account must always...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 8
Anti-substances may be arranged, as has been done by Ehrlich, into three main groups. In the first group, the anti-substance simply combines with the antigen, without, so far as we know, producing any...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 9
This view has been assailed by Thorvald Madsen and S. A. Arrhenius, who hold that the union of toxin and antitoxin is comparatively loose, and belongs to the class of reversible actions, being compara...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 10
The first of these, lysogenic or bacteriolytic action, consists in (a) Lysogenic action. the production of a change in the corresponding bacterium whereby it becomes granular, swells up and ultimately...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 11
The development of all antagonistic substances which confer the special character on antimicrobic sera, as well as antitoxins, may be expressed as the formation of bodies with specific combining affin...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 12
He also showed that the development of artificial immunity is attended by the appearance of phagocytosis; also, when an anti-serum is injected into an animal, the phagocytes which formerly were indiff...
-II. Pathological Importance. Part 13
Parasitenk. (Jena); also Index Medicus. The most important works on immunity are: Ehrlich, Studies in Immunity (English translation, New York, 1906), and Metchnikoff, Immunity in Infective Diseases (E...
-Bactria
Bactria (Bactriana), the ancient name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Paropamisus) and the Oxus (Amu Darya), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh); in the Persian inscriptions B...
-Bacup
Bacup, a market town and municipal borough in the Rossendale parliamentary division of Lancashire, England, on the river Irwell, 203 m. N.N.W. from London, and 22 N. by E. from Manchester, on the Lanc...
-Badagas
Badagas (literally a Telugu man), a tribe inhabiting the Nilgiri Hills, in India, by some authorities declared not to be an aboriginal or jungle race. They are probably Dravidian by descent, though ...
-Badajoz, Badajos
Badajoz (formerly sometimes written Badajos), a frontier province of western Spain, formed in 1833 of districts taken from the province of Estremadura (q.v.), and bounded on the N. by Cceres, ...
-Badakshan
Badakshan, including Wakhan, a province on the north-east frontier of Afghanistan, adjoining Russian territory. Its north-eastern boundaries were decided by the Anglo-Russian agreement of 1873, which ...
-Badakshan. Continued
History Badakshan, part of the Greek Bactria, was visited by Hsan Tsang in 630 and 644. The Arabian geographers of the 10th century speak of its mines of ruby and lapis lazuli, and give notices...
-Sisto Badalocchio
Sisto Badalocchio, surnamed Rosa (1581-1647), Italian painter and engraver, was born at Parma. He was of the school of Annibale Carracci, by whom he was highly esteemed for design. His principal engra...
-Badalona
Badalona (anc. Baetulo), a town of north-eastern Spain, in the province of Barcelona; 6 m. N.E. of the city of Barcelona, on the left bank of the small river Bess, and on the Mediterranean Sea...
-John Badby
John Badby (d. 1410), one of the early Lollard martyrs, was a tailor (or perhaps a blacksmith) in the west Midlands, and was condemned by the Worcester diocesan court for his denial of transubstantiat...
-Robert Baddeley
Robert Baddeley (c. 1732-1794), English actor, is said to have been first a cook to Samuel Foote, the English Aristophanes, and then a valet, before he appeared on the stage. In 1761, described as ...
-Baden, Austria
Baden, a town and watering-place of Austria, in lower Austria, 17 m. S. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900) 12,447. It is beautifully situated at the mouth of the romantic Helenenthal, on the banks of the ...
-Baden, Or Baden-Baden
Baden, Or Baden-Baden (to distinguish it from other places of the name), a town and fashionable watering-place of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 23 m. S. by W. of Karlsruhe, with which it is co...
-Baden
Baden, a town in the Swiss canton of Aargau, on the left bank of the river Limmat, 14 m. by rail N.W. of Zrich. It is now chiefly visited by reason of its hot sulphur springs, which are mentione...
-Grand Duchy Of Baden
Grand Duchy Of Baden, a sovereign state of Germany, lying in the south-west corner of the empire, bounded N. by the kingdom of Bavaria and the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; W. and practically throug...
-Grand Duchy Of Baden. Part 2
Population At the beginning of the 19th century Baden was only a margraviate, with an area little exceeding 1300 sq. m., and a population of 210,000. Since then it has from time to time acquired addi...
-Grand Duchy Of Baden. Part 3
Education And Religion The educational establishments of Baden are numerous and flourishing, and public education is entirely in the hands of the government. There are two universities, the Protestan...
-Grand Duchy Of Baden. Part 4
Changing sides in 1805 he fought for Napoleon, with the result that by the peace of Pressburg in that year he obtained the Breisgau and other territories at the expense of the Habsburgs. In 1806 he jo...
-Grand Duchy Of Baden. Part 5
It had little chance of doing more than make speeches; the country was in the hands of an armed mob of civilians and mutinous soldiers; and, meanwhile, the grand-duke of Baden had joined with Bavaria ...
-Badenoch
Badenoch, a district of south-east Inverness-shire, Scotland, bounded on the N. by the Monadhliath mountains, on the E. by the Cairngorms and Braemar, on the S. by Atholl and the Grampians, and on the...
-Badenweiler
Badenweiler, a health resort and watering place of the grand-duchy of Baden, Germany, 28 m. N. by E. by rail from Basel, at the western edge of the Black Forest. It is sheltered by the Blauen (3820 ft...
-Badger
Badger, the common name for any animal of the Musteline subfamily Melinae or the typical genus Meles (see Carnivora). The name is probably derived from badge, device, on account of the marks on the ...
-Badger, A Dealer In Food
Badger, a term of uncertain derivation (possibly derived from bagger, in allusion to the hawker's bag) for a dealer in food, such as corn or victuals (more expressly, fish, butter or cheese), which he...
-Badghis
Badghis (home of the winds), a district on the north-west of Afghanistan, between the Murghab and Hari Rud rivers, extending as far northward as the edge of the desert of Sarakhs. It includes the Ch...
-Charles Badham
Charles Badham (1813-1884), English scholar, was born at Ludlow, in Shropshire, on the 18th of July 1813. His father, Charles Badham, translator of Juvenal and an excellent classical scholar, was regi...
-Jodocus Or Josse Badius
Jodocus Or Josse Badius (1462-1535), sometimes called Badius Ascensius from the village of Asche, near Brussels, where he was born, an eminent printer at Paris, whose establishment was celebrated unde...
-Bartholomew Badlesmere
Bartholomew Badlesmere, Baron (1275-1322), English nobleman, was the son and heir of Gunselm de Badlesmere (d. 1301), and fought in the English army both in France and Scotland during the later years ...
-Badminton, Or Great
Badminton, Or Great Badminton, a village in the southern parliamentary division of Gloucestershire, England, 100 m. W. of London by the Great Western railway (direct line to south Wales). Here is Badm...
-Badminton
Badminton, a game played with rackets and shuttlecocks, its name being taken from the duke of Beaufort's seat in Gloucestershire. The game appears to have been first played in England about 1873, but ...
-Badnur
Badnur, a town of British India, the headquarters of the district of Betul in the Central Provinces. It consists, besides the European houses, of two bazaars. Pop. (1901) 3766. There is a good serai o...
-Badrinath
Badrinath, a village and celebrated temple in British India, in the Garhwal district of the United Provinces. It is situated on the right bank of the Vishnuganga, a tributary of the Alaknanda river, i...
-Badulla
Badulla, the capital of the province of Uva, Ceylon, 54 m. S.E. of Kandy. It is the seat of a government agent and district judge, besides minor courts. It was in Kandyan times the home of a prince wh...
-Karl Baedeker
Karl Baedeker (1801-1859), German publisher, was born at Essen on the 3rd of November 1801. His father had a printing establishment and book-shop there, and Karl followed the same business independent...
-Johann Christian Felix Baehr
Johann Christian Felix Baehr (1798-1872), German philologist, was born at Darmstadt on the 13th of June 1798. He studied at the university of Heidelberg where he was appointed professor of classical p...
-Bael Fruit
Bael Fruit (Aegle marmelos). Aegle is a genus of the botanical natural order Rutaceae, containing two species in tropical Asia and one in west tropical Africa. The plants are trees bearing strong spin...
-Baena
Baena, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova; 32 m. by road S.E. of the city of Cordova. Pop. (1900) 14,539. Baena is picturesquely situated near the river Marbella, on the slope of a h...
-Karl Ernst Von Baer
Karl Ernst Von Baer (1792-1876), German biologist, was born at Piep, in Esthonia, on the 29th of February 1792. His father, a small landowner, sent him to school at Reval, which he left in his eightee...
-William Jacob Baer
William Jacob Baer (1860- ), American painter, was born on the 29th of January 1860 in Cincinnati, Ohio. He studied at Munich in 1880-1884. He had much to do with the revival in America of the art of ...
-Baetylus
Baetylus (Gr. , ), a word of Semitic origin (= bethel) denoting a sacred stone, w...
-Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Von Baeyer
Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf Von Baeyer (1835- ), German chemist, was born at Berlin on the 31st of October 1835, his father being Johann Jacob von Baeyer (1794-1885), chief of the Berlin Geodetical...
-Baeza
Baza (anc. Beatia), a town of southern Spain, in the province of Jan; in the Loma de Ubeda, a mountain range between the river Guadalquiver on the S. and its tributary the Guadalimar o...
-William Baffin
William Baffin (1584-1622), English navigator and discoverer. Nothing is known of his early life, but it is conjectured that he was born in London of humble origin, and gradually raised himself by his...
-Baffin Bay And Baffin Land
Baffin Bay And Baffin Land, an arctic sea and an insular tract named after the explorer William Baffin. Baffin or Baffin's Bay is part of the long strait which separates Baffin Land from Greenland. It...
-Bagamoyo
Bagamoyo, a seaport of German East Africa in 6 22 S., 38 55 E. Pop. about 18,000, including a considerable number of British Indians. Being the port on the mainland nearest the...
-Bagatelle
Bagatelle (French, from Ital. bagatella, bagata, a trifle), primarily a thing of trifling importance. The name, though French, is given to a game which is probably of English origin, though its connex...
-Bagdad, Baghdad Vilayet
Bagdad, or Baghdad, a vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, situated between Persia and the Syrian desert, and including the greater part of ancient Babylonia. The original vilayet extended from Mardin on the N....
-Bagdad, Baghdad
Bagdad, or Baghdad, the capital of the Turkish vilayet of the same name. It is the headquarters of the VI. Army Corps, which garrisons also the Basra and Mosul vilayets. It lies on both sides of the r...
-Bagdad, Baghdad. Part 2
Sometimes, in the months of June, July and August, when the sherki or south wind is blowing, the thermometer at break of day is known to stand at 112 F., while at noon it rises to 119 and a ...
-Bagdad, Baghdad. Part 3
Close to this stands the so-called tomb of Sitte Zobeide (Zobaida), with its octagonal base and pineapple dome, one of the most conspicuous and curious objects in the neighbourhood of Bagdad. Unfortun...
-Bagdad, Baghdad. Part 4
It also possesses important shrines of its own which cause many pilgrims to linger there, and wealthy Indians not infrequently choose Bagdad as a suitable spot in which to end their days in the odour ...
-Bagdad, Baghdad. Continued
History There are in or near Bagdad a few remains of a period antedating Islam, the most conspicuous of which are the ruins of the palace of Chosroes at Ctesiphon or Madain, about 15 m. below Bagdad ...
-Bage
Bag, a town and municipality of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, about 176 m. by rail W.N.W. of the city of Rio Grande do Sul. Pop. of the municipality (1890) 22,692. It is situated in ...
-Walter Bagehot
Walter Bagehot (1826-1877), English publicist and economist, editor of the Economist newspaper from 1860 to his death, was born at Langport, Somerset, on the 3rd of February 1826, his father being a b...
-Bagelkhand
Bagelkhand, or Baghelkhand, a tract of country in central India, occupied by a collection of native states. The Bagelkhand agency is under the political superintendence of the governor-general's agent...
-Baggara
Baggra (Cowherds), African Arabs of Semitic origin, so called because they are great cattle owners and breeders. They occupy the country west of the White Nile between the Shilluk territory...
-Jens Immanuel Baggesen
Jens Immanuel Baggesen (1764-1826), Danish poet, was born on the 15th of February 1764 at Korsr. His parents were very poor, and before he was twelve he was sent to copy documents at the office ...
-Bagging
Bagging, the name given to the textile stuff used for making bags (see also Sacking and Tarpaulin). The material used was originally Baltic hemp, while in the beginning of the 19th century Sunn hemp o...
-Baghal
Baghal, a small native state in the Punjab, India. It is one of the group known as the Simla Hill states, and has an area of 124 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 25,720, showing an increase of 5% in the decade; a ...
-Bagheria
Bagheria, a town of the province of Palermo, Sicily, 8 m. by rail E. by S. of Palermo. Pop. (1901) 18,218. It contains many villas of the aristocracy of Palermo, the majority of which were erected in ...
-Bagillt
Bagillt, a town of Flintshire, North Wales, 14 m. from Chester, on the London & North Western railway, in the ancient parish of Holywell. Pop. (1901) 2637. Its importance is due to its zinc, l...
-Bagimonds Roll
Bagimonds Roll. In 1274 the council of Lyons imposed a tax of a tenth part of all church revenues during the six following years for the relief of the Holy Land. In Scotland Pope Gregory X. entrusted ...
-Bagirmi
Bagirmi, a country of north-central Africa, lying S.E. of Lake Chad and forming part of the Chad circumscription of French Congo. It extends some 240 m. north to south and has a breadth of about 150 m...
-Bartolommeo Bagnacavallo
Bartolommeo Bagnacavallo (1484-1542), Italian painter. His real name was Ramenghi, but he received the cognomen Bagnacavallo from the little village where he was born. He studied first under Francia, ...
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Bagnres-De-Bigorre, a town of south-western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Hautes-Pyrnes, 13 m. S.S.E. of Tarbes on a branch line of the Southern rai...
-Bagneres-De-Luchon
Bagnres-De-Luchon, a town of south-western France, in the department of Haute-Garonne, 87 m. S.S.W. of Toulouse, on a branch line of the Southern railway from Montrjeau. Pop. (1906) 34...
-Bagoas, Bagoi
Bagoas, a Persian name (Bagoi), a shortened form of names like Bagadata, given by God, often used for eunuchs. The best-known of these (Bagoses in Josephus) became the confidential minister of Art...
-Bag-Pipe
Bag-Pipe (Celt. piob-mala, ullan-piob, cuislean, cuislin; Fr. cornemuse, chalemie, musette, sourdeline, chevrette, loure; Ger. Sackpfeife, Dudelsack; M. H. Ger. Suegdbalch[1]; Ital. cornamusa, piva, s...
-Bag-Pipe. Part 2
The Old Irish Bag-Pipe Very little is known about this instrument. It is mentioned in the ancient Brehon Laws, said to date from the 5th century (they are cited in compilations of the 10th century), ...
-Bag-Pipe. Part 3
The Calabrian bag-pipe has a bag of goatskin with the hair left on, and is inflated by means of a blow-pipe. There are two drones and two chaunters, all fixed in one stock. Each chaunter has three or ...
-Bag-Pipe. Part 4. History Of The Bag-Pipe
There is reason to believe that the origin of the bag-pipe must be sought in remote antiquity. No instrument in any degree similar to it is represented on any of the monuments of Egypt or Assyria know...
-Bag-Pipe. Part 5. History Of The Bag-Pipe
The bronze figure has been reproduced from drawings by Edward King in three positions.[34] The statement made by several writers on music that a bag-pipe is represented on a contorniate of Nero is err...
-Bag-Pipe. Part 6. History Of The Bag-Pipe
The cornemuse of shepherds and rustic swains became the fashionable instrument, but as inflating the bag by the breath distorted the performer's face, the bellows were substituted, and the whole instr...
-Peter Bagration
Peter Bagration, Prince (1765-1812), Russian general descended from the noble Georgian family of the Bagratides was born in 1765. He entered the Russian army in 1782, and served for some years in the ...
-Bagshot Beds
Bagshot Beds, in geology, a series of sands and clays of shallow-water origin, some being fresh-water, some marine. They belong to the upper Eocene formation of the London and Hampshire basins (Englan...
-Bahadur Khel
Bahadur Khel, an Indian salt-mine in the Kohat district of the North-West Frontier Province, in the range of hills south of the village of Bahadur Khel between Kohat and Bannu. For a space of 4 m. in ...
-Bahadur Shah I
Bahadur Shah I., a Mogul emperor of Hindustan, A.D. 1707-1712, the son and successor of Aurangzeb. At the time of the latter's death his eldest surviving son, Prince Muazim, was governor of Kabul, and...
-Bahadur Shah II
Bahadur Shah II., the last of the Mogul emperors of Hindustan, 1837-1857. He was a titular emperor only, since from the time of the defeat of Shah Alam at Buxar in 1764 all real power had resided with...
-Bahamas
Bahamas (Lucayos), an archipelago of the British West Indies. It is estimated to consist of 29 islands, 661 cays and 2387 rocks, and extends along a line from Florida on the northwest to Haiti on the ...
-Bahamas. Part 2
Geology The Bahamas consist almost entirely of aeolian deposits (cf. Bermudas) and coral reefs. The aeolian deposits, which form the greater part of the islands, frequently rise in rounded hills and ...
-Bahamas. Part 3
History The story of the Bahamas is a singular one, and bears principally upon the fortunes of New Providence, which, from the fact that it alone possesses a perfectly safe harbour for vessels drawin...
-Bahawalpur
Bahawalpur, or Bhawalpur, a native state of India, within the Punjab, stretching for more than 300 m. along the left bank of the Sutlej, the Punjnud and the Indus. It is bounded on the N. and E. by Si...
-Bahia
Bahia, an Atlantic state of Brazil, bounded N. by the states of Piauhy, Pernambuco and Sergipe, E. by Sergipe and the Atlantic, S. by Espirito Santo and Minas Geraes, and W. by Minas Geraes and Goyaz....
-Bahia, Or Sao
Bahia, Or So Salvador, a maritime city of Brazil and capital of the state of Bahia, situated on the Bay of All Saints (Bahia de Todos os Santos), and on the western side of the peninsula separ...
-Bahia Blanca
Bahia Blanca, a city and port of Argentina, on the Naposta river, 3 m. from its outlet into a deep, well-sheltered bay of the same name. Pop. (est. 1903) 11,600. It is situated in the extreme southern...
-Bahr
Bahr, the Arabic for sea, with the diminutive bahira. Bahr also signifies a. river, especially one with a large body of water, e.g. the Nile, and is sometimes used to designate the dry bed of a rive...
-Bahraich Or Bharaich
Bahraich or Bharaich, a town and district of British India, situated in the Fyzabad division of the United Provinces. The town is on the river Sarju. Since the opening of the railway the place has beg...
-Bahram
Bahrm (Varahrn, in Gr. or , the younger form of the old Vere...
-Karl Friedrich Bahrdt
Karl Friedrich Bahrdt (1741-1792), German theologian and adventurer, was born on the 25th of August 1741 at Bischofswerda, where his father, afterwards professor, canon and general superintendent at L...
-Bahrein Islands
Bahrein Islands, a group of islands situated about 20 m. east of the coast of El Hasa, in the Persian Gulf, a little to the south of the port of El Katif, which, if rightly identified with the ancient...
-Bahr-El-Ghazal
Bahr-El-Ghazal, the chief western affluent of the river Nile, N.E. Africa, which it joins in 9 30 N., 30 25 E. The Bahr-el-Ghazal (Gazelle river) is a deep stream formed by the...
-Bahr-El-Ghazal. Continued
Exploration Of The River Rumours of the existence of the Bahr-el-Ghazal led some of the Greek geographers to imagine that the source of the Nile was westward in the direction of Lake Chad. The first ...
-Bahut
Bahut (a French word of unknown origin), a portable coffer or chest, with a rounded lid covered in leather, garnished with nails, used for the transport of clothes or other personal luggage, - it was,...
-Ibn Paquda Baḥya
Ibn Paquda Baya, a Jewish ethical writer who flourished at Saragossa in the 11th century. In 1040 he wrote in Arabic a treatise, Duties of the Heart. This book was one of the most significant ...
-Baiae
Baiae, an ancient city of Campania, Italy, 10 m. W. of Neapolis, on the Sinus Baianus, a bay on the W. coast of the Gulf of Puteoli. It is said to derive its name from &s...
-Baiburt
Baiburt, a town of Asiatic Turkey, on the direct carriage road from Trebizond to Erzerum, situated on both banks of the Churuk river, which here traverses an open cultivated plateau (altitude, 5100 ft...
-Abdallah ibn Umar al-Baidawi
Baiw (Abdallah ibn Umar al-Baiw), Mahommedan critic, was born in Fars, where his father was chief judge, in the time of the Atabek ruler Abu...
-Jean Antoine De Baif
Jean Antoine De Baf (1532-1589), French poet and member of the Pliade, was born at Venice in 1532. He was the natural son of the scholar Lazare de Baf, who was at that time French ...
-Baikal
Baikal (known to the Mongols as Dalai-nor, and to the Turkish tribes as Bai-kul), a lake of East Siberia, the sixth in size of all the lakes of the world and the largest fresh-water basin of Eurasia. ...
-Baikal. Part 2
Rivers Lake Baikal receives over 300 streams, mostly short mountain torrents, besides the Upper Angara, which enters its north-east extremity, the Barguzin, on the east, and the Selenga on the south-...
-Baikal. Part 3
Navigation Navigation of the lake is rendered difficult both by sudden storms and by the absence of good bays and ports. The principal port on the western shore, Listvinichnoe, near the outflow of th...
-William Balfour Baikie
William Balfour Baikie (1824-1864), Scottish explorer, naturalist and philologist, eldest son of Captain John Baikie, R.N., was born at Kirkwall, Orkney, on the 21st of August 1824. He studied medicin...
-Bail
Bail, [1] in English common law, the freeing or setting at liberty of one arrested or imprisoned upon any action, either civil or criminal, on surety taken for his appearance on a certain day and at a...
-Bailen
Bailn, or Bayln, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Jan; 21 m. by road N. of the city of Jan. Pop. (1900) 7420. Bailn is probably the ancient Baecula,...
-Gamaliel Bailey
Gamaliel Bailey (1807-1859), American journalist, was born at Mount Holly, New Jersey, on the 3rd of December 1807. He graduated at the Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia in 1827. After editing...
-Nathan Bailey
Bailey, Nathan or Nathaniel (d. 1742), English philologist and lexicographer. He compiled a Dictionarium Britannicum: a more compleat universal etymological English dictionary than any extant, bearing...
-Philip James Bailey
Philip James Bailey (1816-1902), English poet, author of Festus, was born at Nottingham on the 22nd of April 1816. His father, who himself published both prose and verse, owned and edited from 1845 to...
-Samuel Bailey
Samuel Bailey (1791-1870), British philosopher and author, was born at Sheffield in 1791. He was among the first of those Sheffield merchants who went to the United States to establish trade connexion...
-Bailey, Ballium
Bailey (said to be a corruption of Ballium by some, and derived by others from the Fr. baille, a corruption of bataille, because there the soldiers were drilled in battle array), the open space betwee...
-Bailiff And Bailie
Bailiff And Bailie (from Late Lat. bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus, a governor or custodian; cf. Bail), a legal officer to whom some degree of authority, care or jurisdiction is committed. Baili...
-Bailiff And Bailie. Continued
Bailie In Scotland the word bailiff has taken the form of bailie, signifying a superior officer or magistrate of a municipal corporation. Bailies, by virtue of their office, are invested with certa...
-Adrien Baillet
Adrien Baillet (1649-1706), French scholar and critic, was born on the 13th of June 1649, at the village of Neuville near Beauvais, in Picardy. His parents could only afford to send him to a small sch...
-Lady Grizel Baillie
Lady Grizel Baillie (1665-1746), Scottish song-writer, eldest daughter of Sir Patrick Hume or Home of Polwarth, afterwards earl of Marchmont, was born at Redbraes Castle, Berwickshire, on the 25th of ...
-Joanna Baillie
Joanna Baillie (1762-1851), British poet and dramatist, was born at the manse of Bothwell, on the banks of the Clyde, on the 11th of September 1762. She belonged to an old Scottish family, which claim...
-Robert Baillie, Scottish Divine
Robert Baillie (1602-1662), Scottish divine, was born at Glasgow. Having graduated there in 1620, he gave himself to the study of divinity. In 1631, after he had been ordained and had acted for some y...
-Robert Baillie
Robert Baillie (d. 1684), Scottish conspirator, known as Baillie of Jerviswood, was the son of George Baillie of St. John's Kirk, Lanarkshire. He incurred the resentment of the Scottish government by ...
-Jean Sylvain Bailly
Jean Sylvain Bailly (1736-1793), French astronomer and orator, was born at Paris on the 15th of September 1736. Originally intended for the profession of a painter, he preferred writing tragedies unti...
-Bailment
Bailment (from Fr. bailler, to place in charge of, cf. Bail), in law, a delivery of goods from one person called the bailor, to another person called the bailee, for some purpose, upon a contract, exp...
-Edward Hodges Baily
Edward Hodges Baily (1788-1867), British sculptor, was born at Bristol on the 10th of March 1788. His father, who was a celebrated carver of figureheads for ships, destined him for a commercial life, ...
-Francis Baily
Francis Baily (1774-1844), English astronomer, was born at Newbury in Berkshire, on the 28th of April 1774. After a tour in the unsettled parts of North America in 1796-1797, his journal of which was ...
-William Hellier Baily
William Hellier Baily (1819-1888), English palaeontologist, nephew of E. H. Baily the sculptor, was born at Bristol on the 7th of July 1819. From 1837 to 1844 he was Assistant Curator in the Bristol M...
-Alexander Bain
Alexander Bain (1818-1903), Scottish philosopher and educationalist, was born on the 11th of June 1818 in Aberdeen, where he received his first schooling. In early life he was a weaver, hence the punn...
-Andrew Geddes Bain
Andrew Geddes Bain (1797-1864), British geologist, was a native of Scotland. In 1820 he emigrated to Cape Colony, and carried on for some years the business of a saddler at Graaf Reinet. During the Ka...
-John Bainbridge
John Bainbridge (1582-1643), English astronomer, was born at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in Leicestershire. He started as a physician and practised for some years, kept a school and studied astronomy. Having r...
-William Bainbridge
William Bainbridge (1774-1833), commodore in the United States navy, was born on the 7th of May 1774 in Princeton, New Jersey. At the age of fourteen he went to sea in the merchant service, and was in...
-Baindir
Baindir (anc. Caystrus), a town in Asiatic Turkey in the Aidin vilayet, situated in the valley of the Kuchuk Menderes. Pop. under 10,000, nearly half Christian. It is connected with Smyrna by a branch...
-Edward Baines
Edward Baines (1774-1848), English newspaper-proprietor and politician, was born in 1774 at Walton-le-Dale, near Preston, Lancashire. He was educated at the grammar schools of Hawkshead and Preston, a...
-Giuseppe Baini
Giuseppe Baini (1775-1844), Italian priest, musical critic and composer of church music, was born at Rome on the 21st of October 1775. He was instructed in composition by his uncle, Lorenzo Baini, and...
-Bairam
Bairam, a Perso-Turkish word meaning festival, applied in Turkish to the two principal festivals of Islam. The first of these, according to the calendar, is the Lesser Festival, called by the Turk...
-Sir David Baird
Sir David Baird (1757-1829), British general, was born at Newbyth in Aberdeenshire in December 1757. He entered the British army in 1773, and was sent to India in 1779 with the 73rd (afterwards 71st) ...
-Henry Martyn Baird
Henry Martyn Baird (1832-1906), American historian and educationalist, a son of Robert Baird (1798-1863), a Presbyterian preacher and author who worked earnestly both in the United States and in Europ...
-James Baird
James Baird (1802-1876) Scottish iron-master, was born at Kirkwood, Lanarkshire, on the 5th of December 1802, the son of a coal-master. In 1826 his father, two brothers and himself leased coalfields a...
-Spencer Fullerton Baird
Spencer Fullerton Baird (1823-1887), American naturalist, was born in Reading, Pennsylvania, on the 3rd of February 1823. He graduated at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania in 1840, and next ye...
-Bairnsdale
Bairnsdale, a town of Tanjil county, Victoria, Australia, on the Mitchell river, 171 m. by rail E. of Melbourne. Pop. (1901) 3074. It lies near the head of a lagoon called Lake King, which is open to ...
-Johann Georg Baiter
Johann Georg Baiter (1801-1877), Swiss philologist and textual critic, was born at Zrich on the 31st of May 1801. Having received his early education in his native place, he went (1818) to the u...
-Michael Baius, Or De Bay
Michael Baius, Or De Bay , Michael (1513-1589), Belgian theologian, was born at Melun in Hainault in 1513. Educated at Louvain University, he studied philosophy and theology with distinguished success...
-Baize
Baize (16th century Fr. baies, cf. English bay), a material probably named from its original colour, though a derivation is also suggested from the Fr. baie, as the cloth is said to have been origin...
-Bajocian
Bajocian, in geology, the name proposed in 1849 by d'Orbigny for the rocks of Middle Jurassic age which are well developed in the neighbourhood of Bayeux, Calvados. The Bajocian stage is practically e...
-Bajour
Bajour, or Bajaur, a small district peopled by Pathan races of Afghan origin, in the North-West Frontier Province of India. It is about 45 m. long by 20. broad, and lies at a high level to the east of...
-Joseph Bajza
Joseph Bajza (1804-1858), Hungarian poet and critic, was born at Szcsi in 1804. His earliest contributions were made to Kisfaludy's Aurora, a literary paper of which he was editor from 1830 to 1...
-Bakalai
Bakalai (Bakal, Bangouens), a Bantu negroid tribe inhabiting a wide tract of French Congo between the river Ogow and 2 S. They appear to be immigrants from the south-east, and hav...
-Jan Bake
Jan Bake (1787-1864), Dutch philologist and critic, was born at Leiden on the 1st of September 1787, and from 1817 to 1854 he was professor of Greek and Roman literature at the university. He died on ...
-Sir Benjamin Baker
Sir Benjamin Baker (1840-1907), English engineer, was born near Bath in 1840, and, after receiving his early training in a South Wales ironworks, became associated with Sir John Fowler in London. He t...
-Henry Baker
Henry Baker (1698-1774), English naturalist, was born in London on the 8th of May 1698. After serving an apprenticeship with a bookseller, he devised a system of instructing the deaf and dumb, by the ...
-Sir Richard Baker
Sir Richard Baker (1568-1644/5), author of the Chronicle of the Kings of England and other works, was probably born at Sissinghurst in Kent, and entered Hart Hall, Oxford, as a commoner in 1584. He le...
-Sir Samuel White Baker
Sir Samuel White Baker (1821-1893), English explorer, was born in London on the 8th of June 1821. He was educated partly in England and partly in Germany. His father, a West India merchant, destined h...
-Thomas Baker
Thomas Baker (1656-1740), English antiquary, was born on the 14th of September 1656 at Lanchester, Durham. He was the grandson of Colonel Baker of Crook, Durham, who won fame in the civil war by his d...
-Valentine Baker
Valentine Baker [Baker Pasha] (1827-1887), British soldier, was a younger brother of Sir Samuel Baker (q.v.). He was educated at Gloucester and in Ceylon, and in 1848 entered the Ceylon Rifles as an e...
-Baker City
Baker City, a city and the county-seat of Baker county, Oregon, U.S.A., about 337 m. E. by S. of Portland. Pop. (1890) 2604; (1900) 6663 (1017 foreign-born); (1910) 6742. The city is served by the Ore...
-Robert Bakewell, English agriculturist
Robert Bakewell (1725-1795) English agriculturist, was born at Dishley, Leicestershire, in 1725. His father, a farmer at the same place, died in 1760, and Robert Bakewell then took over the management...
-Robert Bakewell, English Geologist
Robert Bakewell (1768-1843), English geologist, was born in 1768. He was an able observer, and deserving of mention as one of the earliest teachers of general and practical geology. His Introduction t...
-Bakewell
Bakewell, a market-town in the western parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England, on the river Wye, 25 m. N.N.W. of Derby, on the Midland railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2850. The church of...
-Bakhchi-Sarai
Bakhchi-Sarai (Turk. for garden-palace), a town of Russia, in the government of Taurida, situated in a narrow gorge in the Crimea, 20 m. by rail S.S.W. of Simferopol. From the close of the 15th cent...
-Bakhmut
Bakhmut, a town of Russia, in the government of Ekaterinoslav, near the river from which it derives its name, 136 m. E. of the town of Ekaterinoslav. It owed its origin in the latter half of the 17th ...
-Bakhtiari
Bakhtiri, one of the great nomad tribes of Persia, whose camping-grounds are in the hilly district, known as the Bakhtiri province. This province extends from Chaharmahal (west of Isfa...
-Baking
Baking, the action of the verb to bake, a word, in various forms, common to Teutonic languages (cf. Ger. backen), meaning to cook by dry heat. Baking is thus primarily applied to the process of pr...
-Bakis
Bakis (i.e. speaker, from ), a general name for the inspired prophets and dispensers of oracles who flourished in Greece from the 8th to the 6th century B.C. Suidas mentio...
-Tamas Bakocz
Tams Bakcz, Cardinal (1442-1521), Hungarian ecclesiastic and statesman, was the son of a wagoner, adopted by his uncle, who trained him for the priesthood and whom he succeeded as rect...
-Bakri
Bakri [Ab Ubaid Abdallah ibn Abd ul-Azz ul-Bakr], (1040-1094), Arabian geographer, was born at Cordova. His best-known work is the dictionary of ge...
-Baku
Baku, a government of Russian Transcaucasia, stretching along the west coast of the Caspian Sea from 41 50 to 38 30 N. lat., and bounded on the W. by the government of Elisavet...
-Mikhail Bakunin
Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876), Russian anarchist, was born of an aristocratic family at Torjok, in the government of Tver, in 1814. As an officer of the Imperial Guard, he saw service in Poland, but res...
-Ba-Kwiri
Ba-Kwiri, a Bantu nation of German Cameroon, West Africa. According to tradition they are migrants from the eastward. The Brushmen, for that is the meaning of their name, are grouped in about sixty ...
-Bala
Bala, a market-town and urban district of Merionethshire, N. Wales, at the north end of Bala Lake, 17 m. N.E. of Dolgelley (Dolgellau). Pop. (1901) 1554. It is little more than one wide street. Its ma...
-Balaam
Balaam ( Bilam; ; Vg. Balaam; the etymology of the name is uncertain), a prophet in the Bible. B...
-Balaam. Continued
It is often supposed that the name of the king of Edom,[4] Bela, son of Beor, is a corruption of Balaam, and that, therefore, one form of the tradition made him a king of Edom. The Poems fall into tw...
-Abu-l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jabir al-Baladhuri
Baldhur (Ab-l-Abbs Ahmad ibn Yahy ibn Jbir al-Baldhur), Arabian historian, was a Persian by birth, though his sympathies seem to have be...
-Balaghat
Balaghat (i.e. above the ghats or passes, the highlands), a district of British India in the Nagpur division of the Central Provinces. The administrative headquarters are at the town of Burha. The d...
-Victor Balaguer
Victor Balaguer (1824-1901), Spanish politician and author, was born at Barcelona on the 11th of December 1824, and was educated at the university of his native town. His precocity was remarkable; his...
-Mili Alexeivich Balakirev
Mili Alexeivich Balakirev (1836- ), Russian musical composer, was born at Nijni-Novgorod on the 31st of December 1836. He had the advantage as a boy of living with Oulibichev, author of a Life of Moza...
-Balaklava
Balaklava, a village in the Crimea, east of Sevastopol, famous for a battle in the Crimean War. The action of Balaklava (October 25th, 1854) was brought about by the advance of a Russian field army un...
-Balalaika
Balalaka, a stringed instrument said to have retained its primitive form unchanged, very popular in Russia among the peasants, more especially in Ukraine. The instrument has a triangular soundbo...
-Balance
Balance (derived through the Fr. from the Late Lat. bilantia, an apparatus for weighing, from bi, two, and lanx, a dish or scale), a term originally used for the ordinary beam balance or weighing mach...
-Balance Of Power
Balance Of Power, a phrase in international law for such a just equilibrium between the members of the family of nations as should prevent any one of them from becoming sufficiently strong to enforc...
-Balance Of Trade
Balance Of Trade, a term in economics belonging originally to the period when the mercantile theory prevailed, but still in use, though not quite perhaps in the same way as at its origin. The balan...
-Balance Of Trade. Continued
These are all cases of the movement of goods irrespective of international sales and purchases, though the movements themselves appear in the international records of imports and exports, and therefor...
-Balanoglossus
Balanoglossus, the general name given to certain peculiar, opaque, worm-like animals which live an obscure life under stones, and burrow in the sand from between tide-marks down to the abyssal regions...
-Balanoglossus. Part 2
Enteron Not only is the coelom thus subdivided, but the enteron (gut, alimentary canal, digestive tube) itself shows indications of three main subsections in continuity with one another: - (1) probos...
-Balanoglossus. Part 3
Gill-Slits The possession of gill-slits is as interesting a feature in the organization of Balanoglossus as is the presence of tracheae in Peripatus. These gill-slits occupy a variable extent of the ...
-Balanoglossus. Part 4
Reproductive System The sexes are separate, and when mature are sometimes distinguished by small differences of colour in the genital region. Both male and female gonads consist of more or less lobul...
-Balanoglossus. Part 5
Distribution Some thirty species of Balanoglossus are known, distributed among all the principal marine provinces from Greenland to New Zealand. The species which occurs in the English Channel is Pty...
-Antoine Jerome Balard
Antoine Jerme Balard (1802-1876), French chemist, was born at Montpellier on the 30th of September 1802. He started as an apothecary, but taking up teaching he acted as chemical assistant at th...
-Bala Series
Bala Series, in geology, a series of dark slates and sandstones with beds of limestone which occurs in the neighbourhood of Bala, Merionethshire, North Wales. It was first described by A. Sedgwick, wh...
-Balash
Balash (in the Greek authors, Balas; the later form of the name Vologaeses), Sassanian king in A.D. 484-488, was the brother and successor of Prz, who had died in a battle against the He...
-Balasore
Balasore, a town and district of British India, in the Orissa division of Bengal. The town is the principal one and the administrative headquarters of the district, and is situated on the right bank o...
-Balint Balassa
Blint Balassa, Baron of Kkk and Gyarmat (1551-1594), Magyar lyric poet, was born at Kkk, and educated by the reformer, Pter Bornemissza, and by his mother, ...
-Balaton
Balaton (Plattensee), the largest lake of middle Europe, in the south-west of Hungary, situated between the counties of Veszprm, Zala and Somogy. Its length is 48 m., average breadth 3...
-Balayan
Balayan, a town and port of entry of the province of Batangas, Luzon, Philippine Islands, at the head of the Gulf of Balayan, about 55 m. S. by W. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 8493. Subsequently in October ...
-Adrian Balbi
Adrian Balbi (1782-1848), Italian geographer, was born at Venice on the 25th of April 1782. The publication of his Prospetto politico-geografico dello stato attuale del globo (Venice, 1808) obtained h...
-Cesare Balbo
Cesare Balbo, Count (1789-1853), Italian writer and statesman, was born at Turin on the 21st of November 1789. His father, Prospero Balbo, who belonged to a noble Piedmontese family, held a high posit...
-Vasco Nunez De Balboa
Vasco Nuez De Balboa (c. 1475-1517), the discoverer of the Pacific, a leading figure among the Spanish explorers and conquerors of America, was born at Jerez de los Caballeros, in Estremadura,...
-Balbriggan
Balbriggan, a market-town and seaport of Co. Dublin, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division, 21 m. N.N.E. of Dublin by the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 2236. The harbour, though d...
-Balbus
Balbus, literally stammerer, the name of several Roman families. Of the Acilii Balbi, one Manius Acilius Balbus was consul in 150 B.C., another in 114. To another family belonged T. Ampius Balbus, a...
-Balcony
Balcony (Ital. balcne from balco, scaffold; cf. O. H. Ger. balcho, beam, Mod. Ger. Balken, Eng. balk), a kind of platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console...
-Jakob Balde
Jakob Balde (1604-1668), German Latinist, was born at Ensisheim in Alsace on the 4th of January 1604. Driven from Alsace by the marauding bands of Count Mansfeld, he fled to Ingolstadt where he began ...
-Balder
Balder, a Scandinavian god, the son of Odin or Othin. The story of his death is given in two widely different forms, by Saxo in his Gesta Danorum (ed. Holder, pp. 69 ff.) and in the prose Edda (Gylfag...
-Balderic
Balderic, the name given to the author of a chronicle of the bishops of Cambrai, written in the 11th century. This Gesta episcoporum Cambracensium was for some time attributed to Balderic, archbishop ...
-Bernardino Baldi
Bernardino Baldi (1533-1617), Italian mathematician and miscellaneous writer, was descended of a noble family at Urbino, in which city he was born on the 6th of June 1533. He pursued his studies at Pa...
-Ernst Gottfried Baldinger
Ernst Gottfried Baldinger (1738-1804), German physician, was born near Erfurt on the 13th of May 1738. He studied medicine at Erfurt, Halle and Jena, and in 1761 was entrusted with the superintendence...
-Filippo Baldinucci
Filippo Baldinucci (1624-1696), Italian writer on the history of the arts, was born at Florence. His chief work is entitled Notizie de' Professori del Disegno da Cimabue ... (dal 1260 sino al 1670), a...
-Baldness
Baldness [1] (technically alopecia, from , a fox, foxes often having bald patches on their coats), the result of loss of hair, particularly on the human scalp....
-Alessio Baldovinetti
Alessio Baldovinetti (1427-1499), Florentine painter, was born on the 14th of October 1427, and died on the 29th of August 1499. He was a follower of the group of scientific realists and naturalists i...
-Baldric
Baldric (from O. Fr. baudrei, O. Ger. balderich, of doubtful origin; cognate with English belt), a belt worn over one shoulder, passing diagonally across the body and under the other arm, either as ...
-Jacobus Balduinus
Jacobus Balduinus, Italian jurist of the 13th century, was by birth a Bolognese, and is reputed to have been of a noble family. He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of Hostiensis, and o...
-Petrus Baldus De Ubaldis
Petrus Baldus De Ubaldis (1327-1406), Italian jurist, a member of the noble family of the Ubaldi (Baldeschi), was born at Perugia in 1327, and studied civil law there under Bartolus, being admitted to...
-Baldwin I, Emperor of Romania
Baldwin I. (d. 1205), emperor of Romania, count of Flanders and Hainaut, was one of the most prominent leaders of the fourth crusade, which resulted in the capture of Constantinople, the conquest of t...
-Baldwin II, Emperor of Romania
Baldwin II. (1217-1273), emperor of Romania, was a younger son of Yolande, sister of Baldwin I. Her husband, Peter of Courtenay, was third emperor of Romania, and had been followed by his son Robert, ...
-Baldwin I, Prince of Edessa
Baldwin I., prince of Edessa (1098-1100), and first king of Jerusalem (1100-1118), was the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon (q.v.). He was originally a clerk in orders, and held several prebends; but in...
-Baldwin II, Count of Edessa
Baldwin II., count of Edessa (1100-1118), king of Jerusalem (1118-1131), originally known as Baldwin de Burg, was a son of Count Hugh of Rethel, and a nephew of Godfrey of Bouillon and Baldwin I. He a...
-Baldwin III, King of Jerusalem
Baldwin III., king of Jerusalem (1143-1162), was the eldest son of Fulk of Jerusalem by his wife Melisinda. He was born in 1130, and became king in 1143, under the regency of his mother, which lasted ...
-Baldwin IV
Baldwin IV., the son of Amalric I. by his first wife Agnes, ruled in Jerusalem from 1174 to 1183, when he had his nephew Baldwin crowned in his stead. Educated by William of Tyre, Baldwin IV. came to ...
-Baldwin V
Baldwin V., the son of Sibylla (daughter of Amalric I.) by her first husband, William of Montferrat, was the nominal king of Jerusalem from 1183 to 1186, under the regency of Raymund of Tripoli. His r...
-James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin (1861- ), American philosopher, was born at Columbia, S.C., and educated at Princeton and several German universities. He was professor of philosophy in the university of Toronto (1...
-Robert Baldwin
Robert Baldwin (1804-1858), Canadian statesman, was born at York (now Toronto) on the 12th of May 1804. His father, William Warren Baldwin (d. 1844), went to Canada from Ireland in 1798; though a man ...
-John Bale
John Bale (1495-1563), bishop of Ossory, English author, was born at Cove, near Dunwich in Suffolk, on the 21st of November 1495. At the age of twelve he entered the Carmelite monastery at Norwich, re...
-Bale
Bale. (1) (A word common to Teutonic languages, in O. Eng. balu, cf. Icelandic bl), evil, suffering, a word obsolete except in poetry, and more common in the adjectival form baleful. In early ...
-Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands (Baleres), an archipelago of four large and eleven small islands in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain, of which country it forms a province. Pop. (1900) 311,6...
-Balearic Islands. Part 2
Inhabitants The islanders are a Spanish race, very closely akin to the Catalans; but the long period of Moorish rule has left its mark on their physical type and customs. In character they are indust...
-Peter Bales, Balesius
Peter Bales [Balesius], (1547-1610?), English calligraphist, one of the inventors of shorthand writing, was born in London in 1547, and is described by Anthony Wood as a most dexterous person in his ...
-Michael William Balfe
Michael William Balfe (1808-1870), Irish musical composer, was born on the 15th of May 1808, at Dublin. His musical gifts became apparent at an early age. The only instruction he received was from his...
-Arthur James Balfour
Arthur James Balfour (1848- ), British statesman, eldest son of James Maitland Balfour of Whittingehame, Haddingtonshire, and of Lady Blanche Gascoyne Cecil, a sister of the third marquess of Salisbur...
-Arthur James Balfour. Part 2
In 1888 Mr Balfour served on the Gold and Silver Commission, currency problems from the standpoint of bimetallism being among the more academic subjects which had engaged his attention. On the death o...
-Arthur James Balfour. Part 3
The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary programme were the extension of the new Education Act to London and Mr Wyndham's Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer should adv...
-Arthur James Balfour. Part 4
During the remainder of 1903 the struggle within the Unionist party continued. Mr Chamberlain spoke all over the country, advocating a definite scheme for reorganizing the budget, so as to have more t...
-Arthur James Balfour. Part 5
The events of the session of 1905 soon foreshadowed the end. The opposition were determined to raise debates in the House of Commons on the fiscal question, and Mr Balfour was no less determined not t...
-Francis Maitland Balfour
Francis Maitland Balfour (1851-1882), British biologist, younger brother of Arthur James Balfour, was born at Edinburgh on the 10th of November 1851. At Harrow school he showed but little interest in ...
-Sir James Balfour of Denmylne and Kinnaird
Sir James Balfour, Bart. (of Denmylne and Kinnaird) (c. 1600-1657), Scottish annalist and antiquary. He was well acquainted with Sir William Segar and with Dugdale, to whose Monasticon he contributed....
-Sir James Balfour of Pittendreich
Sir James Balfour (of Pittendreich) (d. 1583 or 1584), Scottish judge and politician, son of Sir Michael Balfour of Montquhanny, was educated for the legal branch of the church of Scotland. In June 15...
-Robert Balfour
Robert Balfour (known also as Balforeus) (1550?-1625?), Scottish philosopher, was educated at St Andrews and the university of Paris. He was for many years principal of the Guienne College at Bordeaux...
-John Balguy
John Balguy (1686-1748), English divine and philosopher, was born at Sheffield on the 12th of August 1686. He was educated at the Sheffield grammar school and at St John's College, Cambridge, graduate...
-Bali
Bali, an island of the East Indies, E. of Java, from which it is separated by Bali Strait, which is shallow, and scarcely over a mile in width at its narrowest point. Bali is 93 m. in length, and its ...
-Balikisri
Balikisri (Balukiser), a town of Asia Minor, capital of the Karasi sanjak in the vilayet of Brusa, altitude 575 ft., situated on rising ground above a fertile plain which drains to the Sea of Marmora....
-Baliol
Baliol, the name of a family which played an important part in the history of Scotland. The founder of the family in England was a Norman baron, Guy or Guido de Baliol, who held the fiefs of Bailleul,...
-John De Baliol
John De Baliol (1249-1315), king of Scotland, was a son of John de Baliol (d. 1269) of Barnard Castle, Durham, by his wife Dervorguila, daughter of Alan, earl of Galloway, and became head of the Balio...
-Baliuag
Baliuag, a town of the province of Bulacn, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the Quingua river, 29 m. (by rail) N.N.W. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 21,008, including the population (7072) of Bustos, whi...
-Balkan Peninsula
Balkan Peninsula, the most easterly of the three large peninsulas which form the southern extremities of the European continent. Its area, 184,779 sq. m., is about 35,000 sq. m. less than that of the ...
-Balkan Peninsula. Part 2
Geology Broadly speaking, the Balkan Peninsula may be divided into four areas which geologically are distinct. There is a central region, roughly triangular in shape, with its base resting upon the A...
-Balkan Peninsula. Part 3
Races The Peninsula is inhabited by a great variety of races, whose ethnological limits are far from corresponding with the existing political boundaries. The Turkish population, descended in part fr...
-Balkan Peninsula. Part 4
Religions Owing to the numerous conversions to Islam which followed the Turkish conquest, the Mahommedan population of the Peninsula is largely in excess of the purely Turkish element. More than half...
-Balkan Peninsula. Part 5
History The great Slavonic immigration, which changed the ethnographic face of the Peninsula, began in the 3rd century A.D. and continued at intervals throughout the following four centuries. At the ...
-Balkan Peninsula. Part 6
The Ionian Islands were ceded by Great Britain to Greece in 1864. The great break-up came in 1878. The abortive treaty of San Stefano, concluded in that year, reduced the Turkish possessions in the Pe...
-Balkash, Or Balkhash
Balkash, Or Balkhash (called by the Kirghiz Ak-denghiz or Ala-denghiz and by the Chinese Si-hai), a lake of Asiatic Russia, in the Kirghiz steppes, between the governments of Semipalatinsk and Semirye...
-Balkh
Balkh, a city of Afghanistan, about 100 m. E. of Andkhui and some 46 m. S. of the Oxus. The city, which is identical with the ancient Bactra or Zainaspa, is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situ...
-Sir Alexander John Ball
Sir Alexander John Ball, Bart. (1759-1809), British rear-admiral and governor of Malta, came of a Gloucestershire family. He entered the navy, and in 1778 was promoted lieutenant. Three years later be...
-John Ball, An English Priest
John Ball (d. 1381), an English priest who took a prominent part in the peasant revolt in 1381. Little is known of his early years, but he lived probably at York and afterwards at Colchester. He gaine...
-John Ball, English Puritan Divine
John Ball (1585-1640), English puritan divine, was born at Cassington, Oxfordshire, in October 1585. After taking his B.A. degree from St Mary's Hall, Oxford, in 1608, he went into Cheshire to act as ...
-John Ball, Irish Politician, Naturalist And Alpine Traveller
John Ball (1818-1889), Irish politician, naturalist and Alpine traveller, eldest son of an Irish judge, Nicholas Ball, was born at Dublin on the 20th of August 1818. He was educated at the Roman Catho...
-Thomas Ball
Thomas Ball (1819- ), American sculptor, was born at Charlestown, Massachusetts, on the 3rd of June 1819. He was the son of a house-and-sign-painter, and after starting, self-taught, as a portrait pai...
-Ball
Ball (in Mid. Eng. bal; the word is probably cognate with bale, Teutonic in origin, cf. also Lat. follis, and Gr. ), any rounded body, particularly one with a smoo...
-Ballade
Ballade, the technical name of a complicated and fixed form of verse, arranged on a precise system, and having nothing in common with the word ballad, except its derivation from the same Low Latin ver...
-Ballads
Ballads. The word ballad is derived from the O. Fr. baller, to dance, and originally meant a song sung to the rhythmic movement of a dancing chorus. Later, the word, in the form of ballade (q.v.), b...
-Ballads. Part 2
After bringing forward examples of the identity of features in European ballad poetry, we shall proceed to show that the earlier genre of ballads with refrain sprang from the same primitive custom of ...
-Ballads. Part 3
'Twas cold at night and the bairnies grat, The mother below the mouls heard that. She reappears in her old home, and henceforth, when dogs howl in the night, the step-mother trembles, and is kind...
-Ballads. Part 4
It would be an error to suppose that most romantic folk-songs are vulgarizations of literary romance - a view to which Mr Courthope, in his History of English Poetry, and Mr Henderson in The Border Mi...
-John Ballance
John Ballance (1839-1893), New Zealand statesman, eldest son of Samuel Ballance, farmer, of Glenavy, Antrim, Ulster, was born on the 27th of March 1839. He was educated at a national school, and, on l...
-Pierre Simon Ballanche
Pierre Simon Ballanche (1776-1847), French philosopher of the theocratic school, was born at Lyons. Naturally delicate and highly-strung, he was profoundly stirred by the horrors of the siege of Lyons...
-William Ballantine
William Ballantine (1812-1887), English serjeant-at-law, was born in London on the 3rd of January 1812, being the son of a London police-magistrate. He was educated at St Paul's school, and called to ...
-Robert Michael Ballantyne
Robert Michael Ballantyne (1825-1894), Scottish writer of fiction, was born at Edinburgh on the 24th of April 1825, and came of the same family as the famous printers and publishers. When sixteen year...
-Ballarat, Ballaarat and Ballarat East
Ballarat [Ballaarat] and Ballarat East, a city and a town of Grenville county, Victoria, Australia, 74 m. by rail W.N.W. of Melbourne. The city and Ballarat East, separated only by the Yarrowee Creek,...
-Ballast
Ballast (O. Swed. barlast, perhaps from bar, bare or mere, and last, load), heavy material, such as gravel, stone or metal, placed in the hold of a ship in order to immerse her sufficiently to give ad...
-Ballater
Ballater (Gaelic for the town on a sloping hill), a village in the parish of Glenmuick, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, 670 ft. above the sea, on the left bank of the Dee, here crossed by a fine bridge, 43...
-Ballenstedt
Ballenstedt, a town of Germany, in the duchy of Anhalt, on the river Getel, 20 m. E. of Quedlinburg by rail. Pop. (1900) 5423. It is pleasantly situated under the north-eastern declivity of the Harz m...
-Ballet
Ballet, a performance in which dancing, music and pantomime are involved. Originally derived from the (Sicilian) Gr. , to dance, the word ...
-Ballet. Continued
Literature One of the most complete books on the ballet is by the Jesuit, Claude Franois Menestrier, Des ballets anciens et modernes, 12mo (1682). He was the inventor of a ballet for Louis XI...
-Ball-Flower
Ball-Flower, an architectural ornament in the form of a ball inserted in the cup of a flower, which came into use in the latter part of the 13th, and was in great vogue in the early part of the 14th c...
-Ballia
Ballia, a town and district of British India, in the Benares division of the United Provinces. The town is situated on the left bank of the Ganges, below the confluence of the lesser Sarju. It is real...
-Ballina
Ballina, a seaport and market-town of county Mayo, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division, on the left bank of the river Moy, with a station on the Killala branch of the Midland Great Western ra...
-Ballinasloe
Ballinasloe, a market town of county Galway, Ireland, in the east parliamentary division, 91 m. W. of Dublin, on the Midland Great Western main line. Pop. of urban district (1901) 4904. The river Suck...
-Ballistics
Ballistics (from the Gr. , to throw), the science of throwing warlike missiles or projectiles. It is now divided into two parts: - Exterior Ballistics,...
-Ballistics. Part 2
Starting with the experimental values of p, for a standard projectile, fired under standard conditions in air of standard density, we proceed to the construction of the ballistic table. We first deter...
-Ballistics. Part 3
The following exercises will show the application of the ballistic table. A slide rule should be used for the arithmetical operations, as it works to the accuracy obtainable in practice. Example 1 D...
-Ballistics. Part 4
A discrepancy between a calculated and tabulated result will serve to show the influence of a slight change in the coefficient of reduction n, and the muzzle velocity V. Example 3 Determine by calcu...
-Ballistics. Part 5. High Angle And Curved Fire
High angle fire, as defined officially, is fire at elevations greater than 15, and curved fire is fire from howitzers at all angles of elevation not exceeding 15. In these cases the cu...
-Ballistics. Part 6
A convenient rule has been given by Captain James M. Ingalls, U.S.A., for approximating to a high angle trajectory in a single arc, which assumes that the mean density of the air may be taken as the d...
-Ballistics. Part 7. Drift
An elongated shot fired from a rifled gun does not move in a vertical plane, but as if the mean plane of the trajectory was inclined to the true vertical at a small angle, 2 or 3; so that th...
-Ballistics. Part 8
In Sir Andrew Noble's researches a number of plugs were inserted in the side of the experimental gun, reaching to the bore and carrying crusher-gauges, and also chronographic appliances which register...
-Ballistics. Part 9
But the shot advances during the combustion of the cordite, and the chief problem in interior ballistics is to adjust the G.D. of the charge to the weight of the shot so that the advance of the shot d...
-Balloon
Balloon, a globular bag of varnished silk or other material impermeable to air, which, when inflated with gas lighter than common air, can be used in aeronautics, or, according to its size, etc., for ...
-Ballot
Ballot (from Ital. ballotta, dim. of balla, a ball), the modern method of secret-voting employed in political, legislative and judicial assemblies, and also in the proceedings of private clubs and cor...
-Ballot. Continued
It was found at Manchester that the voting was considerably more rapid, and therefore less expensive, than under the old system; that only 80 cards out of 11,475 were rejected as informal; and that, t...
-Ballot. Part 2
Continental Europe The ballot is largely employed in European countries. In France, where from 1840 to 1845 the ballot, or scrutin, had been used for deliberative voting in the chamber of deputies, i...
-Ballot. Part 3
America At the first elections in America voting was viva voce; but several of the colonies early provided for the use of written or printed ballots. By 1775 ballots were used in the New England stat...
-Hosea Ballou
Hosea Ballou (1771-1852), American Universalist clergyman, was born in Richmond, New Hampshire, on the 30th of April 1771. He was a son of Maturin Ballou, a Baptist minister, was self-educated, early ...
-Ballston Spa
Ballston Spa, a village and the county-seat of Saratoga county, New York, U.S.A., about 7 m. S. of Saratoga Springs. Pop. (1890) 3527; (1900) 3923; (1910 U.S. Census) 4138. It is served by the Delawar...
-Ballycastle
Ballycastle, a seaport and watering-place on the north coast of Co. Antrim, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division, situated on a bay of the same name opposite Rathlin Island. Pop. (1901) 1481. ...
-Ballymena
Ballymena, a town of Co. Antrim, Ireland, in the mid parliamentary division, on the Braid, an affluent of the Maine, 2 m. above their junction. Pop. of urban district (1901) 10,886. It is 33 m. N.N.W....
-Ballymoney
Ballymoney, a market town of Co. Antrim, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division, 53 m. N.N.W. from Belfast by the Northern Counties (Midland) railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 2952. The Bal...
-Ballymote
Ballymote, a market town of Co. Sligo, Ireland, in the south parliamentary division, 14 m. S. of Sligo by the Midland Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 997. It is a centre for some agricultural trade...
-Ballyshannon
Ballyshannon, a seaport and market-town of Co. Donegal, Ireland, in the south parliamentary division, at the mouth of the Erne; on the Bundoran branch of the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 2359. ...
-Balm
Balm, a fragrant herb, Melissa officinalis, of the Deadnettle order (Labiatae) with opposite, ovate, crenulated leaves, which are wrinkled above, and small white or rose-spotted flowers. It is a nativ...
-Jose Manuel Balmaceda
Jos Manuel Balmaceda (1838-1891), president of the republic of Chile, was born in Santiago in 1838. His parents were wealthy, and in his early days he was chiefly concerned in industrial and a...
-Balmain
Balmain, a town of Cumberland county, N.S.W., Australia, on the western shore of Darling Harbour, Port Jackson, 2 m. by water from Sydney and suburban to it. Pop. (1901) 30,881. It is the home of grea...
-James Elphinstone Balmerino
James Elphinstone Balmerino, 1st Baron (c. 1553-1612), Scottish politician, was the third son of Robert, 3rd Lord Elphinstone (d. 1602). Rising to power under James VI. he became a judge and a royal s...
-Jaime Luciano Balmes
Jaime Luciano Balms (1810-1848), Spanish ecclesiastic, eminent as a political writer and a philosopher, was born at Vich in Catalonia, on the 28th of August 1810, and died there on the 9th of ...
-Balmoral Castle
Balmoral Castle (Gaelic, the majestic dwelling), a private residence of the British sovereign, in the parish of Crathie and Braemar, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, on the right bank of the Dee (here spann...
-Henry Balnaves
Henry Balnaves (1512?-1579), Scottish politician and reformer, born at Kirkcaldy about 1512, was educated at St Andrews and on the continent, where he adopted Protestant views. Returning to Scotland, ...
-Balneotherapeutics
Balneotherapeutics (Lat. balneum, a bath, and Gr. , to treat medically). The medical treatment of disease by internal and external u...
-Balquhidder
Balquhidder (Gaelic, the farm in the back-lying country), a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland. Pop. of parish (1901) 605. The village lies 2 m. W. of the station of the same name on the Cal...
-Balrampur
Balrampur, a town of British India near the river Rapti, 28 m. from Gonda, in the Gonda district of the United Provinces. Pop. (1901) 16,723. It gives its name to one of the largest talukdari estates ...
-Balsam
Balsam (from Gr. , through Lat. balsamum, contracted by popular use to O. Fr. basme, mod. Fr. bme; Eng. balm), a term properly limited to su...
-Hugh De Balsham
Hugh De Balsham (d. 1286), English churchman, appears first as sub-prior of the monastery of Ely. On the death of William of Kilkenny in 1256 the monks elected him bishop of Ely, to the annoyance of H...
-Balta
Balta, a town in the Russian government of Podolia, between the Dniester and the Bug, 131 m. by rail N.N.W. of Odessa. It carries on a large trade in cattle, horses and grain, and has two annual fairs...
-Louis Pierre Baltard
Louis Pierre Baltard (1764-1846), French architect and engraver, was born in Paris on the 9th of July 1764. He was originally a landscape painter, but in his travels through Italy was so much struck w...
-Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea (Scand. and Ger. Ostsee; Russ. Baltiyskoe More), a sea extending between 54 and 66 N. lat., and 9 and 30 E. long., surrounded by the territories of Sweden, Russia, Germa...
-Baltic Sea. Continued
The drainage area of the Baltic is relatively large. According to the measurements of Sir J. Murray it extends to 461,450 sq. sea m. ( = 611,700 sq. English m.) The largest river-basin included in it ...
-George Calvert Baltimore
George Calvert Baltimore, 1st Baron (c. 1580-1632), English statesman, son of Leonard Calvert, and Alice, daughter of John Crosland of Crosland, was born at Kipling in Yorkshire and educated at Trinit...
-Baltimore
Baltimore, a city and seaport, and the metropolis of Maryland, U.S.A., the 7th city in population in the United States. It is at the head of tide-water on the Patapsco river and its middle and north-w...
-Baltimore. Part 2
Education Baltimore ranks high as an educational centre. Johns Hopkins University (q.v.) is a leading institution of the United States for graduate study. The Peabody Institute, founded in 1859 by Ge...
-Baltimore. Part 3
Commerce The harbour, which consists of three parts, is excellent. Its entrance at Fort McHenry is a channel 600 ft. wide, with a minimum draft (1907) of 31 ft. of water. The depth is continued with ...
-Baltimore. Part 4
Government Although the charter under which Baltimore is governed came into effect as late as 1898, it is only the second one for the city, the first one having been in force for 101 years. The mayor...
-Thomas Baltzar
Thomas Baltzar (c. 1630-1663), German violinist, was born at Lbeck. He visited England in 1656 and made a great impression on Evelyn and Anthony Wood. In 1661 he was appointed leader of the king...
-Ba-Luba
Ba-Luba, a Bantu negroid race with several subdivisions; one of the most important and cultivated peoples of Central Africa. They are distributed over eight degrees of longitude between Lakes Tanganyi...
-Baluchistan
Baluchistan, a country within the borders of British India which, like Afghanistan, derives its name from its dominant race of inhabitants. It extends from the Gomal river to the Arabian Sea, and from...
-Baluchistan. Part 2
It is true that the Indian government interferes as little with the internal jurisdiction of the tribal chiefs amongst the Pathans of the Suliman Range as it does with that of the northern chiefs; but...
-Baluchistan. Part 3
The strike of the main ridges forming that system is almost due north and south till it touches 30 N. lat. Here it assumes a westerly curve, till it points north-west, and finally merges into the...
-Baluchistan. Part 4
Thus southern Baluchistan comprises four hydrographical sections. First is the long extension from Kalat, southwards, of that inconceivably wild highland country which faces the desert of Sind, the fo...
-Baluchistan. Part 5. Races
Within the Baluchistan half of the desert are to be found scattered tribes of nomads, called Rekis (or desert people), the Mohamadani being the most numerous. They are probably of Arab origin. This ce...
-Baluchistan. Part 6
It would be difficult to match the stately dignity and imposing presence of a Baluch chief of the Marri or Bugti clans. His Semitic features are those of the Bedouin and he carries himself as straight...
-Baluchistan. Part 7. History
Of the early history of this portion of the Asiatic continent little or nothing is known. The poverty and natural strength of the country, combined with the ferocious habits of the natives, seem to ha...
-Baluchistan. Part 8
In 1839, when the British army advanced through the Bolan Pass towards Afghanistan, the conduct of Mehrab Khan, the ruler of Baluchistan, was considered so treacherous and dangerous as to require the...
-Baluchistan, Persia
Baluchistan, a province of Persia consisting of the western part of Baluchistan (q.v.) in a wider sense. Persian Baluchistan has an area of about 60,000 sq. m., and lying along the northern shore of t...
-Jean Balue
Jean Balue (c. 1421-1491), French cardinal and minister of Louis XI., was born of very humble parentage at Angle in Poitou, and was first patronized by the bishop of Poitiers. In 1461 he became vicar-...
-Baluster
Baluster (through the Fr. from the Ital. balaustro, so-called from a supposed likeness to the flower of the , or wild pomegranate; th...
-Balustrade
Balustrade, a parapet or low screen consisting of a coping or rail supported on balusters (q.v.). Sometimes it is employed purely as a decorative feature beneath the sill of a window which was not car...
-Etienne Baluze
tienne Baluze (1630-1718), French scholar, was born at Tulle on the 24th of November 1630. He was educated at his native town and took minor orders. As secretary to Pierre de Marca, archbishop...
-Honore De Balzac
Honor De Balzac (1799-1850), French novelist, was born at Tours on the 20th of May 1799. His father, Bernard Franois, never called himself de Balzac and Honor only assumed the ...
-Honore De Balzac. Part 2
There seems to have been no reason why it should not have succeeded, and there has been claimed for it first, that it provided Balzac with a great amount of actual detail which he utilized directly in...
-Honore De Balzac. Part 3
But on the whole he did devote himself to his true vocation, with a furious energy beside which even Scott's, except in his sadder and later days, becomes leisurely. Balzac generally wrote (dining ear...
-Honore De Balzac. Part 4
In 1843 came the introduction of the completed Sur Cathrine de Mdicis, Honorine and La Muse du dpartement (almost as often reconstructed as La Femme de trente ans), with Commen...
-Honore De Balzac. Continued. Bibliography
The extraordinarily complicated bibliography of Balzac will be found all but complete in the Histoire des oeuvres (1875 and later), attached by M. Spoelberch de Lovenjoul to the dition d&eacut...
-Jean Louis Guez De Balzac
Jean Louis Guez De Balzac (1594-1654), French author, was born at Angoulme in 1594. At the age of eighteen he travelled in Holland with Thophile de Viaud, with whom he later exchanged b...
-Bam
Bam, a town of Persia in the province of Kerman, situated 115 m. S.E. of the city of Kerman at an elevation of 3600 ft. on both banks of the river Bam. Pop. about 13,000. It is the capital of the Bam-...
-Bamberg
Bamberg, a town and archiepiscopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria. Pop. (1885) 31,521; (1905) 45,308. It lies on an open plain on the river Regnitz, 2 m. above its junction with the Main, a...
-Ludwig Bamberger
Ludwig Bamberger (1823-1899), German economist and politician, was born of Jewish parents on the 22nd of July 1823 at Mainz. After studying at Giessen, Heidelberg and Gttingen, he entered on the...
-IL Bambino
IL Bambino (Ital. for the Babe), the name given in art to the image of the infant Jesus in swaddling clothes common in Roman Catholic churches. The most famous is the miracle-working Santissimo Bamb...
-Bamboo
Bamboo, the popular name for a tribe of grasses, Bambuseae, which are large, often tree-like, with woody stems. The stems spring from an underground root-stock and are often crowded to form dense clum...
-Bamburgh
Bamburgh, or Bamborough, a village in the Berwick-upon-Tweed parliamentary division of Northumberland, England, on the sea-coast, 2 m. E. of Belford station on the North Eastern railway, and 5...
-Bambute
Bambute (sometimes incorrectly called Batwa), a race of pygmies of the Semliki Forest, on the western borders of the Uganda Protectorate between Albert Nyanza and Albert Edward Nyanza. They probably f...
-Samuel Bamford
Samuel Bamford (1788-1872), English labour politician, was born at Miston, near Middleton, Lancashire, on the 28th of February 1788. Himself a stalwart weaver, he was opposed to physical force movemen...
-Bamian
Bamian, a once renowned city of Afghanistan, situated about 80 m. N.W. of Kabul. Its remains lie in a valley of the Hazara country, on the chief road from Kabul towards Turkestan, and immediately at t...
-John Bampton
John Bampton (c. 1690-1751), English divine, was a member of Trinity College, Oxford, where he graduated M.A. in 1712, and for some time canon of Salisbury. He died on the 2nd of June 1751, aged 61. H...
-Bampur
Bampr, a town of Persia, in the province of Baluchistan, 330 m. S.E. of Kerman, in 27 12 N., 60 24 E., at an elevation of 1720 ft. Pop. about 2000. It is the capital of ...
-Bamra
Bamra, a feudatory state of India, in the province of Bengal. Area 1988 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 123,378; estimated revenue 5000; tribute 100. Most of the country is forest, producing only ti...
-Ban
Ban, a word taken from the root of a verb common to many Teutonic languages and meaning originally to proclaim or to announce. The Late Lat. form of the word is bannum. In the laws of the Franks ...
-Banana
Banana, a gigantic herbaceous plant belonging to the genus Musa (nat. ord. Musaceae). It is perennial, sending up from an underground root-stock an apparent stem 15 or 20 ft. high, consisting of the c...
-Banas
Banas, or Bunas, the name of three rivers of India. (1) A river of Rajputana, which rises in the Aravalli range in Udaipur, drains the Udaipur valley, and after a course of 300 m. flows into the Chamb...
-Banat
Banat (Hungarian Bnsg), a district in the south-east of Hungary, consisting of the counties of Torontl, Temes and Krasso-Szrny. The term, in Hungarian, means gene...
-Banate
Banate (a corruption of Panaiti, their real name), or Bannock, as they are now usually called, a tribe of North American Indians of Shoshonean stock. They were sometimes known as Robber Indians. The...
-Banbridge
Banbridge, a town of Co. Down, Ireland, in the west parliamentary division, on the Bann, 23 m. S.W. of Belfast on a branch of the Great Northern railway, standing on an eminence. Pop. of urban distric...
-Banbury
Banbury, a market-town and municipal borough in the Banbury parliamentary division of Oxfordshire, England, on the river Cherwell and the Oxford canal, 86 m. N.W. of London by the northern line of the...
-Adriano Banchieri
Adriano Banchieri (c. 1557-1634), Bolognese composer for church and stage, organist, writer on music and poet. He founded the Accademia Florida of Bologna. Like Orazio Vecchi he was interested in conv...
-George Bancroft
George Bancroft (1800-1891), American historian and statesman, was born in Worcester, Mass., on the 3rd of October 1800. His family had been in America since 1632, and his father, Aaron Bancroft, was ...
-Hubert Howe Bancroft
Hubert Howe Bancroft (1832- ), American historical writer, was born at Granville, Ohio, on the 5th of May 1832. From 1852 to 1868 he was a bookseller in San Francisco. During this period he accumulate...
-Richard Bancroft
Richard Bancroft (1544-1610), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Farnworth in Lancashire in 1544. He was educated at Cambridge, first at Christ's College and afterwards at Jesus College. He took hi...
-Sir Squire Bancroft
Sir Squire Bancroft (1841- ), English actor and manager, was born near London on the 14th of May 1841. His first appearance on the stage was in 1861 at Birmingham, and he played in the provinces with ...
-Band
Band, something which binds or fastens one thing to another, hence a cord, rope or tie, e.g. the straps fastening the sheets to the back in book-binding. The word is a variant of bond, and is from...
-Banda
Banda, a town and district of British India, in the Allahabad division of the United Provinces. The town is near the right bank of the river Ken, 95 m. S.W. of Allahabad. The population in 1901 was 22...
-Banda Islands
Banda Islands, a group of the Dutch East Indies, consisting of three chief and several lesser islands in the Banda Sea, south of Ceram, belonging to the residency of Amboyna. The main islands are Grea...
-Bandana
Bandana, or Bandanna, a word probably derived through the Portuguese from the Hindustani bndhn, which signified a primitive method of obtaining an effect in dyeing by tying up cloth in d...
-Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier
Adolph Francis Alphonse Bandelier (1840- ), American archaeologist, was born in Bern, Switzerland, on the 6th of August 1840. When a youth he emigrated to the United States. After 1880 he devoted hims...
-Matteo Bandello
Matteo Bandello (1480-1562), Italian novelist, was born at Castelnuovo, near Tortona, about the year 1480. He received a very careful education, and entered the church, though he does not seem to have...
-Bander Abbasi
Bander Abbsi (also Bender Abbas, and other forms), a town of Persia, on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf in 27 11 N., and 56 17 E., forming part of the administrat...
-Bander Lingah
Bander Lingah, or Linga, a town of Persia on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and about 300 m. by sea from Bushire, in 26 33 N., 54 54 E. Pop. about 10,000. It forms part...
-Banderole
Banderole (Fr. for a little banner), a small flag or streamer carried on the lance of a knight, or flying from the mast-head of a ship in battle, etc.; in heraldry, a streamer hanging from beneath t...
-Bandicoot
Bandicoot, any animal of the marsupial genus Perameles, which is the type of a family Peramelidae. The species, about a dozen in number, are widely distributed over Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and...
-Bandicoot-Rat
Bandicoot-Rat, the Anglo-Indian name for a large rat (Nesocia bandicota), inhabiting India and Ceylon, which measures from 12 to 15 in. to the root of the tail, while the tail itself measures from 11 ...
-Emilio and Attilio Bandiera
Attilio Bandiera (1811-1844) and Emilio (1819-1844), Italian patriots. The brothers Bandiera, sons of Baron Bandiera, an admiral in the Austrian navy, were themselves members of that service, but at a...
-Bartolommeo Or Baccio Bandinelli
Bartolommeo Or Baccio Bandinelli (1493-1560), Florentine sculptor, was the son of an eminent goldsmith, and from him Bandinelli obtained the first elements of drawing. Showing a strong inclination for...
-Angelo Maria Bandini
Angelo Maria Bandini (1726-1800), Italian author, was born at Florence on the 25th of September 1726. Having been left an orphan in his infancy, he was supported by his uncle, Giuseppe Bandini, a lawy...
-Bandolier, Or Bandoleer
Bandolier, Or Bandoleer (from Fr. bandoulire, Ital. bandoliera, a little band), a belt worn over the shoulder, particularly by soldiers to carry cartridges. In the 17th century wooden cases we...
-Bandon
Bandon, or Bandonbridge, a market-town of county Cork, Ireland, in the south-east parliamentary division, picturesquely situated in a broad open valley on both sides of the river Bandon. Pop. (1901) 2...
-Baneberry, Or Herb
Baneberry, Or Herb Christopher, popular names for Actaea spicata (nat. ord. Ranunculaceae), a poisonous herb with long-stalked compound leaves, small white flowers and black berries, found wild in cop...
-Johan Baner, Banner, Banier
Johan Banr (Banner, Banier), (1596-1641), Swedish soldier in the Thirty Years' War, was born at Djursholm Castle on the 23rd of June 1596. Entering the Swedish army, he served with distinction...
-Banff
Banff, a royal, municipal and police burgh, seaport and capital of Banffshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 7161. It is beautifully situated on high ground, on the left bank of the mouth of the Deveron, 50 m...
-Banffshire
Banffshire, a north-eastern county of Scotland, bounded N. by the Moray Firth, E. and S. by Aberdeenshire, and W. by Elgin and Inverness. It has an area of 403,364 acres, or 633 sq. m. The sur...
-Banffshire. Part 2
Agriculture The soil is in general rich and productive, yielding fair crops of wheat, and excellent crops of barley, oats, etc.; and the grass and green crops are equally abundant. Oats is the predom...
-Banffshire. Part 3
History Of the northern Picts who originally possessed the land few remains now exist beyond the cairns that are found in the districts of Rothiemay, Ballindalloch, Boharm, Glen Livet and elsewhere. ...
-Dezso Banffy
Dezs Bnffy [Desiderius], Baron (1843- ), Hungarian statesman, the son of Baron Daniel Bnffy and Anna Gyrfs, was born at Klausenburg on the 28th of October 1843, a...
-Hermann Joachim Bang
Hermann Joachim Bang (1858- ), Danish author, was born of a noble family in the island of Zealand. When he was twenty he published two volumes of critical essays on the realistic movement. In 1880 he ...
-Bangalore
Bangalore, a city of India, the capital of the native state of Mysore, and the largest British cantonment in the south of India. It is 3113 ft. above the sea, and 219 m. W. of Madras by rail. Pop. (19...
-Banganapalle
Banganapalle, a state of southern India, surrounded by the Madras district of Kurnool. Area, 255 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 32,264, showing a decrease of 9% in the decade; estimated revenue 6400, of w...
-Bangash
Bangash, a small tribe of Pathans in the Kohat district of the North-West Frontier Province of India. They occupy the hills between Thal and Kohat, and number 3000 fighting men. Formerly they owned th...
-Bangkok
Bangkok, the capital of Siam, on the river Me Nam, about 20 m. from its mouth, in 100 30 E., 13 45 N. Until modern times the city was built largely on floating pontoons or on p...
-Bangor, Ireland
Bangor, a seaport and market-town of Co. Down, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division, on the south side of Belfast Lough, 12m. E.N.E. of Belfast, on a branch of the Belfast & County Down railwa...
-Bangor, Penobscot county, Maine, U.S.A
Bangor, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Penobscot county, Maine, U.S.A., at the confluence of the Kenduskeag stream with the Penobscot river, and at the head of navigation on the Penobsc...
-Bangor
Bangor (formerly Bangor Fawr, as distinguished from several other towns of this name in Wales, Ireland, Brittany, etc.), a city, municipal (1883) and contributory parliamentary borough (Carnarvon dist...
-Bangorian Controversy
Bangorian Controversy, a theological dispute in the early 18th century which originated in 1716 with the posthumous publication of George Hickes's (bishop of Thetford) Constitution of the Christian Ch...
-Bangweulu
Bangweulu, a shallow lake of British Central Africa, formed by the head streams of the Congo. It lies between 10 38 and 11 31 S. and is cut by 30 E. Bangweulu occupies the...
-John Banim
John Banim (1798-1842), Irish novelist, sometimes called the Scott of Ireland, was born at Kilkenny on the 3rd of April 1798. In his thirteenth year he entered Kilkenny College and devoted himself s...
-Banjaluka
Banjaluka (sometimes written Banialuka, or Bainaluka), the capital of a district bearing the same name, in Bosnia. Pop. (1895) 13,666, of whom about 7000 were Moslems. Banjaluka lies on the river Vrba...
-Banjermasin
Banjermasin (Dutch Bandjermasin), the chief town in the Dutch portion of the island of Borneo, East Indies, on the river Martapura, near its junction with the Barito, 24 m. from the mouth of the Barit...
-Banjo
Banjo, a musical instrument with strings plucked by fingers or plectrum, popular among the American negroes and introduced by them into Europe. The word is either a corruption of bandore or pandura...
-Bank
Bank, [1] known also as Polish Bank and Russian Bank a card-game. An ordinary pack is used. Five or six players is a convenient number. Each contributes an arranged stake to the pool. The dealer g...
-Banka
Banka (Banca, Bangka), an island of the Dutch East Indies, off the east coast of Sumatra, from which it is separated by Banka Strait, which is about 9 m. wide at its narrowest point. On the east, the ...
-Banker-Marks, Or Masons
Banker-Marks, Or Masons Marks. The banker is the stone bed or bench upon which a mason works, hence the term (so well known to the trade) of banker-marks, which, as Mr Whitley has pointed out, is mo...
-Banket
Banket, a South African mining term, applied to the beds of auriferous conglomerate, chiefly occurring in the Witwatersrand gold-fields (see Gold). The name was given to these beds from their resembla...
-Bank Holidays
Bank Holidays, in the United Kingdom, those days which by the Bank Holidays Act 1871 are kept as close holidays in all banks in England and Ireland and Scotland respectively. Before the year 1834, the...
-Bankipur
Bankipur, an ancient village on the Hugli river in the Bengal Presidency, near the modern Palta above Barrackpore. It has disappeared from the map, but is famous as the principal settlement of the ill...
-Bank-Notes
Bank-Notes. For our present purpose we include in this description all paper substitutes for metallic currency whether issued by banks, governments or other financial institutes. Early bank-notes wer...
-Bank Rate
Bank Rate, a term used in financial circles to designate the rate of discount charged in the chief monetary centres by the state or leading bank, as opposed to the open-market rate. (See Market: Money...
-Bankruptcy
Bankruptcy (from Lat. bancus or Fr. banque, table or Definition. counter, and Lat. ruptus, broken), the status of a debtor who has been declared by judicial process to be unable to pay his debts. Alth...
-Bankruptcy in England
The subject was originally dealt with in the sole interest of History. creditors; it was considered fraudulent for a debtor to procure his own bankruptcy. Thus the earliest English statute on the subj...
-Bankruptcy in England. Part 2
By avoiding Scylla it fell into Charybdis. To give any majority of creditors the power to release a debtor from his obligations to non-assenting creditors without full disclosure of his affairs, and w...
-Bankruptcy in England. Part 3
But the appointment of trustees under these acts, instead of being the spontaneous act of the creditors, was frequently due to touting on the part of such agents themselves, or to individual creditors...
-Bankruptcy in England. Part 4
Hitherto the question had been dealt with as one of legal Act of 1883. procedure; it was now treated as an act of commercial legislation, the main object of which, while providing by carefully framed ...
-Bankruptcy in England. Part 5
But there were certain special incidents of the law and branches of its administration upon which the committee made recommendations. One was the prosecution and punishment of debtors who had committe...
-Bankruptcy in England. Part 6
The cost of bankruptcy administration is provided for: (1) by fees charged to bankrupt estates, (2) by interest on balances at the credit of such estates with the bankruptcy estates account, and (3) b...
-Bankruptcy in England. Continued
Summary Of Bankruptcy Procedure Subject to certain special provisions in the case of what are termed small bankruptcies (see below), the following summary sets forth some of the more important prov...
-Bankruptcy Preliminary Proceedings
Petition And Receiving Order Any court exercising bankruptcy jurisdiction in the district in which he resides or carries on business in England or Wales may make a receiving order against a debtor, w...
-First Meeting of Creditors
This meeting is summoned by the official receiver, notice being given in the London Gazette and in a local paper, and sent by post to each creditor. A summary of the statement of affairs should accomp...
-Adjudication
If the creditors so resolve, or if a composition or scheme of arrangement is not proposed by the debtor or entertained by the creditors, or if entertained is not approved by the court, or if without r...
-Composition or Scheme of Arrangement
After a receiving order has been made the debtor may submit a proposal for the payment of a composition, or for the liquidation of his affairs, by a trustee or otherwise, without adjudication. The pro...
-Property divisible among the Creditors
No part of the law of bankruptcy is more intricate, or has been the subject of more litigation than this, and any detailed view of the effect of legal decisions can only be gathered by a perusal of th...
-Claims of Creditors and Dividends
In the distribution of the debtor's property certain claims are entitled to priority over others. Thus the landlord, although not entitled to a preference out of the funds in the hands of the trustee,...
-Trustee's Administration
While the interim preservation and management of the estate is conducted by or under the direct supervision of officers appointed by and responsible to the Board of Trade, the ultimate realization and...
-Trustee's Administration. Part 2
Control Over Trustee In his administration of the estate the trustee is subject to control by the committee of inspection, the creditors, the court and the Board of Trade. The committee is appointed ...
-Trustee's Administration. Part 3
Costs A trustee receiving remuneration is not allowed the costs of any other person in respect of duties which ought to be performed by himself. All bills of solicitors and other agents employed must...
-Small Bankruptcies
When the official receiver reports, or the court is otherwise satisfied that the debtor's property is not likely to realize more than 300, the court may make an order for the summary administra...
-Scottish Bankruptcy Legislation
In Scotland, as in England, the law of bankruptcy arose as a remedy against the frauds of insolvent debtors. It was declared by an act of the Scottish parliament (1621, c. 18) that no debtor after ins...
-Irish Bankruptcy Legislation
The Irish law of bankruptcy is regulated by the two leading Irish statutes of 1857 and 1872, together with the Irish Debtors Act 1872, and corresponds in its main features to some of the older English...
-Comparative Law
British Empire In most parts of the British empire the law of bankruptcy has been modelled upon the English system. This is particularly the case in Australia and New Zealand. Victoria, South Austral...
-Comparative Law. Part 2
Germany Bankruptcy in Germany is governed by a code passed in 1877. Prior to this each state had its system and the law was wholly chaotic. The same distinction is drawn in Germany as in France bet...
-Comparative Law. Part 3
United States After much fragmentary legislation the bankruptcy system of the United States is now embodied in the National Bankruptcy Act of 1898, as amended by the act of 1903. The acts of bankrupt...
-George Linnaeus Banks
George Linnaeus Banks (1821-1881), British miscellaneous writer, was born at Birmingham on the 2nd of March 1821. After a brief experience in a variety of trades, he became at the age of seventeen a c...
-Sir Joseph Banks
Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. (1743-1820), English naturalist, was born in Argyle Street, London, on the 13th of February 1743. His father, William Banks, was the son of a successful Lincolnshire doctor, wh...
-Nathaniel Prentiss Banks
Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (1816-1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts, on the 30th of January 1816. He received only a common school education and at an early age b...
-Thomas Banks
Thomas Banks (1735-1805), English sculptor, son of a surveyor who was land steward to the duke of Beaufort, was born in London on the 29th of December 1735. He was taught drawing by his father, and in...
-Banks And Banking
Banks And Banking. The word bank, in the economic sense, covers various meanings which all express one object, a contribution of money for a common purpose. Thus Bacon, in his essay on Usury, while ...
-Banks And Banking. Continued
Loans were made at various dates to the Dutch East India Company. In 1795 a report was issued showing that the city of Amsterdam was largely indebted to the bank, which held as security the obligation...
-United Kingdom Banking
English banking may be traced back to the dealings in money carried on by the goldsmiths of London and thus certainly to the 16th century; but it has been so greatly influenced by the working of the B...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 2
A copy of the weekly return in both the old and new forms will be found in A History of the Bank of England, p. 290, by A. Andrads (Eng. trans., 1909); see also R. H. I. Palgrave, Bank...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 3
When we compare the date of this document with that of the establishment of the Banco della Piazza di Rialto at Venice, it is not unlikely that the idea of the establishment of a bank was floating in ...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 4
The prohibition, as already related, was modified in the year 1826 and removed in 1833. Even then the privilege of limitation of liability was not permitted to any other bank but the Bank of England. ...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 5
Notes In Circulation The monthly return of the circulation ending the 12th of October 1844 (stamps and taxes, 25th October); England. Bank of England 20,228,800 Private ba...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 6
In 1854 the joint-stock banks made their way into that body, and in 1906 the numbers were one private bank and eighteen joint-stock banks who joined in the clearing - nineteen banks in all. Practical...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 7
This differs absolutely from what was contemplated by Sir Robert Peel; no attempt is or can be made to cause such a paper circulation to fluctuate as if it were one of specie only. One result of the l...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 8
Alone in the three kingdoms, Ireland maintains the same limit of authorized circulation as that established by Peel's Act of 1845. Not one of the six banks which had the privilege of issue at that per...
-United Kingdom Banking. Part 9
The most important requirement of banking in the United Kingdom is still the establishment of an efficient specie reserve. The reserve in the banking department of the Bank of England averaged: - ...
-France Banking
In France the first bank of issue, originally called the Banque Gnrale, was established in 1716 by John Law, the author of the Mississippi Scheme and the Systme. Law's bank, wh...
-Germany Banking
Besides the Imperial Bank of Germany, the Reichsbank, there are about 140 banks doing business in the states which form the German empire. These credit and industrial banks with their large resource...
-Germany Banking. Continued
It is stated that this may be gold coin or silver thalers, or bar-gold at the rate of 1392 marks (69, 12s. reckoning marks as 20 = 1) the pound fine of gold. In practice, however, facili...
-Germany Banking. Part 2
General Information Articles on banking, etc., Dictionary of Political Economy, edited by R. H. Inglis Palgrave (Macmillan & Co., 1894-1906); Handwrterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, edited by C...
-Germany Banking. Part 3
Bank Of England T. Fortune, A Concise and Authentic History of the Bank of England (1802); John Francis, History of the Bank of England (1847); J. E. Thorold Rogers, The First Nine Years of the Bank ...
-United States Banking
The early history of the American colonies is strewn, like that of most new countries, with many crude experiments in banking and currency issues. Most of these colonial enterprises, however, were pro...
-The Bank Of The United States
A national bank of issue was one of the essential parts of the system built up by Alexander Hamilton in organizing the finances of the Federal government under the constitution of 1789. The first Ban...
-The State Banks
The Bank of the United States found powerful rivals during its life and successors after its death in the banks chartered by the separate states. In the undeveloped state of the country in the early d...
-The National Banking System
The creation of the national banking system was mainly the outcome of the financial necessities of the Federal government in the Civil War. It was found difficult to float government bonds at profitab...
-The National Banking System. Part 2
The lowest denomination of national bank-notes authorized by law is $5, and not more than one-third of any bank's issues can be of this denomination. The government issues notes for $1 and $2, as well...
-The National Banking System. Part 3
The function of issuing notes, which is exclusively a privilege of national banks, has diminished in importance in America, as other methods of transferring credit have attained a wide development. Th...
-English Law affecting Banks and their Customers
Issue Of Notes The legislation which culminated in the Bank Charter Acts of 1844 and 1845 secured to the Bank of England the absolute monopoly of the note issue within the city of London and a 3-m. r...
-English Law affecting Banks and their Customers. Part 2
McEwen, L.R. 8 Ex. 10). Funds are not available so long as a garnishee order, founded on a judgment against the customer, is pending, since it attaches all moneys on current account irrespective of th...
-English Law affecting Banks and their Customers. Part 3
London City & Midland Bank [1902], 1 K.B. 242 C.A.). The collection of crossed cheques for a customer being virtually incumbent on a banker, qualified immunity is accorded him in so doing by sec. 82,...
-English Law affecting Banks and their Customers. Part 4
Cases have frequently arisen where the carelessness of a customer in filling up cheques has enabled a person to fraudulently increase the sum for which such cheques were originally drawn. In Colonial ...
-English Law affecting Banks and their Customers. Part 5
There is no obligation on a banker to permit his customer Overdrafts and advances. to overdraw, apart from agreement express or implied from course of business. Drawing a cheque or accepting a bill pa...
-English Law affecting Banks and their Customers. Part 6
Where a bank or a banker takes a mortgage, legal or equitable, or a guarantee as cover for advances or overdraft, there is nothing necessarily differentiating the position from that of any other mortg...
-Banksia
Banksia, an Australian genus of shrubs and trees (natural order Proteaceae), with leathery leaves often deeply cut and handsome dense spikes of flowers. It is named after Sir Joseph Banks (q.v.). The ...
-Bankura
Bankura, a town and district of British India, within the Burdwan division of Bengal. The town has a population of 20,737. The district has an area of 2621 sq. m., and in 1901 its population was 1,116...
-Bann
Bann, the principal river in the north of Ireland. Rising in the Mourne mountains in the south of the Co. Down it runs N.W. until it enters Lough Neagh (q.v.), which it drains N.N.W. to an estuary at ...
-George Bannatyne
George Bannatyne (1545-?1608), collector of Scottish poems, was a native of Newtyle, Forfarshire. He became an Edinburgh merchant and was admitted a burgess in 1587. Some years earlier, in 1568, when ...
-Banneret
Banneret (Fr. banneret, from bannire, banner, elliptical for seigneur or chevalier banneret, Med. Lat. banneretus), in feudalism, the name given to those nobles who had the right to lead their...
-Feast Of Banners
Feast Of Banners (Jap. Nobori-no-Sekku), a Japanese festival in honour of male children held on the 5th of May. Every householder who has sons fastens a bamboo pole over his door and hangs from it gai...
-Charles Bannister
Charles Bannister (1738-1804), English actor and singer, was born in Gloucestershire, and after some amateur and provincial experience made his first London appearance in 1762 as Will in The Orators a...
-Bannock
Bannock (adapted from the Gaelic, and apparently connected with Lat. panis, bread), the term used in Scotland and the north of England for a large, flattish, round sort of bun or cake, usually made of...
-Bannock, Idaho, U.S.A
Bannock, the name of a county in the south-east of the state of Idaho, U.S.A., and of a river in the same state, which runs northward in Oneida county into the Snake or Lewis river. It is taken from t...
-Bannockburn
Bannockburn, a town of Stirlingshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 2444. It is situated on the burn from which its name is derived, the Bannock (Gaelic, ban oc, white, shining stream), a right-hand afflu...
-Banns Of Marriage
Banns Of Marriage (formerly bannes, from A.S. gebann, proclamation, Fr. ban, Med. Lat. bannum), the public legal notice of an impending marriage. The church in earliest days was forewarned of marriage...
-Bannu
Bannu, a town and district of British India, in the Derajat division of the North-West Frontier Province. The town (also called Edwardesabad and Dhulipnagar) lies in the north-west corner of the distr...
-Bansda
Bansda, a native state in the south Gujarat division of Bombay, India, belonging to the Surat agency. Area, 215 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 40,382, showing a decrease of 2% in the decade; estimated revenue &po...
-Banshee
Banshee (Irish bean sidhe; Gaelic ban sith, woman of the fairies), a supernatural being in Irish and general Celtic folklore, whose mournful screaming, or keening, at night is held to foretell the...
-Banswara
Banswara (literally the forest country), a rajput feudatory state in Rajputana, India. It borders on Gujarat and is bounded on the N. by the native states of Dungarpur and Udaipur or Mewar; on the N...
-Bantam
Bantam, the westernmost residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded W. by the Strait of Sunda, N. by the Java sea, E. by the residencies of Batavia and Preanger, and S. by the Indian O...
-Bantin
Bantin, or Banting, the native name of the wild ox of Java, known to the Malays as sapi-utan, and in zoology as Bos (Bibos) sondaicus. The white patch on the rump distinguishes the bantin from its all...
-Bantry
Bantry, a seaport, market-town and seaside resort of Co. Cork, Ireland, in the west parliamentary division, 58 m. S.W. of Cork by the Cork, Bandon & South Coast railway, on the bay of the same name. P...
-Bantu Languages
Bantu Languages. The greater part of Africa south of the equator possesses but one linguistic family so far as its native inhabitants are concerned. This clearly-marked division of human speech has be...
-Bantu Languages. Continued
It may, however, be argued that such a thing is possible, that the introduction of the fowl south of the equator need not be in any way coincident with the Bantu invasion, as its name in North Central...
-Bantu Language Classification
With our present knowledge of the existing Bantu tongues and their affinities, it is possible to divide them approximately into the following numbered groups and subdivisions, commencing at the north-...
-Bantu Language Classification. Part 2
(12) The Tanganyika languages (Ki-rega, Kabwari, Kiguha, &c). These dialects are chiefly spoken in the regions west-north-west, and perhaps north and east of Tanganyika, from the vicinity of Lake Albe...
-Bantu Language Classification. Part 3
(29) Very distinct from the Ki-mbundu speech (though with connecting forms) is the Oci-herero group, which includes the Herero language of Damaraland, the Umbundu of the Bihe highlands of south Angola...
-Common Features in Bantu Language
There is no mistaking a Bantu language, which perhaps is what renders the study of this group so interesting and encouraging. The homogeneity of this family is so striking, as compared with the inexpl...
-Common Features in Bantu Language. Part 2
Old Bantu. Babo mbaba-ntu[13] babi ba-bo-ta tu-ba-oga. They these-they person they bad they who kill we fear them. Rendered into the m...
-Common Features in Bantu Language. Part 3
The pronouns in Bantu are in most cases traceable to some such general forms as these: - I, me, my gi, mi,[16] gu. Thou, thee, thy gwe, ku; -ko. He or she, hi...
-Bibliography on Bantu Language
A Comparative Grammar of South African Languages (in two parts, left unfinished), by Dr W. I. Bleek (London, 1869); A Sketch of the Modern Languages of Africa, by R. N. Cust (1882); Comparative Gramma...
-Bibliography on Bantu Language. Continued
(H. H. J.) [1] Bantu (literally Ba-ntu) is the most archaic and most widely spread term for men, mankind, people, in these languages. It also indicates aptly the leading feature of this group o...
-Theodore Faullain De Banville
Thodore Faullain De Banville (1823-1891), French poet and miscellaneous writer, was born at Moulins in the Bourbonnais, on the 14th of March 1823. He was the son of a captain in the French nav...
-Banyan, Or Banian
Banyan, Or Banian (an Arab corruption, borrowed by the Portuguese from the Sanskrit vanij, merchant), the Ficus Indica, or Bengalensis, a tree of the fig genus. The name was originally given by Euro...
-Baobab
Baobab, Adansonia digitata (natural order Bombaceae), a native of tropical Africa, one of the largest trees known, its stem reaching 30 ft. in diameter, though the height is not great. It has a large ...
-Baphomet
Baphomet, the imaginary symbol or idol which the Knights Templars were accused of worshipping in their secret rites. The term is supposed to be a corruption of Mahomet, who in several medieval Latin p...
-Baptism
Baptism. The Gr. words and (both of which occur in the New Testament) signify ceremonial washin...
-Baptism. Part 2
2. The flesh is anointed, that the soul may be consecrated. 3. The flesh is sealed (i.e. signed with the cross), that the soul also may be protected. 4. The flesh is overshadowed with imposition of ...
-Baptism. Part 3
The church of Tyre described by Eusebius (H.E. x. 4) seems to have had a font, and the church order of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem (c. 311-335), orders the font to be placed in the same building as ...
-Baptism. Part 4
Trine immersion then, as to the origin of which Basil confesses his ignorance, must be older than either of the rival explanations. These are clearly aetiological, and invented to explain an existing ...
-Baptism. Part 5
The fathers, however, of the 4th century emphasized already the danger of deferring the rite until men fall into mortal sickness, when they may be unconscious or paralysed or otherwise unable to profe...
-Baptism. Part 6
The passage where re-birth is best put forward in connexion with baptism is Luke iii. 22, where ancient texts, including the Gospel of the Hebrews, read, Thou art my beloved Son, this day have I bego...
-Baptism. Part 7
Baptism then in the name or through the name or into the name of Christ placed the believer under the influence and tutelage of Christ's personality, as before he was in popular estimation under the i...
-Baptism. Part 8
The circumstance, unknown to these critics when they made their conjectures, that Eusebius Pamphili, in nearly a score of citations, substitutes the words in My Name for the words baptizing them in...
-Nicolas Anselme Baptiste
Nicolas Anselme Baptiste (1761-1835), French actor, was born in Bordeaux on the 18th of June 1761, the elder son of Joseph Franois Anselme, a popular actor. His mother played leading parts in ...
-Baptistery
Baptistery (Baptisterium, in the Greek Church ), the separate hall or chapel, connected with the early Christian Church, in which the...
-Baptists
Baptists, a body of Christians, distinguished, as their name imports, from other denominations by the view they hold respecting the ordinance of baptism (q.v.). This distinctive view, common and pecul...
-I. The Anabaptists
The great spiritual movement of the 15th and 16th centuries had for its most general characteristic, revolt against authority. This showed itself not merely in the anti-papal reformation of Luther, bu...
-I. The Anabaptists. Continued
All who did not embrace Anabaptism were driven from Mnster (1533), and Bernt Knipperdolling (ca. 1495-1536) became burgomaster. The town was now besieged and Matthisson was killed early in 1534....
-II. The Modern Baptists
1. Great Britain and Ireland. - If the Anabaptists of England were not the progenitors of the modern Baptist church, we must look abroad for the beginnings of that movement. Although there were doubtl...
-II. The Modern Baptists. Part 2
Soon after the Restoration (1660) the meetings of nonconformists were continually disturbed and preachers were fined or imprisoned. One instance of these persecutions will, perhaps, be more impressive...
-II. The Modern Baptists. Part 3
The Baptists early felt the necessity of providing an educated ministry for their congregations. Some of their leading pastors had been educated in one or other of the English universities. Others had...
-Baptist Literature
Thomas Crosby, The History of the English Baptists (4 vols. London, 1738-1740); D. Masson, Life of John Milton in Connexion with the History of his Time (6 vols. 1859-1880, new ed. 1881, etc.); B. Eva...
-Baptist Literature. Part 2
Henry Dunster (1612-1659), the first president of the college at Cambridge (Harvard), had by 1653 become convinced that visible believers only should be baptized. Being unwilling to hold his views i...
-Baptist Literature. Part 3
In many New England communities a majority in the churches of the standing order bitterly opposed the new evangelism, and those who came under its influence felt constrained to organize Separate or ...
-Baptist Foreign Missions
Baptists in Boston and vicinity, Philadelphia and Charleston, and a few other communities had from the beginning of the 19th century taken a deep interest in the missionary work of William Carey, the ...
-Francois De Bar
Franois De Bar (1538-1606), French scholar, was born at Seizencourt, near St Quentin, and having studied at the university of Paris entered the order of St Benedict. He soon became prior of th...
-Bar, Russia
Bar, a town of Russia, in the government of Podolia, 50 m. N.E. of Kamenets, on an affluent of the Bug. Pop. (1897) 10,614. It was formerly called Rov. Its present designation was bestowed upon it in ...
-Confederation Of Bar
Confederation Of Bar, a famous confederation of the Polish nobles and gentry formed at the little fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against ...
-Bar, Navigation Impediment
Bar (O. Fr. barre, Late Lat. barra, origin unknown), in physical geography, a ridge of sand or silt crossing an estuary under water or raised by wave action above sea-level, forming an impediment to n...
-The Bar
The Bar. This term, as equivalent to the profession of barrister (q.v.), originated in the partition or bar dividing the English law-courts into two parts, for the purpose of separating the members an...
-Bara Banki
Bara Banki, a town and district of British India in the Fyzabad division of the United Provinces. The town, which forms one municipality with Nawabganj, the administrative headquarters of the district...
-Baraboo
Baraboo, a city and the county-seat of Sauk county, Wisconsin, U.S.A., about 37 m. N.W. of Madison, on the Baraboo river, a tributary of the Wisconsin. Pop. (1890) 4605; (1900) 5751, of whom 732 were ...
-Barabra
Barabra, a name for the complex Nubian races of the Egyptian Sudan, whose original stock is Hamitic-Berber, long modified by negro crossings. The word is variously derived from Berberi, i.e. people of...
-Baracaldo
Baracaldo, a river-port of north-eastern Spain, in the province of Biscay; on the left bank of the river Nervion or Ansa (in Basque, Ibaizabal), 5 m. by rail N.W. of Bilbao. Pop. (1900) 15,013. Few Sp...
-Baracoa
Baracoa, a seaport city of N.E. Cuba, in Santiago province. Pop. (1907) 5633. The town lies under high hills on a small circular harbour accessible to small craft. The country round about is extremely...
-Luis Barahona De Soto
Luis Barahona De Soto (1535?-1595), Spanish poet, was born about 1535 at Lucena (Cordova), was educated at Granada, and practised as a physician at Cordova. His principal poem is the Primera parte de ...
-Amable Guillaume Prosper Brugiere Barante
Amable Guillaume Prosper Brugire Barante, Baron de (1782-1866), French statesman and historian, the son of an advocate, was born at Riom on the 16th of June 1782. At the age of sixteen he ente...
-Barasat
Barasat, a subdivisional town in the district of the Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal, India. For a considerable time Barasat town was the headquarters of a joint magistracy, known as the Barasat Distric...
-Johann Philipp Baratier
Johann Philipp Baratier (1721-1740), German scholar of precocious genius, was born at Schwabach near Nuremberg on the 10th of January 1721. His early education was most carefully conducted by his fath...
-Jewgenij Abramovich Baratynski
Jewgenij Abramovich Baratynski (1800-1844), Russian poet, was educated at the royal school at St Petersburg and then entered the army. He served for eight years in Finland, where he composed his first...
-Barb
Barb. (1) (From Lat. barba, a beard), a term used in various senses, of the folds of mucous membrane under the tongue of horses and cattle, and of a disease affecting that part, of the wattles round t...
-Barbacena
Barbacena, an inland town of Brazil, in the state of Minas Geraes, 150 m. N.N.W. of Rio de Janeiro and about 3500 ft. above sea-level. The surrounding district is chiefly agricultural, producing coffe...
-Barbados
Barbados, or Barbadoes, an island in the British West Indies. It lies 78 m. E. of St Vincent, in 13 4 N. and 59 37 W.; is 21 m. long, 14 m. at its broadest, and 166 sq....
-Barbados. Part 2
Industries The cultivation of sugar was first introduced in the middle of the 17th century, and owing to the cheapness of labour, the extreme fertility of the soil and the care bestowed on its cultiv...
-Barbados. Part 3
History Opinions differ as to the derivation of the name of the island. It may be the Spanish word for the hanging branches of a vine which strike root in the ground, or the name may have been given ...
-Saint Barbara
Saint Barbara, a virgin martyr and saint of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Eastern Churches, whose festival day is December 4th. Her legend is that she was immured in a tower by her father who was op...
-Barbarian
Barbarian (Gr. , the name among the early Greeks for all foreigners. The word is probably onomatopoetic, designed to represent the uncouth babblin...
-Ermolao Barbaro, Hermolaus Barbarus
Ermolao Barbaro (Hermolaus Barbarus) (1454-1493), Italian scholar, was born at Venice on the 21st of May 1454. At an early age he was sent to Rome, where he studied under Pomponius Laetus. He complete...
-Barbarossa
Barbarossa (Redbeard), the name given by the Christians to a family of Turkish admirals and sea rovers of the 16th century, - Arouj and Khizr (alias Khair-ed-Din) and Hassan the son of Khair-ed-Din....
-Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux
Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux (1767-1794), French revolutionist, was educated at first by the Oratorians of Marseilles, then studied law, and became a successful advocate. He was appointed secretary (g...
-Barbary
Barbary, the general designation of that part of northern Africa bounded E. by Egypt, W. by the Atlantic, S. by the Sahara and N. by the Mediterranean, comprising the states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunis...
-Barbary Ape
Barbary Ape, a tailless monkey inhabiting Algeria, Morocco, and the rock of Gibraltar (where it may have been introduced), and referable to the otherwise Asiatic group of macaques, in which it alone r...
-Barbary Pirates
Barbary Pirates. The coast population of northern Africa has in past ages been addicted to piratical attacks on the shores of Europe opposite. Throughout the decline of the Roman empire, the barbarian...
-Anna Letitia Barbauld
Anna Letitia Barbauld (1743-1825), English poet and miscellaneous writer, was born at Kibworth-Harcourt, in Leicestershire, on the 20th of June 1743. Her father, the Rev. John Aikin, a Presbyterian mi...
-Barbecue
Barbecue (Span. barbacoa), originally a framework on posts placed over a fire on which to dry or smoke meat; hence, a gridiron for roasting whole animals, and in Cuba an upper floor on which fruit or ...
-Barbed Wire
Barbed Wire, a protective variety of fencing, consisting usually of several strands of wire twisted together with sharp spikes or points clinched or fastened into the strands. In the United States, b...
-Barbed Wire. Continued
Barbed wire fencing is now manufactured in various patterns. The general process may be outlined briefly as follows: - The wire is made of soft Bessemer or Siemens-Martin steel, and is drawn in the wi...
-Barbel
Barbel (Barbus vulgaris), a fish of the Cyprinid family, which is an inhabitant of the rivers of central Europe, and is very locally distributed in England. It has four barbels (Lat. barba, beard; fle...
-Francois Barbe-Marbois
Franois Barb-Marbois, Marquis de (1745-1837), French politician, was born at Metz. He began his public career as intendant of San Domingo under the old rgime. At the close of 1...
-Barber
Barber (from Lat. barba, beard), one whose occupation it is to shave or trim beards, a hairdresser. In former times the barber's craft was dignified with the title of a profession, being conjoined wit...
-Barberini
Barberini, the name of a powerful Italian family, originally of Tuscan extraction, who settled in Florence during the early part of the 11th century. They acquired great wealth and influence, and in 1...
-Barberry
Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), a shrub with spiny-toothed leaves, which on the woody shoots are reduced to forked spines, and pale yellow flowers in hanging racemes, which are succeeded by orange-red b...
-Barberton
Barberton, a town of the Transvaal, 283 m. by rail (175 m. in a direct line) E. of Pretoria and 136 m. W.N.W. of Delagoa Bay. Pop. (1904) 2433, of whom 1214 were whites. Barberton lies 2825 ft. above ...
-Barbette
Barbette (Fr. diminutive of barbe, a beard), a platform inside a fortification raised sufficiently high for artillery placed thereon to be able to fire en barbette, viz. over the top of the parapet; a...
-Jules Amedee Barbey Daurevilly
Jules Amde Barbey Daurevilly (1808-1889), French man of letters, was born at Saint-Sauveur-le-Vicomte (Manche) on the 2nd of November 1808. His most famous novels are Une Vieille Ma&ic...
-Jean Barbeyrac
Jean Barbeyrac (1674-1744), French jurist, the nephew of Charles Barbeyrac, a distinguished physician of Montpellier, was born at Beziers in Lower Languedoc on the 15th of March 1674. He removed with ...
-Barbican
Barbican (from Fr. barbacane, probably of Arabic or Persian origin), an outwork for the defence of a gate or drawbridge; also a sort of pent-house or construction of timber to shelter warders or sentr...
-Antoine Alexandre Barbier
Antoine Alexandre Barbier (1765-1825), French librarian and bibliographer, was born on the 11th of January 1765 at Coulommiers (Seine-et-Marne). He took priest's orders, from which, however, he was fi...
-Henri Auguste Barbier
Henri Auguste Barbier (1805-1882), French dramatist and poet, was born in Paris on the 29th of April 1805. Inspired by the revolution of July he poured forth a series of eager, vigorous poems, denounc...
-Louis Barbier
Louis Barbier, known as the Abb de la Rivire (1593-1670), French bishop, was born of humble parents in Vaudelaincourt, near Compigne. He entered the church and made his way by ...
-Giovanni Francesco Barbieri
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (otherwise called Guercino, from his squinting), (1591-1666), Italian historical painter, was born at Cento, a village not far from Bologna. His artistic powers were develo...
-Barbiton, Or Barbitos
Barbiton, Or Barbitos (Gr. or ; Lat. barbitus; Pers. barbat, barbud), an ancient stringed instrum...
-Barbizon
Barbizon, a French village, near the forest of Fontainebleau, which gave its name to the Barbizon school of painters, whose leaders were Corot, Rousseau, Millet and Daubigny, together with Diaz, Dup...
-Nicholas Barbon
Nicholas Barbon (c. 1640-1698), English economist, probably the son of Praise-god Barbon, was born in London, studied medicine at Leiden, graduated M.D. at Utrecht in 1661, and was admitted an honorar...
-Praise-God Barbon, Barebone or Barebones
Praise-God Barbon (Barebone or Barebones), (c. 1596-1679), English leather-seller and Fifth Monarchy man, was admitted freeman of the Leathersellers Company on the 20th of January 1623 and liveryman o...
-John Barbour
John Barbour (? 1316-1395), Scottish poet, was born, perhaps in Aberdeenshire, early in the 14th century, approximately 1316. In a letter of safe-conduct dated 1357, allowing him to go to Oxford for s...
-John Barbour. Continued
Works (1)The Brus MSS. and early editions u.s. Modern editions: J. Pinkerton, 3 vols. (1790) (called by the editor the first genuine edition, because printed from the Advocates' Library text, but c...
-Barbuda
Barbuda, an island in the British West Indies. It lies 25 m. N. of Antigua, of which it is a dependency, in 17 33 N. and 61 43 W., and it has an area of 62 sq. m. Pop. (1901) 7...
-Barby
Barby, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the left bank of the Elbe, 82 m. S.W. of Berlin on the direct railway to Cassel. Pop. (1900) 5136. It has two evangelical churches and a seminar...
-Barca
Barca (mod. Merj), an ancient city founded in the territory of Cyrene in the middle of the 6th century B.C. Rising quickly to importance it became a rival of the older city, and gave its name to the w...
-Barcarole, Or Barcarolle
Barcarole, Or Barcarolle (Ital. barcaruola, a boat-song) properly a musical term for the songs sung by the Venetian gondoliers, and hence for an instrumental or vocal composition, generally in 6-8 tim...
-Barcelona Province, Spain
Barcelona, a maritime province of north-eastern Spain, formed in 1833 out of districts belonging to the ancient kingdom of Catalonia, and bounded on the N.E. and E. by Gerona; S. by the Mediterranean ...
-Barcelona
Barcelona, formerly the capital of Catalonia, and since 1833 the capital of the province of Barcelona in eastern Spain, in 41 23 N. and 2 11 E., on the Mediterranean Sea, and a...
-Barcelona. Continued
The so-called port of Barcelona was at first only an open beach, on the east, slightly sheltered by the neighbouring hills, but at an early period the advantage of some artificial protection was felt....
-Barcelona, Venezuela
Barcelona, a town and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez, on the Neveri river, 3 m. from its mouth and 12 m. by rail from the port of Guanta, which has superseded the incommodious riv...
-Barcelonnette
Barcelonnette, a town in the department of Basses-Alpes, in the S.E. of France. Pop. (1906) 2075. It is built at a height of 3717 ft. on the right bank of the Ubaye river, on which it is the most impo...
-Alexander Barclay
Alexander Barclay (c. 1476-1552), British poet, was born about 1476. His nationality is matter of dispute, but William Bulleyn, who was a native of Ely, and probably knew him when he was in the monast...
-John Barclay, Scottish Satirist And Latin Poet
John Barclay (1582-1621), Scottish satirist and Latin poet, was born, on the 28th of January 1582, at Pont--Mousson, where his father William Barclay held the chair of civil law. His mother wa...
-John Barclay, Scottish divine
John Barclay (1734-1798), Scottish divine, was born in Perthshire and died at Edinburgh. He graduated at St Andrews, and after being licensed became assistant to the parish minister of Errol in Perths...
-Robert Barclay
Robert Barclay (1648-1690), one of the most eminent writers belonging to the Society of Friends, or Quakers, was born in 1648 at Gordonstown in Morayshire. His father had served under Gustavus Adolphu...
-William Barclay
William Barclay (1546-1608) Scottish jurist, was born in Aberdeenshire in 1546. Educated at Aberdeen University, he went to France in 1573, and studied law under Cujas, at Bourges, where he took his d...
-Michael Andreas Barclay De Tolly
Michael Andreas Barclay De Tolly, called by the Russians Michael, Prince Bogdanovich (1761-1818), Russian field marshal, was born in Livonia in 1761. He was a descendant of a Scottish family which had...
-Barcochebas
Barcochebas, Bar-Cochab, or Bar Kokba (son of a star), the name given in Christian sources to one Simeon, the leader in the Jewish revolt against Rome in the time of Hadrian (A.D. 132-135). The name...
-Bard
Bard, a word of Celtic derivation (Gaelic baird, Cymric bardh, Irish bard) applied to the ancient Celtic poets, though the name is sometimes loosely used as synonymous with poet in general. So far as ...
-Bardaisan
Bardain, an early teacher of Christianity in Mesopotamia, the writer of numerous Syriac works which have entirely perished[1] (with one possible exception, the Hymn of the Soul in the A...
-Christoph Gottfried Bardili
Christoph Gottfried Bardili (1761-1808), German philosopher, was born at Blaubeuren in Wrttemberg, and died at Stuttgart. His system has had little influence in Germany; Reinhold (q.v.) alone ex...
-Agenor Bardoux
Agnor Bardoux (1820-1897), French statesman, was a native of Bourges. Established as an advocate at Clermont, he did not hesitate to proclaim his republican sympathies. In 1871 he was elected ...
-Bardowiek
Bardowiek, a village of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, 3 m. N. of Lneburg on the navigable Ilmenau. Pop. 2000. Its trade consists entirely in agricultural produce. The Gothic pari...
-Bardsey
Bardsey (i.e. Bards' Island: cf. Anglesey, Angles' Island; Welsh, Ynys Enlli, isle of the current), an island at the northern extremity of Cardigan Bay. The sound between Aberdaron point and t...
-Bareges
Barges, a town of south-western France, in the department of Hautes-Pyrnes, in the valley of the Bastan, 25 m. S.S.W. of Bagnres-de-Bigorre by road. The town, which is ...
-Bareilly
Bareilly, or Bareli, a city and district of British India in the Bareilly or Rohilkhand division of the United Provinces. The city is situated on the Ramganga river, 812 m. N.W. from Calcutta by rail....
-Barentin
Barentin, a town of northern France, in the department of Seine-Infrieure, 11 m. N.N.W. of Rouen by rail. Pop. (1906) 5245. The town is situated in the valley of the Austreberthe, a small affl...
-Willem Barents
Willem Barents (d. 1597), Dutch navigator, was born about the middle of the 16th century. In 1594 he left Amsterdam with two ships to search for a north-east passage to eastern Asia. He reached the we...
-Barents Sea
Barents Sea, that part of the Arctic Ocean which is demarcated by the north coast of Europe, the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen, and smaller intervening islands; it was nam...
-Bertrand Barere De Vieuzac
Bertrand Barre De Vieuzac (1755-1841), one of the most notorious members of the French National Convention, was born at Tarbes in Gascony on the 10th of September 1755. The name of Bar...
-Giuseppe Marc Antonio Baretti
Giuseppe Marc Antonio Baretti (1719-1789), Italian critic, was born at Turin in 1719. He was intended by his father for the profession of law, but at the age of sixteen fled from Turin and went to Gua...
-Barfleur
Barfleur, a small seaport of north-western France, overlooking the Bay of the Seine, in the department of Manche, 22 m. N.N.E. of Valognes by rail. Pop. (1906) 1069. In the middle ages Barfleu...
-Barfurush
Barfurush, a town of Persia, in the province of Mazandaran in 36 32 N., and 52 42 E., and on the left bank of the river Bawul [Babul], which is here crossed by a bridge of eigh...
-Bargain And Sale
Bargain [1] and Sale, in English law, a contract whereby property, real or personal, is transferred from one person - called the bargainer - to another - called the bargainee - for a valuable consider...
-Barge
Barge (Med. Lat. barca, possibly connected with Lat. baris, Gr. , a boat used on the Nile), formerly a small sailing vessel, but now generally a flat-bottomed boat use...
-Bargeboard
Bargeboard (probably from Med. Lat. bargus, or barcus, a scaffold, and not from the now obsolete synonym vergeboard), the boards fastened to the projecting gables of a roof to give strength to the s...
-Barghest
Barghest, Barguest or Bargest, the name given in the north of England, especially in Yorkshire, to a monstrous goblin-dog with huge teeth and claws. The spectre-hound under various names is familiar i...
-Richard Harris Barham
Richard Harris Barham (1788-1845), English humourist, better known by his nom de plume of Thomas Ingoldsby, was born at Canterbury on the 6th of December 1788. At seven years of age he lost his father...
-Bar Harbor
Bar Harbor, a well-known summer resort of Hancock county, Maine, U.S.A., an unincorporated village, in the township of Eden, on Frenchman's Bay, on the E. side of Mount Desert Island, about 45 m. S.E....
-Bar-Hebraeus or Abul-Faraj
Bar-Hebraeus or Abul-Faraj, a maphrin or catholicus of the Jacobite (Monophysite) Church in the 13th century, and (in Dr. Wright's words) one of the most learned and versatile men that...
-Bari Tribe
Bari, a tribe of Nilotic negroes, living on the banks of the upper Nile some 200 m. N. of Albert Nyanza. They have as neighbours the Dinka to the north, the Madi to the south, and the Galla to the eas...
-Bari, Apulia, Italy
Bari (anc. Barium), a seaport and archiepiscopal sea of Apulia, Italy, capital of the province of Bari, situated on a small peninsula projecting into the Adriatic, 69 m. N.W. of Brindisi by rail. Pop....
-Barili
Barili, a town of the province of Cebu, island of Cebu, Philippine Islands, on the Barili river, 2 m. from its mouth and about 35 m. S.W. of Cebu, the capital. Pop. (1903) 31,617. It has a relatively ...
-Baring
Baring, the name of a family of English financiers and bankers. The firm of Baring Brothers was founded by Francis Baring (1740-1810), whose father, John Baring, son of a Lutheran minister at Bremen, ...
-Sabine Baring-Gould
Sabine Baring-Gould (1834- ), English novelist, was born at Exeter on the 28th of January 1834. After graduating at Clare College, Cambridge, he spent some years in travel, and became in 1864 curate o...
-Baringo
Baringo, a lake of British East Africa, some 30 m. N. of the equator in the eastern rift-valley. It is one of a chain of lakes which stud the floor of the valley and has an elevation of 3325 ft. above...
-Barisal
Barisal, a town of British India, headquarters of Backergunje district in Eastern Bengal and Assam, situated on a river of the same name. Pop. (1901) 18,978. It is an important centre of river trade, ...
-Barium
Barium (symbol Ba, atomic weight 137.37 [O=16]), one of the metallic chemical elements included in the group of the alkaline earths. It takes its name from the Greek ...
-Edmund Henry Barker
Edmund Henry Barker (1788-1839), English classical scholar, was born at Hollym in Yorkshire. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge, as a scholar in 1807, but left the university without a degree, bein...
-Barkers Mill
Barkers Mill, a mechanical contrivance invented by a Dr Barker about the end of the 17th century. It consisted of a hollow vertical cylinder, provided with a number of horizontal arms fitted with late...
-Barking
Barking, a market-town in the Romford parliamentary division of Essex, England, on the river Roding near its junction with the Thames, 8 m. E. of Fenchurch Street station and Liverpool Street station,...
-Barkly East
Barkly East, a town of Cape province, South Africa, capital of a district of the same name, and 80 m. by rail E.S.E. of Aliwal North. The town lies north of the Drakensberg on the Kraai tributary of t...
-Barkly West
Barkly West, a town of Cape province, South Africa, 21 m. N.W. of Kimberley, capital of a district and of an electoral division of the same name in Griqualand West. It is built on the right bank of th...
-Barlaam And Josaphat
Barlaam And Josaphat, one of the most popular and widely disseminated of medieval religious romances, which owes its importance and interest to the fact that it is a Christianized version of the story...
-Bar-Le-Duc
Bar-Le-Duc, a town of north-eastern France, capital of the department of Meuse, 50 m. E.S.E. of Chlons-sur-Marne, on the main line of the Eastern railway between that town and Nancy. Pop. (1906...
-Barletta
Barletta (anc. Barduli), a seaport town and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, on the E.S.E. coast, in the province of Bari, 34 m. W.N.W. of Bari by rail. Pop. (1901) 42,022. Its importance dates...
-Barley
Barley (Hordeum sativum), a member of the grass family, and an important cereal which belongs peculiarly to temperate regions. It originated from a wild species, H. spontaneum, a native of western Asi...
-Barley. Continued
Cultivation Apart from the growth-habits of the plant itself, the consideration that chiefly determines the routine of barley cultivation is the demand on the part of the maltster for uniformity of s...
-Barley-Break
Barley-Break, an old English country game frequently mentioned by the poets of the 17th and 18th centuries. It was played by three pairs composed of one of each sex, who were stationed in three bases ...
-Barley-Corn
Barley-Corn, a grain of barley, and thus a measure taken from the length of a grain of barley, three of which (sometimes four) were considered to make up an inch. The barley-corn has been personified ...
-Sir George Hilaro Barlow
Sir George Hilaro Barlow (1762-1847), Anglo-Indian statesman, was appointed to the Bengal Civil Service in 1778, and in 1788 carried into execution the permanent settlement of Bengal. When the marques...
-Joel Barlow
Joel Barlow (1754-1812), American poet and politician, born in Redding, Fairfield county, Connecticut, on the 24th of March 1754. He graduated at Yale in 1778, was a post-graduate student there for tw...
-Peter Barlow
Peter Barlow (1776-1862), English writer on pure and applied mathematics, was born at Norwich in 1776 and died on the 1st of March 1862. In 1806 he was appointed mathematical master in the Woolwich Ac...
-Barm
Barm (a word common to Teutonic languages), the scum formed on the top of malt liquor when fermenting; yeast used to leaven bread, or to set up fermentation in liquor. ...
-Barmecides
Barmecides, more accurately Barmakids, a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs. Barmak, the founder of the family, was a Persian fire-worshipper, and is supposed to...
-Barmen
Barmen, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province and the governmental district of Dsseldorf. Pop. (1816) 19,030; (1890) 116,144; (1905) 156,148. It is served by the main railway from Be...
-Barmote Court
Barmote Court (also written Berghmote, Barghmote, Bargemote, Barmoot), a name applied to courts held in the lead-mining districts of Derbyshire, England, for the purpose of determining the customs pec...
-Barmouth
Barmouth (Abermaw, mouth of the Maw, or Mawddach, in Cardigan Bay, the only haven in Merionethshire, North Wales), a small seaport on the north of the estuary. Pop. of urban district (1901), 2214. The...
-Barnabas
Barnabas, in the New Testament, the surname, according to Acts iv. 36, given by the apostles (possibly in contrast to Joseph Barsabbas, Acts i. 23) to Joseph, a Levite, a man of Cyprus by birth, who...
-Barnabas. Continued
See W. Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas, pp. xlvii.-lxii.; O. Braunsberger, Der Apostel Barnabas, sein Leben ... (Mainz, 1876); articles s.v. in Ency. Biblica and Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible. T...
-Barnacle
Barnacle, a name applied to Crustacea of the division Cirripedia or Thyrostraca. Originally, the name was given to the stalked barnacles (Lepadidae of C. Darwin), which attach themselves in great numb...
-Lady Anne Barnard
Lady Anne Barnard (1750-1825), author of the ballad Auld Robin Gray, the eldest daughter of James Lindsay, 5th earl of Balcarres, was born at Balcarres House, Fife, on the 12th of December 1750. She...
-Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard
Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard (1809-1889), American scientist and educationalist, was born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, on the 5th of May 1809. In 1828 he graduated, second on the honour list, at ...
-George Grey Barnard
George Grey Barnard (1863- ), American sculptor, was born at Bellefonte, Pennsylvania, on the 24th of May 1863. He first studied at the Art Institute, Chicago, and in 1883-1887 worked in P. T. Cavelie...
-Henry Barnard
Henry Barnard (1811-1900), American educationalist, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 24th of January 1811. He graduated at Yale in 1830, and in 1835 was admitted to the Connecticut bar. In 18...
-John Barnard
John Barnard, English musician, was a minor canon of St Paul's in the reign of Charles I. He was the first to publish a collection of English cathedral music. It contains some of the finest 16th-centu...
-Barnard Castle
Barnard Castle, a market-town in the Barnard Castle parliamentary division of Durham, England, 17 m. W. of Darlington by a branch of the North Eastern railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 4421. It i...
-Thomas John Barnardo
Thomas John Barnardo (1845-1905), English philanthropist, and founder and director of homes for destitute children, was born at Dublin, Ireland, in 1845. His father was of Spanish origin, his mother b...
-Barnaul
Barnaul, a town of Asiatic Russia, government of Tomsk, standing in a plain bounded by offshoots of the Altai Mountains, and on the Barnaulka river, at its confluence with the Ob, in lat. 53 20&p...
-Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave
Antoine Pierre Joseph Marie Barnave (1761-1793), one of the greatest orators of the first French Revolution, was born at Grenoble in Dauphin, on the 22nd of October 1761. He was of a Protestan...
-Sir Joseph Barnby
Sir Joseph Barnby (1838-1896), English musical composer and conductor, son of Thomas Barnby, an organist, was born at York on the 12th of August 1838. He was a chorister at York minster from the age o...
-Albert Barnes
Albert Barnes (1798-1870), American theologian, was born at Rome, New York, on the 1st of December 1798. He graduated at Hamilton College, Clinton, N.Y., in 1820, and at the Princeton Theological Semi...
-Barnabe Barnes
Barnabe Barnes (1569?-1609), English poet, fourth son of Dr Richard Barnes, bishop of Durham, was born in Yorkshire, perhaps at Stonegrave, a living of his father's, in 1568 or 1569. In 1586 he was en...
-Sir Edward Barnes
Sir Edward Barnes (1776-1838), British soldier, entered the 47th regiment in 1792, and quickly rose to field rank. He was promoted lieutenant-colonel in 1807, and colonel in 1810, and two years later ...
-Joshua Barnes
Joshua Barnes (1654-1712), English scholar, was born in London on the 10th of January 1654. Educated at Christ's Hospital and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he was in 1695 chosen regius professor of ...
-Robert Barnes
Robert Barnes (1495-1540), English reformer and martyr, born about 1495, was educated at Cambridge, where he was a member, and afterwards prior of the convent of Austin Friars, and graduated D.D. in 1...
-Thomas Barnes
Thomas Barnes (1785-1841), British journalist, was born about 1785. Educated at Christ's Hospital and Pembroke College, Cambridge, he came to London and soon joined the famous literary circle of which...
-William Barnes
William Barnes (1800-1886), the Dorsetshire poet, was born on the 22nd of February 1800, at Rushay, near Pentridge in Dorset, the son of John Barnes and Grace Scott, of the farmer class. He was a deli...
-Barnet
Barnet, a residential district in the mid or St Albans parliamentary division of Hertfordshire, England; 10 m. N. of London, served by the main line and branches of the Great Northern railway. The thr...
-John Barnett
John Barnett (1802-1890), English musical composer, son of a Prussian named Bernhard Beer, who changed his name on settling in England as a jeweller, was born at Bedford, and at the age of eleven sang...
-Samuel Augustus Barnett
Samuel Augustus Barnett (1844- ), English clergyman and social reformer, was born at Bristol on the 8th of February 1844, the son of Francis Augustus Barnett, an iron manufacturer. After leaving Wadha...
-Richard Barnfield
Richard Barnfield (1574-1627), English poet, was born at Norbury, Staffordshire, and baptized on the 13th of June 1574. His obscure though close relationship with Shakespeare has long made him interes...
-Barnim District
Barnim, the name of a district between the Spree, the Oder and the Havel, which was added to the mark of Brandenburg during the 13th century. In the 15th century it was divided into upper and lower Ba...
-Barnim Dukes
Barnim, the name of thirteen dukes who ruled over various divisions of the duchy of Pomerania. The following are the most important: - Barnim I. (c. 1209-1278), called the Good, was the son of Bogis...
-Barnsley
Barnsley (Black, or properly Bleak Barnsley), a market town and municipal borough in the Barnsley parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 15 m. N. of Sheffield. Pop. (1891) 35...
-Barnstable
Barnstable, a seaport township and the county-seat of the county of the same name, in Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. (1900) 4364, of whom 391 were foreign-born; (1910, U.S. census) 4676. Barnstable is ser...
-Barnstaple
Barnstaple, a seaport, market town and municipal borough, in the Barnstaple parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the river Taw, near the north coast. Pop. (1901) 14,137. It is served by t...
-Phineas Taylor Barnum
Phineas Taylor Barnum (1810-1891), American showman, was born in Bethel, Connecticut, on the 5th of July 1810, his father being an inn- and store-keeper. Barnum first started as a store-keeper, and wa...
-Giacomo Barocchio, or Barozzi
Giacomo Barocchio (or Barozzi), called Da Vignola (1507-1573), Italian architect, was born at Vignola in the Modenese territory on the 1st of October 1507. His early work was conducted at Bologna, Pia...
-Federigo Barocci, or Baroccio
Federigo Barocci (or Baroccio), (1528-1612), Italian painter, was born at Urbino, where the genius of Raphael inspired him. In his early youth he travelled to Rome, where he painted in fresco and was...
-Baroda
Baroda, a native state of India, within the Gujarat province of Bombay, but in direct relations with the governor-general. It consists of four isolated divisions, each of which is interlaced in the mo...
-Barometer
Barometer (from Gr. , pressure, and , measure), an instrument by which the weight or pressure of the atmosphere is measured. The ...
-Barometer. Part 2
Its low vapour tension (Sir William Ramsay and Sydney Young give no value below 70 C.), its low specific gravity (1.18 at 10 C.), its freedom from viscosity, have contributed to its successf...
-Barometer. Part 3
The temperature to which such observations are reduced is 32 Fahr. or 0 cent. If English units be used (Fahrenheit degrees and inches), this correction is given by the formula x = -H .09...
-Barometer. Continued
Aneroid Barometer Much obscurity surrounds the invention of barometers in which variations in pressure are rendered apparent by the alteration in the volume of an elastic chamber. The credit of the i...
-Barometric Light
Barometric Light, the luminous glow emitted by mercury in a barometer tube when shaken. It was first observed by Jean Picard, and formed the subject of many experiments at the hands of Francis Hawksbe...
-Michel Baron
Michel Baron (1653-1729), French actor (whose family name originally was Boyron), was born in Paris, the son of a leading actor (d. 1655) and of a talented actress (d. 1662). At the age of twelve he j...
-Baron
Baron. This word, of uncertain origin, was introduced into England at the Conquest to denote the man (i.e. one who had done him homage) of a great lord, and more especially of the king. All who he...
-Baron. Continued
The Foreign Title On the continent of Europe the title baron, though the same in its origin, has come, owing to a variety of causes, to imply a rank and status very different from its connotation in ...
-Baronet
Baronet. Although the origin of this title has been the subject of learned speculation, it is not known for certain why it was selected as that of a new Dignitie between Barons and Knights created b...
-Caesar Baronius
Caesar Baronius (1538-1607), Italian cardinal and ecclesiastical historian, was born at Sora, and was educated at Veroli and Naples. At Rome he joined the Oratory in 1557 under St Philip Neri (q.v.) a...
-Barony
Barony, the domain of a baron (q.v.). In Ireland counties are divided into baronies, which are equivalent to the hundreds (q.v.) in England, and seem to have been formed out of the territories of ...
-Baroque
Baroque, a technical term, chiefly applicable to architecture, furniture and household decoration. Apparently of Spanish origin - a barrueco is a large, irregularly-shaped pearl - the word was for a t...
-Gabor Baross
Gabor Baross (1848-1892), Hungarian statesman, was born at Trencsn on the 6th of July 1848, and educated at Esztergom. He was for a time one of the professors there under Cardinal Kolos Vaszar...
-Barotac Nuevo
Barotac Nuevo, a town of the province of Ilolo, Panay, Philippine Islands, near the Jalaur river, above its mouth on the S.E. coast, and about 15 m. N.E. of Ilolo, the capital. Pop. (1...
-Barotseland Barotse
Barotseland Barotse, a people and country of South Central Africa. The greater part of the country is a British protectorate, forming part of Rhodesia. The Barotse are the paramount tribe in the regio...
-Barotseland Barotse. Continued
(b) Outlying provinces over which, in the absence of a central local system of government, Barotse chiefs administer districts under the direction of the paramount chief; and (c) Tribes over which th...
-Barouche
Barouche (Ger. barutsche, Span. barrocho, Ital. baroccio; from Lat. bi-rotus, double-wheeled), the name of a sort of carriage, with four wheels and a hood, arranged for two couples to sit inside facin...
-Barquisimeto
Barquisimeto, a city of western Venezuela, capital of the state of Lara, on the Barquisimeto river, 101 m. by rail S.W. of Tucacas, its port on the Caribbean coast. Pop. (est. 1899) 40,000. It is buil...
-Barr
Barr, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, on the Kirneck, 13 m. N. from Schlettstadt by rail. It has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church and considerable tanneries. ...
-Barra, Or Barray
Barra, Or Barray (Scand. Baraey, isle of the ocean), an island of the outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 2362. It lies about 5 m. S.W. of South Uist, is 8 m. in length and from 2 t...
-Barrackpur
Barrackpur, a town and magisterial subdivision of British India, in the district of Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal. The town is the largest cantonment in Lower Bengal, having accommodation for two batte...
-Barracks
Barracks (derived through the French from the Late Lat. barra, a bar), the buildings used for the accommodation of military or naval forces, including the quarters for officers, warrant officers, non-...
-Barracks. Part 2
Officers' Quarters At a little distance from the men's barracks, and usually looking over the parade or cricket ground, is the officers' mess. This building has an entrance-hall with band alcove, whe...
-Barracks. Part 3
Artillery, Etc The accommodation provided for horse and field artillery is arranged to suit their organization in batteries and brigades, and is generally similar to that already described, with the ...
-Barracks. Part 4
Location Of Barracks The selection of a healthy site for a barrack building or new military station is a matter of great importance. In the earlier days of barrack construction, barracks were, for po...
-Barrack Construction
The history of barrack construction in Great Britain is an interesting study, but can only be touched on briefly. As long as operations in the field were carried on by troops levied especially for the...
-Barrack Construction. Part 2
British Colonial Barracks at colonial stations are governed by the general scale of accommodation in the Barrack Synopsis, modified according to the climate of the station, in the direction of increa...
-Barrack Construction. Part 3
Other Countries A great number of the German and French barracks are erected in the form of a large block of three or four storeys containing all the accommodation and accessories for officers, marri...
-Joachim Barrande
Joachim Barrande (1799-1883), Austrian geologist and palaeontologist, was born at Saugues, Haute Loire, on the 11th of August 1799, and educated in the cole Polytechnique at Paris. Although he...
-Barranquilla
Barranquilla, a city and port of Colombia, South America, capital of a province of the same name in the department of Atlantico, on the left bank of the Magdalena river about 7 m. above its mouth and ...
-Paul Francois Nicolas Barras
Paul Franois Nicolas Barras, Comte de (1755-1829), member of the French Directory of 1795-1799, was descended from a noble family of Provence, and was born at Fox-Amphoux. At the age of sixtee...
-Barratry
Barratry (O. Fr. bareter, barater, to barter or cheat), in English criminal law, the offence (more usually called common barratry) of constantly inciting and stirring up quarrels in disturbance of the...
-Isaac Barre
Isaac Barr (1726-1802), British soldier and politician, was born at Dublin in 1726, the son of a French refugee. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, entered the army, and in 1759 was w...
-Barre
Barre, a city of Washington county, Vermont, U.S.A., in the north central part of the state, about 6 m. S.E. of Montpelier. Pop. (1890) 4146; (1900) 8448, of whom 2831 were foreign-born; (1910, census...
-Barrel
Barrel (a word of uncertain origin common to Romance languages; the Celtic forms, as in the Gaelic baraill, are derived from the English), a vessel of cylindrical shape, made of staves bound together ...
-Barrel-Organ
Barrel-Organ (Eng. grinder-organ, street-organ, hand-organ, Dutch organ; Fr. orgue de Barbarie, orgue d'Allemagne, orgue mcanique, cabinet d'orgue, serinette; Ger. Drehorgel, Leierkast...
-Barrel-Organ. Continued
Other evidences of the origin of the barrel-organ are not wanting. The inventory of the organs and other keyboard instruments belonging to the duke of Modena, drawn up in 1598, contains two entries...
-Barren Island
Barren Island, a volcanic island in the Bay of Bengal. It has an irregularly circular form of about 2 m. in diameter, composed of an outer rim rising to a height of from 700 to 1000 ft., with a centra...
-Maurice Barres
Maurice Barrs (1862- ), French novelist and politician, was born at Charmes (Vosges) on the 22nd of September 1862; he was educated at the lyce of Nancy, and in 1883 went to Paris to c...
-Lawrence Barrett
Lawrence Barrett (1838-1891), American actor, was born of Irish parents in Paterson, New Jersey, on the 4th of April 1838. His family name was Brannigan. He made his first stage appearance at Detroit ...
-Lucas Barrett
Lucas Barrett (1837-1862), English naturalist and geologist, was born in London on the 14th of November 1837, and educated at University College school and at Ebersdorf. In 1855 he accompanied R. McAn...
-Wilson Barrett
Wilson Barrett (1846-1904), English actor, manager and playwright, was born in Essex on the 18th of February 1846, the son of a farmer. He made his first appearance on the stage at Halifax in 1864, an...
-Barrhead
Barrhead, a police burgh of Renfrewshire, Scotland, situated on the Levern, 7 m. S.W. of Glasgow by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. Pop. (1901) 9855. Founded in 1773, it has gradually abs...
-Barricade, Or Barricado
Barricade, Or Barricado (from the Span. barricada, from barrica, a cask, casks filled with earth having been early used to form barricades), an improvised fortification of earth, paving-stones, trees ...
-James Matthew Barrie
James Matthew Barrie (1860- ), British novelist and dramatist, was born at Kirriemuir, a small village in Forfarshire, on the 9th of May 1860. He was educated at the Dumfries academy and Edinburgh Uni...
-Barrie
Barrie, the capital of Simcoe county, Ontario, Canada, 56 m. N. of Toronto, on Lake Simcoe, an important centre on the Grand Trunk railway. It contains several breweries, carriage factories, boat-buil...
-Theodore Barriere
Thodore Barrire (1823-1877), French dramatist, was born in Paris in 1823. He belonged to a family of map engravers which had long been connected with the war department, and spent nine...
-Barrier Treaty
Barrier Treaty, the name given first to the treaty signed on 29th of October 1709 between Great Britain and the states-general of the United Netherlands, by which the latter engaged to guarantee the P...
-Antonio Giulio Barrili
Antonio Giulio Barrili (1836- ), Italian novelist, was born at Savona, and was educated for the legal profession, which he abandoned for journalism in Genoa. He was a volunteer in the campaign of 1859...
-Barring-Out
Barring-Out, a custom, formerly common in English schools, of barring the master out of the school premises. A typical example of this practice was at Bromfield school, Cumberland, where William Hutch...
-Daines Barrington
Daines Barrington (1727-1800), English lawyer, antiquary and naturalist, was born in 1727, fourth son of the first Viscount Barrington. He was educated for the profession of the law, and after filling...
-George Barrington
George Barrington (b. 1755), an Irishman with a curious history, was born at Maynooth on the 14th of May 1755, the son of a working silversmith named Waldron. In 1771 he robbed his schoolmaster at Dub...
-John Shute Barrington
John Shute Barrington, 1st Viscount (1678-1734), English lawyer and theologian, was the son of Benjamin Shute, merchant, and was born at Theobalds, in Hertfordshire, in 1678. He received part of his e...
-Samuel Barrington
Samuel Barrington (1720-1800), British admiral, was the fourth son of the 1st Viscount Barrington. He entered the navy at an early age and in 1747 had worked his way to a post-captaincy. He was in con...
-Shute Barrington
Shute Barrington (1734-1826), youngest son of the 1st Viscount Barrington, was educated at Eton and Oxford, and after holding some minor dignities was made bishop of Llandaff in 1769. In 1782 he was t...
-William Wildman Shute Barrington
William Wildman Shute Barrington, 2nd Viscount (1717-1793), eldest son of the 1st Viscount Barrington, was born on the 15th of January 1717. Succeeding to the title in 1734, he spent some time in trav...
-Barrister
Barrister, in England and Ireland the term applied to the highest class of lawyers who have exclusive audience in all the superior courts, the word being derived from the bar (q.v.) in the law court...
-Charles Barrois
Charles Barrois (1851- ), French geologist, was born at Lille on the 21st of April 1851, and educated at the college in that town, where he studied geology under Prof. Jules Gosselet and qualified as ...
-Joao De Barros
Joo De Barros (1496-1570), called the Portuguese Livy, may be said to have been the first great historian of his country. Educated in the palace of King Manoel, he early conceived the idea of ...
-Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot
Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot (1791-1873), French politician, was born at Villefort (Lozre) on the 19th of September 1791. He belonged to a legal family, his father, an advocate of Toulouse,...
-Isaac Barrow
Isaac Barrow (1630-1677), English mathematician and divine, was the son of Thomas Barrow, a linen-draper in London, belonging to an old Suffolk and Cambridgeshire family. His uncle was Bishop Isaac Ba...
-Sir John Barrow
Sir John Barrow (1764-1848), English statesman, was born in the village of Dragley Beck in the parish of Ulverston in Lancashire, on the 19th of June 1764. He started in life as superintending clerk o...
-Barrow River
Barrow, a river of south-eastern Ireland. It rises in the Slieve Bloom mountains, and flows at first easterly and then almost due south, until, on joining the Suir, it forms the estuary of the south c...
-Barrow
Barrow (from A.S. beorh, a mount or hillock), a word found occasionally among place-names in England applied to natural eminences, but generally restricted in its modern application to denote an ancie...
-Barrow. Continued
In the Iron Age there was less uniformity in the burial customs. In some of the barrows in central France, and in the wolds of Yorkshire, the interments include the arms and accoutrements of a chariot...
-Henry Barrowe
Henry Barrowe (?1550-1593), English Puritan and Separatist, was born about 1550, at Shipdam, Norfolk, of a family related by marriage to the lord keeper Bacon, and probably to Aylmer, bishop of London...
-Barrow-In-Furness
Barrow-In-Furness, a seaport and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, 264 m. N.W. by N. from London, on the Furness railway. Pop. (1891) 51,712; (1901) 57,586. I...
-Sir Charles Barry
Sir Charles Barry (1795-1860), English architect, was born in London on the 23rd of May 1795, the son of a stationer. He was articled to a firm of architects, with whom he remained till 1817, when he ...
-Elizabeth Barry
Elizabeth Barry (1658-1713), English actress, of whose early life the details are meagre. At first she was so unsuccessful on the stage as to be more than once dismissed; but she was coached by her lo...
-James Barry
James Barry (1741-1806), English painter, was born at Cork on the 11th of October 1741. His father had been a builder, and, at one time of his life, a coasting trader between the two countries of Engl...
-Sir Redmond Barry
Sir Redmond Barry (1813-1880), British colonial judge, son of Major-General H. G. Barry, of Ballyclough, Co. Cork, was educated at a military school in Kent, and at Trinity College, Dublin, and was ca...
-Spranger Barry
Spranger Barry (1719-1777), British actor, was born in Dublin on the 23rd of November 1719, the son of a silversmith, to whose business he was brought up. His first appearance on the stage was at the ...
-Barry
Barry, an urban district and seaport of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the Bristol Channel, 153 m. by rail from London and 8 m. S.W. from Cardiff. Its station is a terminus on the Barry railway, which star...
-Bar-Salibi, Jacob or Dionysius
Bar-alb, JACOB or DIONYSIUS,[1] the best-known and most voluminous writer in the Syrian Jacobite church of the 12th century, was, like Bar-Hebraeus, a native of Malatia on the Up...
-Barsi
Barsi, a town of British India, in the Sholapur district of Bombay, lying within a tract entirely surrounded by the Nizam's dominions. Pop. (1901) 24,242. Barsi is a flourishing centre of trade, expor...
-Bar-Sur-Aube
Bar-Sur-Aube, a town of north-eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Aube, 34 m. E. by S. of Troyes on the main line of the Eastern railway between that town and Belfort. Po...
-Bar-Sur-Seine
Bar-Sur-Seine, a town of eastern France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Aube, on the left bank of the Seine, 20 m. S.E. of Troyes by the Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 2812. The town ...
-Jean Bart
Jean Bart (1651-1702), French naval commander, son of a fisherman, was born in Dunkirk on the 21st of October 1651. He served when young in the Dutch navy, but when war broke out between Louis XIV. an...
-Bartan
Bartan, more correctly Bartin, a town in the vilayet of Kastamuni, Asiatic Turkey, retaining the name of the ancient village Parthenia and situated near the mouth of the Bartan-su (anc. Parthenius), w...
-Hans Von Bartels
Hans Von Bartels (1856- ), German painter, was born in Hamburg, the son of Dr N. F. F. von Bartels, a Russian government official. He studied first under the marine painter R. Hardorff in Hamburg, the...
-Bartenstein
Bartenstein, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Alle, 34 m. S. of Knigsberg by rail. Pop. (1900) 6805. It has a considerable trade in corn and live stock, and its industries co...
-Barter
Barter (from Fr. barater, to truck, to exchange), the exchange of commodities for commodities, in contra-distinction to the exchange of commodities for money. Barter was the simplest form of trading a...
-Jeanne Julia Bartet, Regnault
Jeanne Julia Bartet (Regnault), (1854- ), French actress, was born in Paris and trained at the Conservatoire. In 1872 she began a successful career at the Vaudeville, and in 1879 was engaged at the Co...
-Heinrich Barth
Heinrich Barth (1821-1865), German explorer, was born at Hamburg on the 16th of February 1821, and educated at Berlin University, where he graduated in 1844. He had already visited Italy and Sicily an...
-Kaspar Von Barth
Kaspar Von Barth (1587-1658), German philologist, was born at Kstrin in the province of Brandenburg on the 21st of June 1587. He was an extremely precocious child, and was looked upon as a marve...
-Barth
Barth, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, on the Barther Bodden, a lake connecting with the Baltic, 15 m. N.W. from Stralsund by rail. Pop. (1900) 7070. It contains a fine Gothic Protestant...
-Anatole Jean-Baptiste Antoine De Barthelemy
Anatole Jean-Baptiste Antoine De Barthlemy (1821-1904), French archaeologist and numismatist, was born at Reims on the 1st of July 1821, and died at Ville d'Avray on the 27th of June 1904. In ...
-Auguste Marseille Barthelemy
Auguste Marseille Barthlemy (1796-1867), French satirical poet, was born at Marseilles in 1796. His name can hardly be separated from that of his friend and compatriot, J. P. A. Mry (1...
-Francois Barthelemy
Franois Barthlemy, Marquis de (1747 or 1750-1830), French politician, was educated by his uncle the abb Jean Jacques Barthlemy for a diplomatic career, and after servin...
-Jean Jacques Barthelemy
Jean Jacques Barthlemy (1716-1795) French writer and numismatist, was born on the 20th of January 1716 at Cassis, in Provence. He was educated first at the college of the Oratory in Marseilles...
-Jules Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire
Jules Barthlemy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1895), French philosopher and statesman, was born at Paris on the 19th of August 1805. In his early years he was an active political journalist, and from 18...
-Barthez
Barthez, or Barths, PAUL JOSEPH (1734-1806), French physician, was born on the 11th of December 1734 at Montpellier. He was educated at Narbonne and Toulouse, and began the study of medicine a...
-Gaspard Bartholinus
Gaspard Bartholinus [Caspar Berthelsen], (1585-1629), physician, was born in 1585 at Malm, in Sweden. His precocity was extraordinary; at three years of age he was able to read, and in his thirt...
-Saint Bartholomew
Saint Bartholomew, one of the twelve apostles, regarding whose early life we know nothing, unless in accordance with a widely-spread belief he is to be identified with Nathanael (q.v.). If so, Barthol...
-John Bartholomew
John Bartholomew (1831-1893), Scottish cartographer, was born at Edinburgh on the 25th of December 1831. His father had a cartographical establishment there and he was educated in the work. He was sub...
-Bartholomew Fair
Bartholomew Fair, a fair held in West Smithfield, London, on St Bartholomew's Day (24th of August, O.S.) from 1133 to 1855. The charter authorizing its holding was granted by Henry I. to his former mi...
-Bartizan
Bartizan (according to the New English Dictionary, from bertizene, a Scottish corruption of bratticing or brattishing, from O. Fr. bretesche, and meaning a battlemented parapet; apparently first u...
-John Bartlett
John Bartlett (1820-1905), American publisher and compiler, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 14th of June 1820. He became a bookseller and publisher in Cambridge, Mass., and from 1865 to 18...
-John Russell Bartlett
John Russell Bartlett (1805-1886), American historical and linguistic student, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 23rd of October 1805. From his first to his eighteenth year he lived in King...
-Paul Wayland Bartlett
Paul Wayland Bartlett (1865- ), American sculptor, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, the son of Truman H. Bartlett, an art critic and sculptor. When fifteen he began to study at Paris under Fr&eacut...
-Daniello Bartoli
Daniello Bartoli (1608-1685), Italian Jesuit priest, was born at Ferrara and entered the Society of Jesus in 1623. Debarred from the foreign mission field, he attained high distinction as a preacher a...
-Lorenzo Bartolini
Lorenzo Bartolini (1777-1850), Italian sculptor, was born in Vernio in Tuscany. After acquiring great skill and reputation as a modeller in alabaster, he went in 1797 to Paris, where he studied painti...
-Marquis Ferdinando Bartolommei
Marquis Ferdinando Bartolommei (1821-1869), Italian revolutionist and statesman, who played an important part in the political events of Tuscany from 1848 to 1860. From the beginning of the revolution...
-Fra Bartolommeo Di Pagholo
Fra Bartolommeo Di Pagholo (1475-1517), the Italian historical and portrait painter, - known also as Baccio (short for Bartolommeo) Bella Porta (because he lived near the Porta Romana) was born at Sof...
-Francesco Bartolozzi
Francesco Bartolozzi (1725-1815), Italian engraver, was born at Florence. He was originally destined to follow the profession of his father, who was a gold- and silver-smith; but he manifested so much...
-Bartolus
Bartolus (1314-1357), Italian jurist, professor of the civil law at the university of Perugia, and the most famous master of the dialectical school of jurists, was born in 1314, at Sassoferrato, in th...
-Benjamin Smith Barton
Benjamin Smith Barton (1766-1815), American naturalist, was born at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1766, studied for two years at Edinburgh, and afterwards graduated at Gttingen. He settled at Phil...
-Bernard Barton
Bernard Barton (1784-1849), English poet, was born at Carlisle on the 31st of January 1784. His parents were Quakers, and he was commonly known as the Quaker poet. After some experience of business, h...
-Clara Barton
Clara Barton (1821- ), American philanthropist, was born in Oxford, Massachusetts, in 1821. She was educated at the Clinton Liberal Institute (then in Clinton, New York). Ill-health compelled her to g...
-Elizabeth Barton
Elizabeth Barton (c. 1506-1534), the maid of Kent, was, according to her own statement, born in 1506 at Aldington, Kent. She appears to have been a neurotic girl, subject to epilepsy, and an illness...
-Barton Beds
Barton Beds, in geology, the name given to a series of softish grey and brown clays, with layers of sand, of Upper Eocene age, which are found in the Hampshire Tertiary basin, where they are particula...
-Barton-Upon-Humber
Barton-Upon-Humber, a market town in the N. Lindsey or Brigg parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England, the terminus of a branch of the Great Central railway, 44 m. N. by E. of Lincoln. Pop. of ...
-Baruch
Baruch, the name (meaning Blessed in Hebrew) of a character in the Old Testament (Jer. xxxvi., xxxvii., xliii.), associated with the prophet Jeremiah, and described as his secretary and spokesman. ...
-Baruch. Part 2
Original Language (1) Some scholars, as Ewald, Kneucker, Davidson, Rothstein and Knig, believe that the whole book was originally written in Hebrew; (2) Fritzsche, Hilgenfeld, Reuss, Gifford, S...
-Baruch. Part 3
Date The dates of the various constituents of the book are quite uncertain. Ewald, followed by Gifford and Marshall, assigns i.-iii. 8 to the period after the conquest of Jerusalem by Ptolemy I. in 3...
-Baruch. Part 4
Different Elements In The Book And Their Dates As there are undoubtedly conflicting elements in the book, it is possible to assume either a diversity of authorship or a diversity of sources. The latt...
-Baruch. Part 5
Relation To 4 Ezra The affinities of this book and 4 Ezra are so numerous (see Charles, op. cit. 170-171) that Ewald and Ryle assumed identity of authorship. But their points of divergence are so wei...
-Barugo
Barugo, a town on the north coast of the province of Leyte, island of Leyte, Philippine Islands, on Carigara Bay. Pop. (1903) 12,360. It exports large quantities of hemp and copra, and imports rice, p...
-Barwani
Barwani, a native state of India, in the Bhopawar agency in central India. It lies in the Satpura mountains, south of the Nerbudda. Area, 1178 sq. m.; pop. (1901) 76,136. Many of the inhabitants are B...
-Alexander Ivanovich Baryatinsky
Alexander Ivanovich Baryatinsky, Prince (1814-1879), Russian soldier and governor of the Caucasus, was privately educated, entered the school of the ensigns of the Guard in his seventeenth year and, o...
-Antoine Louis Barye
Antoine Louis Barye (1796-1875), French sculptor, was born in Paris on the 24th of September 1796. Like many of the sculptors of the Renaissance he began life as a goldsmith. After studying under Bosi...
-Barytes
Barytes, a widely distributed mineral composed of barium sulphate (BaSO). Its most striking feature and the one from which it derives its name barytes, barite (from the Greek ύ...
-Barytocalcite
Barytocalcite, a rare mineral found only at Alston Moor in Cumberland, where it occurs as diverging groups of white transparent crystals lining cavities in the Mountain Limestone. The crystals belong ...
-Barytone, Or Baritone
Barytone, Or Baritone (Ital. baritono, from Gr. , deep sounding), a musical term for the male voice whose range lies between those of the t...
-Basalt
Basalt, in petrology, one of the oldest rock names, supposed to be derived from an Ethiopian word basal, signifying a stone which yields iron; according to Pliny, the first basalts were obtained in Et...
-John Bascom
John Bascom (1827- ), American educationalist and philosophical writer, was born at Genoa, New York, on the 1st of May 1827. He graduated at Williams College in 1849 and at the Andover Theological Sem...









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