Copper is almost universally annealed in muffles, in which it is raised to the desired temperature, and subsequently allowed to cool either in the air or in water. A muffle is nothing more or less than a reverberatory furnace. It is necessary to watch the copper carefully, so that when it has reached the right temperature it may be drawn from the muffle and allowed to cool. This is important, for if the copper is heated too high, or is left in the muffle at the ordinary temperature of annealing too long, it is burnt, as the workmen say. Copper that has been burnt is yellow, coarsely granular, and exceedingly brittle—even more brittle at a red heat than when cold.

In the case of coarse wire it is found that only the surface is burnt, while the interior is damaged less. This causes the exterior to split loose from the interior when bent or rolled, thus giving the appearance of a brittle copper tube with a copper wire snugly fitted into it. Cracks a half inch in depth have been observed on the surface of an ingot on its first pass through the rolls, all due to this exterior burning. It is apparent that copper that has been thus overheated in the muffle is entirely unfit for rolling. It is found that the purer forms of copper are less liable to be harmed by overheating than samples containing even a small amount of impurities. Even the ordinary heating in a muffle will often suffice to burn in this manner the surface of some specimens of copper, rendering them unfit for further working. Copper that has been thus ruined is of use only to be refined again.

As may be inferred only the highest grades of refined copper are used for drawing or for rolling. This is not because the lower grades, when refined, cannot stand sufficiently high tests, but because methods of working are not adequate to prevent these grades of copper from experiencing the deterioration due to overheating.

The process of refining copper consists in an oxidizing action followed by a reducing action which, since it is performed by the aid of gases generated by stirring the melted copper with a pole, is called poling. The object of the oxidation is to oxidize and either volatilize or turn to slag all the impurities contained in the copper. This procedure is materially aided by the fact that the sub-oxide of copper is freely soluble in metallic copper and thus penetrates to all parts of the copper, and parting with its oxygen, oxidizes the impurities. The object of the reducing part of the refining process is to change the excess of the suboxide of copper to metallic copper. Copper containing even less than 1 per cent of the suboxide of copper shows decreased malleability and ductility, and is both cold-short and red-short. If the copper to be refined contains any impurities, such as arsenic or antimony, it is well not to remove too much of the oxygen in the refining process. If this is done, overpoled copper is produced. In this condition it is brittle, granular, of a shining yellow color, and more red-short than coldshort. When the refining has been properly done, and neither too much nor too little oxygen is present, the copper is in the condition of " tough pitch," and is in a fit state to be worked.

Copper is said to be "tough pitch" when it requires frequent bending to break it, and when, after it is broken, the color is pale red, the fracture has a silky luster, and is fibrous like a tuft of silk. On hammering a piece to a thin plate it should show no cracks at the edge. At tough pitch copper offers the highest degree of malleability and ductility of which a given specimen is capable. This is the condition in which refined copper is (or should be) placed on the market, and if it could be worked without changing this tough pitch, any specimen of copper that could be brought to this condition would be suitable for rolling or drawing. But tough pitch is changed if oxygen is either added or taken from refined copper.

By far the more important of these is the removal of oxygen, especially from those specimens that contain more than a mere trace of impurities. This is shown by the absolutely worthless condition of overpoled copper. The addition of carbon also plays a very important part in the production of overpoled copper.

That the addition of oxygen to refined copper is not so damaging is shown by the fact that at present nearly all the copper that is worked is considerably oxidized at some stage of the process, and not especially to its detriment.