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The Encyclopaedia Britannica V2-2



Volume 2 of a Dictionary Of Arts, Sciences, Literature And General Information

TitleThe Encyclopaedia Britannica
AuthorVarious Authors
PublisherEncyclopedia Britannica
Year1911
Copyright1911, Encyclopedia Britannica
AmazonGreat Books of the Western World (60 Volumes)

Eleventh Edition

Parts from Vol. II and III

-Base
Base. (1) (Fr. bas, Late Lat. bassus, low; cf. Gr. ) an adjective meaning low or deep, and so mean, worthless, or wicked. This sense of the word has sometimes affec...
-Base-Ball
Base-Ball (so-called from the bases and ball used), the national summer sport of the United States, popular also throughout Canada and in Japan. Its origin is obscure. According to some authorities it...
-Base-Ball. Continued
Implements Of The Game The ball, which is 9-9 in. in circumference and weighs 5-5 oz., is made of yarn wound upon a small core of vulcanized rubber and covered with white leather, whi...
-The Base-Ball Players
The fielding side consists of (a) the pitcher and catcher, called the battery, (b) the first-baseman, second-baseman, third-baseman and short-stop, called infielders, and (c) the left-fielder, centre-...
-The Base-Ball Players. Continued
Even the pitcher, for example, should run behind the first-baseman when the ball is thrown to the latter by another, in order to stop a widely thrown or missed ball, which, if allowed to pass, would e...
-Johann Bernhard Basedow
Johann Bernhard Basedow (1723-1790), German educational reformer, was born at Hamburg on the 11th of September 1723, the son of a hairdresser. He was educated at the Johanneum in that town, where he c...
-Base Fee
Base Fee, in law, a freehold estate of inheritance which is limited or qualified by the existence of certain conditions. In modern property law the commonest example of a base fee is an estate created...
-Basel
Basel (Fr. Ble), one of the most northerly of the Swiss cantons, and the only one (save Schaffhausen) that includes any territory north of the Rhine. It is traversed by the chain of the Jura, a...
-Basel, Basel Stadt, Swiss
Basel (Fr. Ble, but Basle is a wholly erroneous form; Ital. Basilea), the capital of the Swiss half canton of Basel Stadt or Ble Ville. It is now the second most populous (109,161 inhabi...
-Confession Of Basel
Confession Of Basel, one of the many statements of faith produced by the Reformation. It was put out in 1534 and must be distinguished from the First and Second Helvetic Confessions, its author being ...
-Council Of Basel
Council Of Basel. A decree of the council of Constance (9th of October 1417) sanctioned by Martin V. had obliged the papacy periodically to summon general councils. At the expiry of the first term fix...
-Basement
Basement, the term applied to the lowest storey of any building placed wholly or partly below the level of the ground. It is incorrectly applied to the ground storey of any building, even when, as for...
-Bashahr
Bashahr, or Bisahir, a Rajput hill state, within the Punjab, amid the Himalayan mountains, with an area of 3820 sq. m. and a population in 1901 of 80,582. In 1898, the raja being of weak intellect and...
-Bashan
Bashan, a region lying E. of the Jordan, and towards its source. Its boundaries are not very well defined, but it may be said in general to have been north of the territory of Gilead. The name first a...
-Bashi-Bazouk
Bashi-Bazouk, the name given to a species of irregular mounted troops employed by the Turks. They are armed and maintained by the government but do not receive pay. They do not wear uniform or distinc...
-Bashkala
Bashkala, the chief town of a sanjak of the vilayet of Van in Asiatic Turkey. It is a military station, situated at an elevation of 7500 ft. above sea-level in the valley of the Great Zab river. It st...
-Bashkirs
Bashkirs, a people inhabiting the Russian governments of Ufa, Orenburg, Perm and Samara, and parts of Vyatka, especially on the slopes and confines of the Ural, and in the neighbouring plains. They sp...
-Maria Constantinova Bashkirtseff
Maria Constantinova Bashkirtseff [Marie] (1860-1884), Russian artist and writer, was born at Gavrontsi in the government of Pultowa in Russia on the 23rd of November 1860. When Marie was seven years o...
-Basil the Great
Basil,[1] known as Basil the Great (c. 330-379), bishop of Caesarea, a leading churchman in the 4th century, came of a famous family, which gave a number of distinguished supporters to the Church. His...
-Basil I
Basil I. (d. 886), known as the Macedonian, Roman emperor in the East, was born of a family of Armenian (not Slavonic) descent, settled in Macedonia. He spent a part of his boyhood in captivity in B...
-Basil II
Basil II. (c. 958-1025), known as Bulgaroktonos (slayer of Bulgarians), Roman emperor in the East, son of Romanus II. and Theophano, great-great-grandson of Basil I., was born about 958 and crowned on...
-Basil
Basil (Russ. Vasily), the name of four grand-dukes of Moscow and tsars of Muscovy. Basil I. Dmitrevich (1371-1425), son of Dmitri (Demetrius) Donskoi, whom he succeeded in 1389, married Sophia, the d...
-Basilian Monks
Basilian Monks, those who follow the rule of Basil the Great. The chief importance of the monastic rule and institute of St Basil lies in the fact that to this day his reconstruction of the monastic l...
-Basilica
Basilica, a word of Greek origin (see below), frequently used in Latin literature and inscriptions to denote a large covered building that could accommodate a considerable number of people. Strictly s...
-Basilica. Part 2
Whether the Roman basilicas, with which we are chiefly concerned, were derived directly from the Athenian example, or mediately from this through structures of the same kind erected in the later Greek...
-Basilica. Part 3
The early Christian basilicas, at any rate in the west, had very seldom, if ever, galleries over the side aisles, and their interior is always dominated by the semi-dome of an apse that terminates the...
-Basilica. Part 4
The conch or semi-dome that covered the apse was always covered with mosaic pictures, usually paintings of our Lord, either seated or standing, with St Peter and St Paul, and other apostles and saints...
-Basilica. Part 5
The basilica of St Paul without the walls, dedicated 324 A.D., rebuilt 388-423, remained in a sadly neglected state, but substantially unaltered, till the disastrous fire of 1823, which reduced the na...
-Basilica. Part 6
Behind the altar, in the centre of the curved line of the apse, is a marble episcopal throne, bearing the monogram of Anastasius who was titular cardinal of this church in 1108. The conch of the apse ...
-Basilica. Part 7
Beneath the centre of the transept is the subterranean church of the Nativity (Vogu, Les glises de la Terre Sainte, p. 46). Constantinople preserved till recently a basilican church o...
-Basilica, A Code of Law
Basilica, a code of law, drawn up in the Greek language, with a view to putting an end to the uncertainty which prevailed throughout the East Roman empire in the 9th century as to the authorized sourc...
-Basilicata
Basilicata, a territorial division of Italy, now known as the province of Potenza, which formed a part of the ancient Lucania (q.v.). It is bounded N. by the province of Foggia, N E. by those of Bari ...
-Basilides
Basilides, one of the most conspicuous exponents of Gnosticism, was living at Alexandria probably as early as the first decades of the 2nd century. It is true that Eusebius, in his Chronicle, dates hi...
-Basilides. Continued
Epiphanius too tells us that the teaching of Basilides had its beginning in the question as to the origin of evil (Haer. xxiv. 6). Now, of this sharply-defined dualism there is scarcely a trace in th...
-Basilisk
Basilisk (the of the Greeks, and Tsepha (cockatrice) of the Hebrews), a name given by the ancients to a horrid monster of thei...
-Basim
Basim, a town of India, in the Akola district, Berar, 52 m. S.S.E. from Akola station of the Great Indian Peninsula railway. Pop. (1901) 13,823. Until 1905 it was the headquarters of the district of B...
-Thomas Basin
Thomas Basin (1412-1491), bishop of Lisieux and historian, was born probably at Caudebec in Normandy, but owing to the devastation caused by the Hundred Years' War, his childhood was mainly spent in m...
-Basin, Or Bason
Basin, Or Bason (the older form bacin is found in many of the Romanic languages, from the Late Lat. baccinus or bacchinus, probably derived from bacca, a bowl), a round vessel for holding liquids. Hen...
-Basinet
Basinet (a diminutive of basin), a form of helmet or headpiece. The original small basinet was a light open cap, with a peaked crown. This was used alternately to, and even in conjunction with, the ...
-Basingstoke
Basingstoke, a market-town and municipal borough of Hampshire, England, 48 m. W.S.W. from London by the London & South-Western railway; served also by a branch of the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901...
-Basin-Stand
Basin-Stand, a piece of furniture consisting of a small stand, usually supported on three legs, and most commonly made of mahogany or rosewood, for holding a wash-hand basin. The smaller varieties wer...
-John Baskerville
John Baskerville (1706-1775), English printer, was born at Wolverley in Worcestershire on the 28th of January 1706. About 1726 he became a writing master at Birmingham, and he seems to have had a grea...
-Basket
Basket, a vessel made of twigs, cane or rushes, as well as of a variety of other materials, interwoven together, and used for holding, protecting or carrying any commodity. The process of interweaving...
-Basket. Part 2
Employment is given by the London Association for the Welfare of the Blind to a number of partially or wholly blind workpeople, who are engaged in the making of some of the coarser kinds of baskets; b...
-Basket. Part 3
Various forms of plaiting, roping and tracking are used for bordering off or finishing. An ordinary oval basket is made by preparing the requisite number of bottom sticks, preserving their length gre...
-Basket-Ball
Basket-Ball, a game adapted to the open air, but usually played upon the floor of a gymnasium and in the cold season. It was the invention, in 1891, of James Naismith, an instructor in the gymnasium o...
-Jacques Basnage
Jacques Basnage (1653-1723), French Protestant divine, was the eldest son of the eminent lawyer Henri Basnage, sieur de Franquenay (1615-1695), and was born at Rouen in Normandy in 1653. He studied cl...
-Basoche
Basoche, or Bazoche, with the analogous forms Basoque, Basogue and Bazouges; from the Lat. basilica, in the sense of law courts, a French gild of clerks, from among whom legal representatives (procure...
-Basque Provinces
Basque Provinces (Provincias Vascongadas), a division of north-eastern Spain, comprising the three provinces of lava, Biscay or Vizcaya and Guipzcoa. Pop. (1900) 603,596; area 2739 sq....
-Basque Provinces. Bibliography
Of older works, though often uncritical, R. P. Henao's Averiguaciones de las Antiguedades de Cantabria (Salamanca, 1688) is still valuable (new edition, 1894). For all that relates to the manners and ...
-Basques
Basques, a people inhabiting the three Basque Provinces - Biscay, lava and Guipzcoa - and Navarre in Spain, and the arrondissement of Bayonne and Maulon in France. The number o...
-Basques. Part 2
Ethnology And Anthropology The earliest notices of the geography of Spain, from the 5th century B.C., represent Spain as occupied by a congeries of tribes distinguished mainly as Iberi, Celtiberi and...
-Basques. Part 3
Character The most marked features in the Basque character are an intense self-respect, a pride of race and an obstinate conservatism. Much has been written in ridicule of the claim of all Basques to...
-Basra
Basra (written also Busra, Bassora and Bussora), the name of a vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, and of its capital. The vilayet has an area of 16,470 sq. m., formed in 1884 by detaching the southern distric...
-Basra. Continued
History The original city of Basra was founded by the caliph Omar in A.D. 636 about 8 m. S.W. of its present site, on the edge of the stony and pebbly Arabian plateau, on an ancient canal now dry. Th...
-Bass, English Brewers
Bass, the name of a family of English brewers. The founder of the firm, William Bass (b. 1720), was originally a carrier, one of his chief clients being Benjamin Printon, a Burton-on-Trent brewer. By ...
-Bass
Bass (the same word as base, and so pronounced, but influenced in spelling by the Ital. basso), deep, low; especially in music, the lower part in the harmony of a composition, the lowest male voice,...
-Bassa
Bassa, a province of the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria, occupying the angle made by the meeting of the Benue river with the Niger. It has an area of 7000 sq. m., with a population estimated...
-Jacopo Da Ponte Bassano
Jacopo Da Ponte Bassano (1510-1592), Venetian painter, was born at Bassano. He was educated by his father, who was himself an artist, and then completed his studies at Venice. On the death of his fath...
-Bassano
Bassano, a city of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Vicenza, 24 m. N.E. of Vicenza and 30 m. N. of Padua by rail, at the foot of the Venetian Alps. Pop. (1901) town, 7553; commune, 15,097. It is wel...
-Bassarab or Bassaraba
Bassarab or Bassaraba, the name of a dynasty in Rumania, which ruled Walachia from the dawn of its history until 1658. The origin of the name and family has not yet been explained. It undoubtedly stan...
-Bass Clarinet
Bass Clarinet (Fr. clarinette basse; Ger. Bass-Klarinette; Ital. clarinetto basso or darone), practically the A, B or C clarinet speaking an octave lower; what therefore has been said concerni...
-Bassein
Bassein, a district and town in the Irrawaddy division of Lower Burma, in the delta of the Irrawaddy. The district has been reduced to 4127 sq. m., from 8954 sq. m. in 1871, having given up a large tr...
-Olivier Basselin
Olivier Basselin (c. 1400-c. 1450), French poet, was born in the Val-de-Vire in Normandy about the end of the 14th century. He was by occupation a fuller, and tradition still points out the site of hi...
-Basses-Alpes
Basses-Alpes, a department of south-eastern France, formed in 1790 out of the northern portion of Provence. It is bounded N. by the department of the Hautes Alpes, E. by Italy and the department of th...
-Basses-Pyrenees
Basses-Pyrnes, a department of south-western France, at the angle of the Bay of Biscay, formed in 1790, two-thirds of it from Barn and the rest from three districts of Gascony ...
-Basset
Basset, or Bassette, a French game of cards played by five persons with a pack of fifty-two cards. Once very popular, it is now practically obsolete. It is said to be of Venetian origin and to have be...
-Basset Horn
Basset Horn (Fr. Cor de Basset, or Cor de Bassette; Ger. Bassethorn, Basshorn; Ital. Corno di Bassetto), a wood-wind instrument, not a horn, member of the clarinet family, of which it is the tenor. ...
-Laura Maria Caterina Bassi
Laura Maria Caterina Bassi (1711-1778), an Italian lady eminently distinguished for her learning, was born at Bologna in 1711. On account of her extraordinary attainments she received a doctor's degre...
-Ugo Bassi
Ugo Bassi (1800-1849), Italian patriot, was born at Cento, and received his early education at Bologna. An unhappy love affair induced him to become a novice in the Barnabite order when eighteen years...
-Joannes Bassianus
Joannes Bassianus, Italian jurist of the 12th century. Little is known of his origin, but he is said by Corolus de Tocco to have been a native of Cremona. He was a professor in the law school of Bolog...
-Francois De Bassompierre
Franois De Bassompierre (1579-1646), French courtier, son of Christophe de Bassompierre (1547-1596), was born at the castle of Harrouel in Lorraine. He was descended from an old family which h...
-Bassoon
Bassoon (Fr. basson; Ger. Fagott; Ital. fagotto), a woodwind instrument with double reed mouthpiece, a member of the oboe (q.v.) family, of which it is the bass. The German and Italian names of the in...
-Bassoon. Part 2
Another curious acoustic phenomenon bears upon the construction of wind instruments, and especially upon the bassoon. When the diameter of the lateral opening or bell is smaller than that of the bore,...
-Bassoon. Part 3
An explanation may perhaps be found in Eisel's statement about the Deutscher Basson, which he distinguishes from the Basson (our bassoon). The Deutsche Bassons, Fagotte or Bombardi, as our German anc...
-Louis George Oudard Feudrix De Brequigny
Louis George Oudard Feudrix De Brquigny (continued from part 2) ... volumes x.-xiv., the preface to vol. xi. containing important researches into the French communes. To the Table chronologiq...
-Brescia
Brescia (anc. Brixia), a city and episcopal see of Lombardy, Italy, the capital of the province of Brescia, finely situated at the foot of the Alps, 52 m. E. of Milan and 40 m. W. of Verona by rail. P...
-Breslau
Breslau (Polish Wraclaw), a city of Germany, capital of the Prussian province of Silesia, and an episcopal see, situated in a wide and fertile plain on both banks of the navigable Oder, 350 m. from it...
-Breslau. Continued
History Breslau (Lat. Vratislavia) is first mentioned by the chronicler Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg, in A.D. 1000, and was probably founded some years before this date. Early in the 11th century it...
-Jean Baptiste Prosper Bressant
Jean Baptiste Prosper Bressant (1815-1886), French actor, was born at Chalon-sur-Sane on the 23rd of October 1815, and began his stage career at the Varits in Paris in 1833. In ...
-Bresse
Bresse, a district of eastern France embracing portions of the departments of Ain, Sane-et-Loire and Jura. The Bresse extends from the Dombes on the south to the river Doubs on the north, and f...
-Bressuire
Bressuire, a town of western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Deux-Svres, 48 m. N. of Niort by rail. Pop. (1906) 4561. The town is situated on an eminence overlooking ...
-Brest
Brest, a fortified seaport of western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Finistre, 155 m. W.N.W. of Rennes by rail. Population (1906) town, 71,163; commune, 85,294. It i...
-Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk (Polish Brzesc-Litevski; and in the Chron. Berestie and Berestov), a strongly fortified town of Russia, in the government of Grodno, 137 m. by rail S. from the city of Grodno, in 52...
-Louis Charles Auguste Le Tonnelier Breteuil
Louis Charles Auguste Le Tonnelier Breteuil, Baron de (1730-1807), French diplomatist, was born at the chateau of Azay-le-Fron (Indre) on the 7th of March 1730. He was only twenty-eight when h...
-Bretigny
Brtigny, a French town (dept. Eure-et-Loir, arrondissement and canton of Chartres, commune of Sours), which gave its name to a celebrated treaty concluded there on the 8th of May 1360, between...
-Jules Adolphe Aime Louis Breton
Jules Adolphe Aim Louis Breton (1827- ), French painter, was born on the 1st of May 1827, at Courrires, Pas de Calais, France. His artistic gifts being manifest at an early age, he was...
-Britton Or Brittaine, Nicholas Breton
Britton Or Brittaine, Nicholas Breton (1545?-1626), English poet, belonged to an old family settled at Layer-Breton, Essex. His father, William Breton, who had made a considerable fortune by trade, di...
-Manuel Breton De Los Herreros
Manuel Bretn De Los Herreros (1796-1873), Spanish dramatist, was born at Quel (Logroo) on the 19th of December 1796 and was educated at Madrid. Enlisting on the 24th of May 1812, he se...
-Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider
Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider (1776-1848), German scholar and theologian, was born at Gersdorf in Saxony. In 1794 he entered the university of Leipzig, where he studied theology for four years. After so...
-Bretten
Bretten, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden, on the Saalbach, 9 m. S.E. of Bruchsal by rail. Pop. (1900) 4781. It has some manufactories of machinery and japanned goods, and a considerable...
-Bretwalda
Bretwalda, a word used in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 827, and also in a charter of aethelstan, king of the English. It appears in several variant forms (brytenwalda, bretenanwealda, etc....
-Pieter Breughel, or Brueghel
Pieter Breughel (or Brueghel), Flemish painter, was the son of a peasant residing in the village of Breughel near Breda. After receiving instruction in painting from Koek, whose daughter he married, h...
-Brevet
Brevet (a diminutive of the Fr. bref), a short writing, originally an official writing or letter, with the particular meaning of a papal indulgence. The use of the word is mainly confined to a commiss...
-Breviary
Breviary (Lat. breviarium, abridgment, epitome), the book which contains the offices for the canonical hours, i.e. the daily service of the Roman Catholic Church. As compared with the Anglican Book of...
-Breviary. Continued
Contents Of The Roman Breviary At the beginning stands the usual introductory matter, such as the tables for determining the date of Easter, the calendar, and the general rubrics. The Breviary itself...
-Breviary Of Alaric, Breviarium Alaricanum
Breviary Of Alaric (Breviarium Alaricanum), a collection of Roman law, compiled by order of Alaric II., king of the Visigoths, with the advice of his bishops and nobles, in the twenty-second year of h...
-John Sherren Brewer
John Sherren Brewer (1810-1879), English historian, was born in Norwich in 1810, the son of a Baptist schoolmaster. He was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, was ordained in the Church of England in...
-Brewing
Brewing, in the modern acceptation of the term, a series of operations the object of which is to prepare an alcoholic beverage of a certain kind - to wit, beer - mainly from cereals (chiefly malted ba...
-Brewing Industry Taxation And Regulations
The development of the brewing industry in England is intimately interwoven with the history of its taxation, and the regulations which have from time to time been formed for the safeguarding of the r...
-Brewing Industry Taxation And Regulations. Continued
Taxation Of Beer In Foreign Countries The following table shows the nature of the tax and the amount of the same calculated to English barrels. Country. Nature of Tax. Amount per English...
-Materials Used In Brewing
These are water, malt (q.v.), hops (q.v.), various substitutes for the two latter, and preservatives. Water A satisfactory supply of water - which, it may here be mentioned, is always called liquor ...
-Materials Used In Brewing. Part 2
Malt Substitutes Prior to the repeal of the Malt Acts, the only substitute for malt allowed in the United Kingdom was sugar. The quantity of the latter employed was 295,865 cwt. in 1870, 1,136,434 cw...
-Brewing Operations
The general scheme of operations in an English brewery will be readily understood if reference be made to fig. 1, which represents an 8-quarter brewery on the gravitation system, the principle of whic...
-Brewing Operations. Part 2
The Filter Press Process The ordinary mash-tun process, as described above, possesses the disadvantage that only coarse grists can be employed. This entails loss of extract in several ways. To begin ...
-Brewing Operations. Part 3
Cooling When the wort has boiled the necessary time, it is turned into the hop back to settle. A hop back is a wooden or metal vessel, fitted with a false bottom of perforated plates; the latter reta...
-Brewing Operations. Part 4
Cleansing In England the methods of applying the top fermentation system may be classified as follows: (A) The Cleansing System: (a) Skimming System, (b) Dropping System (pontos or ordinary dropping ...
-Brewing Operations. Part 5
Fining As a very light article is desired nowadays, and this has to be provided in a short time, artificial means must be resorted to, in order to replace the natural fining or brightening which stor...
-Foreign Brewing And Beers
The system of brewing which differs most widely from the English infusion and top fermentation method is the decoction and bottom fermentation system, so widely employed, chiefly on the continent of E...
-Brewing Chemistry
The principles of brewing technology belong for the most part to physiological chemistry, whilst those of the cognate industry, malting, are governed exclusively by that branch of knowledge. Alike in ...
-Sir David Brewster
Sir David Brewster (1781-1868), Scottish natural philosopher, was born on the 11th of December 1781 at Jedburgh, where his father, a teacher of high reputation, was rector of the grammar school. At th...
-William Brewster
William Brewster (c. 1566-1644), American colonist, one of the leaders of the Pilgrims, was born at Scrooby, in Nottinghamshire, England, about 1566. After studying for a short time at Cambridge, he...
-Breze
Brz the name of a noble Angevin family, the most famous member of which was Pierre de Brz (c. 1410-1465), one of the trusted soldiers and statesmen of Charles VII. He h...
-Henri Alexis Brialmont
Henri Alexis Brialmont (1821-1903), Belgian general and military engineer, son of General Laurent Mathieu Brialmont (d. 1885), was born at Venlo in Limburg on the 25th of May 1821. Educated at the Bru...
-Brian
Brian (926-1014), king of Ireland, known as Brian Boru, Boroma, or Boroimhe (from boroma, an Irish word for tribute), was a son of a certain Kennedy or Cenneide (d. 951). He passed his youth in fighti...
-Briancon
Brianon, a strongly fortified town in the department of Hautes-Alpes in S.E. France. It is built at a height of 4334 ft. on a plateau which dominates the junction of the Durance with the Guisa...
-Aristide Briand
Aristide Briand (1862- ), French statesman, was born at Nantes, of a bourgeois family. He studied law, and while still young took to politics, associating himself with the most advanced movements, wri...
-Brianza
Brianza, a district of Lombardy, Italy, forming the south part of the province of Como, between the two southern arms of the lake of that name. It is thickly populated and remarkable for its fertility...
-Briare
Briare, a town of north-central France in the department of Loiret on the right bank of the Loire, 45 m. S.E. of Orlans on the railway to Nevers. Pop. (1906) 4613. Briare, the Brivodor...
-Briareus
Briareus, or Aegaeon, in Greek mythology, one of the three hundred-armed, fifty-headed Hecatoncheires, brother of Cottus and Gyges (or Gyes). According to Homer (Iliad i. 403) he was called Aegaeon by...
-Bribery
Bribery (from the O. Fr. briberie, begging or vagrancy, bribe, Mid. Lat. briba, signifying a piece of bread given to beggars; the Eng. bribe has passed through the meanings of alms, blackmail and ex...
-Bric A Brac
Bric Brac (a French word, formed by a kind of onomatopoeia, meaning a heterogeneous collection of odds and ends; cf. de bric et de broc, corresponding to our by hook or by crook; or by redu...
-Brick
Brick (derived according to some etymologists from the Teutonic bricke, a disk or plate; but more authoritatively, through the French brique, originally a broken piece, applied especially to bread, ...
-Brick Clays
All clays are the result of the denudation and decomposition of felspathic and siliceous rocks, and consist of the fine insoluble particles which have been carried in suspension in water and deposited...
-Brickmaking
Bricks made of tempered clay may be made by hand or by machine, and the machines may be worked by hand or by mechanical power. Bricks made of semi-plastic clay (i.e. ground clay or shale sufficiently ...
-Brickmaking. Part 2
The semi-plastic method has many advantages where shales are used, although the bricks are not as strong nor as perfect as the best plastic bricks. The method, however, enables the brickmaker to mak...
-Brickmaking. Part 3
The great principle of continuous firing is the utilization of the waste heat from one kiln or section of a kiln in heating up another kiln or section, direct firing being applied only to finish the...
-Sand-Lime Bricks
In the early 'eighties of the 19th century, Dr Michaelis of Berlin patented a new process for hardening blocks made of a mixture of sand and lime by treating them with high-pressure steam for a few ho...
-Strength Of Brick
The following figures indicate the crushing load for bricks of various types in tons per sq. in.: - Common hand-made from 0.4 to 0.9 machine-made 0.9 ...
-Brickfielder
Brickfielder, a term used in Australia for a hot scorching wind blowing from the interior, where the sandy wastes, bare of vegetation in summer, are intensely heated by the sun. This hot wind blows st...
-Brickwork
Brickwork, in building, the term applied to constructions made of bricks. The tools and implements employed by the bricklayer are: - the trowel for spreading the mortar; the plumb-rule to keep the wor...
-Brickwork. Part 2
All the walls of a building that are to sustain the same floors and the same roof, should be carried up simultaneously; in no circumstances should more be done in one part than can be reached from the...
-Brickwork. Part 3
The many names given to the different qualities of bricks in various parts of Great Britain are most confusing, but the following are those generally in use: - Stocks, hard, sound, well-burnt bricks...
-Brickwork. Part 4
Of the various cements used in building, it is necessary only to mention three as being applicable to use for mortar. The first of these is Portland cement, which has sprung into very general use, not...
-Brickwork. Part 5
Grout is thin liquid mortar, and is legitimately used in gauged arches and other work when fine joints are desired. In ordinary work it is sometimes used every four or five courses to fill up any spac...
-Brickwork. Part 6
If the bricks were turned so as to show their short sides or ends in front instead of their long ones, certainly a compact wall of a whole brick thick, instead of half a brick, would be produced, and ...
-Brickwork. Part 7
A difficulty often arises in bonding when facing work with bricks of a slightly different size from those used in backing, as it is technically termed. As it is, of course, necessary to keep all bri...
-Brickwork. Part 8
Arches are constructions built of wedge-shaped blocks, which by reason of their shape give support one to another, and to the Arches. super-imposed weight, the resulting load being transmitted through...
-Brickwork. Part 9
The name brick-ashlar is given to walls faced with ashlar stonework backed in with brickwork. Such constructions are liable in an aggravated degree to the unequal settling and its attendant evils po...
-Brickwork. Part 10
The work of laying bricks or tiles as paving falls to the lot of the bricklayer. Paving formed of ordinary bricks laid flat or on their Brick paving. edges was once in general use, but is now almost a...
-Bricole
Bricole (a French word of unknown origin), a military engine for casting heavy stones; also a term in tennis for a sidestroke rebounding off the wall of the court, corrupted into brickwall from a su...
-Jacques Bridaine, or Brydayne
Jacques Bridaine (or Brydayne), (1701-1767), French Roman Catholic preacher, was born at Chuslan in the department of Gard on the 21st of March 1701. He was educated at Avignon, first in the Jesuit co...
-Bride
Bride (a common Teutonic word, e.g. Goth. bruths, O.Eng. bryd, O.H.Ger. prt, Mod. Ger. Braut, Dut. bruid, possibly derived from the root bru-, cook, brew; from the med. latinized form bruta, in...
-Bridewell
Bridewell, a district of London between Fleet Street and the Thames, so called from the well of St Bride or St Bridget close by. From William the Conqueror's time, a castle or Norman tower, long the o...
-Bridge, A Game of Cards
Bridge, a game of cards, developed out of the game of whist. The country of its origin is unknown. A similar game is said to have been played in Denmark in the middle of the 19th century. A game in al...
-Bridge, A Game of Cards. Part 2
Advice To Players In the choice of a suit two objects are to be aimed at: first, to select the suit in which the combined forces have the best chance of making tricks; secondly, to select the trump s...
-Bridge, A Game of Cards. Part 3
Declarations By Dummy From the fact that the call has been passed, the dealer's partner must credit the dealer with less than average strength as regards the rank of his cards, and probably a slightl...
-Bridge, A Game of Cards. Part 4
Redoubling When a declaration has been doubled, the declarer knows the minimum that he will find against him; he must be prepared to find occasionally strength against him considerably exceeding this...
-Bridge, A Game of Cards. Part 5
Playing To The Score At the beginning of the hand the chances are so great against any particular result, that at the score of love-all the advantage of getting to any particular score has no appreci...
-Bridge, A Game of Cards. Part 6
Dummy Bridge The player who cuts the lowest card takes dummy. Dummy deals the first hand of all. The player who takes dummy always looks at his own hand first, when he deals for himself or for dummy;...
-Bridgebuilding Brotherhood
Bridgebuilding Brotherhood, a confraternity (Fratres Pontifices) that arose in the south of France during the latter part of the 12th century, and maintained hospices at the chief fords of the princip...
-Bridge-Head
Bridge-Head (Fr. tte-du-pont), in fortification, a work designed to cover the passage of a river by means of fortifications on one or both banks. As the process of moving an army over bridges i...
-Bridgend
Bridgend, a market town in the southern parliamentary division of Glamorganshire, Wales, on both sides of the river Ogwr (whence its Welsh name Penybont-ar-Ogwr). Pop. of urban district (1901) 6062. I...
-Bridge Of Allan
Bridge Of Allan, a police burgh of Stirlingshire, Scotland. Pop. (1901) 3240. It lies on the Allan, a left-hand tributary of the Forth, 3 m. N. of Stirling by the Caledonian railway and by tramway. Bu...
-Bridgeport
Bridgeport, a city, a port of entry, and one of the county-seats of Fairfield county, Connecticut, U.S.A., co-extensive with the town of Bridgeport, in the S.W. part of the state, on Long Island Sound...
-Robert Bridges
Robert Bridges (1844- ), English poet, born on the 23rd of October 1844, was educated at Eton and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and studied medicine in London at St Bartholomew's hospital. He was...
-Bridges
Bridges. 1. Definitions and General Considerations. - Bridges (old forms, brig, brygge, brudge; Dutch, brug; German, Brcke; a common Teutonic word) are structures carrying roadways, waterways or...
-History Of Bridge Building
Fig. 3. - Ponte Salario. 4. Roman Bridges. - The first bridge known to have been constructed at Rome over the Tiber was the timber Pons Sublicius, the bridge defended by Horatius. The Pons Milvius...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 2
Down to 1850 such bridges were generally limited to 150 ft. span. The timber was white pine. As railway loads increased and greater spans were demanded, the Howe truss was stiffened by timber arches o...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 3
In the Wrttemberg hinged arches a limit of stress of 110 tons per sq. ft. was allowed, while in the unhinged arches at Cologne and Coblentz the limit was 50 to 60 tons per sq. ft. (Annales des F...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 4
There are three chains on each side, of one and two links alternately, and these support wrought iron stiffening girders. There are wrought iron saddles and steel rollers on the piers. At 196 ft. on e...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 5
The anchor ties are connected to girders embedded in large concrete blocks in the foundations of the approach viaducts. The two bascules are each constructed with four main girders. Over the river th...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 6
This was partly necessary to meet the uncertain conditions in floating when the distribution of supporting forces was unknown and there were chances of distortion. Fig. 16. - Britannia Bridge. ...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 7
In 1869 a bridge of 390 ft. span was built on this system at Louisville. Amongst remarkable American girder bridges may be mentioned the Ohio bridge on the Cincinnati & Covington railway, which is pr...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 8
(4) The Red Rock cantilever bridge over the Colorado river, with a centre span of 660 ft. (5) The Poughkeepsie bridge over the Hudson, built 1886-1887. There are five river and two shore spans. The g...
-History Of Bridge Building. Part 9
Fig. 31. - Douro Viaduct. Fig. 31 shows the Douro viaduct of a total length of 1158 ft. carrying a railway 200 ft. above the water. The span of the central opening is 525 ft. The principal rib is ...
-History Of Bridge Building. Continued
(1) Lifting Bridges The bridge with its platform is suspended from girders above by chains and counterweights at the four corners (fig. 33 a). It is lifted vertically to the required height when open...
-Bridge Substructure
15. The substructure of a bridge comprises the piers, abutments and foundations. These portions usually consist of masonry in some form, including under that general head stone masonry, brickwork and ...
-Bridge Cylinder Foundations
Formerly when bridge piers had to be placed where a firm bearing stratum could only be reached at a considerable depth, a timber cofferdam was used in which piles were driven down to the firm stratum....
-Bridge Straining Actions And Working Stresses
17. In metal bridges wrought iron has been replaced by mild steel - a stronger, tougher and better material. Ingot metal or mild steel was sometimes treacherous when first introduced, and accidents oc...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges
The live load is the weight of the heaviest train which can come on the bridge. In the earlier girder bridges the live load was taken to be equivalent to a uniform load of 1 ton per foot run for each ...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 2
A purely empirical allowance for impact stresses has been proposed, amounting to 20% of the live load stresses for floor stringers; 15% for floor cross girders; and for main girders, 10% for 40-ft. sp...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 3
19. Stresses Permitted. - For a long time engineers held the convenient opinion that, if the total dead and live load stress on any section of a structure (of iron) did not exceed 5 tons per sq. in., ...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 4
where F is some unknown function. Launhardt found that, for stresses always of the same kind, F = (t-u)/(t-f) approximately agreed with experiment. For stresses of different kinds Weyrauch found F = (...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 5
H = H = M/h and the intensity of stress of tension or compression is f = M/Ah, f = M/Ah. If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is f = S/A and ...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 6
Fig. 45. Fig. 44. 25. Greatest Shear when concentrated Loads travel over the Bridge. - To find the greatest shear with a set of concentrated loads at fixed distances, let the loads advance fro...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 7
Fig. 51. Fig. 51 shows maximum bending moment curves for an extreme case of a short bridge with very unequal loads. The three lightly dotted parabolas are the curves of maximum moment for each of ...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 8
Fig. 54. If the unit load is at F, the reaction at B and the shear at C is m/l, positive if the shearing stress resists a tendency of the part of the girder on the right to mo...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 9
l = K/r, where l is the span in feet and r is the ratio of span to depth of girder at centre. Taking K for steel girders as 7200 to 9000, Limiting Span in Ft. r = 12 l = 600 to 750 ...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 10
Fig. 61. Fig. 62. Most braced girders may be considered as built up of two simple forms of truss, the king-post truss (fig. 61, a), or the queen-post truss (fig. 61, b). These may be used in e...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 11
Fig. 66 shows a frame supported at the two end joints, and loaded at each top joint. The loads and the supporting forces are indicated by arrows. Fig. 67a shows the reciprocal figure or polygon for th...
-Live Load On Railway Bridges. Part 12
Remembering that in this case the centre bending moment wl will be equal to wL/8, we see that the horizontal tension H at the vertex for a span L (the points of support being at equal heigh...
-Saint Bridget
Saint Bridget, more properly Brigid (c. 452-523), one of the patron saints of Ireland, was born at Faughart in county Louth, her father being a prince of Ulster. Refusing to marry, she chose a life of...
-St. Bridget of Sweden, Brigitta, Birgitta
St. Bridget of Sweden, Brigitta, Birgitta, (c. 1302-1373), the most celebrated saint of the northern kingdoms, was the daughter of Birger Persson, governor and lagman (provincial judge) of Uppland, an...
-Bridgeton
Bridgeton, a city, port of entry, and the county-seat of Cumberland county, New Jersey, U.S.A., in the south part of the state, on Cohansey creek, 38 m. S. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 11,424; (1900) ...
-Thomas Edward Bridgett
Thomas Edward Bridgett (1829-1899), Roman Catholic priest and historical writer, was born at Derby on the 20th of January 1829. He was brought up a Baptist, but in his sixteenth year joined the Church...
-Francis Egerton Bridgewater
Francis Egerton Bridgewater, 3rd Duke of (1736-1803), the originator of British inland navigation, younger son of the 1st duke, was born on the 21st of May 1736. Scroop, 1st duke of Bridgewater (1681-...
-Francis Henry Egerton Bridgewater
Francis Henry Egerton Bridgewater, 8th Earl of (1756-1829), was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, and became fellow of All Souls in 1780, and F.R.S. in 1781. He held the rectories of Middle ...
-Bridgittines
Bridgittines, an order of Augustinian canonesses founded by St Bridget of Sweden (q.v.) c. 1350, and approved by Urban V. in 1370. It was a double order, each convent having attached to it a small c...
-Frederick Arthur Bridgman
Frederick Arthur Bridgman (1847- ), American artist, was born at Tuskegee, Alabama, on the 10th of November 1847. He began as a draughtsman in New York for the American Bank Note Company in 1864-1865,...
-Laura Dewey Bridgman
Laura Dewey Bridgman (1829-1889), American blind deaf-mute, was born on the 21st of December 1829 at Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A., being the third daughter of Daniel Bridgman (d. 1868), a substantia...
-Bridgnorth
Bridgnorth, a market town and municipal borough in the Ludlow parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, 150 m. N.W. by W. from London by the Great Western railway, on the Worcester-Shrewsbury lin...
-Bridgwater
Bridgwater, a market town, port and municipal borough in the Bridgwater parliamentary division of Somerset, England, on the river Parret, 10 m. from its mouth, and 151 m. by the Great Western ...
-Bridlington
Bridlington, a market town, municipal borough and seaside resort in the Buckrose parliamentary division of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England, 31 m. N.N.E. from Hull by a branch of the North Easter...
-Alexander Hood Bridport
Alexander Hood Bridport, Viscount (1727-1814), British admiral, was the younger brother of Samuel, Lord Hood, and cousin of Sir Samuel and Captain Alexander Hood. Entering the navy in January 1741, he...
-Bridport
Bridport, a market town and municipal borough in the Western parliamentary division of Dorsetshire, England, 18 m. N.W. of Dorchester, on a branch of the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 5710. It is...
-Brie
Brie (Briegus saltus, from Celtic briek, clay), an agricultural district of northern France, to the E. of Paris, bounded W. and S. by the Seine, N. by the Marne. It has an area of 2400 sq. m., compris...
-Brief
Brief (Lat. brevis, short), in English legal practice, the written statement given to a barrister to form the basis of his case. It was probably so called from its at first being only a copy of the or...
-Brieg, Germany
Brieg, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the left bank of the Oder, and on the Breslau and Beuthen railway, 27 m. S.E. of the former city. Pop. (1900) 24,090. It has a castle ...
-Brieg, Valais
Brieg, often now spelt Brig (Fr. Brigue, Ital. Briga), a picturesque small town in the Swiss canton of the Valais, situated at the foot of the northern slope of the Simplon Pass, on the right bank of ...
-Brielle
Brielle (Briel or Bril), a seaport in the province of South Holland, Holland, on the north side of the island of Voorne, at the mouth of the New Maas, 5 m. N. of Hellevoetsluis. Pop. (1900) 41...
-Brienne-Le-Chateau
Brienne-Le-Chteau, a town of north-eastern France, in the department of Aube, 1 m. from the right bank of the Aube and 26 m. N.E. of Troyes on the Eastern railway. Pop. (1906) 1761. The ch&acir...
-Lake Of Brienz
Lake Of Brienz, in the Swiss canton of Bern, the first lake into which the river Aar expands. It lies in a deep hollow between the village of Brienz on the east (2580 inhabitants, the chief centre of ...
-Benjamin Brierley
Benjamin Brierley (1825-1896), English weaver and writer in Lancashire dialect, was born near Manchester, the son of humble parents, and started life in a textile factory, educating himself in his spa...
-Sir Oswald Walters Brierly
Sir Oswald Walters Brierly (1817-1894), English marine painter, who came of an old Cheshire family, was born at Chester. He entered Sass's art-school in London, and after studying naval architecture a...
-Eugene Brieux
Eugne Brieux (1858- ), French dramatist, was born in Paris of poor parents on the 19th of January 1858. A one-act play, Bernard Palissy, written in collaboration with M. Gaston Salandri, was p...
-Brigade
Brigade (Fr. and Ger. brigade, Ital. brigata, Span. brigada; the English use of the word dates from the early 17th century), a unit in military organization commanded by a major-general, brigadier-gen...
-Brigandage
Brigandage. The brigand is supposed to derive his name from the O. Fr. brigan, which is a form of the Ital. brigante, an irregular or partisan soldier. There can be no doubt as to the origin of the wo...
-Brigandage. Part 2
At the same time it would be going much too far to say that the absence of an efficient police is the sole cause of brigandage in countries not subject to foreign invasion, or where the state is not v...
-Brigandage. Part 3
Mangone was finally taken, and beaten to death with hammers at Naples. He and his like are the heroes of much popular verse, written in ottava rima, and beginning with the traditional epic invocation ...
-Brigandine
Brigandine, a French word meaning the armour for the brigandi or brigantes, light-armed foot soldiers; part of the armour of a foot soldier in the middle ages, consisting of a padded tunic of canvas, ...
-Brigantes
Brigantes (Celtic for mountaineers or free, privileged), a people of northern Britain, who inhabited the country from the mouth of the Abus (Humber) on the east and the Belisama (Mersey; according...
-Brigg
Brigg (properly Glanford Briggs or Glamford Bridge), a market town in the North Lindsey or Brigg parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, England, situated on the river Ancholme, which affords water co...
-Charles Augustus Briggs
Charles Augustus Briggs (1841- ), American Hebrew scholar and theologian, was born in New York City on the 15th of January 1841. He was educated at the university of Virginia (1857-1860), graduated at...
-Henry Briggs
Henry Briggs (1556-1630), English mathematician, was born at Warley Wood, near Halifax, in Yorkshire. He graduated at St John's College, Cambridge, in 1581, and obtained a fellowship in 1588. In 1592 ...
-Brighouse
Brighouse, a municipal borough in the Elland parliamentary division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 5 m. N. of Huddersfield by the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, on the river Calder...
-Sir Charles Tilston Bright
Sir Charles Tilston Bright (1832-1888), English telegraph engineer, who came of an old Yorkshire family, was born on the 8th of June 1832, at Wanstead, Essex. At the age of fifteen he became a clerk u...
-John Bright
John Bright (1811-1889), British statesman, was born at Rochdale on the 16th of November 1811. His father, Jacob Bright, was a much-respected Quaker, who had started a cottonmill at Rochdale in 1809. ...
-John Bright. Part 2
Now, when the first paroxysm of your grief is past, I would advise you to come with me, and we will never rest till the Corn Laws are repealed.' I accepted his invitation, added Bright, and from th...
-John Bright. Part 3
Bright married, in June 1847, Miss Margaret Elizabeth Leatham, of Wakefield, by whom he had seven children, Mr John Albert Bright being the eldest. In the succeeding July he was elected for Manchester...
-John Bright. Part 4
As a political leader the winter of 1866-1867 was the culminating point in his career. The Reform Bill was carried with a clause for minority representation, and in the autumn of 1868 Bright, with two...
-Brightlingsea
Brightlingsea (pronounced Brittlesea), a port and fishing station in the Harwich parliamentary division of Essex, England, on a creek opening from the east shore of the Colne estuary, the terminus of ...
-Brighton, Bourke county, Victoria, Australi
Brighton, a watering-place of Bourke county, Victoria, Australia, 7 m. by rail S.E. of Melbourne, of which it is practically a suburb. It stands on the east shore of Port Phillip, and has two ...
-Brighton, Sussex, England
Brighton, a municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Sussex, England, one of the best-known seaside resorts in the United Kingdom, 51 m. S. from London by the London, Brighton & South Coast rail...
-Brights Disease
Brights Disease, a term in medicine applied to a class of diseases of the kidneys (acute and chronic nephritis) which have as their most prominent symptom the presence of albumen in the urine, and fre...
-Brignoles
Brignoles, a town in the department of Var in the S.E. of France, 36 m. by rail N. of Toulon. Pop. (1906) 3639. It is built at a height of 754 ft. above the sea-level, in a fertile valley, and on the ...
-Brihaspati, Or Brahmanaspati
Brihaspati, Or Brahmanaspati (god of strength), a deity of importance in early Hindu mythology. In the Rigveda he is represented as the god of prayer, aiding Indra in his conquest of the cloud-demon...
-Paul Bril
Paul Bril (1554-1626), Flemish painter, was born at Antwerp. The success of his elder brother Matthew (1550-1584) in the Vatican induced him to go to Rome to live. On the death of Matthew, Paul, who f...
-Brill
Brill, the name given to a flat-fish (Psetta laevis, or Rhombus laevis) which is a species closely related to the turbot, differing from it in having very small scales, being smaller in size, having n...
-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin
Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (1755-1826), French gastronomist, was born at Belley, France, on the 1st of April 1755. In 1789 he was a deputy, in 1793 mayor of Belley. To escape proscription he fled from F...
-Brimstone
Brimstone, the popular name of sulphur (q.v.), particularly of the commercial roll sulphur. The word means literally burning stone; the first part being formed from the stem of the Mid. Eng. brenn...
-Benedetto Brin
Benedetto Brin (1833-1898), Italian naval administrator, was born at Turin on the 17th of May 1833, and until the age of forty worked with distinction as a naval engineer. In 1873 Admiral Saint-Bon, m...
-Brindaban
Brindaban, a town of British India, in the Muttra district of the United Provinces, on the right bank of the Jumna, 6 m. N. of Muttra. Pop. (1901) 22,717. Brindaban is one of the most popular places o...
-Brindisi
Brindisi (anc. Brundisium, q.v.), a seaport town and archiepiscopal see of Apulia, Italy, in the province of Lecce, 24 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Lecce, and 346 m. from Ancona. Pop.(1861) 8000; ...
-James Brindley
James Brindley (1716-1772), English engineer, was born at Thornsett, Derbyshire, in 1716. His parents were in very humble circumstances, and he received little or no education. At the age of seventeen...
-Daniel Garrison Brinton
Daniel Garrison Brinton (1837-1899), American archaeologist and ethnologist, was born at Thornbury, Pennsylvania, on the 13th of May 1837. He graduated at Yale in 1858, studied for two years in the Je...
-Marie Madeleine Marguerite Daubray Brinvilliers
Marie Madeleine Marguerite Daubray Brinvilliers, Marquise de (c. 1630-1676), French poisoner, daughter of Dreux d'Aubray, civil lieutenant of Paris, was born in Paris about 1630. In 1651 she married t...
-Brionian Islands
Brionian Islands, a group of small islands, in the Adriatic Sea, off the west coast of Istria, from which they are separated by the narrow Canale di Fasana. They belong to Austria and are twelve in nu...
-Andrea Briosco
Andrea Briosco (c. 1470-1532), Italian sculptor and architect, known as Riccio (curly-headed), was born at Padua. In architecture he is known by the church of Sta Giustina in his native city, but he...
-Brioude
Brioude, a town of central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Haute-Loire, on the left bank of the Allier, 1467 ft. above the sea, 47 m. N.W. of Le Puy on the Paris-Lyon railway...
-Briquemault, Briquemaut
Briquemault (or Briquemaut), Seigneur de FRANOIS DE BEAUVAIS(c. 1502-1572), leader of the Huguenots during the first religious wars, was the son of Adrien de Briquemault and Alexane de Sainte ...
-Briquette
Briquette (diminutive of Fr. brique, brick), a form of fuel, known also as patent fuel, consisting of small coal compressed into solid blocks by the aid of some binding material. For making briquett...
-Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane
Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1773-1860), Scottish soldier and astronomer, was born on the 23rd of July 1773 at Brisbane House, near Largs, in Ayrshire. He entered the army in 1789, and served in Fl...
-Brisbane
Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, Australia. It is situated in Stanley county, on the banks of the river Brisbane, 25 m. from its mouth in Moreton Bay. It is built on a series of hills rising from ...
-Charles Etienne Briseux
Charles tienne Briseux (c. 1680-1754), French architect. He was especially successful as a designer of internal decorations - mantelpieces, mirrors, doors and overdoors, ceilings, consoles, ca...
-Dukes Of Brissac
Dukes Of Brissac. The fief of Brissac in Anjou was acquired at the end of the 15th century by a noble French family named Coss belonging to the same province. Ren de Coss marri...
-Eugene Henri Brisson
Eugne Henri Brisson (1835- ), French statesman, was born at Bourges on the 31st of July 1835. He followed his father's profession of advocate, and having made himself conspicuous in opposition...
-Mathurin Jacques Brisson
Mathurin Jacques Brisson (1723-1806), French zoologist and natural philosopher, was born at Fontenay le Comte on the 30th of April 1723. The earlier part of his life was spent in the pursuit of natura...
-Jacques Pierre Brissot
Jacques Pierre Brissot (1754-1793), who assumed the name of de Warville, a celebrated French Girondist, was born at Chartres, where his father was an inn-keeper, in January 1754. Brissot received a go...
-Earls And Marquesses Of Bristol
Earls And Marquesses Of Bristol. This English title has been held in the Hervey family since 1714, though previously an earldom of Bristol, in the Digby family, is associated with two especially famou...
-George Digby Bristol
George Digby Bristol, 2nd Earl of[1] (1612-1677), eldest son of the 1st earl (see below), was born in October 1612. At the age of twelve he appeared at the bar of the House of Commons and pleaded for ...
-George Digby Bristol. Continued
He was appointed in 1651 lieutenant-general in the French army, and commander of the forces in Flanders. These new honours, however, were soon lost. During Mazarin's enforced absence from the court Di...
-John Digby Bristol
John Digby Bristol, 1st Earl of[1] (1580-1653) English diplomatist, son of Sir George Digby of Coleshill, Warwickshire, and of Abigail, daughter of Sir Arthur Henningham, was born in 1580, and entered...
-Bristol, Hartford county, Connecticut, U.S.A
Bristol, a township of Hartford county, Connecticut, U.S.A., in the central part of the state, about 16 m. S.W. of Hartford. It has an area of 27 sq. m., and contains the village of Forestville and th...
-Bristol, England
Bristol, a city, county of a city, municipal, county and parliamentary borough, and seaport of England, chiefly in Gloucestershire but partly in Somersetshire, 118 m. W. of London. Pop. (1901)...
-Bristol, England. Part 2
Public Buildings, Etc The public buildings are somewhat overshadowed in interest by the ecclesiastical. The council house, at the Cross of the four main thoroughfares, dates from 1827, was enlarged...
-Bristol, England. Part 3
Harbour And Trade Bristol harbour was formed in 1809 by the conversion of the Avon and a branch of the Frome into the Float, by the cutting of a new channel for the Avon and the formation of two ba...
-Bristol, England. Part 4
At some uncertain date soon after this a commune was established in Bristol on the French model, Robert FitzNichol, the first mayor of Bristol, taking the oath in 1200. The mayor was chosen, not, like...
-Bristol, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A
Bristol, a borough of Bucks county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the Delaware river, opposite Burlington, New Jersey, 20 m. N.E. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 6553; (1900) 7104 (1134 foreign-born); (1910) ...
-Bristol, Bristol County, Rhode Island, U.S.A
Bristol, the shire-township of Bristol county, Rhode Island, U.S.A., about 15 m. S.S.E. of Providence, between Narragansett Bay on the W. and Mount Hope Bay on the E., thus being a peninsula. Pop. (19...
-Bristol, Sullivan county, Tennessee, USA
Bristol, a city of Sullivan county, Tennessee, and Washington county, Virginia, U.S.A., 130 m. N.E. of Knoxville, Tennessee, at an altitude of about 1700 ft. Pop. (1880) 3209; (1890) 6226; (1900) 9850...
-Benjamin Helm Bristow
Benjamin Helm Bristow (1832-1896), American lawyer and politician, was born in Elkton, Kentucky, on the 20th of June 1832, the son of Francis Marion Bristow (1804-1864), a Whig member of Congress in 1...
-Henry William Bristow
Henry William Bristow (1817-1889), English geologist, son of Major-General H. Bristow, who served in the Peninsular War, was born on the 17th of May 1817. He was educated at King's College, London, un...
-Britain
Britain (Gr. , ; Lat. Britannia, rarely Brittan...
-Pre-Roman Britain
Geologists are not yet agreed when and by whom Britain was first peopled. Probably the island was invaded by a succession of races. The first, the Paleolithic men, may have died out or retired before ...
-Roman Britain. I. The Roman Conquest
I. The Roman Conquest. - The conquest of Britain was undertaken by Claudius in A.D. 43. Two causes coincided to produce the step. On the one hand a forward policy then ruled at Rome, leading to annexa...
-II. The Province of Britain and its Military System
Geographically, Britain consists of two parts: (1) the comparatively flat lowlands of the south, east and midlands, suitable to agriculture and open to easy intercourse with the continent, i.e. with t...
-III. The Civilization of Roman Britain
Behind these formidable garrisons, sheltered from barbarians and in easy contact with the Roman empire, stretched the lowlands of southern and eastern Britain. Here a civilized life grew up, and Roman...
-III. The Civilization of Roman Britain. Part 2
As a specimen we may take Silchester, remarkable as the one town in the whole Roman empire which has been completely and systematically uncovered. As we see it to-day, it is an open space of 100 acres...
-III. The Civilization of Roman Britain. Part 3
This fact and the peculiar character of the houses must have given to Silchester rather the appearance of a village with scattered cottages, each in its own plot facing its own way, than a town with r...
-IV. The End of Roman Britain
Early in the 4th century it was necessary to establish a special coast defence, reaching from the Wash to Spithead, against Saxon pirates: there were forts at Brancaster, Borough Castle (near Yarmouth...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain
1. History. - The history of Britain after the withdrawal of the Roman troops is extremely obscure, but there can be little doubt that for many years the inhabitants of the provinces were exposed to d...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 2
When history begins, aethelberht, king of Kent, was supreme over all the kings south of the Humber. He was followed by the East Anglian king Raedwald, and the latter again by a series of Northumbrian ...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 3
The structure of society in England was of a somewhat peculiar type. In addition to slaves, who in early times seem to have been numerous, we find in Wessex and apparently also in Mercia three classes...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 4
Indeed, there is good reason for regarding these classes as essentially military. The chief weapons were the sword and spear. The former were two-edged and on the average about 3 ft. long. The hilts ...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 5
All the ordinary domestic animals were known. Cattle and sheep were pastured on the common lands appertaining to the village, while pigs, which (especially in Kent) seem to have been very numerous, we...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 6
9. Clothes. - The chief material for clothing was at first no doubt wool, though linen must also have been used and later became fairly common. The chief garments were the coat (roc), the trousers (br...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 7
As to the value of the bronze coins we are without information. The purchasing power of money was very great. The sheep was valued at a shilling in both Wessex and Mercia, from early times till the 1...
-Anglo-Saxon Britain. Part 8
16. Funeral Rites. - Both inhumation and cremation were practised in heathen times. The former seems to have prevailed everywhere; the latter, however, was much more common in the more northern counti...
-Britannicus
Britannicus, son of the Roman emperor Claudius by his third wife Messallina, was born probably A.D. 41. He was originally called Claudius Tiberius Germanicus, and received the name Britannicus from th...
-British Central Africa
British Central Africa, the general name given to the British protectorates in South Central Africa north of the Zambezi river, but more particularly to a large territory lying between 8 25&prime...
-British Central Africa. Part 2
Geology The whole formation is Archean and Primary (with a few modern plutonic outbursts), and chiefly consists of granite, felspar, quartz, gneiss, schists, amphibolite and other Archean rocks, with...
-British Central Africa. Part 3
Fauna The fauna is on the whole very rich. It has affinities in a few respects with the West African forest region, but differs slightly from the countries to the north and south by the absence of su...
-British Central Africa. Part 4
Trade And Communications The total value of the trade of the protectorate in the year 1899-1900 was 255,384, showing an increase of 75% on the figures for the previous year, 1898-1899. Imports...
-British Central Africa. Part 5
History The history of the territory dealt with above is recent and slight. Apart from the vague Portuguese wanderings during the 16th and 17th centuries, the first European explorer of any education...
-British Columbia
British Columbia, the western province of the Dominion of Canada. It is bounded on the east by the continental watershed in the Rocky Mountains, until this, in its north-westerly course, intersects 12...
-British Columbia. Part 2
Climate The subjoined figures relating to temperature and precipitation are from a table prepared by Mr R.F. Stupart, director of the meteorological service. The station at Victoria may be taken as r...
-British Columbia. Part 3
Area And Population The area of British Columbia is 357,600 sq. m., and its population by the census of 1901 was 190,000. Since that date this has been largely increased by the influx of miners and o...
-British Columbia. Part 4
Mining Mining is the principal industry of British Columbia. The country is rich in gold, silver, copper, lead and coal, and has also iron deposits. From 1894 to 1904 the mining output increased from...
-British Columbia. Part 5
Timber The province is rich in forest growth, and there is a steady demand for its lumber in the other parts of Canada as well as in South America, Africa, Australia and China. The following is a lis...
-British Columbia. Part 6
Imports And Exports For the year ending June 30th 1905 the total exports and imports (showing a slight gradual increase on the two preceding years) were valued at $16,677,882 and $12,565,019 respecti...
-British Columbia. Part 7
Justice There is a supreme court of British Columbia presided over by a chief justice and five puisne judges, and there are also a number of county courts. In British Columbia the supreme court has j...
-British East Africa
British East Africa, a term, in its widest sense, including all the territory under British influence on the eastern side of Africa between German East Africa on the south and Abyssinia and the Anglo-...
-British East Africa. Part 2
Archaean These rocks prevail in the districts of Taru, Nandi and throughout Ukamba. A course gneiss is the predominant rock, but is associated with garnetiferous mica-schists and much intrusive grani...
-British East Africa. Part 3
Inhabitants The white population is chiefly in the Kikuyu uplands, the rift-valley, and in the Kenya region. The whites are mostly agriculturists. There are also numbers of Indian settlers in the sam...
-British East Africa. Part 4
Communications Much has been done to open up the country by means of roads, including a trunk road from Mombasa, by Kibwezi in the upper Sabaki basin, and Lake Naivasha, to Berkeley Bay on Victoria N...
-British East Africa. Part 5
Agriculture And Other Industries In the coast region and by the shores of Victoria Nyanza the products are tropical, and cultivation is mainly in the hands of the natives or of Indian immigrants. The...
-British East Africa. Part 6
Government The system of government resembles that of a British crown colony. At the head of the administration is a governor, who has a deputy styled lieutenant-governor, provincial commissioners pr...
-British East Africa. Part 6. Part 2
The action of the company in agreeing to onerous financial burdens was dictated partly by regard for imperial interests, which would have been seriously weakened had Lamu gone to the Germans. By the ...
-British East Africa. Part 6. Part 3
From 1896, when the building of the Mombasa-Victoria Nyanza railway was begun, until 1903, when the line was A white man's country. practically completed, the energies of the administration were large...
-British Empire
British Empire, the name now loosely given to the whole aggregate of territory, the inhabitants of which, under various forms of government, ultimately look to the British crown as the supreme head. T...
-Eastern Colonies
Ceylon, high type, brown and mixed 3,568,824 Straits Settlements, brown, mixed and Chinese 570,000 Hong-Kong, Chinese and brown 306,130 North Borneo, mixed brown and ...
-West Indies
The West Indies, including the continental colonies of British Guiana and Honduras, and seventeen islands or groups of islands, have a total coloured population of about 1,912,655. The colonies of thi...
-Africa
Chiefly black, estimated South 5,211,329 Central 2,000,000 The aboriginal races of South Africa were the Bushmen and Hottentots. Both these races are rapidly diminishing i...
-East Africa
Protectorate - Black and brown: - Natives (estimated) 4,000,000 - Asiatics (estimated) 25,000 Zanzibar - Black and brown 200,000 Uganda 3,200,000 - -...
-West Africa
Estimated. Nigeria (including Lagos) - Black and brown 15,000,000 Gold Coast and hinterland - Chiefly black 2,700,000 Sierra Leone - Chiefly black 1,000,000 Gam...
-Australasia
Australia - Black, very low type 200,000 - Chinese and half castes, yellow 50,000 New Zealand - Maoris, brown, Chinese and half castes 53,000 Fiji - Polynesian, blac...
-Canada
Indians - Brown 100,000 The only coloured native races of Canada are the Red Indians, many in tribal variety, but few in number. Summary Native Populations: India 294,191,...
-Canada. Part 2
Egypt, without forming part of the British empire, came under the military occupation of Great Britain in 1882. By right of conquest Great Britain subsequently claimed a share in the administration ...
-Canada. Part 3. Colonial Governors Are Classed As Governors-General; Governors; Lieut
governors; administrators; high commissioners; and commissioners, according to the status of the colony and dependency, or group of colonies and dependencies, over which they preside. Their powers var...
-Canada. Part 4
Fully responsible government was granted to Canada in 1840, and gradually extended to the other colonies. In 1854 a separate secretary of state for the colonies was appointed at home, and the colonial...
-Canada. Part 5
The question of self-government is closely associated with the question of self-support. Plenty of good land and the liberty to manage their own affairs were the causes assigned by Adam Smith for the ...
-Canada. Part 6
By a gradual process of better understanding, largely helped by the development of means of communication, the antagonistic extreme was abandoned, and a tendency towards a system of preferential dutie...
-Canada. Part 7
The exact figures of the trade of India, the colonies, and the United Kingdom for 1900 were: imports, 809,178,209; exports, 657,899,363; total, 1,467,077,572. A question of sover...
-Canada. Part 8
The first effect was the gradual withdrawing of imperial troops from the self-governing colonies, together with the encouragement of the development of local military systems by the loan, when desired...
-British Honduras
British Honduras, formerly called Balize, or Belize, a British crown colony in Central America; bounded on the N. and N.W. by the Mexican province of Yucatan, N.E. and E. by the Bay of Honduras, an in...
-British Honduras. Part 2
Inhabitants British Honduras is a little larger than Wales, and has a population smaller than that of Chester (England). In 1904 the inhabitants of European descent numbered 1500, the Europeans 253, ...
-British Honduras. Part 3
Commerce And Finance Between 1901 and 1905 the tonnage of vessels accommodated at the ports of British Honduras rose from 300,000 to 496,465; the imports rose from 252,500 to 386,123; t...
-British Honduras. Part 4
Religion And Education The churches represented are Roman Catholic, Anglican, Wesleyan, Baptist and Presbyterian; but none of them receives assistance from public funds. The bishopric of British Hond...
-Britomartis
Britomartis (sweet maiden), an old Cretan goddess, later identified with Artemis. According to Callimachus (Hymn to Diana, 190), she was a nymph, the daughter of Zeus and Carme, and a favourite comp...
-Briton-Ferry
Briton-Ferry, a seaport in the mid-parliamentary division of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the eastern bank of the estuary of the Neath river in Swansea Bay, with stations on the Great Western and the Rho...
-Brittany, Or Britanny
Brittany, Or Britanny (Fr. Bretagne), known as Armorica (q.v.) until the influx of Celts from Britain, an ancient province and duchy of France, consisting of the north-west peninsula, and nearly corre...
-Brittany, Or Britanny. Continued
History Of Brittany before the coming of the Romans we have no exact knowledge. The only traces left by the primitive populations are the megalithic monuments (dolmens, menhirs and cromlechs), which ...
-John Britton
John Britton (1771-1857), English antiquary, was born on the 7th of July 1771 at Kington-St-Michael, near Chippenham. His parents were in humble circumstances, and he was left an orphan at an early ag...
-Britton
Britton, the title of the earliest summary of the law of England in the French tongue, which purports to have been written by command of King Edward I. The origin and authorship of the work have been ...
-Britzska, Or Britska
Britzska, Or Britska (from the Polish bryczka; a diminutive of bryka, a goods-wagon), a form of carriage, copied in England from Austria early in the 19th century; as used in Poland and Russia it had ...
-Brive
Brive, or Brives-la-Gaillarde, a town of south-central France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Corrze, 62 m. S.S.E. of Limoges on the main line of the Orlans railway ...
-Brixen
Brixen (Ital. Bressanone), a small city in the Austrian province of Tirol, and the chief town of the administrative district of Brixen. Pop. (1900) 5767. It is situated in the valley of the Eisack, at...
-Brixham
Brixham, a seaport and market town in the Torquay parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, 33 m. S. of Exeter, on a branch of the Great Western railway. Pop. of urban district (1901) 8092. The t...
-Brixton
Brixton, a district in the south of London, England, included in the metropolitan borough of Lambeth (q.v.). ...
-Julien Auguste Pelage Brizeux
Julien Auguste Plage Brizeux (1803-1858), French poet, was born at Lorient (Morbihan) on the 12th of September 1803. He belonged to a family of Irish origin, long settled in Brittany, and was ...
-Brizo
Brizo, an ancient goddess worshipped in Delos. She delivered oracles in dreams to those who consulted her about fishery and seafaring. The women of Delos offered her presents consisting of little boat...
-Broach, British India
Broach, or Bharuch, an ancient city and modern district of British India, in the northern division of Bombay. The city is on the right bank of the Nerbudda, about 30 m. from the sea, and 203 m. N. of ...
-Broach
Broach (Fr. broche, a pointed instrument, Med. Lat. brocca, cf. the Latin adjective brochus or broccus, projecting, used of teeth), a word, of which the doublet brooch (q.v.) has a special meaning, ...
-Broadside
Broadside, sometimes termed Broadsheet, a single sheet of paper containing printed matter on one side only. The broadside seems to have been employed from the very beginning of printing for royal proc...
-Broadstairs
Broadstairs, a watering-place, in the Isle of Thanet parliamentary division of Kent, England, 3 m. S.E. of Margate, on the South-Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. of urban district, Broadstairs and St P...
-Paul Broca
Paul Broca (1824-1880), French surgeon and anthropologist, was born at Sainte-Foy la Grande, Gironde, on the 28th of June 1824. He early developed a taste for higher mathematics, but circumstances dec...
-Brocade
Brocade, the name usually given to a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in coloured silks and with or without gold and silver threads. Ornamental features in brocade are emph...
-Giovanni Battista Brocchi
Giovanni Battista Brocchi (1772-1826), Italian mineralogist and geologist, was born at Bassano on the 18th of February 1772. He studied at the university of Pisa, where his attention was turned to min...
-Andre Jean Francois Marie Brochant De Villiers
Andr Jean Franois Marie Brochant De Villiers (1772-1840), French mineralogist and geologist, was born at Villiers, near Nantes, on the 6th of August 1772. After studying at the é...
-Brochantite
Brochantite, a mineral species consisting of a basic copper sulphate Cu(OH)SO, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system. The crystals are usually small and are prismatic or acicular in habit; they hav...
-Sir Isaac Brock
Sir Isaac Brock (1769-1812), British soldier and administrator, was born at St Peter Port, Guernsey, on the 6th of October 1769. Joining the army at the age of fifteen as an ensign of the 8th regiment...
-Thomas Brock
Thomas Brock (1847- ), English sculptor, was the chief pupil of Foley, and later became influenced by the new romantic movement. His group The Moment of Peril was followed by The Genius of Poetry,...
-Brocken
Brocken, a mountain of Germany, in Prussian Saxony, the highest point (3733 ft.) of the Harz. It is a huge, bare, granite-strewn, dome-shaped mass and, owing to its being the greatest elevation in nor...
-Spectre Of The Brocken
Spectre Of The Brocken (so named from having been first observed in 1780 on the Brocken), an enormously magnified shadow of an observer cast upon a bank of cloud when the sun is low in high mountain r...
-Barthold Heinrich Brockes
Barthold Heinrich Brockes (1680-1747), German poet, was born at Hamburg on the 22nd of September 1680. He studied jurisprudence at Halle, and after extensive travels in Italy, France and Holland, sett...
-Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus
Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus (1772-1823), German publisher, was born at Dortmund, on the 4th of May 1772. He was educated at the gymnasium of his native place, and from 1788 to 1793 served an apprentice...
-Richard Brocklesby
Richard Brocklesby (1722-1797), English physician, was born at Minehead, Somersetshire, on the 11th of August 1722. He was educated at Ballitore, in Ireland, where Edmund Burke was one of his schoolfe...
-Brockton
Brockton, a city of Plymouth county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about 20 m. S. of Boston, and containing an area of 21 sq. m. of rolling surface. Pop. (1870) 8007; (1880)13,608; (1890) 27,294; (1900) 40,0...
-Brockville
Brockville, a town and port of entry of Ontario, Canada, and capital of Leeds county, named after General Sir Isaac Brock, situated 119 m. S.W. of Montreal, on the left bank of the St Lawrence, and on...
-Brod
Brod, a town of Croatia-Slavonia, in the county of Pozega, on the left bank of the river Save, 124 m. by rail S.E. by E. of Agram. Pop. (1900) 7310. The principal Bosnian railway here crosses the rive...
-William John Broderip
William John Broderip (1789-1859), English naturalist, was born in Bristol on the 21st of November 1789. After graduating at Oxford he was called to the bar in 1817, and for some years was engaged in ...
-John Romeyn Brodhead
John Romeyn Brodhead (1814-1873), American historical scholar, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 2nd of January 1814, the son of Jacob Brodhead (1782-1855), a prominent clergyman of the D...
-Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie
Sir Benjamin Collins Brodie, 1st Bart. (1783-1862), English physiologist and surgeon, was born in 1783 at Winterslow, Wiltshire. He received his early education from his father; then choosing medicine...
-Peter Bellinger Brodie
Peter Bellinger Brodie (1815-1897), English geologist, son of P.B. Brodie, barrister, and nephew of Sir Benjamin C. Brodie, was born in London in 1815. While still residing with his father at Lincoln'...
-Brody
Brody, a town of Austria, in Galicia, 62 m. E. of Lemberg by rail. Pop. (1900) 17,360, of which about two-thirds are Jews. It is situated near the Russian frontier, and has been one of the most import...
-Jan Van Broekhuizen
Jan Van Broekhuizen [Janus Broukhusius], (1649-1707), Dutch classical scholar and poet, was born on the 20th of November 1649, at Amsterdam. Having lost his father when very young, he was placed with ...
-Waldemar Christofer Brogger
Waldemar Christofer Brgger (1851- ), Norwegian geologist, was born in Christiania on the 10th of November 1851, and educated in that city. In 1876 he was appointed curator of the geological muse...
-De Broglie
De Broglie, the name of a noble French family which, originally Piedmontese, emigrated to France in the year 1643. The head of the family, Franois Marie (1611-1656), then took the title of com...
-De Broglie. Continued
The July revolution placed him in a difficult position; he knew nothing of the intrigues which placed Louis Philippe on the throne; but, the revolution once accomplished, he was ready to uphold the fa...
-Brogue
Brogue, (1) A rough shoe of raw leather (from the Gael. brog, a shoe) worn in the wilder parts of Ireland and the Scottish Highlands. (2) A dialectical accent or pronunciation (of uncertain origin), e...
-Augustine Susanne Brohan
Augustine Susanne Brohan (1807-1887), French actress, was born in Paris on the 22nd of January 1807. She entered the Conservatoire at the age of eleven, and took the second prize for comedy in 1820, a...
-Arthur Broke, or Brooke
Arthur Broke, or Brooke, Arthu (d. 1563), English author, wrote the first English version of the story of Romeo and Juliet. The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Julieit (1562) is a rhymed account of t...
-Sir Philip Bowes Vere, Bart. Broke
Sir Philip Bowes Vere, Bart. Broke (1776-1841), British rear-admiral, was born at Broke Hall, near Ipswich, on the 9th of September 1776, a member of an old Suffolk family. Entering the navy in June 1...
-Broken Hill
Broken Hill, a silver-mining town of Yancowinna county, New South Wales, Australia, 925 m. directly W. by N. of Sydney, and connected with Adelaide by rail. Pop. (1901) 27,518. One of the neighbouring...
-Broker
Broker (according to the New English Dictionary, from Lat. brocca, spit, spike, broccare, to broach - another Eng. form of the same word; hence O. Fr. vendre broche, to retail, e.g. wine, f...
-Broker. Part 2
Relations Between Broker And Third Party A broker who signs a contract note as broker on behalf of a principal, whether named or not, is not personally liable on the contract to the third party. But ...
-Broker. Part 3
Sometimes they are accompanied by a detachable form, known as the client's return contract note, to be filled in, signed and returned by the client; but even the client's return contract note is r...
-Bromberg
Bromberg, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Posen, 32 m. by rail W.N.W. from the fortress of Thorn, 7 m. W. from the bank of the Vistula, and at the centre of an important network of rail...
-Alexander Brome
Alexander Brome (1620-1666), English poet, was by profession an attorney, and was the author of many drinking songs and of satirical verses in favour of the Royalists and against the Rump. He publishe...
-Richard Brome
Richard Brome (d. 1652), English dramatist, was originally a servant of Ben Jonson, and owed much to his master. The development of his plots, the strongly marked characters and the amount of curious ...
-Bromeliaceae
Bromeliaceae, in botany, a natural order of Monocotyledons, confined to tropical and sub-tropical America. It includes the pine-apple (fig. 1) and the so-called Spanish moss (fig. 2), a rootless plant...
-Bromine
Bromine (symbol Br, atomic weight 79.96), a chemical element of the halogen group, which takes its name from its pungent unpleasant smell (, a stench). It was f...
-Bromine. Part 2
Characters Bromine at ordinary temperatures is a mobile liquid of fine red colour, which appears almost black in thick layers. It boils at 59 C. According to Sir W. Ramsay and S. Young, bromine,...
-Bromine. Part 3
Hydrobromic Acid This acid, HBr, the only compound of hydrogen and bromine, is in many respects similar to hydrochloric acid, but is rather less stable. It may be prepared by passing hydrogen gas and...
-Bromine. Part 4
Applications The salts of bromine are widely used in photography, especially bromide of silver. For antiseptic purposes it has been prepared as bromum solidificatum, which consists of kieselguhr or...
-Sir Thomas Bromley
Sir Thomas Bromley (1530-1587), English lord chancellor, was born in Staffordshire in 1530. He was educated at Oxford University and called to the bar at the Middle Temple. Through family influence as...
-Bromley
Bromley, a municipal borough in the Sevenoaks parliamentary division of Kent, England, 10 m. S.E. by S. of London by the South Eastern & Chatham railway. Pop. (1901) 27,354. It lies on high gr...
-Bromlite
Bromlite, a member of the aragonite group of minerals. It consists of an isomorphous mixture of calcium and barium carbonates in various proportions, (Ca, Ba) CO, and thus differs chemically from bary...
-Brompton
Brompton, a western district of London, England, in the south-east of the metropolitan borough of Kensington. Brompton Road, leading south-west from Knightsbridge, is continued as Old Brompton Road an...
-Bromsgrove
Bromsgrove, a market town in the Eastern parliamentary division of Worcestershire, England, 12 m. N.N.E. of Worcester, with a station 1 m. from the town on the Bristol-Birmingham line of the Midland r...
-Bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis (Gr. , bronchial tubes, and , extension), dilatation of the bronchi, a condition occurring in...
-Bronchitis
Bronchitis, the name given to inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes (see Respiratory System: Pathology). Two main varieties are described, specific and non-specific bronchitis. Th...
-Bronchitis. Continued
Bronchitis is also apt to be very severe when it occurs in persons who are addicted to intemperance. Again, in those who suffer from any disease affecting directly or indirectly the respiratory functi...
-Bronchotomy
Bronchotomy (Gr. , wind-pipe, and , to cut), a medical term used to describe a surgical incision into the throat...
-Bronco
Bronco, usually incorrectly spelt Broncho (a Spanish word meaning rough, rude), an unbroken or untamed horse, especially in the United States, a mustang; the word entered America by way of Mexico. ...
-Peter Oluf Brondsted
Peter Oluf Brndsted (1780-1842), Danish archaeologist and traveller, was born at Fruering in Jutland on the 17th of November 1780. After studying at the university of Copenhagen he visited Paris...
-Adolphe Theodore Brongniart
Adolphe Thodore Brongniart (1801-1876), French botanist, son of the geologist Alexandre Brongniart, was born in Paris on the 14th of January 1801. He soon showed an inclination towards the stu...
-Alexandre Brongniart
Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847), French mineralogist and geologist, son of the eminent architect who designed the Bourse and other public buildings of Paris, was born in that city on the 5th of Febru...
-Heinrich Georg Bronn
Heinrich Georg Bronn (1800-1862), German geologist, was born on the 3rd of March 1800 at Ziegelhausen near Heidelberg. Studying at the university at Heidelberg he took his doctor's degree in the facul...
-Paul Bronsart Von Schellendorf
Paul Bronsart Von Schellendorf (1832-1891), Prussian general, was born at Danzig in 1832. He entered the Prussian Guards in 1849, and was appointed to the general staff in 1861 as a captain; after thr...
-Emily, Anne, and Charlotte Bronte
Charlotte Bront (1816-1855), EMILY (1818-1848), and ANNE (1820-1849), English novelists, were three of the six children of Patrick Bront, a clergyman of the Church of England, who for the ...
-Emily, Anne, and Charlotte Bronte. Continued
Hence the year 1843 was passed by her at the Pensionnat Hger in that capacity, and in this period she undoubtedly widened her intellectual sphere by reading the many books in French literature...
-Bronte
Bronte, a town of the province of Catania, Sicily, on the western slopes of Mt. Etna, 24 m. N.N.W. of Catania direct, and 34 m. by rail. Pop. (1901) 20,366. It was founded by the emperor Charles V. Th...
-The Bronx
The Bronx, formerly a district comprising several towns in Westchester county, New York, U.S.A., now (since 1898) the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City (q.v.). Several settlements in ...
-Bronze
Bronze, an alloy formed wholly or chiefly of copper and tin in variable proportions. The word has been etymologically connected with the same root as appears in brown, but according to M.P.E. Berthe...
-Bronze Age
Bronze Age, the name given by archaeologists to that stage in human culture, intermediate between the Stone and Iron Ages, when weapons, utensils and implements were, as a general rule, made of bronze...
-Bronzing
Bronzing, a process by which a bronze-like surface is imparted to objects of metal, plaster, wood, etc. On metals a green bronze colour is sometimes produced by the action of such substances as vinega...
-IL Bronzino
IL Bronzino, the name given to Angelo Allori (1502-1572), the Florentine painter. He became the favourite pupil of J. da Pontormo. He painted the portraits of some of the most famous men of his day, s...
-Bronzite
Bronzite, a member of the pyroxene group of minerals, belonging with enstatite and hypersthene to the orthorhombic series of the group. Rather than a distinct species, it is really a ferriferous varie...
-Brooch, Or Broach
Brooch, Or Broach (from the Fr. broche, originally an awl or bodkin; a spit is sometimes called a broach, and hence the phrase to broach a barrel; see Broker), a term now used to denote a clasp or f...
-Brooch, Or Broach. Continued
In the tombs of the Frankish and kindred Teutonic tribes between the 5th and 9th centuries the crossbar of the T becomes a yet more elaborately decorated semicircle, often surrounded by radial knobs a...
-Frances Brooke
Frances Brooke (1724-1789), English novelist and dramatist, whose maiden name was Moore, was born in 1724. Of her novels, some of which enjoyed considerable popularity in their day, the most important...
-Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke
Fulke Greville, 1st Baron Brooke (1554-1628), English poet, only son of Sir Fulke Greville, was born at Beauchamp Court, Warwickshire. He was sent in 1564, on the same day as his life-long friend, Phi...
-Henry Brooke
Henry Brooke (c. 1703-1783), Irish author, son of William Brooke, rector of Killinkere, Co. Cavan, was born at Rantavan in the same county, about 1703. His mother was a daughter of Simon Digby, bishop...
-Sir James Brooke
Sir James Brooke (1803-1868), English soldier, traveller and raja of Sarawak, was born at Coombe Grove near Bath, on the 29th of April 1803. His father, a member of the civil service of the East India...
-Stopford Augustus Brooke
Stopford Augustus Brooke (1832- ), English divine and man of letters, born at Letterkenny, Donegal, Ireland, in 1832, was educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He was ordained in the Church of England ...
-Brook Farm
Brook Farm, the name applied to a tract of land in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, on which in 1841-1847 a communistic experiment was unsuccessfully tried. The experiment was one of the practical manifes...
-Brookite
Brookite, one of the three modifications in which titanium dioxide (TiO) occurs in nature; the other minerals with the same chemical composition, but with different physical and crystallographic chara...
-Brooklime
Brooklime, known botanically as Veronica Beccabunga (natural order Scrophulariaceae), a succulent herb growing on margins of brooks and ditches in the British Isles, and a native of Europe, north Afri...
-Brookline
Brookline, a township of Norfolk county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., about 3 m. S.W. of Boston, lying immediately S. of the Back Bay district. Pop. (1890) 12,103; (1900) 19,935, of whom 6536 were foreign-b...
-Brooklyn
Brooklyn, formerly a city of New York state, U.S.A., but since 1898 a borough of New York City (q.v.), situated at the S.W. extremity of Long Island. It is conterminous with Kings county, and is bound...
-Brooklyn. Part 2
Parks And Cemeteries One of the most attractive features of Brooklyn is Prospect Park, occupying about 516 acres of high ground in the west central part of the borough, on a site made memorable by th...
-Brooklyn. Part 3
Education The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences embraces twenty-six departments, of which those of music, philology and the fine arts have each more than 1000 members; the total membership of a...
-Brooklyn. Part 4
Manufactures And Commerce The borough of Brooklyn is one of the most important manufacturing centres in the United States, most of the factories being located along or near the East river north of th...
-Charles William Shirley Brooks
Charles William Shirley Brooks (1816-1874), English novelist, playwright and journalist, was born on the 29th of April 1816. He was the son of a London architect, and was articled in 1832 to a solicit...
-Phillips Brooks
Phillips Brooks (1835-1893), American clergyman and author, was born in Boston, Mass., on the 13th of December 1835. Through his father, William Gray Brooks, he was descended from the Rev. John Cotton...
-Brookss
Brookss, a London club in St James's Street. It was founded in 1764 by the dukes of Roxburghe and Portland. The building had been previously opened as a gaming-house by William Macall (Almack), and af...
-Broom
Broom, known botanically as Cytisus, or Sarothamnus, scoparius, a member of the natural order Leguminosae, a shrub found on heaths and commons in the British Isles, and also in Europe (except the nort...
-William Broome
William Broome (1689-1745), English scholar and poet, the son of a farmer, was born at Haslington, Cheshire, where he was baptized on the 3rd of May 1689. He was educated at Eton, where he became capt...
-Broom-Rape
Broom-Rape, known botanically as Orobanche, a genus of brown leafless herbs growing attached to the roots of other plants from which they derive their nourishment. The usually stout stem bears brownis...
-Moritz Brosch
Moritz Brosch (1829-1907), German historian, was born at Prague on the 7th of April 1829, was educated at Prague and Vienna, and became a journalist. Later he devoted himself to historical study, and ...
-Broseley
Broseley, a market town in the municipal borough of Wenlock (q.v.) and the Wellington (Mid) parliamentary division of Shropshire, England, on the right bank of the Severn. It has a station (Ironbridge...
-Charles De Brosses
Charles De Brosses (1709-1777), French magistrate and scholar, was born at Dijon and studied law with a view to the magistracy. The bent of his mind, however, was towards literature and science, and, ...
-Brother
Brother, a male person in his relation to the other children of the same father and mother. Brother represents in English the Teutonic branch of a word common to the Indo-European languages, of. Ger...
-Richard Brothers
Richard Brothers (1757-1824), British religious fanatic, was born in Newfoundland on Christmas day, 1757, and educated at Woolwich. He entered the navy and served under Keppel and Rodney. In 1783 he b...
-Brothers Of Common Life
Brothers Of Common Life, a religious community formerly existing in the Catholic Church. Towards the end of his career Gerhard Groot (q.v.) retired to his native town of Deventer, in the province of O...
-Robert Brough
Robert Brough (1872-1905), British painter, was born at Invergordon, Ross-shire. He was educated at Aberdeen, and, whilst apprenticed for over six years as lithographer to Messrs Gibb & Co., attended ...
-John Brougham
John Brougham (1814-1880), British actor, was born at Dublin on the 9th of May 1814, and was educated for a surgeon. Owing to family misfortunes he was thrown upon his own resources and made his first...
-Brougham
Brougham, a four-wheeled closed carriage, seating two or more persons, and drawn by a single horse or pair, or propelled by motor. The modern brougham has developed and taken its name from the odd ...
-Henry Peter Brougham Brougham And Vaux
Henry Peter Brougham Brougham And Vaux, 1st Baron (1778-1868), lord chancellor of England, was born at Edinburgh on the 19th of September 1778. He was the eldest son of Henry Brougham and Eleanora, da...
-Henry Peter Brougham Brougham And Vaux. Part 2
He remained out of parliament during the four eventful years from 1812 to 1816, which witnessed the termination of the war, and he did not conceal his resentment against the Whigs. But in the years he...
-Henry Peter Brougham Brougham And Vaux. Part 3
Amongst the difficulties of the new premier and the Whig party were the position and attitude of Brougham. He was not the leader of any party, and had no personal following in the House of Commons. Mo...
-Henry Peter Brougham Brougham And Vaux. Part 4
He had remodelled the judicial committee in 1833, and it still remains one of the most useful of his creations. In the year 1860 a second patent was conferred upon him by Queen Victoria, with a rever...
-Hugh Broughton
Hugh Broughton (1549-1612), English scholar and divine, was born at Owlbury, Bishop's Castle, Shropshire, in 1549. He was educated by Bernard Gilpin at Houghton-le-Spring and at Cambridge, where he be...
-Baron John Cam Hobhouse Broughton
Baron John Cam Hobhouse Broughton, (1786-1869), English writer and politician, was the eldest son of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, Bart., by his wife Charlotte, daughter of Samuel Cam of Chantry House, Brad...
-Broughty Ferry
Broughty Ferry, a municipal and police burgh, seaport and watering-place of Forfarshire, Scotland, on the Firth of Tay, 4 m. E. of Dundee by the North British railway. Pop. (1901) 10,484. The name is ...
-Francois Joseph Victor Broussais
Franois Joseph Victor Broussais (1772-1838), French physician, was born at St Malo on the 17th of December 1772. From his father, who was also a physician, he received his first instructions i...
-Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet
Pierre Marie Auguste Broussonet (1761-1807), French naturalist, was born at Montpellier on the 28th of February 1761, and was educated for the medical profession. Visiting England, he was admitted in ...
-Adrian Brouwer, or Brauwer
Adrian Brouwer, or Brauwer, (1608-1640), Dutch painter, was born at Haarlem, of very humble parents, who bound him apprentice to the painter Frans Hals. Brouwer had an admirable eye for colour, and m...
-Charles Brockden Brown
Charles Brockden Brown (1771-1810), American novelist, was born of Quaker parents in Philadelphia, on the 17th of January 1771. Of delicate constitution and retiring habits, he early devoted himself t...
-Ford Madox Brown
Ford Madox Brown (1821-1893), English painter, was born at Calais on the 16th of April 1821. His father was Ford Brown, a retired purser in the navy; his mother, Caroline Madox, of an old Kentish fami...
-Francis Brown
Francis Brown (1849- ), American Semitic scholar, was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, on the 26th of December 1849, the son of Samuel Gilman Brown (1813-1885), president of Hamilton College from 1867 ...
-Sir George Brown
Sir George Brown (1790-1865), British soldier, was born and educated in Elgin, Scotland. He obtained a commission in the 43rd (now 1st Bn. Oxfordshire) Light Infantry in 1806, was promoted lieutenant ...
-George Brown
George Brown (1818-1880), Canadian journalist and statesman, was born in Edinburgh on the 29th of November 1818, and was educated in his native city. With his father, Peter Brown (d. 1863), he emigrat...
-Henry Kirke Brown
Henry Kirke Brown (1814-1886), American sculptor, was born in Leyden, Massachusetts, on the 24th of February 1814. He began to paint portraits while quite a boy, studied painting in Boston under Chest...
-Jacob Brown
Jacob Brown (1775-1828), American soldier, was born of Quaker ancestry, in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on the 9th of May 1775. From 1796 to 1798 he was engaged in surveying public lands in Ohio; in 17...
-John Brown, British divine and author
John Brown (1715-1766), British divine and author, was born at Rothbury, Northumberland, on the 5th of November 1715. His father, a descendant of the Browns of Coalston, near Haddington, became vicar ...
-John Brown, Scottish Divine
John Brown (1722-1787), Scottish divine, was born at Carpow, in Perthshire. He was almost entirely self-educated, having acquired a knowledge of Latin, Greek and Hebrew while employed as a shepherd. H...
-John Brown, Scottish Physician
John Brown (1735-1788), Scottish physician, was born in 1735 at Lintlaws or at Preston, Berwickshire. After attending the parish school at Duns, he went to Edinburgh and entered the divinity classes a...
-John Brown
John Brown (1784-1858), Scottish divine, grandson of the last-named, was born at Whitburn, Linlithgowshire, on the 12th of July 1784. He studied at Glasgow university, and afterwards at the divinity h...
-John Brown, American Abolitionist
John Brown (1800-1859), American abolitionist, leader of the famous attack upon Harper's Ferry, in 1859, was born on the 9th of May 1800, at Torrington, Connecticut. He is said to have been descended ...
-John Brown, Scottish Physician And Author
John Brown (1810-1882), Scottish physician and author, son of John Brown (1784-1858), was born at Biggar, Scotland, on the 22nd of September 1810. He graduated as M.D. at the university of Edinburgh i...
-Sir John Brown, English Armour Plate Manufacturer
Sir John Brown (1816-1896), English armour plate manufacturer, was born at Sheffield on the 6th of December 1816, the son of a slater. He was apprenticed when fourteen years old to a Sheffield firm wh...
-John George Brown
John George Brown (1831- ), American painter, was born in Durham, England, on the 11th of November 1831. He studied at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in the Edinburgh Academy, and after removing to New York City ...
-Robert Brown
Robert Brown (1773-1858), British botanist, was born on the 21st of December 1773 at Montrose, and was educated at the grammar school of his native town, where he had as contemporaries Joseph Hume and...
-Samuel Morison Brown
Samuel Morison Brown (1817-1856), Scottish chemist, poet and essayist, born at Haddington on the 23rd of February 1817, was the fourth son of Samuel Brown, the founder of itinerating libraries, and gr...
-Thomas Brown, English Satirist
Thomas Brown (1663-1704), English satirist, of facetious memory as Addison designates him, was the son of a farmer at Shifnal, in Shropshire, and was born in 1663. He was entered in 1678 at Christ C...
-Thomas Brown, Scottish Philosopher
Thomas Brown (1778-1820), Scottish philosopher, was born at Kirkmabreck, Kirkcudbright, where his father was parish clergyman. He was a boy of a refined nature, a wide reader and an eager student. Edu...
-Thomas Edward Brown
Thomas Edward Brown (1830-1897), British poet, scholar and divine, was born on the 5th of May 1830, at Douglas, Isle of Man. His father, the Rev. Robert Brown, held the living of St Matthew's - a home...
-Sir William Brown
Sir William Brown, Bart. (1784-1864), British merchant and banker, founder of the banking-house of Brown, Shipley & Co., was born at Ballymena, Ireland, on the 30th of May 1784, the son of an Irish li...
-William Laurence Brown
William Laurence Brown (1755-1830), Scottish divine, was born on the 7th of January 1755 at Utrecht, where his father was minister of the English church. The father, having been appointed professor of...
-Brown Bess
Brown Bess, a name given in the British army to the flintlock musket with which the infantry were formerly armed. The term is applied generally to the weapon of the 18th and early 19th centuries, and ...
-Edward Harold Browne
Edward Harold Browne (1811-1891), English bishop, was born at Aylesbury and educated at Eton and Cambridge. He was ordained in 1836, and two years later was elected senior tutor of Emmanuel College, C...
-Hablot Knight Browne
Hablt Knight Browne (1815-1882), English artist, famous as Phiz, the illustrator of the best-known books by Charles Dickens, Charles Lever and Harrison Ainsworth in their original editions. H...
-Isaac Hawkins Browne
Isaac Hawkins Browne (1705-1760), English poet, was born on the 21st of January 1705 at Burton-upon-Trent, of which place his father was vicar. He was educated at Lichfield, at Westminster school, and...
-James Browne
James Browne (1703-1841), Scottish man of letters, was born at Whitefield, Perthshire, in 1793. He was educated at Edinburgh and at the university of St Andrews, where he studied for the church. He wr...
-Sir James Browne
Sir James Browne (1839-1896), Anglo-Indian engineer and administrator, was the son of Robert Browne of Falkirk in Scotland. He was educated at the military college, Addiscombe, and received a commissi...
-Maximilian Ulysses Browne
Maximilian Ulysses Browne, Count von, Baron de Camus and Mountany (1705-1757), Austrian field marshal, was born at Basel on the 23rd of October 1705. His father (Ulysses Freiherr v. Browne, d. 1731) w...
-Peter Browne
Peter Browne (?1665-1735), Irish divine and bishop of Cork and Ross, was born in Co. Dublin, not long after the Restoration. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1682, and after ten years' residence...
-Robert Browne
Robert Browne (1550-1633), a leader among the early Separatist Puritans (hence sometimes called Brownists), was born about 1550 at Tolethorpe, near Stamford. He was of an ancient family, several membe...
-Sir Thomas Browne
Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682), English author and physician, was born in London, on the 19th of October 1605. He was admitted as a scholar of Winchester school in 1616, and matriculated at Broadgates ...
-William Browne
William Browne (1591-1643), English pastoral poet, was born at Tavistock, Devonshire, in 1591, of a branch of the family of Browne of Betchworth Castle, Surrey. He received his early education at the ...
-William George Browne
William George Browne (1768-1813), English traveller, was born at Great Tower Hill, London, on the 25th of July 1768. At seventeen he was sent to Oriel College, Oxford. Having had a moderate competenc...
-Brownhills
Brownhills, an urban district in the Lichfield parliamentary division of Staffordshire, England, 6 m. W. of Lichfield, on branch lines of the London & North-Western and Midland railways, and near the ...
-Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861), English poet, wife of the poet Robert Browning, was born probably at Coxhoe Hall, Durham, for this was the home of her father and mother for some time after the...
-Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Part 2
A few days before she had written, There are so many mercies close around me that God's being seems proved to me, demonstrated to me, by His manifested love. When the blow came, its heavy weight and...
-Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Part 3
Her letters, written with tears to entreat his pardon, were never answered. They were all subsequently returned to her unopened. Among them was one she had written, in the prospect of danger, before t...
-Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Part 4
The little book was judged with some impatience, A Curse for a Nation being mistaken for a denunciation of England, whereas it was aimed at America and her slavery. The Athenaeum, amongst others, comm...
-Oscar Browning
Oscar Browning (1837- ), English writer, was born in London on the 17th of January 1837, the son of a merchant, William Shipton Browning. He was educated at Eton and at King's College, Cambridge, of w...
-Robert Browning
Robert Browning (1812-1889), English poet, was born at Camberwell, London, on the 7th of May 1812. He was the son of Robert Browning (1781-1866), who for fifty years was employed in the Bank of Englan...
-Robert Browning. Part 2
They are, as he gave notice, poems, not dramas. The interest is not in the external events, but in the development of a soul; but they are observations of other men's souls, not direct revelations...
-Robert Browning. Part 3
Their vigour and originality failed to overcome at once the presumption against the author of Sordello. Yet Browning was already known to and appreciated by such literary celebrities of the day as Tal...
-Robert Browning. Part 4
Gold Hair is a legend of Pornic, and Herv Riel was written at Le Croisic. At St Aubyn he had the society of Joseph Milsand, who had shown his warm appreciation of Browning's poetry by an artic...
-Robert Browning. Part 5
The appreciation of Browning's genius became general in his later years, and zeal was perhaps a little heightened by the complacency of disciples able to penetrate a supposed mist of obscurity. The Br...
-Charles Edward Brown-Sequard
Charles Edward Brown-Squard (1817-1894), British physiologist and neurologist, was born at Port Louis, Mauritius, on the 8th of April 1817. His father was an American and his mother a Frenchwo...
-Orestes Augustus Brownson
Orestes Augustus Brownson (1803-1876), American theological, philosophical and sociological writer, was born in Stockbridge, Vermont, on the 16th of September 1803. Having spent some time in active re...
-Brownsville
Brownsville, a city and the county-seat of Cameron county, Texas, U.S.A., situated near the S. extremity of the state, on the Rio Grande river about 22 m. above its mouth, and opposite Matamoras, Mexi...
-Bruay
Bruay, a town of northern France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, on the Lawe, 19 m. N.N.W. of Arras by road. Pop. (1906) 16,169. The town is situated in a rich coal-mining district. Brewing is al...
-Bruce
Bruce, the name of an old Scottish family of Norman descent, taken from Bruis between Cherbourg and Vallonges. Variations of the name are Braose, Breaux and Brus. The first Robert de Brus, a follower ...
-Alexander Balmain Bruce
Alexander Balmain Bruce (1831-1899), Scottish divine, was born at Aberargie near Perth on the 31st of January 1831. His father suffered for his adherence to the Free Church at the Disruption in 1843, ...
-James Bruce
James Bruce (1730-1794), Scottish explorer in Africa, was born at Kinnaird House, Stirlingshire, on the 14th of December 1730. He was educated at Harrow and Edinburgh University, and began to study fo...
-Michael Bruce
Michael Bruce (1746-1767), Scottish poet, was born at Kinnesswood in the parish of Portmoak, Kinross-shire, on the 27th of March 1746. His father, Alexander Bruce, was a weaver, and a man of exception...
-Max Bruch
Max Bruch (1838- ), German musical composer, son of a city official and grandson of the famous Evangelical cleric, Dr Christian Bruch, was born at Cologne on the 6th of January 1838. From his mother (...
-Bruchsal
Bruchsal, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, prettily situated on the Saalbach, 14 m. N. from Karlsruhe, and an important junction on the main railway from Mannheim to Constance. Pop. (19...
-Chno Brucine
Chno Brucine, an alkaloid isolated in 1819 by J. Pelletier and J.B. Caventou from false Angustura bark. It crystallizes in prisms with four molecules of water; when anhydrous it melts at 178. I...
-Brucite
Brucite, a mineral consisting of magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH), and crystallizing in the rhombohedral system. It was first described in 1814 as native magnesia from New Jersey by A. Bruce, an American...
-Bruckenau
Brckenau, a town and fashionable watering-place of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the Sinn, 16 m. N.W. of Kissingen. The mineral springs, five in number, situated in the pleasant valley ...
-Johann Jakob Brucker
Johann Jakob Brucker (1696-1770), German historian of philosophy, was born at Augsburg. He was destined for the church, and graduated at the university of Jena in 1718. He returned to Augsburg in 1720...
-Franz Ernst Bruckmann
Franz Ernst Brckmann (1697-1753), German mineralogist, was born on the 27th of September 1697 at Marienthal near Helmstdt. Having qualified as a medical man in 1721, he practised at Brunsw...
-Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner (1824-1896), Austrian musical composer, was born on the 4th of September 1824 at Ansfelden in upper Austria. He successfully competed for the organistship for Linz Cathedral in 1855. In...
-Bruges
Bruges (Flemish Brugge, a name signifying the bridge or place of bridges), the capital of West Flanders, Belgium. Pop. (1904) 53,728. The city contains some of the finest monuments of the great period...
-Heinrich Karl Brugsch
Heinrich Karl Brugsch (1827-1894), German Egyptologist, was the son of a Prussian cavalry officer, and was born in the barracks at Berlin, on the 18th of February 1827. He early manifested a great inc...
-Heinrich Bruhl
Heinrich Brhl, Count von (1700-1763), German statesman at the court of Saxony, was born on the 13th of August 1700. He was the son of Johann Moritz von Brhl, a noble who held the office of...
-Bruhl
Brhl, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, 8 m. S.W. from Cologne on the main railway to Coblenz. Pop. (1900) 5000. Its pleasant situation at the foot of one of the spurs of the Ei...
-Brumaire
Brumaire, the name of the second month in the republican calendar which was established in France by a decree of the National Convention on the 5th of October in the year II. (1793), completed with re...
-Brumath
Brumath, or Brumpt, a town of Germany, in the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine, on the Zorn and the Strassburg-Avricourt railway. Pop. 5500. It has a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church, and o...
-Brummagem
Brummagem (an old local form of Birmingham), a name first applied to a counterfeit coin made in the city of Birmingham, England, in the I7th century, and later to the plated and imitation articles m...
-George Bryan Brummell
George Bryan Brummell (1778-1840), English man of fashion, known as Beau Brummell, was born in London on the 7th of June 1778. His father was private secretary to Lord North from 1770 to 1782, and s...
-Richard Francois Philippe Brunck
Richard Franois Philippe Brunck (1729-1803), French classical scholar, was born at Strassburg on the 30th of December 1729. He was educated at the Jesuits' College at Paris, and took part in t...
-Brundisium
Brundisium (Gr. , mod. Brindisi), an important harbour town of Calabria (in the ancient sense), Italy, on the E.S.E. coast. The name is s...
-Guillaume Marie Anne Brune
Guillaume Marie Anne Brune (1763-1815), marshal of France, the son of an advocate, was born at Brives-la-Gaillarde (Corrze), on the 13th of March 1763. Before the Revolution he went to Paris t...
-Alfred Bruneau
Alfred Bruneau (1857- ), French musical composer, was born in Paris. His parents were devoted to music, and he was brought up to play the 'cello, being educated at the Paris Conservatoire. He played i...
-Brunei
Brunei, a state situated in the north-west of Borneo. It has been so diminished in area since the beginning of the 19th century as to have become in comparison with the other states of Borneo territor...
-Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859), English engineer, only son of Sir M.I. Brunel, was born at Portsmouth on the 9th of April 1806. He displayed in childhood singular powers of mental calculation, gr...
-Sir Marc Isambard Brunel
Sir Marc Isambard Brunel (1769-1849), British inventor and engineer, was born at Hacqueville in Normandy on the 25th of April 1769. His father, a small landowner and farmer, intended him for the churc...
-Filippo Brunelleschi, or Brunellesco
Filippo Brunelleschi (or Brunellesco), (1379-1446), Italian architect, the reviver in Italy of the Roman or Classic style, was born at Florence in 1379. His father, a notary, had destined him for his ...
-Jacques Charles Brunet
Jacques Charles Brunet (1780-1867), French bibliographer, was born in Paris on the 2nd of November 1780. He was the son of a bookseller, and in 1802 he printed a supplement to the Dictionnaire bibiogr...
-Ferdinand Brunetiere
Ferdinand Brunetire (1849-1906), French critic and man of letters, was born at Toulon on the 19th July 1849. After attending a school at Marseilles, he studied in Paris at the Lyce Lou...
-Brunhild
Brunhild (M.H. Ger. Brnhilt or Prnhilt, Nor. Brynhildr), the name of a mythical heroine of various versions of the legend of the Nibelungs. The name means the warrior woman in armour (fr...
-Brunhilda
Brunhilda (Brunechildis), queen of Austrasia (d. 613), was a daughter of Athanagild, king of the Visigoths. In 567 she was asked in marriage by Sigebert, who was reigning at Metz. She now abjured Aria...
-Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni (1369-1444), Italian scholar, author of the History of Florence, was born at Arezzo, and is generally known as Leonardo Aretino. He was secretary to the papal chancery under Innocent VI...
-Brunn
Brnn (Czech Brno), the capital of the Austrian margraviate and crownland of Moravia, 89 m. N. of Vienna by rail. Pop. (1900) 108,944, of whom 70% are Germans and 30% are Czechs. Brnn is si...
-Henry Brunner
Henry Brunner (1840- ), German historian, was born at Wels in Upper Austria on the 22nd of June 1840. After studying at the universities of Vienna, Gttingen and Berlin, he became professor at th...
-Franz Friedrich Ernst Brunnow
Franz Friedrich Ernst Brnnow (1821-1891), German astronomer, was born in Berlin on the 18th of November 1821. Between the ages of eight and eighteen he attended the Friedrich-Wilhelm gymnasium. ...
-Saint Bruno
Saint Bruno, founder of the Carthusians, was born in Cologne about 1030; he was educated there and afterwards at Reims and Tours, where he studied under Berengar. He was ordained at Cologne, and thenc...
-Bruno, Or Brun
Bruno, Or Brun (925-965), archbishop of Cologne, third son of the German king, Henry I., the Fowler, by his second wife Matilda, was educated for the church at Utrecht, where he distinguished himself ...
-Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno (c. 1548-1600), Italian philosopher of the Renaissance, was born near Nola in the village of Cicala. Little is known of his life. He was christened Filippo, and took the name Giordano o...
-St. Bruno Of Querfur
St. Bruno Of Querfur (Brun, Bruns) (c. 975-1009), German missionary bishop and martyr, belonged to the family of the lords of Querfurt in Saxony. He was educated at the famous cathedral school at Magd...
-Brunsbuttel
Brunsbttel, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, on the N. bank of the Elbe, 60 m. N.W. from Hamburg. Pop. (1905) 2500. Brunsbttel is the west terminu...
-Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Brunswick
Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Brunswick, Duke of (1735-1806), German general, was born on the 9th of October 1735 at Wolfenbttel. He received an unusually wide and thorough education, and travelled in ...
-Brunswick, Glynn County, Georgia, U.S.A
Brunswick, a city and the county-seat of Glynn county, Georgia, U.S.A., and a port of entry, on St Simon Sound, about 12 m. from the Atlantic Ocean, and about 100 m. S. of Savannah. Pop. (1890) 8459; ...
-Brunswick, Northern Germany
Brunswick (Ger. Braunschweig), a sovereign duchy of northern Germany, and a constituent state of the German empire, comprising three larger and six smaller portions of territory. The principal or nort...
-Brunswick, Northern Germany. Continued
History The lands which comprise the modern duchy of Brunswick belonged in the 10th century to the family of the Brunos, whence the name Brunswick is derived, of the counts of Nordheim, and the count...
-Brunswick, Germany
Brunswick, a city of Germany, capital of the duchy of that name, situated in a fertile and undulating country, on the Oker, 37 m. S.E. from Hanover and 53 N.W. from Magdeburg, on the main line of rail...
-Brunswick, Cumberland county, Maine, U.S.A
Brunswick, a village of Cumberland county, Maine, U.S.A., in the township of Brunswick, on the Androscoggin river, 9 m. W. of Bath, and 27 m. N.N.E. of Portland. Pop. of the township (1900) 6806; (191...
-August Wilhelm Brunswick-Bevern
August Wilhelm Brunswick-Bevern, Duke of (1715-1781), Prussian soldier, son of Ernst Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick-Bevern, was born at Brunswick in 1715, and entered the Prussian army in 1731, becoming...
-Mary Brunton
Mary Brunton (1778-1818), Scottish novelist, was born on the 1st of November 1778 in the island of Varra, Orkney. She was the daughter of Captain Thomas Balfour of Elwick. At the age of twenty she mar...
-Brusa, Or Broussa
Brusa, Or Broussa (anc. Prusa), the capital of the Brusa (Khudavendikiar) vilayet of Asia Minor, which includes parts of ancient Mysia, Bithynia, and Phrygia, and extends in a southeasterly direction ...
-George De Forest Brush
George De Forest Brush (1855- ), American painter, was born at Shelbyville, Tennessee, on the 28th of September 1855. He was a pupil of J.L. Grme at Paris, and became a member of the Na...
-Brush
Brush (from Fr. brosse, which, like the English word, means both the undergrowth of a wood and the instrument; if the word in both these meanings is ultimately the same, then the origin is from a bund...
-Brussels
Brussels (Fr. Bruxelles, Flem. Brussel), the capital of the kingdom of Belgium, and of the province of Brabant, situated in 50 51 N., 4 22 E., about 70 m. from the sea at Osten...
-Brussels. Continued
The Palais de la Nation was constructed between 1779 and 1783, also during the Austrian period. It was intended for the states-general and government offices. During the French occupation the law cour...
-History of Brussels
The name Brussel seems to have been derived from Broeksele, the village on the marsh or brook, and probably it was the most used point for crossing the Senne on the main Roman and Frank road between T...
-Brut
Brut, Brute, or Brutus the Trojan, a legendary British character, who, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth and others, was the eponymous hero of Britain. He was reputed to be grandson of Aeneas, and the...
-Simon William Gabriel Brute
Simon William Gabriel Brut (1779-1839), American prelate, first Roman Catholic bishop of the diocese of Vincennes, Indiana, U.S.A., was born at Rennes, France, on the 20th of March 1779, his f...
-Bruttii
Bruttii, an ancient tribe of lower Italy. This tribe, called Bruttii and Brittii in Latin inscriptions, and on Greek coins and by Greek authors, occu...
-Brutus
Brutus (originally an adjective meaning heavy, stupid, kindred with Gr. , cf. Eng. brute, brutal), the surname of several distinguished Romans belonging to th...
-Brux
Brx, a town of Bohemia, Austria, 93 m. N.N.W. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 21,525. It is dominated by the Schlossberg (1307 ft.), on which is situated the ruins of an old castle, demolished in...
-Theodorus Bry
Theodorus Bry [Dirk] DE (1528-1598), German engraver and publisher, was born at Lige in 1528. In the earlier years of his career he worked at Strassburg. Later he established an engraving and ...
-William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan (1860- ), American political leader, son of Silas Lillard Bryan, a native of Culpeper county, Virginia, who was a lawyer and from 1860 to 1897 a state circuit judge, was born at...
-Bryansk
Bryansk, a town of Russia, in the government of Orel, 83 m. by rail W.N.W. of the city of that name, in 53 15 N. and 34 10 E. on the river Desna. It is mentioned in 1146, being...
-Jacob Bryant
Jacob Bryant (1715-1804), English antiquarian and writer on mythological subjects, was born at Plymouth. His father had a place in the customs there, but was afterwards stationed at Chatham. The son w...
-William Cullen Bryant
William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878), American poet and journalist, was born at Cummington, a farming village in the Hampshire hills of western Massachusetts, on the 3rd of November 1794. He was the seco...
-Bryaxis
Bryaxis, one of the four great sculptors who worked on the mausoleum at Halicarnassus, about 350 B.C. His work on that monument cannot be separated from that of his companions, but a basis has been di...
-James Bryce
James Bryce (1838- ), British jurist, historian and politician, son of James Bryce (LL.D. of Glasgow, who had a school in Belfast for many years), was born at Belfast, Ireland, on the 10th of May 1838...
-Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges
Sir Samuel Egerton Brydges (1762-1837), English genealogist and miscellaneous writer, was born on the 30th of November 1762. He studied at Queens' College, Cambridge, and was entered at the Middle Tem...
-Nicephorus Bryennius
Nicephorus Bryennius (1062-1137), Byzantine soldier, statesman and historian, was born at Orestias (Adrianople). His father, of the same name, had revolted against the feeble Michael VII., but had bee...
-Brynmawr
Brynmawr, a market town of Brecknockshire, Wales, 14 m. S.E. of Brecknock and 156 m. from London by rail. Pop. of urban district (1901) 6833. It is on the London & North-Western and Rhymney jo...
-Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College, an institution of advanced learning for women, at Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., 5 m. W. of Philadelphia. The site occupies 52 acres and overlooks a broad expanse of rolling count...
-Bryophyta
Bryophyta, the botanical name of the second great subdivision of the vegetable kingdom, which includes the mosses and liverworts. They are all plants of small, often minute, size, and, as the absence ...
-Hepaticae (Liverworts)
The range of form and structure of both generations in the liverworts is so great that no one form can be taken as a satisfactory type. It will, however, be of use to preface the more general descript...
-Hepaticae (Liverworts). Continued
The sporogonium even in the simplest forms has a sterile foot, but in this series also the origin of elaters from sterile cells can be traced. The Anthocerotales are a small and very distinct group, i...
-Hepaticae (Liverworts). Part 2
Marchantiales The plants of this group are most abundant in warm sunny localities, and grow for the most part on soil or rocks often in exposed situations. Nine genera are represented in Britain. Tar...
-Hepaticae (Liverworts). Part 3
Jungermanniales This large series of liverworts, which presents great variety in the organization of the sexual generation, is divided into two main groups according to whether the formation of arche...
-Hepaticae (Liverworts). Part 4
Jungermanniaceae Acrogynae The plant consists of leafy shoots, the origin of which can be understood in the light of the foliose forms described above. The great majority of existing liverworts belon...
-Hepaticae (Liverworts). Part 5
Anthocerotales This small and very natural group includes the three genera Anthoceros, Dendroceros and Notothylas, and stands in many respects in an isolated position among the Bryophyta. Three speci...
-Musci (Mosses)
Though the number of species of mosses is far greater than of liverworts, the group offers much less diversity of form. The sexual generation is always a leafy plant, which is not developed directly f...
-Musci (Mosses). Part 2
On the whole mosses grow in drier situations than the liverworts, and the arrangements they present for the conduction of water in the plant are also more complete and suggest in some cases comparison...
-Musci (Mosses). Part 3. Sphagnales
The single genus Sphagnum occupies a very distinct and isolated position among mosses. The numerous species, which are familiar as the bog-mosses, are so similar that minute structural characters have...
-Musci (Mosses). Part 4. Bryales
In contrast to the preceding two this group includes a very large number of genera and species. Thus even in Britain between five and six hundred species belonging to more than one hundred genera are ...
-Musci (Mosses). Part 5
In a number of forms, which were formerly grouped together, the capsule does not open to liberate the spores. These cleistocarpous forms are now recognized as related to various natural groups, in whi...
-Thaddeus Brzozowski
Thaddeus Brzozowski (d. 1820), nineteenth general of the Jesuits, was appointed in succession to Gabriel Gruber on the 2nd of September 1805. In 1801 Pius VII. had given the Jesuits liberty to reconst...
-Bubastis
Bubastis, the Graecized name of the Egyptian goddess Ubasti, meaning she of [the city] Bast (B;s-t), a city better known by its later name, P-ubasti, place of Ubasti; thus the goddess derived her ...
-Bucaramanga
Bucaramanga, a city of Colombia, capital of the department of Santandr, about 185 m. N.N.E. of Bogot. Pop. (estimate, 1902) 25,000. It is situated on the Lebrija river, 3248 ft. above ...
-Buccaneers
Buccaneers, the name given to piratical adventurers of different nationalities united in their opposition to Spain, who maintained themselves chiefly in the Caribbean Sea during the 17th century. The...
-Buccaneers. Part 2
But the untimely death of Mansfield nipped in the bud the only rational scheme of settlement which seems at any time to have animated this wild community; and Morgan, now elected commander, swept the ...
-Buccaneers. Part 3
The brilliant exploits begun by the sack of Leon and Realejo by the English under Davis have, even in their variety and daring, a sameness which deprives them of interest, and the wonderful confederac...
-Buccari
Buccari (Serbo-Croatian Bakar), a royal free town of Croatia-Slavonia, Hungary; situated in the county of Modru-Fiume, 7 m. S.E. of Fiume, on a small bay of the Adriatic Sea. Pop. (1900) 1870....
-Buccina
Buccina (more correctly Bcna, Gr. , connected with bucca, cheek, and Gr. , a brass wind instrument extensively used in t...
-Dukes Of Buccleuch
Dukes Of Buccleuch. The substantial origin of the ducal house of the Scotts of Buccleuch dates back to the large grants of lands in Scotland to Sir Walter Scott of Kirkurd and Buccleuch, a border chie...
-Bucentaur
Bucentaur (Ital. bucintoro), the state gallery of the doges of Venice, on which, every year on Ascension day up to 1789, they put into the Adriatic in order to perform the ceremony of wedding the sea...
-Bucephalus
Bucephalus (Gr. ), the favourite Thracian horse of Alexander the Great, which died in 326 B.C., either of wounds received i...
-Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer (or Butzer), (1491-1551), German Protestant reformer, was born in 1491 at Schlettstadt in Alsace. In 1506 he entered the Dominican order, and was sent to study at Heidelberg. There he be...
-Christian Leopold Von Buch
Christian Leopold Von Buch, Baron (1774-1853), German geologist and geographer, a member of an ancient and noble Prussian family, was born at Stolpe in Pomerania on the 26th of April 1774. In 1790-179...
-Earls Of Buchan
Earls Of Buchan. The earldom of Mar and Buchan was one of the seven original Scottish earldoms; later, Buchan was separated from Mar, and among the early earls of Buchan were Alexander Comyn (d. 1289)...
-Elspeth Buchan
Elspeth Buchan (1738-1791), founder of a Scottish religious sect known as the Buchanites, was the daughter of John Simpson, proprietor of an inn near Banff. Having quarrelled with her husband, Robert ...
-Peter Buchan
Peter Buchan (1790-1854), Scottish editor, was born at Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, in 1790. In 1816 he started in business as a printer at Peterhead, and was successful enough to be able eventually to r...
-Claudius Buchanan
Claudius Buchanan (1766-1815), English divine, was born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, and educated at the universities of Glasgow and Cambridge. He was ordained in 1795, and after holding a chaplaincy ...
-George Buchanan
George Buchanan (1506-1582), Scottish humanist, was born in February 1506. His father, a younger son of an old family, was the possessor of the farm of Moss, in the parish of Killearn, Stirlingshire, ...
-George Buchanan. Continued
In 1560 or 1561 he returned to Scotland, and in April 1562 we find him installed as tutor to the young queen Mary, who was accustomed to read Livy with him daily. Buchanan now openly joined the Protes...
-James Buchanan
James Buchanan (1791-1868), fifteenth president of the United States, was born near Foltz, Franklin county, Pennsylvania, on the 23rd of April 1791. Both parents were of Scottish-Irish Presbyterian de...
-Robert Williams Buchanan
Robert Williams Buchanan (1841-1901), British poet, novelist and dramatist, son of Robert Buchanan (1813-1866), Owenite lecturer and journalist, was born at Caverswall, Staffordshire, on the 18th of A...
-Bucharest
Bucharest (Bucuresci), also written Bucarest, Bukarest, Bukharest, Bukorest and Bukhorest, the capital of Rumania, and chief town of the department of Ilfov. Although Bucharest is the conventional Eng...
-Franz Bucheler
Franz Bcheler (1837-1908), German classical scholar, was born in Rheinberg on the 3rd of June 1837, and educated at Bonn. He held professorships successively at Freiburg (1858), Greifswald (1866...
-Lothar Bucher
Lothar Bucher (1817-1892), German publicist, was born on the 25th of October 1817 at Neu Stettin, in Pomerania, his father being master at a gymnasium. After studying at the university of Berlin he ad...
-Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez
Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez (1796-1865), French author and politician, was born on the 31st of March 1796 at Matagne-la-Petite, now in Belgium, then in the French department of the Ardennes. He fi...
-Buchholz
Buchholz, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 1700 ft. above the sea, on the Sehma, 18 m. S. by E. of Chemnitz by rail. Pop. (1905) 9307. It has a Gothic Evangelical church and monuments of F...
-Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Buchner
Friedrich Karl Christian Ludwig Bchner (1824-1899), German philosopher and physician, was born at Darmstadt. He studied at Giessen, Strassburg, Wrzburg and Vienna. In 1852 he became lectur...
-Jean Alexandre Buchon
Jean Alexandre Buchon (1791-1849), French scholar, was born on the 21st of May 1791 at Menetou-Salon (Cher), and died on the 29th of August 1849. An ardent Liberal, he took an active part in party str...
-Buchu, Or Buka
Buchu, Or Buka Leaves, the produce of several shrubby plants belonging to the genus Barosma (nat. order Rutaceae), natives of the Cape of Good Hope. The principal species, B. crenulata, has leaves of ...
-Carl Darling Buck
Carl Darling Buck (1866- ), American philologist, was born on the 2nd of October 1866, at Bucksport, Maine. He graduated at Yale in 1886, was a graduate student there for three years, and studied at t...
-Dudley Buck
Dudley Buck (1839-1909), American musical composer, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 10th of March 1839, the son of a merchant who gave him every opportunity for cultivating his musical talen...
-Buck
Buck, (1) (From the O. Eng. buc, a he-goat, and bucca, a male deer), the male of several animals, of goats, hares and rabbits, and particularly of the fallow-deer. During the 18th century the word was...
-Buck-Bean, Or Bog-Bean
Buck-Bean, Or Bog-Bean (Menyanthes trifoliata, a member of the Gentian family), a bog-plant with a creeping stem, alternately arranged large leaves each with three leaflets, and spikes of white or pin...
-Buckeburg
Bckeburg, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Schaumburg-Lippe, pleasantly situated at the foot of the Harrelberg on the river Aue, 6 m. from Minden, on the main railway from Colog...
-John Buckeridge
John Buckeridge (c. 1562-1631), English divine, was a son of William Buckeridge, and was educated at the Merchant Taylors school and at St John's College, Oxford. He became a fellow of his college, an...
-Bucketshop
Bucketshop, a slang financial term for the office or business of an inferior class of stockbroker, who is not a member of an official exchange and conducts speculative operations for his clients, who ...
-Johann Buckholdt, Beukelsz, or Bockelszoon
Johann Buckholdt [properly Beukelsz, or Bockelszoon], (c. 1508-1535), Dutch Anabaptist fanatic, better known as John of Leiden, from his place of birth, was the illegitimate son of Bockel, burgomaste...
-Buckie
Buckie, a fishing town and police burgh of Banffshire, Scotland, on the Moray Firth, at the mouth of Buckie burn, about 17 m. W. of Banff, with a station on the Great North of Scotland railway. Pop. (...
-Earls, Marquesses And Dukes Of Buckingham
Earls, Marquesses And Dukes Of Buckingham. The origin of the earldom of Buckingham (to be distinguished from that of Buckinghamshire, q.v.) is obscure. According to Mr J.H. Round (in G.E.C.'s Peerage,...
-George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, [1] (1592-1628), English statesman, born in August 1592,[2] was a younger son of Sir George Villiers of Brooksby. His mother, Mary, daughter of Anthony Beaumon...
-George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Part 2
In the winter of 1621, and the succeeding year, Buckingham was entirely in Gondomar's hands; and it was only with some difficulty that in May 1622 Laud argued him out of a resolution to declare himsel...
-George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Part 3
Buckingham and his master set themselves to work to conquer public opinion. On the one hand, they threw over their engagements to France on behalf of the English Roman Catholics. On the other hand the...
-George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham,[1] (1628-1687), English statesman, son of the 1st duke, was born on the 30th of January 1628. He was brought up, together with his younger brother Francis, by ...
-George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Continued
The tale that the countess, disguised as a page, witnessed the encounter, appears to have no foundation; but Buckingham, by installing the widow of his own creation in his own and his wife's house, ...
-George Villiers, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. Continued. Continued
With his death the family founded by the extraordinary rise to power and influence of the first duke ended. As he left no legitimate children the title became extinct, and his great estate had been co...
-Henry Stafford Buckingham
Henry Stafford Buckingham, 2nd Duke of[1] (1454-1483), was the son of Humphrey Stafford, killed at the first battle of St Albans in 1455, and grandson of Humphrey the 1st duke (cr. 1444), killed at No...
-James Silk Buckingham
James Silk Buckingham (1786-1855), English author and traveller, was born near Falmouth on the 25th of August 1786, the son of a farmer. His youth was spent at sea. After years of wandering he establi...
-Buckingham
Buckingham, a market town and municipal borough and the county town of Buckinghamshire, England, in the Buckingham parliamentary division, 61 m. N.W. of London by a branch of the London & North-Wester...
-John Sheffield Buckingham And Normanby
John Sheffield Buckingham And Normanby, 1st Duke of (1648-1721), English statesman and poet, was born on the 7th of April 1648. He was the son of Edmund, 2nd earl of Mulgrave, and succeeded to that ti...
-Earls Of Buckinghamshire
Earls Of Buckinghamshire. The first earl of Buckinghamshire (to be distinguished from the earls of Buckingham, q.v.) was John Hobart (c. 1694-1756), a descendant of Sir Henry Hobart (d. 1625), attorne...
-Buckinghamshire
Buckinghamshire (abbreviated Bucks) a south midland county of England, bounded N. by Northamptonshire, E. by Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Middlesex, S. for a short distance by Surrey, and by Berksh...
-Buckinghamshire. Part 2
Industries The agricultural capacities of the soil vary greatly in different localities. On the lower lands, especially in the Vale of Aylesbury, about the headwaters of the Thame, it is extremely fe...
-Buckinghamshire. Part 3
Population And Administration The area of the ancient county is 475,682 acres, with a population in 1891 of 185,284, and in 1901 of 195,764. The area of the administrative county is 479,358 acres. Th...
-Buckinghamshire. Part 4
Antiquities Buckinghamshire contains no ecclesiastical buildings of the first rank. Monastic remains are scanty, but two former abbeys may be noted. At Medmenham, on the Thames above Marlow, there ar...
-Francis Trevelyan Buckland
Francis Trevelyan Buckland (1826-1880), English zoologist, son of Dean William Buckland the geologist, was born at Oxford on the 17th of December 1826. He was educated at Winchester and Christ Church,...
-William Buckland
William Buckland (1784-1856), English divine and geologist, eldest son of the Rev. Charles Buckland, rector of Templeton and Trusham, in Devon, was born at Axminster on the 12th of March 1784. He was ...
-Henry Thomas Buckle
Henry Thomas Buckle (1821-1862), English historian, author of the History of Civilization, the son of Thomas Henry Buckle, a wealthy London merchant, was born at Lee, in Kent, on the 24th of November ...
-Simon Bolivar Buckner
Simon Bolivar Buckner (1823- ), American soldier and political leader, was born in Hart county, Kentucky, on the 1st of April 1823. He graduated at West Point in 1844, and was assistant professor of g...
-Buckram
Buckram (a word common, in various early forms, to many European languages, as in the Fr. bouqueran or Ital. bucherame, the derivation of which is unknown), in early usage the name of a fine linen or ...
-John Baldwin Buckstone
John Baldwin Buckstone (1802-1879), English actor and dramatic writer, was born at Hoxton on the 14th of September 1802. He was articled to a solicitor, but soon exchanged the law for the stage. After...
-Buckthorn
Buckthorn, known botanically as Rhamnus cathartica (natural order Rhamnaceae), a much-branched shrub reaching 10 ft. in height, with a blackish bark, spinous branchlets, and ovate, sharply-serrated le...
-Buckwheat
Buckwheat, the fruit (so-called seeds) of Fagopyrum esculentum (natural order Polygonaceae), a herbaceous plant, native of central Asia, but cultivated in Europe and North America; also extensively cu...
-Bucolics
Bucolics (from the Gr. , pertaining to a herdsman), a term occasionally used for rural or pastoral poetry. The expression...
-Bucyrus
Bucyrus, a city and the county-seat of Crawford county, Ohio, U.S.A., on the Sandusky river, 62 m. N. of Columbus. Pop. (1890) 5974; (1900) 6560 (756 foreign-born); (1910) 8122. It is served by the Pe...
-Budapest
Budapest, the capital and largest town of the kingdom of Hungary, and the second town of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 163 m. S.E. of Vienna by rail. Budapest is situated on both banks of the Danube,...
-Budapest. Part 2
Buildings Though of ancient origin, neither Buda nor Pest has much to show in the way of venerable buildings. The oldest church is the Matthias church in Buda, begun by King Bela IV. in the 13th cent...
-Budapest. Part 3
Education Budapest is the intellectual capital of Hungary. At the head of its educational institutions stands the university, which was attended in 1900 by 4983 students - only about 2000 in 1880 - a...
-Budapest. Part 4
Trade -In commerce and industry Budapest is by far the most important town in Hungary, and in the former, if not also in the latter, it is second to Vienna alone in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The...
-Budapest. Part 5
Social Position Budapest is the seat of the government of Hungary, of the parliament, and of all the highest official authorities - civil, military, judicial and financial. It is the meeting-place, a...
-Budapest. Part 6
History The history of Budapest consists of the separate history of the two sister towns, Buda and Pest. The Romans founded, in the 2nd century A.D., on the right bank of the Danube, on the site of t...
-Budaun
Budaun, a town and district of British India, in the Rohilkhand division of the United Provinces. The town is near the left bank of the river Sot. Pop. (1901) 39,031. There are ruins of an immense for...
-Johann Franz Buddeus
Johann Franz Buddeus (1667-1729), German Lutheran divine, was born at Anklam, a town of Pomerania, where his father was pastor. He studied with great distinction at Greifswald and at Wittenberg, and h...
-Buddha
Buddha. According to the Buddhist theory (see Buddhism), a Buddha appears from time to time in the world and preaches the true doctrine. After a certain lapse of time this teaching is corrupted and ...
-Buddha. Part 2
It is, however, clear from what follows, that about this time the mind of the young Rjput must, from some cause or other, have been deeply stirred. Many an earnest heart full of disappointment o...
-Buddha. Part 3
There now ensued a second struggle in Gotama's mind, described with all the wealth of poetry and imagination of which the Indian mind is master. The crisis culminated on a day, each event of which is ...
-Buddha. Part 4
It is nearly certain that Buddha had a commanding presence, and one of those deep, rich, thrilling voices which so many of the successful leaders of men have possessed. We know his deep earnestness, a...
-Buddha. Part 5
But, my father, when a man has found a treasure, it is his duty to offer the most precious of the jewels to his father first. Do not delay, let me share with you the treasure I have found. Suddh...
-Buddha. Part 6
The confused and legendary notices of the journeyings of Gotama are succeeded by tolerably clear accounts of the last few days of his life.[9] On a journey towards Kusinr, a town about 1...
-Buddha. Continued
Authorities On The Life Of The Buddha Canonical Pli (reached their present shape before the 4th century B.C.); episodes only, three of them long: (1) Birth; text in Majjhima Nikya, ed. ...
-Buddhaghosa
Buddhaghosa, a celebrated Buddhist writer. He was a Brahmin by birth and was born near the great Bodhi tree at Budh Gay; in north India about A.D. 390, his father's name being Kes. His t...
-Buddhism
Buddhism, the religion held by the followers of the Buddha (q.v.), and covering a large area in India and east and central Asia. Essential Doctrines We are fortunate in having preserved for us the o...
-Buddhism. Part 2
If the five ascetics to whom the words were addressed once admitted this implication, logic would drive them also to admit all that followed. The threefold division of craving at the end of the secon...
-Buddhism. Part 3
Under the head of Right Conduct the two most important points are Love and Joy. Love is in Pli Mett, and the Metta Sutta[13] says (no doubt with reference to the Right Mindfulness just d...
-Buddhism. Part 4. Adopted Doctrines
The above are the essential doctrines of the original Buddhism. They are at the same time its distinctive doctrines; that is to say, the doctrines that distinguish it from all previous teaching in Ind...
-Buddhism. Part 5
To seek for Arahatship in the practice of the ecstasy alone is considered a deadly heresy.[26] So these practices are both pleasant in themselves, and useful as one of the means to the end proposed. B...
-Buddhism. Part 6
And in the Anguttara we find set out in order first of all the units, then all the pairs, then all the trios, and so on. It is the longest book in the Buddhist Bible, and fills 1840 pages 8vo. The who...
-Buddhism. Part 7
Where the verses deal with those ideas that are common to Christians and Buddhists, the versions are easily intelligible, and some of the stanzas appeal very strongly to the Western sense of religious...
-Buddhism. Part 8. Later Works
So far the canon, almost all of which is now accessible to readers of Pli. But a good deal of work is still required before the harvest of historical data contained in these texts shall have be...
-Buddhism. Part 9. Modern Research
The striking archaeological discoveries of recent years have both confirmed and added to our knowledge of the earliest period. Pre-eminent among these is the discovery, by Mr William Pepp, on ...
-Buddhism. Part 10
Authorities The attention of the few scholars at work on the subject being directed to the necessary first step of publishing the ancient authorities, the work of exploring them, of analysing and cla...
-Guillaume Bude, Budaeus
Guillaume Bud [Budaeus], (1467-1540), French scholar, was born at Paris. He went to the university of Orleans to study law, but for several years, being possessed of ample means, he led an idl...
-Bude, Cornwall, England
Bude, a small seaport and watering-place in the Launceston parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, on the north coast at the mouth of the river Bude. With the market town of Stratton, 1 m...
-Eustace Budgell
Eustace Budgell (1686-1737), English man of letters, the son of Dr Gilbert Budgell, was born on the 19th of August 1686 at St Thomas, near Exeter. He matriculated in 1705 at Trinity College, Oxford, a...
-Budget
Budget (originally from a Gallic word meaning sack, latinized as bulga, leather wallet or bag, thence in O. Fr. bougette, from which the Eng. form is derived), the name applied to an account of the wa...
-Budini
Budini, an ancient nation in the N.E. of the Scythia (q.v.) of Herodotus (iv, 21, 108, 109), probably on the middle course of the Volga about Samara. They are described as light-eyed and red-haired, a...
-Budweis
Budweis (Czech Budjovice), a town of Bohemia, Austria, 80 m. S.S.W. of Prague by rail. Pop. (1900) 39,630. It is situated at the junction of the Maltsch with the Moldau, which here becomes navi...
-Don Carlos Buell
Don Carlos Buell (1818-1898), American soldier, was born near Marietta, Ohio, on the 23rd of March 1818. He graduated at West Point in 1841, and as a company officer of infantry took part in the Semin...
-Buenaventura
Buenaventura, a Pacific port of Colombia, in the department of Cauca, about 210 m. W.S.W. of Bogot. Pop. about 1200. The town is situated on a small island, called Cascajal, at the head of a b...
-Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, South America
Buenos Aires, a maritime province of Argentina, South America, bounded N. by the province of Santa F and Entre Rios, E. by the latter, the La Plata estuary, and the Atlantic, S. by the Atlanti...
-Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires, a city and port of Argentina, and capital of the republic, in 34 36 21 S. lat. and 58 21 33 W. long., on the west shore of the La Plata estuary, abo...
-Buenos Aires. Continued
History Three attempts were made to establish a colony where the city of Buenos Aires stands. The first was in 1535 by Don Pedro de Mendoza with a large and well-equipped expedition from Spain, which...
-Buff
Buff (from Fr. buffle, a buffalo), a leather originally made from the skin of the buffalo, now also from the skins of other animals, of a dull pale yellow colour, used for making the buffcoat or jerki...
-Buffalo, Erie County, New York, U.S.A
Buffalo, a city and port of entry, and the county-seat of Erie county, New York, U.S.A., the second city in population in the state, and the eighth in the United States, at the E. extremity of Lake Er...
-Buffalo, Erie County, New York, U.S.A. Part 2
Education In addition to the usual high and grammar schools, the city itself supports a city training school for teachers, and a system of night schools and kindergartens. Here, too, is a state norma...
-Buffalo, Erie County, New York, U.S.A. Part 3
Government And Population Buffalo is governed under an amended city charter of 1896 by which the government is vested in a bicameral city council, and a mayor elected for a term of four years. The ma...
-Buffalo, Erie County, New York, U.S.A. Part 4
Manufactures As a manufacturing centre Buffalo ranks next to New York among the cities of the state. The manufactures were valued in 1900 at $122,230,061 (of which $105,627,182 was the value of the f...
-Buffalo
Buffalo, a name properly pertaining to an aberrant species of cattle which has been kept in a state of domestication in India and Egypt from time immemorial, and had been introduced from the latter co...
-Louis Joseph Buffet
Louis Joseph Buffet (1818-1898), French statesman, was born at Mirecourt. After the revolution of February 1848 he was elected deputy for the department of the Vosges, and in the Assembly sat on the r...
-Buffet
Buffet, a piece of furniture which may be open or closed, or partly open and partly closed, for the reception of dishes, china, glass and plate. The word may also signify a long counter at which one s...
-Claude Buffier
Claude Buffier (1661-1737), French philosopher, historian and educationalist, was born in Poland, on the 25th of May 1661, of French parents, who returned to France, and settled at Rouen, soon after h...
-George Louis Leclerc Buffon
George Louis Leclerc Buffon, Comte de (1707-1788), French naturalist, was born on the 7th of September 1707, at Montbard (Cte d'Or), his father, Benjamin Franois Leclerc de Buffon (1683...
-Bug River
Bug, the name of two rivers of Europe. (1) A stream of European Russia, distinguished sometimes as the Southern Bug, which rises in the S. of the government of Volhynia, and flows generally S.E. throu...
-Bug
Bug, the common name for hemipterous insects of the family Cimicidae, of which the best-known example is the house bug or bed bug (Cimex lectularius). This disgusting insect is of an oval shape, of a ...
-Thomas Robert Bugeaud De La Piconnerie
Thomas Robert Bugeaud De La Piconnerie, duke of Isly (1784-1849), marshal of France, was born at Limoges on the 15th of October 1784. He came of a noble family of Prigord, and was the youngest...
-Johann Bugenhagen
Johann Bugenhagen (1485-1558), surnamed Pomeranus, German Protestant reformer, was born at Wollin near Stettin on the 24th of June 1485. At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a...
-Sophus Bugge
Sophus Bugge (1833-1907), Norwegian philologist, was born at Laurvik, Norway, on the 5th of January 1833. He was educated at Christiania, Copenhagen and Berlin, and in 1866 he became professor of comp...
-Buggy
Buggy, a vehicle with either two (in England and India) or four wheels (in America). English buggies are generally hooded and for one horse. American buggies are for one horse or two, and either cover...
-Bugis
Bugis, or Bughis, a people of Malayan stock, originally occupying only the kingdom of Boni in the south-western peninsula of the island of Celebes. From this district they spread over the whole island...
-Bugle
Bugle, Bugle-horn, Keyed Bugle, Kent Bugle or Regent's Bugle (Fr. Bugle, Clairon, Cor clefs, Bugle clefs; Ger. Flgelhorn, Signalhorn, Bugelhorn, Klappenhorn, Kenthorn; Ital. Co...
-Bugle. Continued
The shofar of the ancient Hebrews, used at the siege of Jericho, was a cow's horn (Josh. vi. 4, 5, 8, 13, etc.), translated in the Vulgate buccina, in the paraphrase of the Chaldee buccina ex cornu. T...
-Bugti
Bugti, a Baluch tribe of Rind (Arab) origin, numbering about 15,500, who occupy the hills to the east of the Sind-Peshin railway, between Jacobabad and Sibi, with the Marris (a cognate tribe) to the n...
-Johann Gottlieb Buhle
Johann Gottlieb Buhle (1763-1821), German scholar and philosopher, was born at Brunswick, and educated at Gttingen. He became professor of philosophy at Gttingen, Moscow (1840) and Brunswi...
-Buhturī
Buhtur [al-Wald ibn 'Ubaid Allh] (820-897), Arabian poet, was born at Manbij (Hierapolis) in Syria, between Aleppo and the Euphrates. Like Ab Tammm, he was of the tr...
-Builders Rites
Builders Rites. Many people familiar with the ceremonies attendant on the laying of foundation stones, whether ecclesiastical, masonic or otherwise, may be at a loss to account for the actual origin o...
-Building
Building. [1] The art of building comprises the practice of civil architecture, or the mechanical operations necessary to Relation of building to architecture. carry the designs of the architect into ...
-Building. Part 2
Building includes what is called construction, which is the branch of the science of architecture relating to the practical Construction. execution of the works required to produce any structure; it w...
-Building. Part 3
In the application of construction to any particular object, the nature of the object will naturally affect the character of Particular objects of construction. the constructions and the materials of ...
-Building. Part 4
Another important point is that after the architect has obtained the consent of the building authorities, and also the approval of the client, then he may have to fight the adjoining owners with regar...
-Building. Part 5
When the drawings have been approved by the owner or client, also by the district surveyor or local authorities, and by adjoining owners, one copy of them, made on linen, is usually deposited (in Lond...
-Building. Part 6
The application must be accompanied by plans of the different floors showing each outlet, and the number of burners to each outlet; a statement must also be made of the quality of the pipes and fittin...
-Building Societies
Building Societies, the name given to societies for the purpose of raising, by the subscriptions of the members, a stock or fund for making advances to members out of the funds of the society upon fr...
-Building Societies. Part 2
The earlier formed societies (in London at least) did not usually adopt the title Building Society; or they added to it some further descriptive title, as Accumulating Fund, Savings Fund, or In...
-Building Societies. Part 3
This society had drawn funds to the amount of more than a million sterling from provident people in The Liberator. all classes of the population and all parts of the country by specious representati...
-Building Societies. Part 4
British Colonies In several of the British colonies, legislation similar to that of the mother country has been adopted. In Victoria, Australia, a crisis occurred, in which many building societies su...
-Building Societies. Part 5
The term during which a series is open for subscription differs, but it usually extends over three or six months, and sometimes a year. Some associations, usually known as perpetual associations, issu...
-Builth, Or Builth
Builth, Or Builth Wells, a market town of Brecknockshire, Wales. Pop. of urban district (1901), 1805. It has a station on the Cambrian line between Moat Lane and Brecon, and two others (high and low l...
-Ferdinand Buisson
Ferdinand Buisson (1841- ), French educationalist, was born at Paris on the 20th of December 1841. In 1868, when attached to the teaching staff of the Academy of Geneva, he obtained a philosophical fe...
-Buitenzorg
Buitenzorg, a hill station in the residency of Batavia, island of Java, Dutch East Indies. It is beautifully situated among the hills at the foot of the Salak volcano, about 860 ft. above sea-level, a...
-Bujnurd
Bujnrd, a town of Persia, in the province of Khorasan, in a fertile plain encompassed by hills, in 37 29 N., 57 21 E., at an elevation of 3600 ft. Pop. about 8000. Its o...
-Mahommed ibn Ismail al-Bukhari
Bukhr [Mahommed ibn Ism'l al-Bukhr] (810-872), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (adth) from Mahomet, was b...
-Bukovina
Bukovina, a duchy and crownland of Austria, bounded E. by Russia and Rumania, S. by Rumania, W. by Transylvania and Hungary, and N. by Galicia. Area, 4035 sq. m. The country, especially in its souther...
-Bulacan
Bulacn, a town of the province of Bulacn, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on an arm of the Pampanga delta, 22 m. N.N.W. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 11,589; after the census enumeration, the town...
-Bulandshahr
Bulandshahr, a town and district of British India in the Meerut division of the United Provinces. The town is situated on a height on the right bank of the Kali-Nadi, whence the substitution of the na...
-Bulawayo
Bulawayo, the capital of Matabeleland, the western province of southern Rhodesia, South Africa. White population (1904) 3840. It occupies a central position on the tableland between the Limpopo and Za...
-Buldana
Buldana, a town and district of India, in Berar. The town had a population in 1901 of 4137. The district has an area of 3662 sq. m. The southern part forms a portion of Berar Balaghat or Berar - above...
-Buldur
Buldur, or Burdur, chief town of a sanjak of the Konia vilayet in Asia Minor. It is called by the Christians Polydorion. Its altitude is 3150 ft. and it is situated in the midst of gardens, about 2 m....
-Charles Bulfinch
Charles Bulfinch (1763-1844), American architect, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 8th of August 1763, the son of Thomas Bulfinch, a prominent and wealthy physician. He was educated at the Bo...
-Bulgaria
Bulgaria, a kingdom of south-eastern Europe, situated in the north-east of the Balkan Peninsula, and on the Black Sea. From 1878 until the 5th of October 1908, Bulgaria was an autonomous and tributary...
-Bulgaria. Part 2
Geology The stratified formation presents a remarkable variety, almost all the systems being exemplified. The Archean, composed of gneiss and crystalline schists, and traversed by eruptive veins, ext...
-Bulgaria. Part 3
Climate The severity of the climate of Bulgaria in comparison with that of other European regions of the same latitude is attributable in part to the number and extent of its mountain ranges, in part...
-Bulgaria. Part 4
Flora In regard to its flora the country may be divided into (1) the northern plain sloping from the Balkans to the Danube, (2) the southern plain between the Balkans and Rhodope, (3) the districts a...
-Bulgaria. Part 5
Agriculture Agriculture, the main source of wealth to the country, is still in an extremely primitive condition. The ignorance and conservatism of the peasantry, the habits engendered by widespread i...
-Bulgaria. Part 6
Manufactures The development of manufacturing enterprise on a large scale has been retarded by want of capital. The principal establishments for the native manufactures of aba and shayak (rough and f...
-Bulgaria. Part 7
Finance It is only possible here to deal with Bulgarian finance prior to the declaration of independence in 1908. At the outset of its career the principality was practically unencumbered with any de...
-Bulgaria. Part 8
Communications In 1878 the only railway in Bulgaria was the Rustchuk-Varna line (137 m.), constructed by an English company in 1867. In Eastern Rumelia the line from Sarambey to Philippopolis and the...
-Bulgaria. Part 9
Population The area of northern Bulgaria is 24,535 sq. m.; of Eastern Rumelia 12,705 sq. m.; of united Bulgaria, 37,240 sq. m. According to the census of the 12th of January 1906, the population of n...
-Bulgaria. Part 10
Ethnology The Bulgarians, who constitute 77.14% of the inhabitants of the kingdom, are found in their purest type in the mountain districts, the Ottoman conquest and subsequent colonization having in...
-Bulgaria. Part 11
National Character The character of the Bulgarians presents a singular contrast to that of the neighbouring nations. Less quick-witted than the Greeks, less prone to idealism than the Servians, less ...
-Bulgaria. Part 12
Justice The civil and penal codes are, for the most part, based on the Ottoman law. While the principality formed a portion of the Turkish empire, the privileges of the capitulations were guaranteed ...
-Bulgaria. Part 13
Religion The Orthodox Bulgarian National Church claims to be an indivisible member of the Eastern Orthodox communion, and asserts historic continuity with the autocephalous Bulgarian church of the mi...
-Bulgaria. Part 14
Education No educational system existed in many of the rural districts before 1878; the peasantry was sunk in ignorance, and the older generation remained totally illiterate. In the towns the schools...
-The Bulgars
The Bulgars, a Turanian race akin to the Tatars, Huns, Avars, Petchenegs and Finns, made their appearance on the banks of the Pruth in the latter part of the 7th century. They were a horde of wild hor...
-The Bulgars. Part 2
The First Empire The national power reached its zenith under Simeon (893-927), a monarch distinguished in the arts of war and peace. In his reign, says Gibbon, Bulgaria assumed a rank among the civi...
-The Bulgars. Part 3
The Turkish Conquest In 1340 the Turks had begun to ravage the valley of the Maritza; in 1362 they captured Philippopolis, and in 1382 Sofia. In 1366 Ivan Shishman III., the last Bulgarian tsar, was ...
-The Bulgars. Part 4
The National Revival At the beginning of the 19th century the existence of the Bulgarian race was almost unknown in Europe, even to students of Slavonic literature. Disheartened by ages of oppression...
-The Bulgars. Part 5
The Revolt Of 1876 Under the enlightened administration of Midhat Pasha (1864-1868) Bulgaria enjoyed comparative prosperity, but that remarkable man is not remembered with gratitude by the people owi...
-The Bulgars. Part 6
The Constitution Of Trnovo Pending the completion of their political organization, Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia were occupied by Russian troops and administered by Russian officials. The assembly of ...
-The Bulgars. Part 7
Union With Eastern Rumelia In Eastern Rumelia, where the Bulgarian population never ceased to protest against the division of the race, political life had developed on the same lines as in the princi...
-The Bulgars. Part 8
The Regency A regency was now formed, in which the prominent figure was Stamboloff, the most remarkable man whom modern Bulgaria has produced. A series of attempts to throw the country into anarchy w...
-The Bulgars. Part 9
Declaration Of Independence During the thirty years of its existence the principality had made rapid and striking progress. Its inhabitants, among whom a strong sense of nationality had grown up, wer...
-The Bulgarian Language
The Bulgarian is at once the most ancient and the most modern of the languages which constitute the Slavonic group. In its groundwork it presents the nearest approach to the old ecclesiastical Slavoni...
-The Bulgarian Literature
The ancient Bulgarian literature, originating in the works of SS. Cyril and Methodius and their disciples, consisted for the most part of theological works translated from the Greek. From the conversi...
-Eastern Bulgaria
Eastern Bulgaria, formerly a powerful kingdom which existed from the 5th to the 15th century on the middle Volga, in the present territory of the provinces of Samara, Simbirsk, Saratov and N. Astrakha...
-Bulgarus
Bulgarus, an Italian jurist of the 12th century, born at Bologna, sometimes erroneously called Bulgarinus, which was properly the name of a jurist of the 15th century. He was the most celebrated of th...
-George Bull
George Bull (1634-1710), English divine, was born at Wells on the 25th of March 1634, and educated at Tiverton school, Devonshire. He entered Exeter College, Oxford, in 1647, but had to leave in 1649 ...
-John Bull
John Bull (c. 1562-1628), English composer and organist, was born in Somersetshire about 1562. After being organist in Hereford cathedral, he joined the Chapel Royal in 1585, and in the next year beca...
-Ole Bornemann Bull
Ole Bornemann Bull (1810-1880), Norwegian violinist, was born in Bergen, Norway, on the 5th of February 1810. At first a pupil of the violinist Paulsen, and subsequently self-taught, he was intended f...
-Bull
Bull, (1) The male of animals belonging to the section Bovina of the family Bovidae (q.v.), particularly the uncastrated male of the domestic ox (Bos taurus). (See Cattle.) The word, which is found in...
-Charles Buller
Charles Buller (1806-1848), English politician, son of Charles Buller (d. 1848), a member of a well-known Cornish family (see below), was born in Calcutta on the 6th of August 1806; his mother, a daug...
-Sir Redvers Henry Buller
Sir Redvers Henry Buller (1839-1908), British general, son of James Wentworth Buller, M.P., of Crediton, Devonshire, and the descendant of an old Cornish family, long established in Devonshire, tracin...
-Bullet
Bullet (Fr. boulet, diminutive of boule, ball). The original meaning (a small ball) has, since the end of the 16th century, been narrowed down to the special case of the projectile used with small a...
-Bull-Fighting
Bull-Fighting, the national Spanish sport. The Spanish name is tauromaquia (Gr. , bull, and , combat). Combats with bulls were common ...
-Bullfinch
Bullfinch (Pyrrhula vulgaris), the ancient English name given to a bird belonging to the family Fringillidae (see Finch), of a bluish-grey and black colour above, and generally of a bright tile-red be...
-Bulli
Bulli, a town of Camden county, New South Wales, Australia, 59 m. by rail S. of Sydney. Pop. (1901) 2500. It is the headquarters of the Bulli Mining Company, whose coal-mine on the flank of the Illawa...
-Heinrich Bullinger
Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), Swiss reformer, son of Dean Heinrich Bullinger by his wife Anna (Wiederkehr), was born at Bremgarten, Aargau, on the 18th of July 1504. He studied at Emmerich and Colog...
-Bullion
Bullion, a term applied to the gold and silver of the mines brought to a standard of purity. The word appears in an English act of 1336 in the French form puissent sauvement porter les excha...
-William Bullock
William Bullock (c. 1657-c. 1740), English actor, of great glee and much comic vivacity, was the original Clincher in Farquhar's Constant Couple (1699), Boniface in The Beaux' Stratagem (1707), and ...
-Bullroarer
Bullroarer, the English name for an instrument made of a small flat slip of wood, through a hole in one end of which a string is passed; swung round rapidly it makes a booming, humming noise. Though t...
-Bull Run
Bull Run, a small stream of Virginia, U.S.A., which gave the name to two famous battles in the American Civil War. (1) The first battle of Bull Run (called by the Confederates Manassas) was fought on...
-Bully
Bully (of uncertain origin, but possibly connected with a Teutonic word seen in many compounds, as the Low Ger. bullerjaan, meaning noisy; the word has also, with less probability, been derived from...
-Bernhard Ernst Von Bulow
Bernhard Ernst Von Blow (1815-1879), Danish and German statesman, was the son of Adolf von Blow, a Danish official, and was born at Cismar in Holstein on the 2nd of August 1815. He studied...
-Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin Bulow
Bernhard Heinrich Karl Martin Blow, Prince von (1849- ), German statesman, was born on the 3rd of May 1849, at Klein-Flottbeck, in Holstein. The Blow family is one very widely extended in ...
-Dietrich Heinrich Bulow
Dietrich Heinrich Blow, Freiherr von (1757-1807), Prussian soldier and military writer, and brother of General Count F.W. Blow, entered the Prussian army in 1773. Routine work proved dista...
-Friedrich Wilhelm Bulow
Friedrich Wilhelm Blow, Freiherr von, count of Dennewitz (1755-1816), Prussian general, was born on the 16th of February 1755, at Falkenberg in the Altmark; he was the elder brother of the foreg...
-Hans Guido Von Bulow
Hans Guido Von Blow (1830-1894), German pianist and conductor, was born at Dresden, on the 8th of January 1830. At the age of nine he began to study music under Friedrich Wieck as part of a gent...
-Bulrush
Bulrush, a name now generally given to Typha latifolia, the reed-mace or club-rush, a plant growing in lakes, by edges of rivers and similar localities, with a creeping underground stem, narrow, nearl...
-Sir Richard Bulstrode
Sir Richard Bulstrode (1610-1711), English author and soldier, was a son of Edward Bulstrode (1588-1659), and was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge; after studying law in London he joined the ar...
-Bulwark
Bulwark (a word probably of Scandinavian origin, from bol or bole, a tree-trunk, and werk, work, in Ger. Bollwerk, which has also been derived from an old German bolen, to throw, and so a machine for ...
-Bumboat
Bumboat, a small boat which carries vegetables, provisions, etc., to ships lying in port or off the shore. The word is probably connected with the Dutch bumboat or boomboot, a broad Dutch fishing-boat...
-Bumbulum
Bumbulum, Bombulum or Bunibulum, a fabulous musical instrument described in an apocryphal letter of St Jerome to Dardanus,[1] and illustrated in a series of illuminated MSS. of the 9th to the 11th cen...
-Bun
Bun, a small cake, usually sweet and round. In Scotland the word is used for a very rich spiced type of cake and in the north of Ireland for a round loaf of ordinary bread. The derivation of the word ...
-Henry William Bunbury
Henry William Bunbury (1750-1811), English caricaturist, was the second son of Sir William Bunbury, 5th baronet, of Mildenhall, Suffolk, and came of an old Norman family. He was educated at Westminste...
-Bunbury
Bunbury, a seaport and municipal town of Wellington county, Western Australia, 112 m. by rail S. by W. of Perth. Pop. (1901) 2455. The harbour, known as Koombanah Bay, is protected by a breakwater bui...
-Buncombe, Or Bunkum
Buncombe, Or Bunkum (from Buncombe county, North Carolina, United States), a term used for insincere political action or speaking to gain support or the favour of a constituency, and so any humbug or ...
-Buncrana
Buncrana, a market-town and watering-place of Co. Donegal, Ireland, in the north parliamentary division on the east shore of Lough Swilly, on the Londonderry & Lough Swilly & Letterkenny railway. Pop....
-Bundaberg
Bundaberg, a municipal town and river port of Cook county, Queensland, Australia, 10 m. from the mouth of the river Burnett, and 217 m. by rail N. by W. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901) 5200. It lies on both ...
-Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand, a tract of country in Central India, lying between the United and the Central Provinces. Historically it includes the five British districts of Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur and Band...
-Bundi
Bundi, or Boondee, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency, lying on the north-east of the river Chambal, in a hilly tract historically known as Haraoti, from the Hara sept of the great clan ...
-Buner
Buner, a valley on the Peshawar border of the North-West Frontier Province of India. It is a small mountain valley, dotted with villages and divided into seven sub-divisions. The Mora Hills and the Il...
-Bungalow
Bungalow (an Anglo-Indian word from the Hindustani bangl, belonging to Bengal), a one-storeyed house with a verandah and a projecting roof, the typical dwelling for Europeans in India; the name...
-Bungay
Bungay, a market-town in the Lowestoft parliamentary division of Suffolk, England; 113 m. N.E. from London on a branch from Beccles of the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 3314. It is picturesquely ...
-Bunion
Bunion (a word usually derived from the Ital. bugnone, a swelling, but, according to the New English Dictionary, the late and rare literary use of the word makes an Italian derivation unlikely; there ...
-Bunker Hill
Bunker Hill, the name of a small hill in Charlestown (Boston), Massachusetts, U.S.A., famous as the scene of the first considerable engagement in the American War of Independence (June 17, 1775). Bunk...
-Alfred Bunn
Alfred Bunn (1796-1860), English theatrical manager, was appointed stage-manager of Drury Lane theatre, London, in 1823. In 1826 he was managing the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, and in 1833 he undertook...
-Henry Cuyler Bunner
Henry Cuyler Bunner (1855-1896), American writer, was born in Oswego, New York, on the 3rd of August 1855. He was educated in New York City. From being a clerk in an importing house, he turned to jour...
-Christian Charles Josias Bunsen
Christian Charles Josias Bunsen, Baron von (1791-1860), Prussian diplomatist and scholar, was born on the 25th of August 1791 at Korbach, an old town in the little German principality of Waldeck. His ...
-Robert Wilhelm Von Bunsen
Robert Wilhelm Von Bunsen (1811-1899), German chemist, was born at Gttingen on the 31st of March 1811, his father, Christian Bunsen, being chief librarian and professor of modern philology at th...
-Bunter
Bunter, the name applied by English geologists to the lower stage or subdivision of the Triassic rocks in the United Kingdom. The name has been adapted from the German Buntsandstein, Der bunte Sandste...
-Jabez Bunting
Jabez Bunting (1779-1858), English Wesleyan divine, was born of humble parentage at Manchester on the 13th of May 1779. He was educated at Manchester grammar school, and at the age of nineteen began t...
-Bunting Bird
Bunting, properly the common English name of the bird called by Linnaeus Emberiza miliaria, but now used in a general sense for all members of the family Emberizidae, which are closely allied to the f...
-Bunting
Bunting (a word of doubtful origin, possibly connected with bunt, to sift, or with the Ger. bunt, of varied colour), a loosely woven woollen cloth for making flags; the term is also used of a collecti...
-John Bunyan
John Bunyan (1628-1688), English religious writer, was born at Elstow, about a mile from Bedford, in November 1628. His father, Thomas Bunyan,[1] was a tinker, or, as he described himself, a brasier....
-John Bunyan. Part 2
Having nothing more to do in the way of visible reformation, yet finding in religion no pleasures to supply the place of the juvenile amusements which he had relinquished, he began to apprehend that h...
-John Bunyan. Part 3
He was warned that if he persisted in disobeying the law he would be liable to banishment, and that if he were found in England after a certain time his neck would be stretched. His answer was, If yo...
-John Bunyan. Part 4
Those who suppose him to have studied the Faery Queen might easily be confuted, if this were the proper place for a detailed examination of the passages in which the two allegories have been thought t...
-John Bunyan. Part 5
He exhorted his hearers to prepare themselves by fasting and prayer for the danger which menaced their civil and religious liberties, and refused even to speak to the courtier who came down to remodel...
-Bunzlau
Bunzlau, a town of Germany, in Prussian Silesia, on the right bank of the Bober, 27 m. from Liegnitz on the Berlin-Breslau railway, which crosses the river by a great viaduct. Pop. (1900) 14,590. It h...
-Appiano Buonafede
Appiano Buonafede (1716-1793), Italian philosopher, was born at Comachio, in Ferrara, and died in Rome. He became professor of theology at Naples in 1740, and, entering the religious body of the Celes...
-Buoy
Buoy (15th century boye; through O.Fr. or Dutch, from Lat. boia, fetter; the word is now usually pronounced as boy, and it has been spelt in that form; but Hakluyt's Voyages spells it bwoy, and ...
-Buoy. Continued
Buoying And Marking Of Wrecks (15) Wreck buoys in the open sea, or in the approaches to a harbour or estuary, shall be coloured green, with the word Wreck painted in white letters on them. (16) Whe...
-Bupalus And Athenis
Bupalus And Athenis, sons of Archermus, and members of the celebrated school of sculpture in marble which flourished in Chios in the 6th century B.C. They were contemporaries of the poet Hipponax (abo...
-Buphonia
Buphonia, in Greek antiquities, a sacrificial ceremony, forming part of the Diipolia, a religious festival held on the 14th of the month Skirophorion (June-July) at Athens, when a labouring ox was sac...
-Bur, Or Burr
Bur, Or Burr (apparently the same word as Danish borre, burdock, cf. Swed. kard-boore), a prickly fruit or head of fruits, as of the burdock. In the sense of a woody outgrowth on the trunk of a tree, ...
-Burano
Burano, a town of Venetia, in the province of Venice, on an island in the lagoons, 6 m. N.E. of Venice by sea. Pop. (1901) 8169. It is a fishing town, with a large royal school of lace-making employin...
-Burauen
Burauen, a town of the province of Leyte, island of Leyte, Philippine Islands, on the Dagitan river, 21 m. S. by W. of Tacloban, the capital. Pop. (1903) 18,197. Burauen is situated in a rich hemp-gro...
-James Burbage
James Burbage (d. 1597), English actor, is said to have been born at Stratford-on-Avon. He was a member of the earl of Leicester's players, probably for several years before he is first mentioned (157...
-Burbot, Or Eel-Pout
Burbot, Or Eel-Pout (Lota vulgaris), a fish of the family Gadidae, which differs from the ling in the dorsal and anal fins reaching the caudal, and in the small size of all the teeth. It exceeds a len...
-Jakob Burckhardt
Jakob Burckhardt (1818-1897), Swiss writer on art, was born at Basel on the 25th of May 1818; he was educated there and at Neuchtel, and till 1839 was intended to be a pastor. In 1838 he made h...
-John Lewis Burckhardt
John Lewis Burckhardt [Johann Ludwig] (1784-1817), Swiss traveller and orientalist, was born at Lausanne on the 24th of November 1784. After studying at Leipzig and Gttingen he visited England i...
-Auguste Laurent Burdeau
Auguste Laurent Burdeau (1851-1894), French politician, was the son of a labourer at Lyons. Forced from childhood to earn his own living, he was enabled to secure an education by bursarships at the Ly...
-Burden
Burden, or Burthen, (1) (A.S. byrthen, from beran, to bear), a load, both literally and figuratively; especially the carrying capacity of a ship; in mining and smelting, the tops or heads of stream-wo...
-George Burder
George Burder (1752-1832), English Nonconformist divine, was born in London on the 5th of June 1752. In early manhood he was an engraver, but in 1776 he began preaching, and was minister of the Indepe...
-Sir Francis Burdett
Sir Francis Burdett (1770-1844), English politician, was the son of Francis Burdett by his wife Eleanor, daughter of William Jones of Ramsbury manor, Wiltshire, and grandson of Sir Robert Burdett, Bar...
-Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts Burdett-Coutts
Angela Georgina Burdett-Coutts Burdett-Coutts, Baroness (1814-1906), English philanthropist, youngest daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, was born on the 21st of April 1814. When she was three-and-twenty...
-Sir John Scott Burdon-Sanderson
Sir John Scott Burdon-Sanderson, Bart. (1828-1905), English physiologist, was born at West Jesmand, near Newcastle, on the 21st of December 1828. A member of a well-known Northumbrian family, he recei...
-Burdwan
Burdwan, or Bardwan, a town of British India, in Bengal, which gives its name to a district and to a division. It has a station on the East Indian railway, 67 m. N.W. from Calcutta. Pop. (1901) 35,022...
-Bureau
Bureau (a Fr. word from burel or bureau, a coarse cloth used for coverings), a writing-table or desk (q.v.), also in America a low chest of drawers. From the meaning of desk, the word is applied to ...
-Burford
Burford, a market town in the Woodstock parliamentary division of Oxfordshire, England, 18 m. W.N.W. of Oxford. Pop. (1901) 1146. It is pleasantly situated in the valley of the Windrush, the broad, pi...
-Burg
Burg, a town of Germany, in Prussian Saxony, on the river Ihle, and the railway from Berlin to Magdeburg, 14 m. N.E. of the latter. Pop. (1900) 22,432. It is noted for its cloth manufactures and boot-...
-Burgage
Burgage (from Lat. burgus, a borough), a form of tenure, both in England and Scotland, applicable to the property connected with the old municipal corporations and their privileges. In England, it was...
-Burgas
Burgas (sometimes written Burghaz, Bourgas or Borgas, and, in the middle ages, Pyrgos), a seaport, and capital of the department of Burgas, in Bulgaria (Eastern Rumelia), on the gulf of Burgas, an inl...
-Burgdorf
Burgdorf (Fr. Berthoud), an industrial town in the Swiss canton of Bern. It is built on the left bank of the Emme and is 14 m. by rail N.E. of Bern. The lower (or modern) town is connected by a curiou...
-Burgee
Burgee (of unknown origin), a small three-cornered or swallow-tailed flag or pennant used by yachts or merchant vessels; also a kind of small coal burnt in engine furnaces. ...
-Gottfried August Burger
Gottfried August Brger (1748-1794), German poet, was born on the 1st of January 1748 at Molmerswende near Halberstadt, of which village his father was the Lutheran pastor. He was a backward chil...
-Thomas Francois Burgers
Thomas Franois Burgers (1834-1881), president of the Transvaal Republic, was born in Cape Colony on the 15th of April 1834, and was educated at Utrecht, Holland, where he took the degree of do...
-Francis Burgersdyk, or Burgersdicius
Francis Burgersdyk, or Burgersdicius, (1590-1629), Dutch logician, was born at Lier, near Delft, and died at Leiden. After a brilliant career at the university of Leiden, he studied theology at Saumu...
-George Burges
George Burges (1786-1864), English classical scholar, was born in India. He was educated at Charterhouse school and Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his degree in 1807, and obtaining one of the memb...
-Daniel Burgess
Daniel Burgess (1645-1713), English Presbyterian divine, was born at Staines, in Middlesex, where his father was minister. He was educated under Busby at Westminster school, and in 1660 was sent to Ma...
-Thomas Burgess
Thomas Burgess (1756-1837), English divine, was born at Odiham, in Hampshire. He was educated at Winchester, and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Before graduating, he edited a reprint of John Burto...
-Burgess
Burgess (Med. Lat. burgensis, from burgus, a borough, a town), a term, in its earliest sense, meaning an inhabitant of a borough, one who occupied a tenement therein, but now applied solely to a regis...
-Burgh
Burgh [Bourke, Burke], the name of an historic Irish house, associated with Connaught for more than seven centuries. It was founded by William de Burgh, brother of Hubert de Burgh (q.v.). Before the d...
-Hubert De Burgh
Hubert De Burgh (d. 1243), chief justiciar of England in the reign of John and Henry III., entered the royal service in the reign of Richard I. He traced his descent from Robert of Mortain, half broth...
-Henry Burghersh
Henry Burghersh (1292-1340), English bishop and chancellor, was a younger son of Robert, Baron Burghersh (d. 1305), and a nephew of Bartholomew, Lord Badlesmere, and was educated in France. In 1320 ow...
-Baron William Cecil Burghley
Baron William Cecil Burghley, (1521-1508), was born, according to his own statement, on the 13th of September 1521 at the house of his mother's father at Bourne, Lincolnshire. Pedigrees, elaborated b...
-Baron William Cecil Burghley. Continued
By that time Cecil had begun to trim his sails to a different breeze. He was in secret communication with Elizabeth before Mary died, and from the first the new queen relied on Cecil as she relied on ...
-Hans Burgkmair
Hans Burgkmair, or John (1473-? 1531), German painter and engraver on wood, believed to have been a pupil of Albrecht Drer, was born at Augsburg. Professor Christ ascribes to him about 700 woodc...
-Burglary
Burglary (burgi latrocinium; in ancient English law, hamesucken[1]), at common law, the offence of breaking and entering the dwelling-house of another with intent to commit a felony. The offence and i...
-John William Burgon
John William Burgon (1813-1888), English divine, was born at Smyrna on the 21st of August 1813, the son of a Turkey merchant, who was a skilled numismatist and afterwards became an assistant in the an...
-Burgonet, Or Burganet
Burgonet, Or Burganet (from Fr. bourguignote, Burgundian helmet), a form of light helmet or head-piece, which was in vogue in the 16th and 17th centuries. In its normal form the burgonet was a large r...
-Burgos Province, Northern Spain
Burgos, a province of northern Spain; bounded on the N.E. by Biscay and lava, E. by Logroo, S.E. by Soria, S. by Segovia, S.W. by Valladolid, W. by Palencia, and N.W. by Santander. Pop...
-Burgos, Spain
Burgos, the capital formerly of Old Castile, and since 1833 of the Spanish province of Burgos, on the river Arlanzn, and on the Northern railways from Madrid to the French frontier. Pop. (1900...
-John Burgoyne
John Burgoyne (1722-1792), English general and dramatist, entered the army at an early age. In 1743 he made a runaway marriage with a daughter of the earl of Derby, but soon had to sell his commission...
-Sir John Fox Burgoyne
Sir John Fox Burgoyne, Bart. (1782-1871), British field marshal, was an illegitimate son of General John Burgoyne (q.v.). He was educated at Eton and Woolwich, obtained his commission in 1798, and ser...
-Burgrave
Burgrave, the Eng. form, derived through the Fr., of the Ger. Burggraf and Flem. burg or burch-graeve (med. Lat. burcgravius or burgicomes), i.e. count of a castle or fortified town. The title is equi...
-Burgred
Burgred, king of Mercia, succeeded to the throne in 852, and in 852 or 853 called upon aethelwulf of Wessex to aid him in subduing the North Welsh. The request was granted and the campaign proved succ...
-Burgundio
Burgundio, sometimes erroneously styled Burgundius, an Italian jurist of the 12th century. He was a professor at the university of Paris, and assisted at the Lateran Council in 1179, dying at a very a...
-Burgundy
Burgundy. The name of Burgundy (Fr. Bourgogne, Lat. Burgundia) has denoted very diverse political and geographical areas at different periods of history and as used by different writers. The name is d...
-Burgundy. Continued
In 1361, on the death of Duke Philip de Rouvres, son of Jeanne of Auvergne and Boulogne, who had married the second time John II. of France, surnamed the Good, the duchy of Burgundy returned to the cr...
-Burhanpur
Burhanpur, a town of British India in the Nimar district of the Central Provinces, situated on the north bank of the river Tapti, 310 m. N.E. of Bombay, and 2 m. from the Great Indian Peninsula railwa...
-Buri
Buri, or Bure, in Norse mythology, the grandfather of Odin. In the creation of the world he was born from the rocks, licked by the cow Andhumla (darkness). He was the father of Bor, and the latter, we...
-Burial And Burial Acts
Burial And Burial Acts (in O. Eng. byrgels, whence byriels, wrongly taken as a plural, and so Mid. Eng. buryel, from O. Eng. byrgan, properly to protect, cover, to bury). The main lines of the law of ...
-Burial Societies
Burial Societies, a form of friendly societies, existing mainly in England, and constituted for the purpose of providing by voluntary subscriptions, for insuring money to be paid on the death of a mem...
-Buriats
Buriats, a Mongolian race, who dwell in the vicinity of the Baikal Lake, for the most part in the government of Irkutsk and the Trans-Baikal Territory. They are divided into various tribes or clans, w...
-Jean Buridan
Jean Buridan [Joannes Buridanus] (c. 1297-c. 1358), French philosopher, was born at Bthune in Artois. He studied in Paris under William of Occam. He was professor of philosophy in the universi...
-Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke (1729-1797), British statesman and political writer. His is one of the greatest names in the history of political literature. There have been many more important statesmen, for he was nev...
-Edmund Burke. Part 2
All sorts of whispers have been circulated by idle or malicious gossip about Burke's first manhood. He is said to have been one of the numerous lovers of his fascinating countrywoman, Margaret Woffing...
-Edmund Burke. Part 3
Dodsley gave him 100 for each annual volume, and the sum was welcome enough, for towards the end of 1756 Burke had married. His wife was the daughter of a Dr Nugent, a physician at Bath. She is...
-Edmund Burke. Part 4
The old duke of Newcastle, probably desiring a post for some nominee of his own, conveyed to the ear of the new minister various absurd rumours prejudicial to Burke, - that he was an Irish papist, tha...
-Edmund Burke. Part 5
He was indifferent to luxury, and sought to make life, not commodious nor soft, but high and dignified in a refined way. He loved art, filled his house with statues and pictures, and extended a genero...
-Edmund Burke. Part 6
He had the style of his subjects; the amplitude, the weightiness, the laboriousness, the sense, the high flight, the grandeur, proper to a man dealing with imperial themes, with the fortunes of great ...
-Edmund Burke. Part 7
He was taxed with speaking too often, and with being too forward. And he was mortified by a more serious charge than murmurs about superfluity of zeal. Men said and said again that he was Junius. His ...
-Edmund Burke. Part 8
The succession of failures in America, culminating in Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in October 1781, wearied the nation, and at length the persistent and powerful attacks of the opposition began ...
-Edmund Burke. Part 9
The six years that followed the great rout of the orthodox Whigs were years of repose for the country, but it was now that Burke engaged in the most laborious and formidable enterprise of his life, th...
-Edmund Burke. Part 10
The scene grew still more sinister in his eyes after the march of the mob from Paris to Versailles in October, and the violent transport of the king and queen from Versailles to Paris. The same hatred...
-Edmund Burke. Part 11
To discuss Burke's writings on the Revolution would be to write first a volume upon the abstract theory of society, and then a second volume on the history of France. But we may make one or two furthe...
-Edmund Burke. Part 12
Burke's view of French affairs, however consistent with all his former political conceptions, put an end to more than one of his old political friendships. He had never been popular in the House of Co...
-Edmund Burke. Part 13
Burke replied in tones of firm self-repression; complained of the attack that had been made upon him; reviewed Fox's charges of inconsistency; enumerated the points on which they had disagreed, and re...
-Edmund Burke. Part 14
It is not too much to say that he is a sort of power in Europe, though totally without any of those means or the smallest share in them which give or maintain power in other men. Burke accepted the p...
-Edmund Burke. Part 15
Those who think that the French were likely to show a moderation and practical reasonableness in success, such as they had never shown in the hour of imminent ruin, will find Burke's judgment full of ...
-Sir John Bernard Burke
Sir John Bernard Burke (1814-1892), British genealogist, was born in London, on the 5th of January 1814, and was educated in London and in France. His father, John Burke (1787-1848), was also a geneal...
-Robert Ohara Burke
Robert Ohara Burke (1820-1861), Australian explorer, was born at St Cleram, Co. Galway, Ireland, in 1820. Descended from a branch of the family of Clanricarde, he was educated in Belgium, and at twent...
-William Burke
William Burke (1792-1829), Irish criminal, was born in Ireland in 1792. After trying his hand at a variety of trades there, he went to Scotland about 1817 as a navvy, and in 1827 was living in a lodgi...
-Jean Jacques Burlamaqui
Jean Jacques Burlamaqui (1694-1748), Swiss publicist, was born at Geneva on the 24th of June 1694. At the age of twenty-five he was designated honorary professor of ethics and the law of nature at the...
-Burlesque
Burlesque (Ital. burlesco, from burla, a joke, fun, playful trick), a form of the comic in art, consisting broadly in an imitation of a work of art with the object of exciting laughter, by distortion ...
-Anson Burlingame
Anson Burlingame (1820-1870), American legislator and diplomat, was born in New Berlin, Chenango county, New York, on the 14th of November 1820. In 1823 his parents took him to Ohio, and about ten yea...
-Burlington, Des Moines County, Iowa, U.S.A
Burlington, a city and the county-seat of Des Moines county, Iowa, U.S.A., on the Mississippi river, in the S.E. part of the state. Pop. (1890) 22,565; (1900) 23,201; (1905, state census) 25,318 (4492...
-Burlington, Burlington County, New Jersey, U.S.A
Burlington, a city of Burlington county, New Jersey, U.S.A., on the E. bank of the Delaware river, 18 m. N.E. of Philadelphia. Pop. (1890) 7264; (1900) 7392, of whom 636 were foreign-born and 590 were...
-Burlington, Chittenden County, Vermont, U.S.A
Burlington, a city, port of entry and the county-seat of Chittenden county, Vermont, U.S.A., on the E. shore of Lake Champlain, in the N.W. part of the state, 90 m. S.E. of Montreal, and 300 m. N. of ...
-Burma
Burma, a province of British India, including the former kingdom of independent Burma, as well as British Burma, acquired by the British Indian government in the two wars of 1826 and 1852. It is divid...
-Burma. Part 2
Mountains Burma proper is encircled on three sides by a wall of mountain ranges. The Arakan Yomas starting from Cape Negrais extend northwards more or less parallel with the coast till they join the ...
-Burma. Part 3
Lakes The largest lake in the province is Indawgyi in the Myitkyina district. It has an area of nearly 100 sq. m. and is surrounded on three sides by ranges of hills, but is open to the north where i...
-Burma. Part 4
Geology Geologically, British Burma consists of two divisions, an eastern and a western. The dividing line runs from the mouth of the Sittang river along the railway to Mandalay, and thence continues...
-Burma. Part 5
Language And Literature The Burmese are supposed by modern philologists to have come, as joint members of a vast Indo-Chinese immigration swarm, from western China to the head waters of the Irrawaddy...
-Burma. Part 6
Religion Buddhists make up more than 88.6%; Mussulmans 3.28; spirit-worshippers 3.85; Hindus 2.76, and Christians 1.42 of the total population of the province. The large nominal proportion of Buddhis...
-Burma. Part 7
Finance The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in 1871-1872 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,530 was from imperial taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Rs.10,90,790 f...
-Burma. Part 8
Minerals And Mining In its three chief mineral products, earth-oil, coal and gold, Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more. Without yielding fortunes for speculators, like South Afr...
-Burma. Part 9
Agriculture The cultivation of the land is by far the most important industry in Burma. Only 9.4% of the people were classed as urban in the census of 1901, and a considerable proportion of this numb...
-Burma. Part 10
Forests -The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding,...
-Burma. Part 11
Manufactures And Art The staple industry of Burma is agriculture, but many cultivators are also artisans in the by-season. In addition to rice-growing and the felling and extraction of timber, and th...
-Burma. Part 12
Internal Communications In 1871-1872 there were 814 m. of road in Lower Burma, but the chief means of internal communication was by water. Steamers plied on the Irrawaddy as far as Thayetmyo. The ves...
-Burma. Part 13
History It is probable that Burma is the Chryse Regio of Ptolemy, a name parallel in meaning to Sonaparanta, the classic Pli title assigned to the country round the capital in Burmese document...
-Burma. Part 14
In 1783 the new king effected the conquest of Arakan. In the same year he removed his residence from Ava, which, with brief interruptions, had been the capital for four centuries, to the new city of A...
-Burma. Part 15
About the same time a revolution broke out which resulted in King Pagan's dethronement. His tyrannical and barbarous conduct had made him obnoxious at home as well as abroad, and indeed many of his ac...
-Pieter Burmann
Pieter Burmann (1668-1741), Dutch classical scholar, known as the Elder, to distinguish him from his nephew, was born at Utrecht. At the age of thirteen he entered the university where he studied un...
-Pieter Burmann, the Younger
Pieter Burmann (1714-1778), called by himself the Younger (Secundus), Dutch philologist, nephew of the above, was born at Amsterdam on the 13th of October 1714. He was brought up by his uncle in Lei...
-Burmese Wars
Burmese Wars. Three wars were fought between Burma and the British during the 19th century (see Burma: History), which resulted in the gradual extinction of Burmese independence. First Burmese War, 1...
-Burmese Wars. Continued
Second Burmese War, 1852 On the 15th of March 1852 Lord Dalhousie sent an ultimatum to King Pagan, announcing that hostile operations would be commenced if all his demands were not agreed to by the i...
-Richard Burn
Richard Burn (1700-1785), English legal writer, was born at Winton, Westmorland, in 1709. Educated at Queen's College, Oxford, he entered the Church, and in 1736 became vicar of Orton in Westmorland. ...
-Frederick Gustavus Burnaby
Frederick Gustavus Burnaby (1842-1885), English traveller and soldier, was born on the 3rd of March 1842, at Bedford, the son of a clergyman. Educated at Harrow and in Germany, he entered the Royal Ho...
-Sir Francis Cowley Burnand
Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (1836- ), English humorist, was born in London on the 29th of November 1836. His father was a London stockbroker, of French-Swiss origin; his mother Emma Cowley, a direct de...
-Sir Edward Burne Burne-Jones
Sir Edward Burne Burne-Jones, Bart. (1833-1898), English painter and designer, was born on the 28th of August 1833 at Birmingham. His father was a Welsh descent, and the idealism of his nature and art...
-Sir Edward Burne Burne-Jones. Continued
In 1886, having been elected A.R.A. the previous year, he exhibited (for the only time) at the Royal Academy The Depths of the Sea, a mermaid carrying down with her a youth whom she has unconsciousl...
-Arthur Coke Burnell
Arthur Coke Burnell (1840-1882), English Sanskrit scholar, was born at St Briavels, Gloucestershire, in 1840. His father was an official of the East India Company, and in 1860 he himself went out to M...
-Robert Burnell
Robert Burnell (d. 1292), English bishop and chancellor, was born at Acton Burnell in Shropshire, and began his public life probably as a clerk in the royal chancery. He was soon in the service of Edw...
-Sir Alexander Burnes
Sir Alexander Burnes (1805-1841), British traveller and explorer, was born at Montrose, Scotland, in 1805. While serving in India, in the army of the East India Company, which he had joined in his sev...
-Gilbert Burnet
Gilbert Burnet (1643-1715), English bishop and historian, was born in Edinburgh on the 18th of September 1643, of an ancient and distinguished Scottish house. He was the youngest son of Robert Burnet ...
-Gilbert Burnet. Part 2
He himself confesses in his autobiography that it was a great error in me to appear in this matter, and his conduct cost him the patronage of the duke of York. In ecclesiastical matters he threw in ...
-Gilbert Burnet. Part 3. Bibliography
The chief authorities for Bishop Burnet's life are the autobiography Rough Draft of my own Life (ed. H.C. Foxcroft, Oxford, 1902, in the Supplement to Burnet's History), the Life by Sir Thomas Burne...
-Thomas Burnet
Thomas Burnet (1635-1715), English divine, was born at Croft in Yorkshire about the year 1635. He was educated at Northallerton, and at Clare Hall, Cambridge. In 1657 he was made fellow of Christ's, a...
-Burnet
Burnet, known botanically as Poterium, a member of the rose family. The plants are perennial herbs with pinnate leaves and small flowers arranged in dense long-stalked heads. Great burnet (Poterium of...
-Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett
Frances Eliza Hodgson Burnett (1849- ), Anglo-American novelist, whose maiden name was Hodgson, was born in Manchester, England, on the 24th of November 1849; she went to America with her parents, who...
-Charles Burney
Charles Burney (1726-1814), English musical historian, was born at Shrewsbury on the 12th of April 1726. He received his earlier education at the free school of that city, and was afterwards sent to t...
-Burnham Beeches
Burnham Beeches, a wooded tract of 375 acres in Buckinghamshire, England, acquired in 1879 by the Corporation of the city of London, and preserved for public use. This tract, the remnant of an ancient...
-Burnham-On-Crouch
Burnham-On-Crouch, an urban district in the southeastern parliamentary division of Essex, England, 43 m. E. by N. from London on a branch of the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901) 2919. The church of ...
-Burning To Death
Burning To Death. As a legal punishment for various crimes burning alive was formerly very wide-spread. It was common among the Romans, being given in the XII. Tables as the special penalty for arson....
-Burnley
Burnley, a market town and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, at the junction of the rivers Brun and Calder, 213 m. N.N.W. of London and 29 m. N. of Manchester, on the...
-Eugene Burnouf
Eugne Burnouf (1801-1852), French orientalist, was born in Paris on the 8th of April 1801. His father, Prof. Jean Louis Burnouf (1775-1844), was a classical scholar of high reputation, and the...
-Burnous
Burnous (from the Arab. burnus), a long cloak of coarse woollen stuff with a hood, usually white in colour, worn by the Arabs and Berbers throughout North Africa. ...
-Sir George Burns
Sir George Burns, Bart. (1795-1890), English shipowner, was born in Glasgow on the 10th of December 1795, the son of the Rev. John Burns. In partnership with a brother, James, he began as a Glasgow ge...
-John Burns
John Burns (1858- ), English politician, was born at Vauxhall, London, in October 1858, the second son of Alexander Burns, an engineer, of Ayrshire extraction. He attended a national school in Batters...
-Robert Burns
Robert Burns (1759-1796), Scottish poet, was born on the 25th of January 1759 in a cottage about 2 m. from Ayr. He was the eldest son of a small farmer, William Burness, of Kincardineshire stock, who ...
-Robert Burns. Part 2
Adieu, my native banks of Ayr, and addressed to the most famous of the loves, in which he was as prolific as Catullus or Tibullus, the proposal - Will ye go to the Indies, my Mary. He was with...
-Robert Burns. Part 3
In the last years of his life, exiled from polite society on account of his revolutionary opinions, he became sourer in temper and plunged more deeply into the dissipations of the lower ranks, among w...
-Robert Burns. Part 4
And Time is setting wi' me, O. For other examples of the same graphic power we may refer to the course of his stream - Whiles ow'r a linn the burnie plays As through the glen it wimpled, etc., ...
-Robert Burns. Part 5
The blanket of the night is drawn aside; in full ruddy gleaming light these rough tatterdemalions are seen at their boisterous revel wringing from Fate another hour of wassail and good cheer. Over th...
-Robert Burns. Part 6
(J. N.) The greater part of Burns's verse was posthumously published, and, as he himself took no care to collect the scattered pieces of occasional verse, different editors have from time to time pr...
-Burns And Scalds
Burns And Scalds. A burn is the effect of dry heat applied to some part of the human body, a scald being the result of moist heat. Clinically there is no distinction between the two, and their classif...
-Ambrose Everett Burnside
Ambrose Everett Burnside (1824-1881), American soldier, was born at Liberty, Indiana, on the 23rd of May 1824, of Scottish pedigree, his American ancestors settling first in South Carolina, and next i...
-Burntisland
Burntisland, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Fife, Scotland, on the shore of the Firth of Forth, 5 m. S.W. of Kirkcaldy by the North British railway. Pop. (1891) 4993; (1901) 4846. It i...
-Aaron Burr
Aaron Burr (1756-1836), American political leader, was born at Newark, New Jersey, on the 6th of February 1756. His father, the Rev. Aaron Burr (1715-1757), was the second president (1748-1757) of the...
-Burriana
Burriana, a seaport of eastern Spain, in the province of Castelln de la Plana; on the estuary of the river Sco, which flows into the Mediterranean Sea. Pop. (1900) 12,962. The harbour ...
-Elihu Burritt
Elihu Burritt (1810-1879), American philanthropist, known as the learned blacksmith, was born in New Britain, Conn., on the 8th of December 1810. His father (a farmer and shoemaker), and his grandfa...
-George Burroughs
George Burroughs (c. 1650-1692), American congregational pastor, graduated at Harvard in 1670, and became the minister of Salem Village (now Danvers) in 1680, a charge which he held till 1683. He live...
-John Burroughs
John Burroughs (1837- ), American poet and writer on natural history, was born in Roxbury, Delaware county, New York, on the 3rd of April 1837. In his earlier years he engaged in various pursuits, tea...
-Bursar
Bursar (Med. Lat. bursarius), literally a keeper of the bursa or purse. The word is now chiefly used of the official, usually one of the fellows, who administers the finances of a college at a univers...
-Burschenschaft
Burschenschaft, an association of students at the German universities. It was formed as a result of the German national sentiment awakened by the War of Liberation, its object being to foster patrioti...
-Conrad Bursian
Conrad Bursian (1830-1883), German philologist and archaeologist, was born at Mutzschen in Saxony, on the 14th of November 1830. On the removal of his parents to Leipzig, he received his early educati...
-Burslem
Burslem, a market town of Staffordshire, England, in the Potteries district, 150 m. N.W. from London, on the North Staffordshire railway and the Grand Trunk Canal. Pop. (1891) 31,999; (1901) 38,766. I...
-Sir Frederick William Burton
Sir Frederick William Burton (1816-1900), British painter and art connoisseur, the third son of Samuel Burton of Mungret, Co. Limerick, was born in Ireland in 1816. He was educated in Dublin, where hi...
-John Hill Burton
John Hill Burton (1809-1881), Scottish historical writer, the son of an officer in the army, was born at Aberdeen on the 22nd of August 1809. After studying at the university of his native city, he re...
-Sir Richard Francis Burton
Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890), British consul, explorer and Orientalist, was born at Barham House, Hertfordshire, on the 19th of March 1821. He came of the Westmorland Burtons of Shap, but hi...
-Sir Richard Francis Burton. Continued
His First Footsteps in East Africa (1856), describing these adventures, is one of his most exciting and most characteristic books, full of learning, observation and humour. After serving on the staff...
-Robert Burton
Robert Burton (1577-1640), English writer, author of The Anatomy of Melancholy, son of a country gentleman, Ralph Burton, was born at Lindley in Leicestershire on the 8th of February 1576-7. He was ed...
-William Evans Burton
William Evans Burton (1804-1860), English actor and playwright, born in London in September 1804, was the son of William George Burton (1774-1825), a printer and author of Research into the religions ...
-Burton-Upon-Trent
Burton-Upon-Trent, a market town and municipal and county borough in the Burton parliamentary division of Staffordshire and the Southern parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England; lying mainly upo...
-Buru
Buru (Buro, Dutch Boeroe or Boeloe), an island of the Dutch East Indies, one of the Molucca Islands belonging to the residency of Amboyna, between 3 4 and 3 50 S. and 125 ...
-Burujird
Burujird, a province of Persia, bounded W. by Luristan, N. by Nehavend and Malayir, E. by Irak and S. by Isfahan. It is divided into the following administrative divisions: - (1) town of Burujird with...
-John Bagnell Bury
John Bagnell Bury (1861- ), British historian, was born on the 16th of October 1861, and was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was elected to a fellowship in 1885. A fine Greek scholar, he...
-Bury
Bury, a market-town and municipal, county and parliamentary borough of Lancashire, England, on the river Irwell, 195 m. N.W. by W. from London, and 10 N. by W. from Manchester, on the Lancashi...
-Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds, a market town and municipal and parliamentary borough of Suffolk, England, on the Lark, an affluent of the Great Ouse; 87 m. N.E. by N. from London by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. ...
-Ogier Ghislain De Busbecq
Ogier Ghislain De Busbecq [Augerius Gislenius] (1522-1592), Flemish writer and traveller, was born at Comines, and educated at the university of Louvain and elsewhere. Having served the emperor Charle...
-Richard Busby
Richard Busby (1606-1695), English clergyman, and head master of Westminster school, was born at Lutton in Lincolnshire in 1606. He was educated at the school which he afterwards superintended for so ...
-Busby
Busby, the English name for a military head-dress of fur. Possibly the original sense of a busby wig came from association with Dr Busby of Westminster; but it is also derived from buzz, in the ph...
-Julius Hermann Moritz Busch
Julius Hermann Moritz Busch (1821-1899), German publicist, was born at Dresden on the 13th of February 1821. He entered the university of Leipzig in 1841 as a student of theology, but graduated as doc...
-Wilhelm Busch
Wilhelm Busch (1832-1908), German caricaturist, was born at Wiedensahl in Hanover. After studying at the academies of Dsseldorf, Antwerp and Munich, he joined in 1859 the staff of Fliegende Bl&a...
-Anton Friedrich Busching
Anton Friedrich Bsching (1724-1793), German theologian and geographer, was born at Stadthagen in Schaumburg-Lippe, on the 27th of September 1724. In 1748 he was appointed tutor in the family of ...
-Hermann Busenbaum
Hermann Busenbaum (or Busembaum), (1600-1668), Jesuit theologian, was born at Nottelen in Westphalia. He attained fame as a master of casuistry, and out of his lectures to students at Cologne grew hi...
-Bush
Bush. (1) (A word common to many European languages, meaning a wood, cf. the Ger. Busch, Fr. bois, Ital. bosco and the med. Lat. boscus), a shrub or group of shrubs, especially of those plants whose...
-Bushbuck
Bushbuck (Boschbok,) the South African name of a medium-sized red antelope (q.v.), marked with white lines and spots, belonging to a local race of a widely spread species, Tragelaphus scriptus. The ma...
-Bushel
Bushel (from the O. Fr. boissiel, cf. med. L. bustellus, busellus, a little box), a dry measure of capacity, containing 8 gallons or 4 pecks. It has been in use for measuring corn, potatoes, etc., fro...
-Bushido
Bushido (Japanese for military-knight-ways), the unwritten code of laws governing the lives of the nobles of Japan, equivalent to the European chivalry. Its maxims have been orally handed down, toge...
-Bushire, Or Bander
Bushire, Or Bander Bushire, a town of Persia, on the northern shore of the Persian Gulf, in 28 59 N., 50 49 E. The name is pronounced Boosheer, and not Bew-shire, or Bus-hire; ...
-Bushmen
Bushmen, or Bosjesmans, a people of South Africa, so named by the British and Dutch colonists of the Cape. They often call themselves Saan [Sing. S], but this appears to be the Hottentot name....
-Bushmen. Part 2
Even the children show little of the round outlines of youth. The amount of fat under the skin in both sexes is remarkably small; hence the skin is as dry as leather and falls into strong folds around...
-Bushmen. Part 3
He is fond of dancing; besides the ordinary dances are the special dances at certain stages of the moon, etc. One of the most interesting facts about the Bushman is his possession of a remarkable deli...
-Horace Bushnell
Horace Bushnell (1802-1876), American theologian, was born in the village of Bantam, township of Litchfield, Connecticut, on the 14th of April 1802. He graduated at Yale in 1827, was associate editor ...
-Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Said ul-Busiri
Br [Ab 'Abdallh Muhammad ibn Sa'd ul-Br] (1211-1294), Arabian poet, lived in Egypt, where he wrote under the patronage of...
-Busiris
Busiris, in a Greek legend preserved in a fragment of Pherecydes, an Egyptian king, son of Poseidon and Lyssianassa. After Egypt has been afflicted for nine years with famine, Phrasius, a seer of Cypr...
-George Busk
George Busk (1807-1886), British surgeon, zoologist and palaeontologist, son of Robert Busk, merchant of St Petersburg, was born in that city on the 12th of August 1807. He studied surgery in London, ...
-Conrad Busken-Huet
Conrad Busken-Huet (1826-1886), Dutch literary critic, was born at the Hague on the 28th of December 1826. He was trained for the Church, and, after studying at Geneva and Lausanne, was appointed past...
-Buskin
Buskin (a word of uncertain origin, existing in many European languages, as Fr. brousequin, Ital. borzacchino, Dutch brozeken, and Span, borcegu), a half-boot or high shoe strapped under the a...
-Fedor Ivanovich Buslaev
Fedor Ivanovich Buslaev (1818-1898), Russian author and philologist, was born on the 13th of April 1818 at Kerensk, where his father was secretary of the district tribunal. He was educated at Penza an...
-Frances Mary Buss
Frances Mary Buss (1827-1894), English schoolmistress, was born in London in 1827, the daughter of the painter-etcher R.W. Buss, one of the original illustrators of Pickwick. She was educated at a sch...
-Bussa
Bussa, a town in the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria, on the west bank of the Niger, in 10 9 N., 4 40 E. It is situated just above the rapids which mark the limit of n...
-Serra De Bussaco, or Busaco
Serra De Bussaco (or Busaco), a mountain range on the frontiers of the Aveiro, Coimbra, and Vizeu districts of Portugal, formerly included in the province of Beira. The highest point in the range is t...
-Roger De Rabutin Bussy
Roger De Rabutin Bussy, Comte de (1618-1693), commonly known as Bussy-Rabutin, French memoir-writer, was born on the 13th of April 1618 at Epiry, near Autun. He represented a family of distinction in ...
-Bustard
Bustard (corrupted from the Lat. Avis tarda, though the application of the epithet[1] is not easily understood), the largest British land-fowl, and the Otis tarda of Linnaeus, which formerly frequente...
-Busto Arsizio
Busto Arsizio, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Milan, 21 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Milan. Pop. (1901) 19,673. It contains a fine domed church, S. Maria di Piazza, built in 1517 af...
-Butades
Butades, of Sicyon, wrongly called Dibutades, the first Greek modeller in clay. The story is that his daughter, smitten with love for a youth at Corinth where they lived, drew upon the wall the outlin...
-Butcher
Butcher, one who slaughters animals, and dresses and prepares the carcass for purposes of food. The word also is applied to one who combines this trade with that of selling the meat, and to one who on...
-John Stuart Bute
John Stuart Bute, 3rd Earl of (1713-1792), English prime minister, son of James, 2nd earl, and of Lady Jane Campbell, daughter of the 1st duke of Argyll, was born on the 25th of May 1713; he was educa...
-Bute Island, Scotland
Bute, the most important, though not the largest, of the islands constituting the county of the same name, in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland, about 18 m. S.W. of Greenock and 40 m., by water, from Glasg...
-Bute, Buteshire, Scotland
Bute, or Buteshire, an insular county in the S.W. of Scotland, consisting of the islands of Bute, from which the county takes its name, Inchmarnock, Great Cumbrae, Little Cumbrae, Arran, Holy Island a...
-Buthrotum
Buthrotum. (1) An ancient seaport of Illyria, corresponding with the modern Butrinto (q.v.). (2) A town in Attica, mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Nat. Hist. iv. 37). ...
-Butler Family, Ireland
Butler, the name of a family famous in the history of Ireland. The great house of the Butlers, alone among the families of the conquerors, rivalled the Geraldines, their neighbours, kinsfolk and morta...
-Butler Family, Ireland. Continued
Defeated with the earl of Pembroke at Mortimer's Cross and taken prisoner after Towton, his fate is uncertain, but rumour said that he was beheaded at Newcastle, and a letter addressed to John Paston ...
-Alban Butler
Alban Butler (1710-1773), English Roman Catholic priest and hagiologist, was born in Northampton on the 24th of October 1710. He was educated at the English college, Douai, where on his ordination to ...
-Benjamin Franklin Butler
Benjamin Franklin Butler (1818-1893), American lawyer, soldier and politician, was born in Deerfield, New Hampshire, on the 5th of November 1818. He graduated at Waterville (now Colby) College in 1838...
-Charles Butler
Charles Butler (1750-1832), British lawyer and miscellaneous writer, was born in London on the 14th of August 1750. He was educated at Douai, and in 1775 entered at Lincoln's Inn. He had considerable ...
-George Butler
George Butler (1774-1853), English schoolmaster and divine, was born in London and educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, where he afterwards became fellow, in the capacity first of mathematica...
-Joseph Butler
Joseph Butler (1692-1752), English divine and philosopher, bishop of Durham, was born at Wantage, in Berkshire, on the 18th of May 1692. His father, a linen-draper of that town, was a Presbyterian, an...
-Joseph Butler. Part 2
His intellect was profound and comprehensive, thoroughly qualified to grapple with the deepest problems of metaphysics, but by natural preference occupying itself mainly with the practical and moral. ...
-Joseph Butler. Part 3
He seeks to show not only that the difficulties in the systems of natural and revealed religion have counterparts in nature, but also that the facts of nature, far from being adverse to the principles...
-Joseph Butler. Part 4
If, however, his premises be granted, and the narrow issue kept in view, the argument may be admitted as perfectly satisfactory. From what we know of the present order of things, it is not unreasonabl...
-Joseph Butler. Part 5
Throughout the whole of the Analogy it is manifest that the interest which lay closest to Butler's heart was the ethical. His whole cast of thinking was practical. The moral nature of man, his conduct...
-Nicholas Murray Butler
Nicholas Murray Butler (1862- ), American educator, was born at Elizabeth, New Jersey, on the 2nd of April 1862. He graduated at Columbia College in 1882, was a graduate fellow in philosophy there fro...
-Samuel Butler, Boteler
Samuel Butler (or Boteler), (1612-1680), English poet, author of Hudibras, son of Samuel Butler, a small farmer, was baptized at Strensham, Worcestershire, on the 8th of February 1612. He was educated...
-Samuel Butler, Boteler. Bibliography
Butler's works published during his life include, besides Hudibras: To the Memory of the most renowned Du Vall: A Pindaric Ode (1671); and a prose pamphlet against the Puritans, Two Letters, one from ...
-Samuel Butler, English Classical Scholar And Schoolmaster, And Bishop Of Lichfield
Samuel Butler (1774-1839), English classical scholar and schoolmaster, and bishop of Lichfield, was born at Kenilworth on the 30th of January 1774. He was educated at Rugby, and in 1792 went to St Joh...
-Samuel Butler, English Author
Samuel Butler (1835-1902), English author, son of the Rev. Thomas Butler, and grandson of the foregoing, was born at Langar, near Bingham, Nottinghamshire, on the 4th of December 1835. He was educated...
-William Archer Butler
William Archer Butler (1814-1848), Irish historian of philosophy, was born at Annerville, near Clonmel in Ireland, probably in 1814. His father was a Protestant, his mother a Roman Catholic, and he wa...
-Sir William Francis Butler
Sir William Francis Butler (1838- ), British soldier, entered the army as an ensign in 1858, becoming captain in 1872 and major in 1874. He took part with distinction in the Red River expedition (1870...
-Butler, Butler County, Pennsylvania, U.S.A
Butler, a borough and the county-seat of Butler county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on Conoquenessing Creek, about 30 m. N. of Pittsburg. Pop. (1890) 8734; (1900) 10,853, of whom 928 were foreign-born; (191...
-Butler
Butler (through the O. Fr. bouteillier, from the Late Lat. buticularius, buticula, a bottle), a domestic servant who superintends the wine-cellar and acts as the chief male servant of a household; amo...
-Butlerage And Prisage
Butlerage And Prisage. In England there was an ancient right of the crown to purveyance or pre-emption, i.e. the right of buying up provisions and other necessities for the royal household, at a valua...
-Buto
Buto, the Greek name of the Egyptian goddess Uto (hierogl. W'zyt), confused with the name of her city Buto (see Busiris). She was a cobra-goddess of the marshes, worshipped especially in the c...
-Butrinto
Butrinto, a seaport and fortified town of southern Albania, Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina; directly opposite the island of Corfu (Corcyra), and on a small stream which issues from Lake Vatzindro o...
-Isaac Butt
Isaac Butt (1813-1879), Irish lawyer and Nationalist leader, was born at Glenfin, Donegal, in 1813, his father being the Episcopalian rector of Stranorlar. Having won high honours at Trinity, Dublin, ...
-Butt
Butt. (1) (From the Fr. botte, boute; Med. Lat. butta, a wine vessel), a cask for ale or wine, with a capacity of about two hogsheads. (2) (A word common in Teutonic languages, meaning short, or a stu...
-Butte, Montana, U.S.A
Butte, the largest city of Montana, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Silver Bow county. It is situated in the valley of Deer Lodge river, near its head, at an altitude of about 5700 ft. Pop. (1880) 3363...
-Butte
Butte (O. Fr. butte, a hillock or rising ground), a word used in the western states of North America for a flat-topped hill surrounded by a steep escarpment from which a slope descends to the plain. I...
-Butter
Butter (Lat. butyrum, Gr. , apparently connected with , cow, and , cheese, but,...
-Buttercup
Buttercup, a name applied to several species of the genus Ranunculus (q.v.), characterized by their deeply-cut leaves and yellow, broadly cup-shaped flowers. Ranunculus acris and R. bulbosus are erect...
-Daniel Butterfield
Daniel Butterfield (1831-1901), American soldier, was born in Utica, New York. He graduated at Union College in 1849, and when the Civil War broke out he became colonel of the 12th New York militia re...
-William Butterfield
William Butterfield (1814-1900), English architect, was born in London, and educated for his profession at Worcester, where he laid the foundations of his knowledge of Gothic architecture. He settled ...
-Butterfly And Moth
Butterfly And Moth (the former from butter and fly, an old term of uncertain origin, possibly from the nature of the excrement, or the yellow colour of some particular species; the latter akin to ...
-Butter-Nut
Butter-Nut, the product of Caryocar nuciferum, a native of tropical South America. The large nuts, known also as saowari or suwarow nuts, are the hard stone of the fruit and contain an oily nutritious...
-Butterwort
Butterwort, the popular name of a small insectivorous plant, Pinguicula vulgaris, which grows in wet, boggy land. It is a herb with a rosette of fleshy, oblong leaves, 1 to 3 in. long, appressed to th...
-Buttery
Buttery (from O. Fr. boterie, Late Lat. botaria, a place where liquor is stored, from butta, a cask), a place for storing wine; later, with a confusion with butter, a pantry or storeroom for food; e...
-Philipp Karl Buttmann
Philipp Karl Buttmann (1764-1829), German philologist, was born at Frankfort-On-Main in 1764. He was educated in his native town and at the university of Gttingen. In 1789 he obtained an appoint...
-Button
Button (Fr. bouton, O. Fr. boton, apparently from the same root as bouter, to push), a small piece of metal or other material which, pushed through a loop or button-hole, serves as a catch between dif...
-Buttress
Buttress (from the O. Fr. bouteret, that which bears a thrust, from bouter, to push, cf. Eng. butt and abutment), masonry projecting from a wall, provided to give additional strength to the same, ...
-Choh Butyl Alcohols
Choh Butyl Alcohols. Four isomeric alcohols of this formula are known; two of these are primary, one secondary, and one tertiary (see Alcohols). Normal butyl alcohol, CH(CH)CHOH, is a ...
-Cho Butyric Acid
Cho Butyric Acid. Two acids are known corresponding to this formula, normal butyric acid, CHCHCHCOOH, and isobutyric acid, (CH)CHCOOH. Normal butyric acid or fe...
-Buxar
Buxar, or Baxar, a town of India, in the district of Shahabad, Bengal, on the south bank of the Ganges, and on the East Indian railway. Pop. (1901) 13,945. There is a dismantled fort of small size whi...
-Jedediah Buxton
Jedediah Buxton (1707-1772), English arithmetician, was born on the 20th of March 1707 at Elmton, near Chesterfield, in Derbyshire. Although his father was schoolmaster of the parish, and his grandfat...
-Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton
Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786-1845), English philanthropist, was born in Essex on the 1st of April 1786, and was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where, in spite of his early education having bee...
-Buxton
Buxton, a market town and fashionable health-resort in the High Peak parliamentary division of Derbyshire, England, on the London & North-Western and Midland railways, 36 m. N.W. by N. of Derby. Pop. ...
-Johannes Buxtorf, Buxtorff
Johannes Buxtorf, or Buxtorff, (1564-1629), German Hebrew and Rabbinic scholar, was born at Kamen in Westphalia on the 25th of December 1564. The original form of the name was Bockstrop, or Boxtrop, f...
-Johannes Buxtorf, the son
Johannes Buxtorf, or Buxtorff, (1599-1664), son of the preceding, was born at Basel on the 13th of August 1599, and when still a boy attained considerable proficiency in the classical languages. Enter...
-Buying In
Buying In, on the English stock exchange, a transaction by which, if a member has sold securities which he fails to deliver on settling day, or any of the succeeding ten days following the settlement,...
-Buys Ballots Law
Buys Ballots Law, in meteorology, the name given to a law which may be expressed as follows: - Stand with your back to the wind; the low-pressure area will be on your left-hand. This rule, the truth...
-Buzeu
Buzeu, the capital of the department of Buzeu, Rumania, situated near the right bank of the river Buzeu, between the Carpathian Mountains and the fertile lowlands of south Moldavia and east Walachia. ...
-Francois Nicolas Leonard Buzot
Franois Nicolas Lonard Buzot (1760-1794), French revolutionist, was born at Evreux on the 1st of March 1760. He studied law, and at the outbreak of the Revolution was an advocate in hi...
-Buzzard
Buzzard, a word derived from the Lat. Buteo, through the Fr. Busard, and used in a general sense for a large group of diurnal birds-of-prey, which contains, among many others, the species usually know...
-Byelaya Tserkov
Byelaya Tserkov (i.e. White Church), a town of Russia, in the government of Kiev, 32 m. S.S.W. of Vasilkov, on the main road from Kiev to the Crimea, in 49 47 N. lat. and 30 7 ...
-Byelev
Byelev, a town of Russia, in the government of Tula, and 67 m. S.W. from the city of that name on the left bank of the Oka, in 53 48 N. lat., and 36 9 E. long. Pop. (1860) 8063...
-Byelgorod
Byelgorod (i.e. White Town), a town of Russia, in the government of Kursk, 100 m. S.S.E. by rail from the city of that name, in 50 46 N. lat. and 36 37 E. long., clustering on ...
-Byelostok
Byelostok (Polish, Bialystok), a town of West Russia, in the government of and 53 m. by rail S.W. of the city of Grodno, on the main railway line from Moscow to Warsaw, at its junction with the Kiev-G...
-Byezhetsk
Byezhetsk, a town of Russia, in the government of Tver, and 70 m. N.N.E. of the city of that name, on the right bank of the Mologa, in 57 46 N. lat. and 36 43 E. long. Pop. (18...
-By-Law, Or Bye-Law
By-Law, Or Bye-Law (by- being used in the sense of subordinate or secondary, cf. by-path), a regulation made by councils, boards, corporations and companies, usually under statutory power, for the pre...
-Mather Byles
Mather Byles (1706-1788), American clergyman, was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 26th of March 1706, descended, on his mother's side, from John Cotton and Richard Mather. He graduated at Harvar...
-John Byng
John Byng (1704-1757), British admiral, was the fourth son of George Byng, Lord Torrington, and entered the navy in 1718. The powerful influence of his father accounts for his rapid rise in the servic...
-Cornelius Van Bynkershoek
Cornelius Van Bynkershoek (1673-1743), Dutch jurist, was born at Middleburg in Zeeland. In the prosecution of his legal studies, and while holding the offices first of member and afterwards of preside...
-William Byrd
William Byrd (1543-1623), English musical composer, was probably a member of one of the numerous Lincolnshire families of the name who were to be found at Lincoln, Spalding, Pinchbeck, Moulton and Epw...
-John Byrom
John Byrom (1692-1763), English poet, writer of hymns and inventor of a system of shorthand, was born at Kersal Cell, near Manchester, on the 29th of February 1692, the younger son of a prosperous mer...
-George Gordon Byron Byron
George Gordon Byron Byron, 6th Baron (1788-1824), English poet, was born in London at 16 Holles Street, Cavendish Square, on the 22nd of January 1788. The Byrons were of Norman stock, but the founder ...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 2
Byron went into residence at Trinity College, Cambridge, in October 1805. Cambridge did him no good. The place is the devil, he said, and according to his own showing he did homage to the genius loc...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 3
Of the tour in Asia Minor, a visit to Ephesus (March 15, 1810), an excursion in the Troad (April 13), and the famous swim across the Hellespont (May 3), the record is to be sought elsewhere. The stanz...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 4
In the summer of 1813 a new and potent influence came into his life. Mrs Leigh, whose home was at Newmarket, came up to London on a visit. After a long interval the brother and sister met, and whether...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 5
His route lay through the Low Countries, and by the Rhine to Switzerland. On his way he halted at Brussels and visited the field of Waterloo. He reached Geneva on the 25th of May, where he met by appo...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 6
He too would write An Excursion. He doubted that Don Juan might be too free for these modest days. It was too free for the public, for his publisher, even for his mistress; and the building up of...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 7
The revolution in Italy came to nothing, and by the 28th of May, Byron had finished his work on Sardanapalus. The Two Foscari, a third historical drama, was begun on the 12th of June and finished on t...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 8
By the middle of February (1823) he had completed The Island; or Christian and his Comrades (published June 26, 1823). The sources are Bligh's Narrative of the Mutiny of the Bounty, and Mariner's Acco...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 9
Great men are seldom misjudged. The world passes sentence on them, and there is no appeal. Byron's contemporaries judged him by the tone and temper of his works, by his own confessions or self-revelat...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 10
In language which was intelligible and persuasive, under shapes and forms which were suggestive and inspiring, Byron delivered a message of liberation. There was a double motive at work in his energie...
-George Gordon Byron Byron. Part 11
The part he played or seemed to play in revolutionary politics endeared him to those who were struggling to be free. He stood for freedom of thought and of life. He made himself the mouthpiece of an i...
-Henry James Byron
Henry James Byron (1834-1884), English playwright, son of Henry Byron, at one time British consul at Port-au-Prince, was born in Manchester in January 1834. He entered the Middle Temple as a student i...
-John Byron Byron
John Byron Byron, 1st Baron (c. 1600-1652), English cavalier, was the eldest son of Sir John Byron (d. 1625), a member of an old Lancashire family which had settled at Newstead, near Nottingham. Durin...
-Hon. John Byron
Hon. John Byron (1723-1786), British vice-admiral, second son of the 4th Lord Byron, and grandfather of the poet, was born on the 8th of November 1723. While still very young, he accompanied Anson in ...
-Johan Niklas Bystrom
Johan Niklas Bystrm (1783-1848), Swedish sculptor, was born on the 18th of December 1783 at Philipstad. At the age of twenty he went to Stockholm and studied for three years under Sergel. In 180...
-Bytownite
Bytownite, a rock-forming mineral belonging to the plagioclase (q.v.) series of the felspars. The name was originally given (1835) by T. Thomson, to a greenish-white felspathic mineral found in a boul...
-Ingram Bywater
Ingram Bywater (1840- ), English classical scholar, was born in London on the 27th of June 1840. He was educated at University and King's College schools, and at Queen's College, Oxford. He obtained a...
-Byzantine Art
Byzantine Art.[1] By Byzantine art is meant the art of Constantinople (sometimes called Byzantium in the middle ages as in antiquity), and of the Byzantine empire; it represents the form of art whic...
-Byzantine Art. Part 2. Architecture
The architecture of our period is treated in some detail in the article Architecture; here we can only glance at some broad aspects of its development. As early as the building of Constantine's church...
-Byzantine Art. Part 3. Mosaics And Paintings
The method of depicting designs by bringing together morsels of variously colored materials is of high antiquity. We are apt to think of a line of distinction between classical and Christian mosaics i...
-Byzantine Art. Part 4
We are apt to speak of the rigidity and fixity of Byzantine work, but the method is germane in the strictest sense to the result desired, and we should ask ourselves how far it is possible to represen...
-Byzantine Art. Part 5. The Plastic Art
If painting under the new conditions entered on a fresh course of power and conquest, if it set itself successfully to provide an imagery for new and intense thought, sculpture, on the other hand, see...
-Byzantine Art. Part 6. Metal Work, Ivories And Textiles
One of the greatest of Byzantine arts is the goldsmith's. This absorbed so much from Persian and Oriental schools as to become semi-barbaric. Under Justinian the transformation from Classical art was ...
-Byzantium
Byzantium, an ancient Greek city on the shores of the Bosporus, occupying the most easterly of the seven hills on which modern Constantinople stands. It was said to have been founded by Megarians and ...
-Byzantium. Continued
The ancient historians invariably note the profligacy of the inhabitants of Byzantium. They are described as an idle, depraved people, spending their time for the most part in loitering about the harb...
-Cab
Cab (shortened about 1825 from the Fr. cabriolet, derived from cabriole, implying a bounding motion), a form of horsed vehicle for passengers either with two (hansom) or four wheels (four-wheeler ...
-Cabal
Cabal (through the Fr. cabale from the Cabbala or Kabbalah, the theosophical interpretation of the Hebrew scriptures), a private organization or party engaged in secret intrigues, and applied also to ...
-Fernan Caballero
Fernn Caballero (1796-1877), the pseudonym adopted from the name of a village in the province of Ciudad Real by the Spanish novelist Cecilia Francisca Josefa Bhl de Faber y Larrea. Born ...
-Alexandre Cabanel
Alexandre Cabanel (1823-1889), French painter, was born at Montpellier, and studied in Paris, gaining the Prix de Rome in 1845. His pictures soon attracted attention, and by his Birth of Venus (1863...
-Pierre Jean George Cabanis
Pierre Jean George Cabanis (1757-1808), French physiologist, was born at Cosnac (Corrze) on the 5th of June 1757, and was the son of Jean Baptiste Cabanis (1723-1786), a lawyer and agronomist....
-Francois Cabarrus
Franois Cabarrus (1752-1810), French adventurer and Spanish financier, was born at Bayonne, where his father was a merchant. Being sent into Spain on business he fell in love with a Spanish la...
-Nicolaus Cabasilas
Nicolaus Cabasilas (d. 1371), Byzantine mystic and theological writer. He was on intimate terms with the emperor John VI. Cantacuzene, whom he accompanied in his retirement to a monastery. In 1355 he ...
-Cabatuan
Cabatan, a town of the province of Ililo, Panay, Philippine Islands, on a branch of the Suague river, 15 m. N.W. of Ililo, the capital. Pop. (1903) 16,497. In 1903, after the c...
-Cabbage
Cabbage. The parent form of the variety of culinary and fodder vegetables included under this head is generally supposed to be the wild or sea cabbage (Brassica oleracea), a plant found near the sea c...
-Cabbage. Continued
The savoy is a hardy green variety, characterized by its very wrinkled leaves. The Portugal cabbage, or Couve Tronchuda, is a variety, the tops of which form an excellent cabbage, while the midribs of...
-Cabeiri
Cabeiri, in Greek mythology, a group of minor deities, of whose character and worship nothing certain is known. Their chief seats of worship were the islands of Lemnos, Imbros and Samothrace, the coas...
-Caber Tossing
Caber Tossing (Gaelic cabar, a pole or beam), a Scottish athletic exercise which consists in throwing a section of a trunk of a tree, called the caber, in such a manner that it shall turn over in th...
-Etienne Cabet
tienne Cabet (1788-1856), French communist, was born at Dijon in 1788, the son of a cooper. He chose the profession of advocate, without succeeding in it, but ere long became notable as the pe...
-Cabin
Cabin, a small, roughly built hut or shelter; the term is particularly applied to the thatched mud cottages of the negro slaves of the southern states of the Unites States of America, or of the povert...
-Cabinet
Cabinet, a word with various applications which may be traced to two principal meanings, (1) a small private chamber, and (2) an article of furniture containing compartments formed of drawers, shelves...
-Cabinet. Continued. The Political Cabinet
Among English political institutions, the Cabinet is a conventional but not a legal term employed to describe those members of the privy council who fill the highest executive offices in the state, ...
-Cabinet Noir
Cabinet Noir, the name given in France to the office where the letters of suspected persons were opened and read by public officials before being forwarded to their destination. This practice had been...
-George Washington Cable
George Washington Cable (1844- ) American author, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, on the 12th of October 1844. At the age of fourteen he entered a mercantile establishment as a clerk; joined the C...
-Cable
Cable (from Late Lat. capulum, a halter, from capere, to take hold of), a large rope or chain, used generally with ships, but often employed for other purposes; the term cable is also used by analog...
-Cable Moulding
Cable Moulding, in architecture, the term given to a convex moulding carved in imitation of a rope or cord, and used to decorate the mouldings of the Romanesque style in England, France and Spain. The...
-Simon Caboche
Simon Caboche. Simon Lecoustellier, called Caboche, a skinner of the Paris Boucherie, played an important part in the Parisian riots of 1413. He had relations with John the Fearless, duke of Burgund...
-George Cabot
George Cabot (1751-1823), American political leader, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on the 16th of December 1751. He studied at Harvard from 1766 to 1768, when he went to sea as a cabin boy. He gra...
-John Cabot
John Cabot [Giovanni Caboto] (1450-1498), Italian navigator and discoverer of North America, was born in Genoa, but in 1461 went to live in Venice, of which he became a naturalized citizen in 1476. Du...
-John Cabot. Continued
In the hope of finding a passage Cabot proceeded northward along the coast. As he advanced, the cold became more intense and the icebergs thicker and larger. It was also noticed that the land trended ...
-Cabotage
Cabotage, the French term for coasting-trade, a coast-pilotage. It is probably derived from cabot, a small boat, with which the name Cabot may be connected; the conjecture that the word comes from cab...
-Cabra
Cabra, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova, 28 m. S.E. by S. of Cordova, on the Jaen-Mlaga railway. Pop. (1900) 13,127. Cabra is built in a fertile valley between the Sierra d...
-Ramon Cabrera
Ramon Cabrera (1806-1877), Carlist general, was born at Tortosa, province of Tarragona, Spain, on the 27th of December 1806. As his family had in their gift two chaplaincies, young Cabrera was sent to...
-Giulio Caccini
Giulio Caccini (1558-1615?), Italian musical composer, also known as Giulio Romano, but to be distinguished from the painter of that name, was born at Rome about 1558, and in 1578 entered the service ...
-Caceres, Spain
Cceres, a province of western Spain, formed in 1833 of districts taken from Estremadura, and bounded on the N. by Salamanca and vila, E. by Toledo, S. by Badajoz, and W. by Portugal. P...
-Cachar
Cachar, or Kachar, a district of British India, in the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam. It occupies the upper basin of the Surma or Barak river, and is bounded on three sides by lofty hills. Its ...
-Cachoeira
Cachoeira, an important inland town of Bahia, Brazil, on the Paraguassu river, about 48 m. from So Salvador, with which it is connected by river-boats. Pop. (1890) of the city, 12,607; of the ...
-Cactus
Cactus. This word, applied in the form of by the ancient Greeks to some prickly plant, was adopted by Linnaeus as the name of a group of curious succulent ...
-Cactus. Mammillaria
This genus, which comprises nearly 300 species, mostly Mexican, with a few Brazilian and West Indian, is called nipple cactus, and consists of globular or cylindrical succulent plants, whose surface i...
-Cactus. Cereus
This group bears the common name of torch thistle. It comprises about 100 species, largely Mexican but scattered through South America and the West Indies. The stems are columnar or elongated, some of...
-Epiphyllum
This name is now restricted to two or three dwarf branching Brazilian epiphytal plants of extreme beauty, which agree with Phyllocactus in having the branches dilated into the form of fleshy leaves, b...
-Jose Cadalso Vazquez
Jos Cadalso Vazquez (1741-1782), Spanish author, was born at Cadiz on the 8th of October 1741. Before completing his twentieth year he had travelled through Italy, Germany, England, France and...
-Alvise Cadamosto, or Ca Da Mosto
Alvise Cadamosto (or Ca Da Mosto), (1432-1477), a Venetian explorer, navigator and writer, celebrated for his voyages in the Portuguese service to West Africa. In 1454 he sailed from Venice for Fland...
-Cadastre
Cadastre (a French word from the Late Lat. capitastrum, a register of the poll-tax), a register of the real property of a country, with details of the area, the owners and the value. A cadastral surv...
-Caddis-Fly And Caddis-Worm
Caddis-Fly And Caddis-Worm, the name given to insects with a superficial resemblance to moths, sometimes referred to the Neuroptera, sometimes to a special order, the Trichoptera, in allusion to the h...
-Caddo
Caddo, a confederacy of North American Indian tribes which gave its name to the Caddoan stock, represented in the south by the Caddos, Wichita and Kichai, and in the north by the Pawnee and Arikara tr...
-John Cade
John Cade (d. 1450), commonly called Jack Cade, English rebel and leader of the rising of 1450, was probably an Irishman by birth, but the details of his early life are very scanty. He seems to have r...
-Cadenabbia
Cadenabbia, a village of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Como, about 15 m. N.N.E. by steamer from the town of Como. It is situated on the W. shore of the lake of Como, and owing to the great beaut...
-Cadence
Cadence (through the Fr. from the Lat. cadentia, from cadere, to fall), a falling or sinking, especially as applied to rhythmical or musical sounds, as in the fall of the voice in speaking, the rhyt...
-Cader Idris
Cader Idris (the Seat of Idris), the second most imposing mountain in North Wales, standing in Merionethshire to the S. of Dolgelly, between the broad estuaries of the Mawddach and the Dovey. It is ...
-Cadet
Cadet (through the Fr. from the Late Lat. capitettum, a diminutive of caput, head, through the Provenal form capdet), the head of an inferior branch of a family, a younger son; particularly a ...
-Cadger
Cadger (a word of obscure origin possibly connected with catch), a hawker or pedlar, a carrier of farm produce to market. The word in this sense has fallen into disuse, and now is used for a beggar ...
-Cadi
Cadi (q), a judge in a makama or Mahommedan ecclesiastical court, in which decisions are rendered on the basis of the canon law of Islam (shar `a). It is a general...
-Cadillac
Cadillac, a city and the county seat of Wexford county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Cadillac, about 95 m. N. by E. of Grand Rapids and about 85 m. N.W. of Bay City. Pop. (1890) 4461; (1900) 5997, of who...
-Cadiz, Philippine Islands
Cadiz, a town of the province of Negros Occidental, island of Negros, Philippine Islands, on the N. coast, about 53 m. N.N.E. of Baclod, the capital. Pop. (1903) 16,429. Lumber products are ma...
-Cadiz Province, Spain
Cadiz (Cdiz), a maritime province in the extreme south of Spain, formed in 1833 of districts taken from the province of Seville; and bounded on the N. by Seville, E. by Mlaga, S.E. by ...
-Cadiz, Spain
Cadiz (in Lat. Gades, and formerly called Cales by the English), the capital and principal seaport of the Spanish province of Cadiz; on the Bay of Cadiz, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, in 36 27&...
-Cadiz, Spain. Continued
History Cadiz represents the Sem. Agadir, Gadir, or Gaddir (stronghold) of the Carthaginians, the Gr. Gadeira, and the Lat. Gades. Tradition ascribes its foundation to Phoenician merchants from Tyr...
-Cadmium
Cadmium (symbol Cd, atomic weight 112.4 (O=16)), a metallic element, showing a close relationship to zinc, with which it is very frequently associated. It was discovered in 1817 by F. Stromeyer in a s...
-Cadmus
Cadmus, in Greek legend, son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia and brother of Europa. After his sister had been carried off by Zeus, he was sent out to find her. Unsuccessful in his search, he came in the ...
-Cadmus Of Miletus
Cadmus Of Miletus, according to some ancient authorities the oldest of the logographi (q.v.). Modern scholars, who accept this view, assign him to about 550 B.C.; others regard him as purely mythical....
-William Cadogan Cadogan
William Cadogan Cadogan, 1st Earl (1675-1726), British soldier, was the son of Henry Cadogan, a Dublin barrister, and grandson of Major William Cadogan (1601-1661), governor of Trim. The family has be...
-Georges Cadoudal
Georges Cadoudal (1771-1804), leader of the Chouans during the French Revolution, was born in 1771 near Auray. He had received a fair education, and when the Revolution broke out he remained true to h...
-Cadre
Cadre (Fr. for a frame, from the Lat. quadrum, a square), a framework or skeleton, particularly the permanent establishment of a military corps, regiment, etc. which can be expanded on emergency. ...
-Caduceus
Caduceus (the Lat. adaptation of the Doric Gr. , Attic , a herald's wand), the...
-Caducous
Caducous (Lat. caducus), a botanical term for falling early, as the sepals of a poppy, before the petals expand. ...
-Caecilia
Caecilia. This name was given by Linnaeus to the blind, or nearly blind, worm-like Batrachians which were formerly associated with the snakes and are now classed as an order under the names of Apoda, ...
-Via Caecilia
Via Caecilia, an ancient highroad of Italy, which diverged from the Via Salaria at the 35th m. from Rome, and ran by Amiternum to the Adriatic coast, passing probably by Hadria. A branch ran to Intera...
-Caecilius
Caecilius, of Calacte ( ) in Sicily, Greek rhetorician, flourished at Rome during the reign of Augustus. Originally called Archagathus, he too...
-Caecilius Statius, Or Statius
Caecilius Statius, Or Statius Caecilius, Roman comic poet, contemporary and intimate friend of Ennius, died in 168 (or 166) B.C. He was born in the territory of the Insubrian Gauls, and was probably t...
-Caecina
Caecna, the name of a distinguished Etruscan family of Volaterrae. Graves have been discovered belonging to the family, whose name is still preserved in the river and hamlet of Cecina. Aulus C...
-Caecina. Continued
Even on the assumption that the existing verses are a retranslation, it would still be certain that they differ very slightly from what the original must have been. It is of course possible to hold th...
-Caelia
Caelia, the name of two ancient cities in Italy, (1) In Apulia (mod. Ceglie di Bari) on the Via Traiana, 5 m. S. of Barium. Coins found here bearing the inscription á½·...
-Caen
Caen, a city of north-western France, capital of the department of Calvados, 7 m. from the English Channel and 149 m. W.N.W. of Paris on the Western railway to Cherbourg. Pop. (1906) 36,247. I...
-Quintus Servilius Caepio
Quintus Servilius Caepio, Roman general, consul 106 B.C. During his year of office, he brought forward a law by which the jurymen were again to be chosen from the senators instead of the equites (Taci...
-Caere
Caere (mod. Cerveteri, i.e. Caere vetus, see below), an ancient city of Etruria about 5 m. from the sea coast and about 20 m. N.W. of Rome, direct from which it was reached by branch roads from the Vi...
-Caerleon
Caerleon, an ancient village in the southern parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, on the right (west) bank of the Usk, 3 m. N.E. of Newport. Pop. (1901) 1411. Its claim to notice rests on...
-Caerphilly
Caerphilly, a market town of Glamorganshire, Wales, 152 m. from London by rail via Cardiff, 7 m. from Cardiff, 12 m. from Newport and 6 m. from Pontypridd. The origin of the name is unknown. I...
-Andreas Caesalpinus
Andreas Caesalpinus (Cesalpino), (1519-1603), Italian natural philosopher, was born in Arezzo in Tuscany in 1519. He studied anatomy and medicine at the university of Pisa, where he took his doctor's...
-Gaius Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.), the great Roman soldier and statesman, was born on the 12th of July 102 B.C.[1] Early years. His family was of patrician rank and traced a legendary descent from Iul...
-Gaius Julius Caesar. Part 2
Caesar was now best known as a man of pleasure, celebrated for his debts and his intrigues; in politics he had no force behind Opposition to the Optimates. him save that of the discredited party of th...
-Gaius Julius Caesar. Part 3
In 58 B.C. the Helvetii, a Celtic people inhabiting Switzerland, determined to migrate for the shores of the Atlantic and demanded a passage through Roman territory. According to Caesar's statement th...
-Gaius Julius Caesar. Part 4
Early in 52 B.C. some Roman traders were massacred at Cenabum (Orlans), and, on hearing the news, the Arverni revolted under Vercingetorix and were quickly joined by other tribes, especially t...
-Gaius Julius Caesar. Part 5
That Caesar held the imperium which he enjoyed as dictator to be distinct in kind from that of the republican magistrates he indicated by placing the term imperator at the head of his titles.[2] Besid...
-Gaius Julius Caesar. Part 6
The sites of Caesar's colonies were selected for their commercial value, and that the citizens of Rome should cease to be rulers of the Mediterranean basin could never have entered into Caesar's mind....
-Gaius Julius Caesar. Part 7
The Gallic campaigns have been treated by Napoleon III., Histoire de Jules Csar (1865-1866), which is valuable as giving the result of excavations, and in English by T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's C...
-Sir Julius Caesar
Sir Julius Caesar (1557-1558-1636), English judge, descended by the female line from the dukes de' Cesarini in Italy, was born near Tottenham in Middlesex. He was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, an...
-Caesarea Mazaca
Caesarea Mazaca (mod. Kaisarieh), chief town of a sanjak in the Angora vilayet of Asia Minor. Mazaca, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called Eusebea (perhaps after Ariarathes Eusebes),...
-Caesarean Section
Caesarean Section, in obstetrics (q.v.) the operation for removal of a foetus from the uterus by an abdominal incision, so called from a legend of its employment at the birth of Julius Caesar. This pr...
-Caesarea Palaestina
Caesarea Palaestina, a town built by Herod about 25-13 B.C., on the sea-coast of Palestine, 30 miles N. of Joppa, on the site of a place previously called Tunis Stratonis. Remains of all the principal...
-Caesarea Philippi
Caesarea Philippi, the name of a town 95 miles N. of Jerusalem, 35 miles S.W. from Damascus, 1150 ft. above the sea, on the south base of Hermon, and at an important source of the Jordan. It does not ...
-Caesium
Caesium (symbol Cs, atomic weight 132.9), one of the alkali metals. Its name is derived from the Lat. caesius, sky-blue, from two bright blue lines of its spectrum. It is of historical importance, sin...
-Caespitose
Caespitose (Lat. caespes, a sod), a botanical term for growing in tufts, like many grasses. ...
-Caestus, Or Cestus
Caestus, Or Cestus (from Lat. caedo, strike), a gauntlet or boxing-glove used by the ancient pugilists. Of this there were several varieties, the simplest and least dangerous being the meilichae (...
-Caesura
Caesura (Lat. for cutting, Gr. ), in prosody, a rest or pause, usually occurring about the middle of a verse, which is thereby separated into two parts (...
-Caffeine, Or Theine
Caffeine, Or Theine (1.3.7 trimethyl 2.6 dioxypurin), CHNOHO, a substance found in the leaves and beans of the coffee tree, in tea, in Paraguay tea, and in small quantities in cocoa and in the...
-Jacques Caffieri
Jacques Caffieri (1678-1755), French worker in metal, the most famous member of a family several of whom distinguished themselves in plastic art, was the fifth son of Philippe Caffieri (1634-1716), a ...
-Caftan, Or Kaftan
Caftan, Or Kaftan (a Turkish word, also in use in Persia), a tunic or under-dress with long hanging sleeves, tied with a girdle at the waist, worn in the East by persons of both sexes. The caftan was ...
-Cagli
Cagli, a town and (with Pergola) an episcopal see of the Marches, Italy, in the province of Pesaro and Urbino, 18 m. S. of the latter town by rail, and 830 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901) of town, 46...
-Cagliari
Cagliari (anc. Carales), the capital of the island of Sardinia, an archiepiscopal see, and the chief town of the province of Cagliari, which embraces the southern half of the island. It is 270 m. W.S....
-Alessandro Cagliostro
Alessandro Cagliostro, Count (1743-1793), Italian alchemist and impostor, was born at Palermo on the 8th of June 1743. Giuseppe Balsamo - for such was the count's real name - gave early indications ...
-Charles Cagniard De La Tour
Charles Cagniard De La Tour (1777-1859), French engineer and physicist, was born in Paris on the 31st of March 1777, and after attending the cole Polytechnique became one of the ingnie...
-Luigi Cagnola
Luigi Cagnola, Marchese (1762-1833), Italian architect, was born on the 9th of June 1762 in Milan. He was sent at the age of fourteen to the Clementine College at Rome, and afterwards studied at the u...
-Cagots
Cagots, a people found in the Basque provinces, Barn, Gascony and Brittany. The earliest mention of them is in 1288, when they appear to have been called Christiens or Christianos. In the 16th...
-Caher
Caher (or Cahir), a market-town of Co. Tipperary, Ireland, in the south parliamentary division, beautifully situated on the river Suir at the foot of the Galtee Mountains. Pop. (1901) 2058. It stands ...
-Cahita
Cahita, a group of North American Indians, mainly of the Mayo and Yaqui tribes, found chiefly in Mexico, belonging to the Piman family, and numbering some 40,000. ...
-Cahokia
Cahokia, the name of a North American Indian tribe of the Illinois confederacy, and of their mission station, near St Louis. The Cahokia mound there (a model of which is in the Peabody Museum, Cambr...
-Cahors
Cahors, a city of south-western France, capital of the department of Lot, 70 m. N. of Toulouse, on the railway between that city and Limoges. Pop. (1906) 10,047. Cahors stands on the right bank of the...
-Caiatia
Caiatia (mod. Caiazzo), an ancient city of Campania, on the right bank of the Volturnus, 11 m. N.E. of Capua, on the road between it and Telesia. It was already in the hands of the Romans in 306 B.C.,...
-Caietae Portus
Caietae Portus (mod. Gaeta), an ancient harbour of Latium adiectum, Italy, in the territory of Formiae, from which it is 5 m. S.W. The name (originally ) is generally ...
-Caillie
Cailli (or Caill), REN AUGUSTE (1799-1838), French explorer, was born at Mauz, Poitou, in 1799, the son of a baker. The reading of Robinson Crusoe kindled in him a love...
-Cain
Cain, in the Bible, the eldest son of Adam and Eve (Gen. iv.), was a tiller of the ground, whilst his younger brother, Abel, was a keeper of sheep. Enraged because the Lord accepted Abel's offering, a...
-Thomas Henry Hall Caine
Thomas Henry Hall Caine (1853- ), British novelist and dramatist, was born of mixed Manx and Cumberland parentage at Runcorn, Cheshire, on the 14th of May 1853. He was educated with a view to becoming...
-Caing Whale
Caing Whale (Globicephalus melas), a large representative of the dolphin tribe frequenting the coasts of Europe, the Atlantic coast of North America, the Cape and New Zealand. From its nearly uniform ...
-Cainozoic
Cainozoic (from the Gr. , recent, , life), also written Cenozoic (American), Kainozoisch, Cnozoisch (German), Cnozoaire (Rene...
-Caique
Caque (from Turk. Kaik), a light skiff or rowing-boat used by the Turks, having from one to twelve rowers; also a Levantine sailing vessel of considerable size. ...
-Ca Ira
a Ira, a song of the French Revolution, with the refrain: - Ah! a ira, a ira, a ira! Les aristocrates la lanterne. The words, written by one Ladr...
-Edward Caird
Edward Caird (1835-1908), British philosopher and theologian, brother of John Caird (q.v.), was born at Greenock on the 22nd of March 1835, and educated at Glasgow University and Balliol College, Oxfo...
-John Caird
John Caird (1820-1898), Scottish divine and philosopher, was born at Greenock on the 15th of December 1820. In his sixteenth year he entered the office of his father, who was partner and manager of a ...
-Cairn
Cairn (in Gaelic and Welsh, Carn), a heap of stones piled up in a conical form. In modern times cairns are often erected as landmarks. In ancient times they were erected as sepulchral monuments. The D...
-John Elliott Cairnes
John Elliott Cairnes (1823-1875), British political economist, was born at Castle Bellingham, Ireland, in 1823. After leaving school he spent some years in the counting-house of his father, a brewer. ...
-John Elliott Cairnes. Continued
Taken as a whole the works of Cairnes formed the most important contribution to economical science made by the English school since the publication of J.S. Mill's Principles. It is not possible to ind...
-Cairngorm
Cairngorm, a yellow or brown variety of quartz, named from Cairngorm or Cairngorum, one of the peaks of the Grampian Mountains in Banffshire, Scotland. According to Mr E.H. Cunningham-Craig, the miner...
-Hugh Mccalmont Cairns Cairns
Hugh Mccalmont Cairns Cairns, 1st Earl (1819-1885), Irish statesman, and lord chancellor of England, was born at Cultra, Co. Down, Ireland, on the 27th of December 1819. His father, William Cairns, fo...
-John Cairns
John Cairns (1818-1892), Scottish Presbyterian divine, was born at Ayton Hill, Berwickshire, on the 23rd of August 1818, the son of a shepherd. He went to school at Ayton and Oldcambus, Berwickshire, ...
-Cairns
Cairns, a seaport of Nares county, Queensland, Australia, 890 m. direct N.N.W. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901) 3557. The town lies parallel with the sea, on the western shore of Trinity Bay, with an excellen...
-Cairo, Misr-al-Kahira, or Misr
Cairo (Arabic Misr-al-Kahira, or simply Misr), the capital of modern Egypt and the most populous city in Africa, on the Nile, 12 m. S. of the apex of the Delta, in 30 3 N. and 31 21&p...
-Cairo, Misr-al-Kahira, or Misr. Part 2
The Oriental City The eastern half of Cairo is divided into many quarters. These quarters were formerly closed at night by massive gates. A few of these gates remain. In addition to the Mahommedan qu...
-Cairo, Misr-al-Kahira, or Misr. Part 3
Tombs Of The Caliphs And Mamelukes Beyond the eastern wall of the city are the splendid mausolea erroneously known to Europeans as the tombs of the caliphs; they really are tombs of the Circassian or...
-Cairo, Misr-al-Kahira, or Misr. Part 4
Northern And Western Suburbs Two miles N.E. of Cairo and on the edge of the desert is the suburb of Abbasia (named after the viceroy Abbas), connected with the city by a continuous line of houses. Ab...
-Cairo, Misr-al-Kahira, or Misr. Part 5
Climate And Health In consequence of its insanitary condition, Cairo used to have a heavy death-rate. Since the British occupation in 1882 much has been done to better this state of things, notably b...
-Cairo, Misr-al-Kahira, or Misr. Part 6
Museums And Library The museum of Egyptian antiquities was founded at Bulak in 1863, being then housed in a mosque, by the French savant Auguste Mariette. In 1889 the collection was transferred to th...
-Cairo, Alexander County, Illinois, U.S.A
Cairo, a city and the county-seat of Alexander county, Illinois, U.S.A., in the S. part of the state, at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, 365 m. S. of Chicago. Pop. (1890) 10,324; (1...
-Benedetto Cairoli
Benedetto Cairoli (1825-1889), Italian statesman, was born at Pavia on the 28th of January 1825. From 1848 until the completion of Italian unity in 1870, his whole activity was devoted to the Risorgim...
-Caisson
Caisson (from the Fr. caisse, the variant form cassoon being adapted from the Ital. casone), a chest or case. When employed as a military term, it denotes an ammunition wagon or chest; in architectu...
-Caisson Disease
Caisson Disease. In order to exclude the water, the air pressure within a caisson used for subaqueous works must be kept in excess of the pressure due to the superincumbent water; that is, it must be ...
-Caithness
Caithness, a county occupying the extreme north-east of Scotland, bounded W. and S. by Sutherlandshire, E. by the North Sea, and N. by the Pentland Firth. Its area is 446,017 acres, or nearly 697 sq. ...
-Caithness. Part 2
Geology Along the western margin of the county from Reay on the north coast to the Scaraben Hills there is a narrow belt of country which is occupied by metamorphic rocks of the types found in the ea...
-Caithness. Part 3
Climate And Agriculture The climate is variable, and though the winter storms fall with great severity on the coast, yet owing to proximity to a vast expanse of sea the cold is not intense and snow s...
-Caithness. Part 4
History The early history of Caithness may, to some extent, be traced in the character of its remains and its local nomenclature. Picts' houses, still fairly numerous, Norwegian names and Danish moun...
-Caius Or Gaius
Caius or Gaius, pope from 283 to 296, was the son of Gaius, or of Concordius, a relative of the emperor Diocletian, and became pope on the 17th of December 283. His tomb, with the original epitaph, wa...
-John Caius, Anglice Kees, Keys
John Caius [Anglice Kees, Keys, etc.], (1510-1573), English physician, and second founder of the present Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, was born at Norwich on the 6th of October 1510. He was ...
-Cajamarca
Cajamarca, or Caxamarca, a city of northern Peru, capital of a department and province of the same name, 90 m. E. by N. of Pacasmayo, its port on the Pacific coast. Pop. (1906, estimate) of the depart...
-Cajatambo, Caxatambo
Cajatambo, or Caxatambo, a town and province of the department of Ancachs, Peru, on the western slope of the Andes. Since 1896 the population of the town has been estimated at 6000, but probably it do...
-Cardinal Cajetan, Gaetanus
Cardinal Cajetan (Gaetanus), Cardina (1470-1534), was born at Gaeta in the kingdom of Naples. His proper name was Tommaso[1] de Vio, but he adopted that of Cajetan from his birthplace. He entered the ...
-Cajuput Oil
Cajuput Oil, a volatile oil obtained by distillation from the leaves of the myrtaceous tree Melaleuca leucadendron, and probably other species. The trees yielding the oil are found throughout the Indi...
-Cakchiquel
Cakchiquel, a tribe of Central American Indians of Mayan stock, inhabiting parts of Guatemala. Their name is said to be that of a native tree. At the conquest they were found to be in a much civilized...
-Calabar
Calabar (or Old Calabar), a seaport of West Africa in the British protectorate of Southern Nigeria, on the left bank of the Calabar river in 4 56 N., 8 18 E., 5 m. above the po...
-Calabar Bean
Calabar Bean, the seed of a leguminous plant, Physostigma venenosum, a native of tropical Africa. It derives its scientific name from a curious beak-like appendage at the end of the stigma, in the cen...
-Calabar Bean. Continued
Toxicology The symptoms of Calabar bean poisoning have all been stated above. The obvious antidote is atropine, which may often succeed; and the other measures are those usually employed to stimulate...
-Calabash
Calabash (from the Span. calabaza, a gourd or pumpkin, possibly derived from the Pers. kharlunza, a melon), the shell of a gourd or pumpkin made into a vessel for holding liquids; also a vessel of sim...
-Calabash Tree
Calabash Tree, a native of the West Indies and South America, known botanically as Crescentia Cujete (natural order, Bignoniaceae). The fruit resembles a gourd, and has a woody rind, which after remov...
-Calabozo
Calabozo, or Calaboso, an inland town of Venezuela, once capital of the province of Caracas in the colonial period, and now capital of the state of Gurico. Pop. (1891) 5618. Calabozo is situat...
-Calabresella
Calabresella (sometimes spelt Calabrasella), an Italian card-game (the little Calabrian game) for three players. All the tens, nines and eights are removed from an ordinary pack; the order of the ca...
-Calabria
Calabria, a territorial district of both ancient and modern Italy. (1) The ancient district consisted of the peninsula at its southeast extremity, between the Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Tarentum, e...
-Calafat
Calafat, a town of Rumania in the department of Doljiu; on the river Danube, opposite the Bulgarian fortress of Vidin. Pop. (1900) 7113. Calafat is an important centre of the grain trade, and is conne...
-Calah
Calah (so in the Bible; Kalah in the Assyrian inscriptions), an ancient city situated in the angle formed by the Tigris and the upper Zab, 19 m. S. of Nineveh, and one of the capitals of Assyria. Acco...
-Calahorra
Calahorra (anc. Calagurris), a city of northern Spain, in the province of Logroo; on the left bank of the river Cidacos, which enters the Ebro 3 m. E., and on the Bilbao-Saragossa railway. Pop...
-Calais, France
Calais, a seaport and manufacturing town of northern France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 18 m. E.S.E. of Dover, and 185 m. N. of Paris by the Northern railway. Pop. (1906) 59,623. Calais, form...
-Calais, Washington County, Maine, U.S.A
Calais, a city and sub-port of entry of Washington county, Maine, U.S.A., on the Saint Croix river, 12 m. from its mouth, opposite Saint Stephens, New Brunswick, with which it is connected by bridges....
-Calais And Zetes, the Boreadae
Calas And Zetes (the Boreadae), in Greek mythology, the winged twin sons of Boreas and Oreithyia. On their arrival with the Argonauts at Salmydessus in Thrace, they liberated their sister Cleopa...
-Calamine
Calamine, a mineral species consisting of zinc carbonate, ZnCO, and forming an important ore of zinc. It is rhombohedral in crystallization and isomorphous with calcite and chalybite. Distinct crystal...
-Calamis
Calamis, an Athenian sculptor of the first half of the 5th century B.C. He made statues of Apollo the averter of ill, Hermes the ram-bearer, Aphrodite and other deities, as well as part of a chariot g...
-Edmund Calamy, English Presbyterian Divine
Edmund Calamy, known as the elder (1600-1666), English Presbyterian divine, was born of Huguenot descent in Walbrook, London, in February 1600, and educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, where his op...
-Edmund Calamy, English Nonconformist Divine
Edmund Calamy (1671-1732), English Nonconformist divine, the only son of Edmund Calamy the younger, was born in London, in the parish of St Mary Aldermanbury, on the 5th of April 1671. He was sent t...
-Calarashi
Calarashi (Clrasi), the capital of the Jalomitza department, Rumania, situated on the left bank of the Borcea branch of the Danube, amid wide fens, north of which extends the desolate Ba...
-Jean Calas
Jean Calas (1698-1762), a Protestant merchant at Toulouse, whose legal murder is a celebrated case in French history. His wife was an Englishwoman of French extraction. They had three sons and three d...
-Calash
Calash (from Fr. calche, derived from Polish kolaska, a wheeled carriage), a light carriage with a folding hood; the Canadian calash is two-wheeled and has a seat for the driver on the splash-...
-Calasiao
Calasiao, a town of the province of Pangasinn, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on a branch of the Agno river, about 4 m. S. by E. of Dagupan, the N. terminal of the Manila & Dagupan railway. Pop. (...
-Mario Di Calasio
Mario Di Calasio (1550-1620), Italian Minorite friar, was born at a small town in the Abruzzi whence he took his name. Joining the Franciscans at an early age, he devoted himself to Oriental languages...
-Calatafimi
Calatafimi, a town of the province of Trapani, Sicily, 30 m. W.S.W. of Palermo direct (51 m. by rail). Pop. (1901) 11,426. The name of the town is derived from the Saracenic castle of Kalat-al...
-Calatayud
Calatayd, a town of central Spain, in the province of Saragossa, at the confluence of the rivers Jaln and Jiloca, and on the Madrid-Saragossa and Calatayd-Sagunto railways. Pop...
-Calatia
Calatia, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, 6 m. S.E. of Capua, on the Via Appia, near the point where the Via Popillia branches off from it. It is represented by the church of St. Giacomo alle Galaz...
-Calaveras Skull
Calaveras Skull, a famous fossil cranium, reported by Professor J.D. Whitney as found (1886) in the undisturbed auriferous gravels of Calaveras county, California. The discovery at once raised the sti...
-Calbayog
Calbyog, a town of the province of Smar, Philippine Islands, on the W. coast at the mouth of the Calbyog river, about 30 m. N.W. of Catbalogan, the capital, in lat. 12 3&p...
-Calbe
Calbe, or Kalbe, a town of Germany, on the Saale, in Prussian Saxony. It is known as Calbe-an-der-Saale, to distinguish it from the smaller town of Calbe on the Milde in the same province. Pop. (1905)...
-John De Calcar, or Kalcker
John De Calcar (or Kalcker), (1499-1546), Italian painter, was born at Calcar, in the duchy of Cleves. He was a disciple of Titian at Venice, and perfected himself by studying Raphael. He imitated tho...
-Calceolaria
Calceolaria, in botany, a genus belonging to the natural order Scrophulariaceae, containing about 150 species of herbaceous or shrubby plants, chiefly natives of the South American Andes of Peru and C...
-Calchaqui
Calchaqui, a tribe of South American Indians, now extinct, who formerly occupied northern Argentina. Stone and other remains prove them to have reached a high degree of civilization. They offered a vi...
-Calchas
Calchas, of Mycenae or Megara, son of Thestor, the most famous soothsayer among the Greeks at the time of the Trojan war. He foretold the duration of the siege of Troy, and, when the fleet was detaine...
-Calcite
Calcite, a mineral consisting of naturally occurring calcium carbonate, CaCO, crystallizing in the rhombohedral system. With the exception of quartz, it is the most widely distributed of minerals, whi...
-Calcite. Continued
Optically, calcite is uniaxial with negative bi-refringence, the index of refraction for the ordinary ray being greater than for the extraordinary ray; for sodium-light the former is 1.6585 and the la...
-Calcium
Calcium [symbol Ca, atomic weight 40.0 (O=16)], a metallic chemical element, so named by Sir Humphry Davy from its occurrence in chalk (Latin calx). It does not occur in nature in the free state, but ...
-Calcium. Part 2
Properties A freshly prepared surface of the metal closely resembles zinc in appearance, but on exposure to the air it rapidly tarnishes, becoming yellowish and ultimately grey or white in colour owi...
-Calcium. Part 3
Detection And Estimation Most calcium compounds, especially when moistened with hydrochloric acid, impart an orange-red colour to a Bunsen flame, which when viewed through green glass appears to be f...
-Calculating Machines
Calculating Machines. Instruments for the mechanical performance of numerical calculations, have in modern times come into ever-increasing use, not merely for dealing with large masses of figures in b...
-Calculating Machines. Part 2
Fig. 2. In the diagrammatic vertical section of such a machine (fig. 2) FF is a figure disk with a conical wheel A on its axis. In the covering plate HK is the window W. A stepped cylinder is show...
-Calculating Machines. Part 3
The working is thus rendered very smooth, without the jerks which the ordinary carrying tooth produces; but the arrangement has the disadvantage that the resulting figures do not appear in a straight ...
-Calculating Machines. Part 4
The hand of the fourth clock will then give in succession the numbers 1, 8, 27, 64, etc., being the cubes of the natural numbers. The numbers thus obtained on the last dial will have the differences g...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators
In order to measure the length of a curve, such as the road on a map, a Curvometers. wheel is rolled along it. For one revolution of the wheel the path described by its point of contact is equal to th...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 2
Fig. 9. We can now investigate the most general motion of the rod. We again resolve the motion into a number of small steps. Let (fig. 9) AB be one position, CD the next after a step so small that...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 3
Fig. 15. The first planimeter was made on the following principles: - A frame FF (fig. 15) can move parallel to OX. It carries a rod TT Early forms. movable along its own length, hence the tracer ...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 4
The greatest dimension of the area should not exceed l, otherwise the area must be divided into parts which are determined separately. This condition being fulfilled, the instrument gives very...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 5
A = - 4 l ydA = - 4 l Ay, where A is the area of the given figure, and y the distance of its mass-centre from the axis XX. But A is the area of the second figure F, which is proportional...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 6
Boys' integraph was invented during a sleepless night, and during the following days carried out as a working model, which gives highly satisfactory results. It is ingenious in its simplicity, and a d...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 7
One guiding of the tracer over the curve gives then at once the ten coefficients A and B for n = 1 to 5. All the calculating machines and integrators considered so far have been kinematic. We have no...
-Continuous Calculating Machines Or Integrators. Part 8
Y = a cos x + a cos 2x + a cos 3x + . . . (2) The motion of the points PP ... is here made harmonic by aid of a series of excentric disks arranged so that for one revolution of the first the other di...
-Calcutta
Calcutta, the capital of British India and also of the province of Bengal. It is situated in 22 34 N. and 88 24 E., on the left or east bank of the Hugli, about 80 m. from the ...
-Calcutta. Part 2
Municipality The municipal government of Calcutta was reconstituted by an act of the Bengal legislature, passed in 1899. Previously, the governing body consisted of seventy-five commissioners, of who...
-Calcutta. Part 3
History The history of Calcutta practically dates from the 24th of August 1690, when it was founded by Job Charnock (q.v.) of the English East India Company. In 1596 it had obtained a brief entry as ...
-Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani
Leopoldo Marco Antonio Caldani (1725-1813), Italian anatomist and physician, was born at Bologna in 1725. After studying under G.B. Morgagni at Padua, he began to teach practical medicine at Bologna, ...
-Randolph Caldecott
Randolph Caldecott (1846-1886), English artist and illustrator, was born at Chester on the 22nd of March 1846. From 1861 to 1872 he was a bank clerk, first at Whitchurch in Shropshire, afterwards at M...
-Bart Sir Robert Calder
Bart Sir Robert Calder. (1745-1818), British admiral, was born at Elgin, in Scotland, on the 2nd of July 1745 (o.s.). He belonged to a very ancient family of Morayshire, and was the second son of Sir ...
-Calder
Calder, an ancient district of Midlothian, Scotland. It has been divided into the parishes of Mid-Calder (pop. in 1901 3132) and West-Calder (pop. 8092), East-Calder belonging to the parish of Kirknew...
-Rodrigo Calderon
Rodrigo Caldern (d. 1621), Count of Oliva and Marques de las Siete Iglesias, Spanish favourite and adventurer, was born at Antwerp. His father, Francisco Caldern, a member of a family ...
-Pedro Calderon De La Barca
Pedro Caldern De La Barca (1600-1681), Spanish dramatist and poet, was born at Madrid on the 17th of January 1600. His mother, who was of Flemish descent, died in 1610; his father, who was sec...
-David Calderwood
David Calderwood (1575-1650), Scottish divine and historian, was born in 1575. He was educated at Edinburgh, where he took the degree of M.A. in 1593. About 1604 he became minister of Crailing, near J...
-Henry Calderwood
Henry Calderwood (1830-1897), Scottish philosopher and divine, was born at Peebles on the 10th of May 1830. He was educated at the Royal High school, and later at the university of Edinburgh. He studi...
-Caleb
Caleb (Heb. kleb, dog), in the Bible, one of the spies sent by Moses from Kadesh in South Palestine to spy out the land of Canaan. For his courage and confidence he alone was rewarded by the ...
-Caledon
Caledon (1) a town of the Cape Province, 81 m. by rail E.S.E. of Cape Town. Pop. (1904) 3508. The town is 15 m. N. of the sea at Walker Bay and is built on a spur of the Zwartberg, 800 ft. high. The s...
-Caledonia
Caledonia, the Roman name of North Britain, still used especially in poetry for Scotland. It occurs first in the poet Lucan (A.D. 64), and then often in Roman literature. There were (1) a district Cal...
-Caledonian Canal
Caledonian Canal. The chain of fresh-water lakes - Lochs Ness, Oich and Lochy - which stretch along the line of the Great Glen of Scotland in a S.W. direction from Inverness early suggested the idea o...
-Calenberg
Calenberg, or Kalenberg, the name of a district, including the town of Hanover, which was formerly part of the duchy of Brunswick. It received its name from a castle near Schulenburg, and is traversed...
-Calendar
Calendar, so called from the Roman Calends or Kalends, a method of distributing time into certain periods adapted to the purposes of civil life, as hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc. Of all the ...
-Calendar. Part 2
Month Long before the exact length of the year was determined, it must have been perceived that the synodic revolution of the moon is accomplished in about 29 days. Twelve lunations, therefor...
-Calendar. Part 3
Year The year is either astronomical or civil. The solar astronomical year is the period of time in which the earth performs a revolution in its orbit about the sun, or passes from any point of the e...
-Of The Solar Year
In the arrangement of the civil year, two objects are sought to be accomplished, - first, the equable distribution of the days among twelve months; and secondly, the preservation of the beginning of t...
-Of The Solar Year. Continued
The additional day which occured every fourth year was given to February, as being the shortest month, and was inserted in the calendar between the 24th and 25th day. February having then twenty-nine ...
-Of The Lunar Year And Luni-Solar Periods
The lunar year, consisting of twelve lunar months, contains only 354 days; its commencement consequently anticipates that of the solar year by eleven days, and passes through the whole circle of the s...
-Ecclesiastical Calendar
The ecclesiastical calendar, which is adopted in all the Catholic, and most of the Protestant countries of Europe, is luni-solar, being regulated partly by the solar, and partly by the lunar year, - a...
-Dominical Letter
The first problem which the construction of the calendar presents is to connect the week with the year, or to find the day of the week corresponding to a given day of any year of the era. As the numbe...
-Solar Cycle
In the Julian calendar the dominical letters are readily found by means of a short cycle, in which they recut in the same order without interruption. The number of years in the intercalary period bein...
-Lunar Cycle And Golden Number
In connecting the lunar month with the solar year, the framers of the ecclesiastical calendar adopted the period of Meton, or lunar cycle, which they supposed to be exact. A different arrangement has,...
-Lunar Cycle And Golden Number. Part 2
Table II The Day of the Week. Month. Dominical Letter. Jan. Oct. A B C D E F G Feb. Mar. Nov. D E F G A B C April Ju...
-Lunar Cycle And Golden Number. Part 3
Dionysian Period The cycle of the sun brings back the days of the month to the same day of the week; the lunar cycle restores the new moons to the same day of the month; therefore 28 19 = 532...
-Julian Period
The Julian period, proposed by the celebrated Joseph Scaliger as an universal measure of chronology, is formed by taking the continued product of the three cycles of the sun, of the moon, and of the i...
-Reformation Of The Calendar
The ancient church calendar was founded on two suppositions, both erroneous, namely, that the year contains 365 days, and that 235 lunations are exactly equal to nineteen solar years. It could...
-Epacts
Epact is a word of Greek origin, employed in the calendar to signify the moon's age at the beginning of the year. The common solar year containing 365 days, and the lunar year only 354 days, the diffe...
-Epacts. Part 2
At the Reformation the epacts were given by the line D. The year 1600 was a leap year; the intercalation accordingly took place as usual, and there was no interruption in the order of the epacts; the ...
-Epacts. Part 3
Another peculiarity requires explanation. The epact 19 (also distinguished by an accent or different character) is placed in the same line with 20 at the 31st of December. It is, however, only ...
-Easter
The next, and indeed the principal use of the calendar, is to find Easter, which, according to the traditional regulation of the council of Nice, must be determined from the following conditions: - 1s...
-Easter. Part 2
The new moons indicated by the epacts also differ from the astronomical new moons, and even from the mean new moons, in general by one or two days. In imitation of the Jews, who counted the time of th...
-Easter. Part 3
With regard to the lunar equation M, we have already stated that in the Gregorian calendar the epacts are increased by unity at the end of every period of 300 years seven times successively, and then ...
-Easter. Part 3. Continued
The principal church feasts depending on Easter, and the times of their celebration are as follows: - Septuagesima Sunday is 9 weeks before Easter. First Sunday in Lent...
-Hebrew Calendar
In the construction of the Jewish calendar numerous details require attention. The calendar is dated from the Creation, which is considered to have taken place 3760 years and 3 months before the comme...
-Hebrew Calendar. Continued
Table VI Hebrew Months. Hebrew Month. OrdinaryYear. EmbolismicYear. Tisri 30 30 Hesvan 29+ 29+ Kislev 30- 30- Tebet 29 29 Se...
-Mahommedan Calendar
The Mahommedan era, or era of the Hegira, used in Turkey, Persia, Arabia, etc., is dated from the first day of the month preceding the flight of Mahomet from Mecca to Medina, i.e. Thursday the 15th of...
-Mahommedan Calendar. Part 2
For any other date of the Mahommedan year it is only requisite to know the names of the consecutive months, and the number of days in each; these are - Muharram 30 Saphar 29 ...
-Mahommedan Calendar. Part 3
The Moslem calendar may evidently be carried on indefinitely by successive addition, observing only to allow for the additional day that occurs in the bissextile and intercalary years; but for any rem...
-Mahommedan Calendar. Part 4
Table X Principal Days of the Hebrew Calendar. Tisri 1, New Year, Feast of Trumpets. 3, [1] Fast of Guedaliah. 10, Fast of Expiation. ...
-Epochs, Eras, and Periods
Table XII Name. Christian Date ofCommencement. Grecian Mundane era 1 Sep. 5598 B.C. Civil era of Constantinople 1 Sep. 5508 Alexandrian era...
-Calender
Calender, (1) (Fr. calendre, from the Med. Lat. calendra, a corruption of the Latinized form of the Gr. , a cylinder), a machine consistin...
-Quintus Fufius Calenus
Quintus Fufius Calenus, Roman general. As tribune of the people in 61 B.C., he was chiefly instrumental in securing the acquittal of the notorious Publius Clodius when charged with having profaned the...
-Ambrogio Calepino
Ambrogio Calepino (1435-1511), Italian lexicographer, born at Bergamo in 1435, was descended of an old family of Calepio, whence he took his name. Becoming an Augustinian monk, he devoted his whole li...
-Cales
Cales (mod. Calvi), an ancient city of Campania, belonging Originally to the Aurunci, on the Via Latina, 8 m. N.N.W. of Casilinum. It was taken by the Romans in 335 B.C., and, a colony with Latin righ...
-Calf
Calf. (1) (A word common in various forms to Teutonic languages, cf. German Kalb, and Dutch kalf), the young of the family of Bovidae, and particularly of the domestic cow, also of the elephant, and o...
-The Golden Calf
The Golden Calf, a molten image made by the Israelites when Moses had ascended the Mount of Yahweh to receive the Law (Ex. xxxii.). Alarmed at his lengthy absence the people clamoured for gods to le...
-Calgary
Calgary, the oldest city in the province of Alberta. Pop. (1901) 4091; (1907) 21,112. It is situated in 114 15 W., and 51 4 N., on the Bow river, which flows with its c...









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